CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0513.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: immunoglobulin; atopic dermatitis; atopy; IVIG
Online: 27 December 2022 (08:32:08 CET)
Background: The coexistence of a high IgE level and transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy ( THI ) with atopic dermatitis (AD) is well known, but the coexistence with a marked serum IgE level ≥ 1000 IU/mL is a rare finding. Literature is scarce regarding IgE levels in patients with THI and AD after treatment with immunoglobulin (Ig). The present article is the first to describe a finding of marked IgE elevation (> 1000 IU/mL) after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). This paper also reviews previous related reports and series. Case presentation and review: We reported on a female infant 8 months old, with THI and severe AD. She was treated with IVIG infusion after the failure of conventional therapy. Initially, serum levels of IgE were high, and serum levels of IgG were low. After 4 weeks of treatment with IVIG, the patient showed clinically improved AD in parallel with elevated IgG level but increased IgE level to a higher level. We also review previous results of IgE levels reported in cases with THI and AD before and after Ig therapy. The mean increment in IgE levels was 227.5 IU/mL (SD = 164.2). The review showed that the IgG is directly related to IgA and IgM in addition to IgE. Results also showed that IgA and IgM also have a direct relation with IgE. Conclusion: We report a case of marked IgE level in a THI patient with AD after IVIG treatment. Also, there were increased levels of IgA and IgM. A similar finding was observed in other reviewed cases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0581.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: atopic dermatitis; melatonin; sleep disturbances
Online: 23 June 2021 (12:27:32 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is common inflammatory dermatosis, typically with chronic and recurrent course, which significantly reduces the quality of life. Sleep disturbances are considered to be remarkably burdensome ailments in the patients with AD, and are routinely included during assessment of disease severity. Therefore, endogenous substances engaged in the control of circadian rhythms might be important in pathogenesis of AD and, possibly, be used as biomarkers of disease severity or even in development of novel therapies. Melatonin (MT), the indoleamine produced by pineal gland (but also by multiple other tissues, including skin), plays a pivotal role in maintaining the sleep/wake homeostasis. Additionally, it possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which might directly link chronic skin inflammation and sleep abnormalities characteristic of AD. The objective of this work is to systematically present and summarize the results of studies (both experimental and clinical) that investigated the role of MT in the AD, with focus on the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of MT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Keratinocytes; alpha-mangostin; TRPV3; skin inflammation; dermatitis
Online: 8 August 2023 (03:42:33 CEST)
The TRPV3 calcium ion channel is vital for maintaining skin health and has been associated with various skin-related disorders. Since TRPV3 is involved in the development of skin inflammation, inhibiting TRPV3 could be a potential treatment strategy. Alpha-mangostin isolated from Garcinia mangostana L. extract exhibits diverse positive effects on skin health; however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. This study investigated the TRPV3-inhibitory properties of alpha-mangostin on TRPV3 hyperactive mutants associated with Olmsted syndrome and its impact on TRPV3-induced cytokine secretion and cell death. Our findings demonstrate that alpha-mangostin effectively inhibits TRPV3, with an IC50 of 0.077 ± 0.013 μM, showing inhibitory effects on both wild-type and mutant TRPV3. TRPV3 inhibition with alpha-mangostin decreased calcium influx and cytokine release, protecting cells from TRPV3-induced death. These results indicate that alpha-mangostin reduced inflammation in TRPV3-activated skin keratinocytes, suggesting that alpha-mangostin could be potentially used for improving inflammatory skin conditions such as dermatitis.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: atopic; dermatitis; emollient; moisturizer; epidermal barrier; filaggrin
Online: 21 December 2018 (07:37:32 CET)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic cutaneous inflammatory disorder, characterized by skin barrier disruption. Dermacare is a new cosmetic formulation which enhances moisturization, reinforces and repairs the skin barrier and prevents cutaneous microbiota imbalance. To demonstrate its safety and efficacy a prospective, open-label and multicenter study was carried out on patients diagnosed with mild to moderate AD. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), clinical severity, Desquamation Index, Patient/Investigator Global Assessments, quality of life index and tolerance were assessed. Adverse events were recorded. Daily application of the new treatment was well tolerated, and adverse events were absent. After 14 days, TEWL showed a 36.7% significant decrease (p = 0.035). At the end of the 28-day Dermacare treatment, the Desquamation Index showed a reduction in 70% of patients; Eczema Area and Severity Index were reduced by 70.4% (p = 0.002); and skin irritation showed a significant reduction (p = 0.024). Likewise, Patient and Investigator Global Assessments reported a significant improvement in conditions and an overall global worsening when patients restarted their normal treatment. Parent’s Index of Quality of Life Index significantly increased by 36.4% (p < 0.05) with Dermacare. In conclusion, Dermacare’s regular use helped reduce the risk of relapse and extend the steroid-free treatment periods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Allergy; Autistic Disorder; Dermatitis; Genetics; Immunity; MicroRNAs
Online: 17 December 2018 (15:53:35 CET)
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disturbances affecting social skills, whose incidence worldwide is dramatically increasing. Together with the rise of ASD prevalence, several immune conditions are following the same trend, including Atopic Dermatitis (AD), with a possible clinical relationship with ASD. To date, their pathogenesis is still unknown, but several studies highlighted the relevance of gene-environment interactions to the onset of both disorders. Among potential contributing factors, microRNAs (miRNAs), small molecules capable of controlling gene expression and targeting mRNA transcripts, might represent one of the major circulating link, unraveling the connections between neurodevelopmental and immune conditions. We conducted a systematic literature review, under the PRISMA guidelines, trying to define the panel of common miRNAs involved in both ASD and AD. The review retrieved articles published until December 13, 2018, in PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycARTICLES and Google Scholar. We found a handful works dealing with miRNAs in ASD and AD, with the most overlapping dysregulated miRNAs being miR-146 and miR-155. Two possible compounds are abnormally regulated in both ASD and AD subjects, possibly cross-contributing to the interactions between the two disorders, setting the basis to investigate more precisely the possible link between ASD and AD from another, not just clinical, perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: veterinary; allergic dermatitis; low level laser therapy
Online: 24 March 2017 (10:32:49 CET)
Background: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in domestic animals is one of the problems of modern veterinary. Treating with standard techniques using chemotherapeutic agents not always leads to a positive result of therapy; moreover, many drugs produce adverse side effects. Methods: Low level laser therapy, in particular, intravenous laser blood illumination (ILBI) has a pronounced and long-lasting impact on the immune system of animals. The combined technique including ILBI-635 (635 nm, 2 mW, 5 min) and LUVBI® (365 nm, 2 mW, 3 min) every other day provides a positive change in clinical status of cats with allergic dermatitis after the 3rd-4th treatment session. Results: The increased level of erythrocytes and hemoglobin was identified in the course of treatment, and it indirectly indicates increased blood transport activity, which improves trophic provision and microcirculation. A double reduction of leukocytes and a significant decrease of neutrophil cells indicate the immunomodulatory effect of LILI (low-intensity laser illumination). The increase in the percentage of lymphocytes and the decrease of eosinophils and monocytes against the background of basophil concentrations deviations within physiological concentration result in the reduction of inflammatory mediators expression that induce itching. The reduction of total IgE concentration 32 times against control on the 7th day of treatment correlates with the decrease in the quantitative content of peripheral blood eosinophils, indicating the decrease in severity of an allergic process. Conclusion: LLLT is recommended against the background of standard drug therapy to achieve quick clinical outcome together with a long-lasting prolonged effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1584.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Atopic dermatitis; cytokines profiling; Dupilumab; T2 immune response
Online: 25 October 2023 (07:35:00 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD), a T2 inflammatory skin condition, is widely recognized as one of the most prevalent chronic and recurrent skin disorders. One of the most effective therapy for treating moderate-to-severe AD is Dupilumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks both IL-4 and IL-13 signaling. At the same time, no comprehensive analysis of cytokines profile was made in AD patients undergoing Dupilumab therapy. The primary objective of our research was to examine the levels of main cytokines to better understanding systemic immune response in AD and to identify potential biomarkers of the effectiveness of Dupilumab treatment. AD patients demonstrated significant clinical improvements one year after initializing of Dupilumab therapy. We identified 16 cytokines that showed major difference between Dupilumab-treated patients and patients without Dupilumab therapy. Six cytokines showed correlation with AD severity and the efficacy of Dupilumab therapy. Jointly revealed cytokines could potentially predict the effectiveness of Dupilumab treatment and help to choose the precision target therapy in AD patients as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0303.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Atopic dermatitis; children; allergic; skin conditions; environmental factors
Online: 13 April 2023 (07:29:54 CEST)
There has been a rise in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) globally especially in low-and middle-income countries such as Nigeria. The condition has been linked to genetic predisposes, living conditions, and environmental factors. Environmental factors are considered a significant contributor to AD in low- and middle-income countries. This study determined the prevalence of AD in southwestern Nigeria and identified risk factors in home and school environments that children aged 6 to 14 years are exposed to. A cross-sectional study was adopted, and the total sample size was 349. Four randomly selected health facilities were used for the study. A questionnaire was used to determine the risk factors in the population. Data analysis was done using the latest version of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in this study is 25%. Atopic dermatitis was found to be common in females ( 27%). Children who lived where trucks pass on the street almost daily had the highest cases of atopic dermatitis (28%). Children with rugs in their houses and those whose houses are surrounded by bushes also had higher cases of atopic dermatitis at 26% and 26% respectively. Children who played on school grass, attended creche with rubber toys, and attended a school where wooden chairs and chalkboards were used had higher numbers of AD cases at 26%, 26%, 28%, and 27% respectively. This study identified home and school exposure that predisposes children to AD. It is envisaged that the study will serve as a basis for possible research on evidence-based treatment options.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: celiac disease; dermatitis herpetiformis; alopecia areata; cutaneous vasculitis; urticaria; atopic dermatitis; psoriasis; recurrent aphtous ulceration; chronic ulcerative stomatitis; gluten-free diet
Online: 10 May 2018 (08:04:40 CEST)
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated gluten-induced enteropathy that affects predisposed individuals of all ages. Many patients with CD do not report gastrointestinal symptoms making it difficult to reach an early diagnosis. On the other hand, CD is related to a wide spectrum of extra-intestinal manifestations, being dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) the best characterized. These associated conditions may be the clue for reaching the diagnosis of CD. Over the last years, there have been multiple reports of the association between CD and several cutaneous manifestations that may improve with a gluten-free diet (GFD). The presence of some of these skin diseases, even in absence of gastrointestinal symptoms, should give rise to an appropriate screening for CD. The aim of this paper is to describe the different cutaneous manifestations that have been associated to CD and the possible mechanisms involved.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1190.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: atopic dermatitis; endotype; extrinsic type; intrinsic type; subtype; phenotype
Online: 20 November 2023 (11:10:34 CET)
Since atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous condition, subtyping of AD is a crucial issue. The classical subtypes of AD are represented by extrinsic and intrinsic subtypes, European American and Asian subtypes, and adult and pediatric subtypes. While subtyping of AD was historically conducted based on the phenotype, recent findings on the mechanisms of AD have revealed importance of the endotype, which can characterize individual patients more accurately. Considering the current development of AD therapies, AD endotyping is prerequisite for personalized therapeutic choice. Endotypes of AD can be stratified from different viewpoints, including cytokine expression patterns, allergen properties, epidermal barrier conditions, ceramide variation, involvement of innate immunity, and serum biomarkers. Among them, the cytokine-based endotype seems to be the most useful one and is categorized into type 2 cytokine (IL-4, IL-13 and IL-31)-high, type 1 cytokine (interferon-g)-high, and/or type 3 cytokine (IL-22 and IL-17)-high, or mixed subtypes. The recently biomarker-proposed endotyping aims at individualized treatment options, although the daily clinical use of endotypes is a future issue. To better understand the endotypes for clinicians, attempts to adjust each of the classical subtypes to the endotypes are required. This review will discuss the correspondence of the classical subtypes to the various endotypes that have recently been proposed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2234.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: atopic dermatitis; antioxidant agents; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species
Online: 3 July 2023 (03:12:41 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by itching, impaired epidermal barrier function and unbalanced inflammatory response. The pathophysiology involves immune dysregulation, with a predominance of T-helper 2 cells. AD is triggered by many known and unknown factors, including oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to AD pathogenesis by causing cellular damage and inflammation. Moreover, increased oxidative stress in AD leads to hyperactivation of the MAP kinase pathway, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38, with DNA damage and subsequent skin barrier dysfunction. This narrative review provides a comprehensive overview of the role of natural antioxidant compounds, highlighting their potential therapeutic value in AD management. They include vitamin D, vitamin E, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), Vitamin C, carotenoids and melatonin, in AD. Despite some studies have shown an association between vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin C and carotenoids levels and AD course, conflicting results exist. Pyridoxine supplementation has shown mixed results, and melatonin has demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in AD; in fact, melatonin treatment resulted in a decrease in symptoms in patients with AD, although no significant correlation with changes in sleep latency was reported. In addition, iron and zinc (Zn) supplementation can also improve AD symptoms. Further research is needed to elucidate the optimal use of these natural antioxidants in AD treatment
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0628.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: atopic dermatitis; skin inflammation; natural products; nanotechnology; topical delivery
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:45:26 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic eczematous inflammatory disease that may arise from environmental, genetic and immunological factors. Despite the efficacy of current treatment options like corticosteroids, such approaches are mainly focused on symptoms relief, and may present certain undesirable side effects. In recent years, investigation regarding isolated natural compounds, oils, mixtures and/or extracts, have gained scientific attention because of their high efficiency and moderate to low toxicity. Despite their promising therapeutic effects, the applicability of such natural health care solutions is somehow limited by their instability, poor solubility, and low bioavailability. Therefore, novel nanoformulation-based systems have been designed to overpass these limitations, thus enhancing the therapeutic potential, by promoting the capacity of these natural drugs to properly exert their action in AD-like skin lesions. For the best of our knowledge, this is the first literature review that focused on summarizing the last nanoformulation-based solutions loaded with natural ingredients, and specifically for the management of AD. We suggest that future studies should focus on robust clinical trials that may confirm the security and effectiveness of such natural-based nanosystems, thus paving the way for more reliable AD treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: pruritus; 3D-accellerometer; monitoring; allergic skin disease; canine atopic dermatitis
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:13:20 CEST)
Medical management of chronic canine pruritic dermatologic conditions is challenging and often frustrating. This is a report that shows one way of aiding the management of pruritic dogs using a remote monitoring device. It is often difficult for veterinarians to get dog owners to return to the clinic once a dog is treated. It is possible that a 3-D accelerometer device could provide information to the clinic staff on the success or failure of a pruritus treatment plan while the dog was cared for at home. Eighty-seven dogs and their owners came to a Florida dermatology specialty clinic or its general practice hospital to be evaluated and treated for pruritus. An ANIMO® 3-D accelerometer was placed on the collar of dogs diagnosed and treated for pruritus. Dogs that completed the study were monitored for 120 days (4 months). The ANIMO app monitored a dog’s daily scratching, shaking, sleeping, activity, resting, barking and calories consumed and summarized this information in a daily report visible on the pet owner’s smart phone. An additional variable (grooming minutes per day) could be seen by the Sure Petcare R&D Team that was not yet available in the app. The use of a 3-D accelerometer enabled veterinarians to continuously monitor dogs at home when they were being treated for itching. Clinic staff kept in touch with the owners by phone and could change therapy or bring the dog back for a recheck if problems were seen. Daily reports were combined into line charts that showed plots of scratching, shaking, grooming and sleeping over four months. Veterinarians were able to remotely monitor dogs that had been treated for pruritus for up to four months through the use of a collar-borne monitoring device. Dog owners and clinic staff used the daily summaries which were accessible through a smart phone app. Dogs seemed to tolerate the device well because of its small size and unobtrusive nature.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1900.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Gout; Tophus; Perforating Dermatosis; Transepidermal Elimination; Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia; Granulomatous Dermatitis
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:36:26 CEST)
Perforating dermatoses are dermatologic disorders with transepidermal elimination (TE) of dermal substances. While TE is typically associated with collagen and elastin, it can also occur as a secondary event in other processes, and it is important to keep a broad differential. We present a case of perforating tophaceous gout, which underscores the need for a thoughtful approach to perforating disorders. An updated review of recent literature is also presented.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Enzymes, Peptide Hydrolases, Metalloproteases, Biomarkers, Gingival Crevicular Fluid, Atopic Dermatitis
Online: 1 October 2020 (08:55:12 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a protease-modulated chronic disorder with heterogenous clinical manifestations which may lead to an imprecise diagnosis. So far, there are no diagnostic protease tests for AD. We explored the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) protease profile of periodontally-healthy individuals with moderate/severe AD compared to healthy controls. An exploratory case-control study was conducted. Matching AD patients (n=6) and controls (n=6) were enrolled at the International Center for Clinical Studies, Santiago, Chile. Complete dermatological and periodontal evaluations (involving the collection of GCF samples) were made. The levels of 35 proteases were analyzed using a human protease antibody array. The GCF levels of zinc-binding ADAM8, ADAM9, MMP8 and Neprilysin/CD10, aspartyl-binding Cathepsin E, and serin-binding Protein convertase9 and uPA/Urokinase proteases were lower in moderate/severe AD patients compared to controls (p<0.05). No inter-group differences in the levels of the other 28 proteases were found. MMP8, Cathepsin E and ADAM9 were the biomarkers with the highest sensitivity and specificity regarding the detection of AD (p < 0.05). The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for MMP-8+ADAMP-9 was 0.90. In conclusion, differences in the protease profile between AD and control patients associated with MMP8, Cathepsin E and ADAM9. MMP8, ADAM9 and Cathepsin E may be useful as combined diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of moderate/severe AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1121.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: clinical nurses; visual differentiation; diagnostic ability; pressure injury; incontinence-associated dermatitis
Online: 18 October 2023 (10:00:18 CEST)
This study investigated clinical nurses’ knowledge and visual differentiation ability of the pressure injury classification system (PICS) and incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD), additionally analyzing possible influencing factors. A convenience sample of 248 nurses took the PICS and IAD knowledge test (KT) and completed the visual differentiation ability test (VDAT), consisting of 21 photographs with clinical information. The overall mean score for correct answers was 12.65±2.90 points in PICS & IAD KT and 11.43±4.57 points in VDAT. Incorrect responses were most common for statements related to stage Ⅱ, Ⅲ, IAD for PICS & IAD KT, and deep tissue pressure injury (DTPI), unstageable, and stage Ⅲ for VDAT. Significant correlations were found between PICS & IAD KT and VDAT (r=.252, p<.001). Factors affecting scores for VDAT were the scores of PICS & IAD KT, debridement experience in nursing patients with PI, and the management frequency of PI and IAD. Results indicate that nurses have an overall understanding of PICS and IAD, but low visual differentiation ability regarding stage Ⅲ, DTPI, and unstageable PI. Continuing education is needed to further improve knowledge and visual differentiation ability for PICS and IAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1504.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Atopic Dermatitis; Meta-analysis; Eczema; Association study; polymorphism; SNP; candidate gene
Online: 21 June 2023 (08:29:58 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) has been extensively investigated for genetic associations utilizing both candidate gene approaches and genome-wide scans. Here, we comprehensively evaluated the available literature to determine the association of candidate genes in AD to gain additional insight in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. We systematically screened all studies that explored the association between polymorphisms and AD risks in cases of European and Asian ancestry and synthesized the available evidence through random-effects meta-analysis. We identified 97 studies that met our inclusion/exclusion criteria that examined 17 candidate loci in Europeans and 14 candidate genes in Asians. We confirmed the significant associations between FLG variants in both European and Asian populations and AD risk, while additional synthesis of available data revealed novel loci mapped to IL18 and TGFB1 genes in Europeans and IL12RB1 and MIF in Asians, that have not yet been identified by genome-wide association studies. Our findings provide comprehensive evidence for AD risk loci in cases of both European and Asian ancestries, validating previous associations as well as revealing novel loci that could imply previously unexplored biological pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Airborne allergens; Exposome; Climate change; Atopy; Allergic rhinitis; Asthma; Atopic dermatitis
Online: 2 May 2023 (01:50:56 CEST)
Climate change and exposure to environmental pollutants play a key role in the onset and aggravation of allergic diseases. As different climate-dependent patterns of molecular immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity have been regionally described, we sought to investigate the evolving allergen exposome in distinctive allergic phenotypes, and subtropical weather conditions through a Precision Allergy Molecular Diagnosis (PAMD@) model. Concurrent sensitization to several house dust mites (HDM) and storage mite molecules were broadly dominant in the investigated cohort, followed by the major cat allergen Fel d 1, and regardless of the basal allergic disease. Although a complex repertoire of allergens was recognized, a steadily increasing number of IgE binding molecules was associated with the complexity of the underlying atopic disease. Besides the highly prevalent IgE responses to HMD major allergens, Der p 21, Der p 5, and Der p 7 also showed as serodominant molecules, especially in those subjects bothered with asthma and atopic dermatitis. The accurate characterization of the external exposome at the molecular level and their putative role as clinically relevant allergens is essential to elucidate the phenotypic diversity of atopic disease in terms of personalized diagnosis and therapy.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0971.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: atopic dermatitis; emollient plus cream; topical corticosteroids; topical calcineurin inhibitors; case report
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:18:55 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease marked by inflammation, erythema, dryness and pruritic lesions. Due to the intermittent nature of the disease, management strategies for AD focus on flare prevention following remission. A 24-year-old patient with mild-to-moderate AD lesions, previously non-responsive to topical corticosteroids (TCS), was treated with pimecrolimus for 12 days and emollient plus cream (EC) every day. After the initial 12-day treatment course, the patient was advised to use pimecrolimus if his symptoms reoccured. AD symptoms improved substantially between Weeks 0 and 12 with daily use of EC. However, by Week 12, his symptoms had relapsed, necessitating retreatment with pimecrolimus. Overall, the patient experienced flare-free periods between Weeks 3 and 12 and between Weeks 13 and 16. No tolerability issues were reported. This case report demonstrates the use of a complementary approach of daily administration of maintenance EC and intermittent application of pimecrolimus for flare management, which was effective for treating a patient with mild-to-moderate AD resistant to TCS.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0379.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: animal nocardiosis; Nocardia; veterinary mycology; actinomycetes; Russian Federation; pet; dermatitis; Nocardia asteroides
Online: 3 December 2019 (12:15:22 CET)
Two cases of cutaneous nocardiosis in a cat and in a dog have been described. Diagnosis was made on basis of direct microscopy and cultural mycological analysis. Phenotypic characteristics of two indigenous Nocardia strains are presented. The strain isolated from cat was presumably identified as N. asteroids. There have been no reports of suchlike cases in pets in Russia so far.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: atopic dermatitis; AD; dermatology; target identification; pathway identification; bioinformatics; protein-protein networks
Online: 1 July 2019 (12:47:49 CEST)
The exploration and identification of targets and pathways for Atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment and diagnosis are critical for AD control. The conventional target exploration approach such as the literature review is not satisfying in terms of efficiency and accuracy. Recently, the bioinformatic approach is drawing attention for its unique advantage of high-volume data analysis for target and pathway exploration; Open Targets Platform is the targets source for this study to extract top 200 high-rank proteins from 3122 AD associated proteins. STRING, Cytoscape, CytoHubba, ClueGo, and CluePedia function had been applied for data analysis. The KEGG Mapper search & colour pathway was the pathway map resource for identified pathways; 23 key hub genes (VDR, KIT, BCL2L11, NFKBIA, KRAS, IL13, JAK2, STAT3, IL21, IL4R, REL, PDGFRB, FOXP3, RARA, RELB, EGFR, IL21R, MYC, CREBBP, NR3C1, IL2, JAK1, and KITLG). Additionally, 8 correlated pathways and the biological process had been identified; Through this study, a viable approach for target and pathway exploration had been presented. The identified AD targets and pathways will be tested for upcoming research for traditional Chinese medicinal herb interactions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0365.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Fecal IgE; preterm birth; neonate; asthma; atopic dermatitis; cow’s milk allergy; Western Blot
Online: 20 December 2022 (10:15:32 CET)
Background: Little is known about the natural history of immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated diseases in preterm infants, further hampered by the lack of noninvasive investigations. We aimed at developing a non-invasive tool for the study of IgE and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in neonatal fecal samples and evaluating its predictive value for the development of IgE-mediated diseases (cow’s milk allergy, asthma, or atopic dermatitis) during the first year of life. Methods: We developed a stool extraction protocol, followed by freeze-drying and solubilization. sIgE responses were investigated in neonatal fecal samples from 21 preterm infants with a 300-allergen multiplex containing whole and molecular allergens and confirmed by capillary Western blot with nano-immunoassay. The local eosinophilic component was investigated by measuring the concentration of EDN. Results: The multiplexed allergen assay detected sIgE in all samples. Confirmation was obtained with Western blot. Frequency and levels of sIgE in neonatal fecal samples differed between infants who developed IgE-mediated diseases and controls. Neonatal fecal sIgE directed to milk proteins predicted later development of cow’s milk allergy (specificity 88%, sensitivity 78%). Allergen specificity of neonatal fecal sIgE was associated with later development of cow’s milk allergy and asthma. Neonatal fecal EDN levels predicted the development of IgE-mediated diseases (sensitivity 100%, specificity 75%). Conclusion: Non-invasive investigation of neonatal fecal sIgE is a promising tool for the prediction of subsequent development of IgE-mediated diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0726.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: oral administration; lactic acid bacteria metabolites; skin barrier function; water content; atopic dermatitis
Online: 30 October 2018 (14:18:16 CET)
The effects of orally administered lactic acid bacteria metabolites on the skin were studied using an atopic dermatitis-like murine model created by feeding mice with HR-AD. The lactic acid bacteria metabolites were obtained by inoculating 35 strains of 16 species of lactic acid bacteria into soy milk and culturing them. The atopic dermatitis-like murine model was created by feeding HR-1 mice HR-AD for 40 days. The skin condition of mice that were fed HR-AD worsened compared with normal mice, i.e., reduced water content in the stratum corneum, increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), reduced ceramide AP content in the stratum corneum, and increased epidermis thickness. When mice that had been fed the HR-AD diet was administered a raw liquid of lactic acid bacteria metabolites orally, the measured values related to water content in the stratum corneum, TEWL, ceramide AP content in the stratum corneum, and epidermis thickness improved. To find out the active components for these effects, filtrate and residue from the raw liquid of lactic acid bacteria metabolites and lipid components extracted from the raw liquid were examined at the same time. Results showed that the water-soluble components or residue after filtration did not demonstrate effects but the raw liquid and the lipid fraction did. These findings suggest that lactic acid bacteria metabolites improve skin injury in an atopic dermatitis-like murine model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0596.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Atopic dermatitis; Patient Reported Outcome Measures; Dupilumab; Quality of life; Satisfaction; Efficacy; Safety; Adherence
Online: 25 May 2021 (09:15:21 CEST)
Dupilumab is used to treat atopic dermatitis patients who have proven to be refractory to previous treatments. The aim of this study was to assess evolution and patient reported outcome measures in adult patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis treated with Dupilumab in routine clinical practice. The outcomes were evaluated and registered at baseline and weeks-16, 40 and 52. The variables evaluated were: diseases severity, pruritus, stressful life events, difficulty to sleep, anxiety and depression, quality of life, satisfaction, adherence to the treatment, efficacy and safety. Eleven patients were recruited between Nov 14th 2017 and Jan 16th 2018. Demographic variables: 90% Caucasian, 82% women. Clinical variables: Mean duration of AD =17.7 (±12.8), 91% had severe disease severity. At baseline, SCORAD mean score = 61.7 (±15.5); itch was reported by 100% of patients; itch Visual Analogue Scale mean range of 8 (6-10); HADS mean total score =13.9 (±5.5); DLQI mean score =13.3 (±8.3): EQ-5D-3L mean range = 57 (30-99). At week-52 there is a significant reduction of SCORAD scores, HADS total score and improved quality of life. ¡This study confirms that Dupilumab, used for 52-weeks under routine clinical practice, maintains the improved atopic dermatitis signs and symptoms obtained at week-16, with a good safety profile.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0812.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: medicinal plants; ethnopharmacology; skin diseases; flora of Kazakhstan; atopic dermatitis; plant drugs; anti-inflammatory activity
Online: 24 April 2023 (03:49:43 CEST)
According to the eminent scholar, philosopher, and physician Avicenna, "the doctor has three tools: the word, the plant, the knife." The plant kingdom is recognized as humanity's earliest and most ancient healing source, employed for the management and prevention of illnesses. Tracing back through history, the most ancient documented proof of plants' utilization in medicine dates back to a Sumerian clay slab discovered in Nagpur roughly 5000 years ago. This artifact included a compilation of twelve medicinal recipes that involved over 250 diverse plant species. Sumerian healers extracted powders and infusions from plant roots and stems, while also crediting healing properties to pears and figs. Additionally, they utilized dried and ground young shoots of willow and plum trees, pine and fir needles as a component in compresses and poultices. Often, powders from animal and mineral sources were blended with those extracted from dried and crushed plants. Notably, in addition to water, wine and beer served as solvents. Thus, at least 80 centuries ago, people utilized the most uncomplicated medicinal plant-based preparations for treatment . The "Pen T'Sao," an ancient Chinese text on roots and herbs, authored by Emperor Shen Nung approximately 2500 BC, contains descriptions of 900 medicaments (comprising dried components of medicinal plants). Several of these substances are still in use today, including Rhei rhisoma, camphor, Theae folium, Podophyllum, great yellow gentian, ginseng, datura, cinnamon bark, and ephedra . Regarding Kazakh folk medicine, an area that has yet to be fully explicated and substantiated, it can be stated that the traditional medicinal knowledge of the Kazakh people transcends the mere treatment of ailments and rests on robust theoretical underpinnings. Oteiboydak Tleukabyluly (1388-1478), an astute healer and prominent figure in Kazakh folk medicine during the 15th century, comprehensively explicated the secrets of the healing art in his medical and ethnographic work "Medical Narrative," which he composed between 1466 and 1473 at the behest of az-Zhanibek Khan, who held him in high esteem as a great healer. This medical encyclopedia delineates the functions of various organs of the human body and provides a catalogue of the primary diseases associated with them. Furthermore, it includes a meticulous description of the methods used in traditional medicine at present, such as setting bones, listening to the pulse, and incantations. Through practical experimentation and experimentation conducted in the steppe laboratory, the healer formulated a total of 1,108 different medicinal compounds, of which 858 were derived from medicinal plants, 318 were extracted from animal organs, and roughly 60 were sourced from metals. The moniker "Teacher without a teacher" was bestowed on Oteiboydak Tleukabylov, who discovered methods for treating 1,050 different diseases . At present, the employment of phytotherapy has gained widespread acceptance on a global scale. According to the World Health Organization's (WHO) global review of national policies concerning traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine, as well as the regulation of herbal medicines, there is an evident growth in the European and Asian market for herbal medicines . Kazakhstan boasts a natural flora of over 6,000 plant species . The exact number of medicinal plant species present in Kazakhstan remains uncertain, as the list continues to expand annually. More than 150 plant species have been employed in both official and folk medicine for various ailments. This review focuses on a selection of medicinal plants growing within the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan that have traditionally been used to alleviate skin diseases. In conducting this study (2010-2023), emphasis was placed on the plants' phytochemical composition, with a particular focus on the principal components responsible for their therapeutic effects against inflammatory skin conditions such as dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and eczema.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0570.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Advanced glycation end-products; contact dermatitis; granuloma annulare; insulin; lipoatrophy; lipohypertrophy; necrobiosis lipoidica; skin autofluorescence
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:24:01 CET)
Skin involvement is an overlooked aspect in the management of paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. A comprehensive search of published literature using the PubMed database was carried out using the following key terms: “children”, “pediatric/paediatric patients”, “skin”, “skin disorders”, “type 1 diabetes”. Dermatological side effects are frequently observed among diabetic children and adolescents. Insulin-induced lipodystrophies and allergic contact dermatitis caused by insulin pumps or glycaemic sensors are the most common skin reactions in these patients. Furthermore, several diabetes-associated skin diseases such as necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, vitiligo, and bullosis diabeticorum may already be present in paediatric age. Paediatric diabetes specialists should pay attention to their patients’ skin so as to recognize these disorders, identify the potential causes, and choose the most suitable treatment. Finally, the evaluation of skin concentrations of advanced glycation end-products using non-invasive diagnostic techniques may be used to assess the risk of chronic complications of diabetes as early as adolescence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0458.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: atopic eczema; dermatitis; allergy; itch; skin disease; treatment; prevention; epidemiology; ethnic differences; cellular; molecular; immunological; physiological therapeutic
Online: 27 February 2023 (08:30:54 CET)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence worldwide, including countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America, and in different ethnic groups. In recent years, more attention on AD heterogeneity associated on multiple factors, including patient’s ethnic background, has been posed, resulting in an increasing body of clinical, genetic, epidemiologic, and immune-phenotypic evidence that delineate differences among racial groups with AD. Filaggrin (FLG) mutations, the strongest genetic risk factor for the development of AD, are detected in up to 50% of European and 27% of Asian AD patients, while very rarely in Africans. The Th2 activation is a common attribute of all ethnic groups, though the Asian endotype of AD is also characterized by an increased Th17-mediated signal whereas African Americans own a strong Th2/Th22 signature and the absence of Th1/Th17 skewing. In addition, the ethnic heterogeneity may own important therapeutic implications as the genetic predisposition may affect treatment response and, thereby, a tailored strategy that better targets the dominant immunologic pathways in each ethnic subgroup may be envisaged. Nevertheless, white patients with AD represent the largest ethnicity enrolled and tested in clinical trials and the most treated in a real-world setting, limiting the investigation about safety and efficacy across different ethnicities. The purpose of this review is to describe the heterogeneity of pathophysiology across ethnicities and its potential therapeutic implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0013.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: Bisphenol A; Bisphenol S; Bisphenol F; Atopic dermatitis; DNA methylation; JAK-STAT signaling pathway; PI3K-AKT signaling pathway
Online: 1 November 2023 (04:02:06 CET)
Bisphenol is a chemical substance widely used in plastic products and food containers. In this study, we observed a relationship between DNA methylation and atopic dermatitis (AD) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of pregnant women exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and its alternatives, bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF). DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene expression, which can be altered by environmental factors, and affects the onset and progression of diseases. We found that genes belonging to the JAK-STAT and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways were hypomethylated in the blood of pregnant women exposed to bisphenols. These genes play important roles in skin barrier function and immune responses, and may influence AD. Therefore, we suggest that not only BPA but also BPS and BPF, which are used as alternatives, can have a negative impact on AD through epigenetic mechanisms.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: topical steroid withdrawal; topical steroids; eczema; atopic dermatitis; skin microbiome; gut mi-crobiome; microbiome; biodiversity; skin allergy epidemic;
Online: 8 September 2021 (20:19:35 CEST)
We set up this preliminary study to evaluate one main question: could strengthening the microbiome have potential benefits for patients suffering with adverse effects after stopping long term topical steroid use? We aim to turn it into a much larger study if the results show promise. After commonly being prescribed for eczema, cessation of topical steroid use, especially after long periods of inappropriate use, can leave lasting adverse effects on the body and skin, known by some as topical steroid withdrawal (TSW). Furthermore, the subsequent withdrawal the body experiences when coming off the drug can leave lasting adverse effects on the body and skin, known by some as topical steroid withdrawal (TSW). This preliminary study involved seven human participants suffering with skin problems associated with TSW who approached Dr. Anja Gijsberts-Veens of their own volition because they were interested in more natural recovery methods. Five completed the study in full. Progress in skin condition was tracked by self-assessed symptom severity questionnaires filled out at the beginning and end of the study. The skin microbiome was addressed by using a 100% natural product shown in previous work to significantly increase skin microbiome biodiversity. Three participants implemented dietary changes and supplementation in response to guidance after fecal sample analysis to improve their gut health and biodiversity. The average improvement in skin symptoms for all participants was 40% and average symptom improvement ranged from 14% for Patient 5 to 92% for Patient 1. On average, the participants saw an improvement in 85% of their symptoms and a stagnation or regression in 11% and 4% respectively. We believe these results show enough promise to warrant expansion of this research to use a larger sample size, preferably 50+ participants, in future work. We also aim to swab the skin of participants to assess the effect on the skin microbiome from skin and gut treatments, as well as including more in-depth analysis of skin and gut microbiomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0416.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Malassezia; Chronic diseases; psoriasis; atopic dermatitis; chronic rhinosinusitis; asthma; cystic fibrosis; HIV infection; inflammatory bowel disease; colorectal cancer; neurodegenerative diseases
Online: 24 September 2021 (08:13:07 CEST)
Malassezia are lipid-dependent basidiomycetous yeast of the normal skin microbiome, although Malassezia DNA has been recently detected in other body sites and has been associated with cer-tain chronic human diseases. This new perspective raises many questions. Are these yeasts truly present in the investigated body site or were they contaminated by other body sites, adjacent or not? Does this DNA contamination come from living or dead yeast? If these yeasts are alive, do they belong to the resident mycobiota or are they transient colonizers which are not permanently established within these niches? And, finally, are these yeasts associated with certain chronic diseases or not? In an attempt to shed light on this knowledge gap, we critically re-viewed the 31 published studies focusing on the association of Malassezia spp. with chronic human diseases, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), HIV infection, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC), and neurodegenerative diseases.