ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological distress/anxiety/depression; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items; factor structure; psychometric properties; structural validity; validation; measurement invariance; old age/elders/elderly; informal; family caregivers; spouse; adult children
Online: 9 August 2022 (08:44:11 CEST)
Dementia patients express a set of problematic and deteriorating symptoms, along self-care dependency. Overtime, the mental health of family caregivers of persons with dementia may suffer, putting them at a high risk for psychopathology, which may be associated with endangered wellbeing of demented people. This cross-sectional study examined the psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), DASS-12, DASS-21 in a convenient sample of 571 caregivers from northern Italy and southern Switzerland (Mean age = 53, SD = 12, range = 24–89 years). A bifactor structure of the three measures had the best fit; some items of the DASS-12/DASS-21 failed to load on their domain-specific factors. The three-factor structure was invariant across various groups (e.g., gender, education, etc.), expressed adequate reliability and convergent validity, and had strong positive correlation with the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLALS3). Dementia type had no effect on distress scores, which were higher among females, adult children caregivers, those caring for dependent patients, and those who received help with care. For 54.9 and 38.8% of the latter, care was provided by relatives and health professionals, respectively. Since the DASS-8 expresses adequate psychometrics comparable with the DASS-21, it may be used as a brief measure of distress in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21/DASS-21; DASS-8; shortened version*; shorter version* of the DASS-21; psychiatric disorders; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; measurement invariance/multigroup analysis; psychological distress; discriminant validity; item coverage; good predictive validity
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:15:27 CEST)
Despite extensive investigations of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) since its development in 1995, its factor structure and other psychometric properties still need to be firmly established, with several calls for revising its item structure. Employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), this study examined the factor structure of the DASS-21 and five shortened versions of the DASS-21 among psychiatric patients (N = 168) and the general public (N = 992) during the COVID-19 confinement period in Saudi Arabia. Multigroup CFA, Mann Whitney W test, Spearman’s correlation, and coefficient alpha were used to examine the shortened versions of the DASS-21 (DASS-13, DASS-12, DASS-9 (two versions), and DASS-8) for invariance across age and gender groups, discriminant validity, predictive validity, item coverage, and internal consistency, respectively. Compared with the DASS-21, all three-factor structures of the shortened versions expressed good fit, with the DASS-8 demonstrating the best fit and highest item loadings on the corresponding factors in both samples (χ2(16, 15) = 16.5, 67.0; p = 0.420, 0.000; CFI= 1.000, 0.998; TLI = 0.999, 0.997; RMSEA = 0.013, 0.059, SRMR = 0.0186, 0.0203). It expressed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across age and gender groups. Its internal consistency was comparable to other versions (α = 0.94). Strong positive correlations of the DASS-8 and its subscales with the DASS-21 and its subscales (r = 0.97 to 0.81) suggest adequate item coverage and good predictive validity of this version. The DASS-8 and its subscales distinguished the clinical sample from the general public at the same level of significance expressed by the DASS-21 and other shortened versions, supporting its discriminant validity. Neither the DASS-21 nor the shortened versions distinguished patients diagnosed with depression and anxiety from other conditions. The DASS-8 represents a valid short version of the DASS-21, which may be useful in research and clinical practice for quick identification of individuals with potential psychopathologies. Diagnosing depression/anxiety disorders may be further confirmed in a next step by clinician-facilitated examinations. Brevity of the DASS-21 would save time and effort used for filling the questionnaire and support comprehensive assessments by allowing the inclusion of more measures on test batteries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: functional MRI; group independent component analysis; depression
Online: 7 February 2023 (04:22:30 CET)
The aim of the presents study is to further expand the model of translational cross-validation by investigating the brain circuits or networks which underpin the same tasks by means of group independent component analysis for FMRI toolbox (GIFT). We hypothesized that there will be neural network patterns of activation and deactivation, which correspond to real time performance on clinical self-evaluation scales. We recruited 42 subjects: 20 healthy controls and 22 patients with major depressive episode. All subjects underwent functional MRI scanning using paradigm comprised of diagnostic clinical self-assessment depression scale contrasted to neutral scale. The data were processed with group independent component analysis for functional MRI toolbox and statistical parametric mapping. The results have demonstrated that there exist positively or negatively modulated brain networks during processing of diagnostic specific task questions for major depressive disorder. There have also been confirmed differences in the networks processing diagnostic versus off blocks between patients and controls in anterior cingulate cortex and middle frontal gyrus. Diagnostic conditions (depression scale) when contrasted to neutral conditions demonstrate differential activity of right superior frontal gyrus and right middle cingulate cortex in the comparison of patients with healthy controls. It is for the first time when potential neuroimaging state dependent biomarker has been directly linked with clinical assessment self-evaluation scale, administered as stimuli simultaneously with the fMRI acquisition. It may be regarded as further evidence in support of the ability of both methods to concordantly distinguish groups by means of incremental translational cross-validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0636.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; stress; mental anxiety; depression; children and attributes
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:27:39 CEST)
Coronavirus is believed to have originated from a wet market in Wuhan, China, and has spread all over the world, resulting in a large number of hospitalizations and deaths. Social scientists are just beginning to understand its consequences on human behavior. One policy that public health officials put in place to help stop the spread of the virus were stay-at-home/shelter-in-place lockdown-style orders. Schools, Colleges and Universities across the country have now been shut down till now due to Covid-19. Some Governments in India impose lockdown to reduce the crises created by this unknown virus. It is now difficult to make final assessments by school, school leaving examinations and entrance tests for undergraduate and post-graduate courses. This disruption implies for students across the socio-economic spectrum, both in terms of learning outcomes , food and economic security. Here the aim is to discuss the implications of lockdown-induced in schools in both urban and rural areas in India.The whole world implemented a nationwide lockdown to curb the transmission of the virus. A survey was over Five hundred families to complete a questionnaire with questions around symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and family affluence. The humans who do not have enough supplies to sustain the lockdown were most affected Families with affluence were found to be negatively correlated with stress, anxiety, and depression. Stress, anxiety, and depression more than others are seen in students and healthcare professionals. The main aim of the paper is to find out how symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress on parents due to COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0559.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Stress; Anxiety; Depression; HCPs; COVID-19
Online: 27 October 2020 (15:27:36 CET)
Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has affected HCPs in multiple way. It has caused psychological impact in form of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. In this study, we aim to study and compare the stress level, anxiety and depression among HCPs who are posted in special COVID-19 units with the HCPs who are not posted in COVID-19 units.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2020, at various hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. All health care professionals (HCPs) were invited to participate. A total of 301 HCPs completed this study, who were divided into two groups; those who are posted in COVID-19 ward (Group A) and those who are not (Group B). Psychological Impact was English version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - 21 (DASS-21).Results: In Group A, 70.5% had moderate, severe, or extremely severe depression compared to 49.2% in group B. In Group A, 75.4% had moderate, severe, or extremely severe anxiety compared to 44.7% in group B. In Group A, 80.3% had moderate, severe or extremely severe stress compared to 54.2% in group B. Anxiety, depression and stress were significantly higher in HCPs who were posted in COVID-19 ward compared to those who were not posted in COVID-19 wardConclusion: There was significantly higher anxiety, stress and depression in health care professionals posted in COVID-19 ward. Both the government and health care agencies should take responsibility for protecting the psychological well-being of health care communities all over the world and ensuring a healthy work environment.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: anxiety; COVID-19; depression; mental health; mental health nurses; nurses; Portugal; stress
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:05:05 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to mental health problems worldwide. Nurses are particularly prone to stress because they directly care for individuals with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to explore the association between the mental health promotion strategies used by nurses during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak and their symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, and to compare the strategies and symptoms of mental health nurses and non-mental health nurses. Cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 821 nurses. Portuguese nurses demonstrated high symptoms of depressive symptoms, stress, and anxiety. Healthy eating, physical activity, rest between shifts, maintaining social contacts, verbalizing feelings/emotions, and spending less time searching for information about COVID-19 are associated with better mental health. Mental health nurses have less depression, anxiety, and stress, and use more strategies to promote mental health than other nurses. We consider it important to promote nurses’ mental health literacy by encouraging them to develop skills and strategies aimed at improving their resilience and ability to deal with difficult situations while caring for the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: cancer; anxiety; depression
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:05:29 CEST)
Introduction: Cancer is a group of diseases caused by uncontrolled and abnormal cell growth caused by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. Based on data from Dr Kariadi Hospital in 2021, lung cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer were 1,259 cases, this incident increased significantly from 2020. Based on the data obtained, the sequence of lung cancer cases was 241, breast cancer 623 , and cervical cancer 395. Both cancer and its treatment can weaken the patient's immune system, this is what makes cancer sufferers have a risk of anxiety and depression. Objective: To find out the description of anxiety and depression in cancer patients at RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang. Methods: The design of this study was descriptive quantitative, with a population of 56 patients and calculated using a stratified random sampling formula so that a sample of 49 respondents was obtained. The instrument or measuring instrument in this study used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Most cancer patients experienced mild anxiety and did not experience depression or at normal levels, from the number of respondents as many as 49 respondents, 27 respondents experienced mild anxiety (55.1%) and did not experience depression or at normal levels as many as 22 respondents (44, 9%). Suggestion: It is hoped that it can provide input for nurses to provide counseling to patients as an effort to reduce the anxiety and depression felt by patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1969.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: urban forest healing program; depression; anxiety
Online: 29 August 2023 (10:16:01 CEST)
Depression is considered a widespread mental health problem worldwide. Moreover, anxiety symptoms are very closely related to depression patients, and it is known that the coexistence rate of depression and anxiety diagnosed simultaneously is high. Treatment and preventive management of depression and anxiety are essential for public health. Forest healing is attracting attention as a form of low-cost preventive medicine that is safe and has no side effects. However, although the physiological and psychological effects have been scientifically proven, it is insufficient to reveal a direct relationship between forest healing and depression. This study investigated the benefits of an urban forest healing program on depression and anxiety symptoms of depressive disorders. We employed a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-seven depression patients were randomly divided into an urban forest healing program group and a control group. Measures included the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires. Our results revealed that the combination of general treatment and forest healing programs for patients with depression is more effective in improving depression and anxiety than routine treatment alone. We expect our work to serve as a starting point for more sophisticated research in discussing the availability of non-pharmacological treatments in forest healing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0481.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Anxiety, Depression; Chest Pain; Covid-19; Dyspnea; Emergency Department; Coronavirus; Decision-Making.
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:19:53 CET)
Background We intend to examine whether the COVID-19 outbreak influences medical decision-making (MDM) among Non-COVID patients. Method We recruit 287 patients who admit to ER department due to cardiovascular complaints. Anxiety level was measured using three questionnaires (GAD-7, Beck Inventory, and the cardiac anxiety questionnaire). A fourth survey was designed to assess MDM considerations. Results 64% of patients were male (median age 54). Almost half of the patients were found to have moderate to severe levels of anxiety.79.3% of patients reported that the outbreak influenced their MDM. 44.5% of patients sought medical care 2-3 from the onset of symptoms. Coronary artery disease was found in only 26 patients (9.1%). Almost half of the patients stated that they would have gone earlier if not for the current pandemic. Conclusion Non-COVID patients seeking medical care had a high anxiety level that directly affected decision-making and put them at unnecessary risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0783.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: depression; anxiety; melancholia; inflammation; neuro-immune; physiosomatic; biomarkers; schizophrenia
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:42:35 CET)
Background. The aim of this study is to examine whether biomarkers of the immune-inflammatory response (IRS) and endogenous opioid (EOS) systems are associated with affective symptoms in schizophrenia. Methods. We recruited 115 schizophrenia patients and 43 healthy controls and assessed the Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAM-A) rating Scale scores as well as serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, eotaxin (CCL11), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and mu (MOR) and kappa (KOR) opioid receptors.Results. The HDRS and HAM-A scores are significantly and positively correlated with a) psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism, negative symptoms, psychomotor retardation, and formal thought disorders; and b) lowered scores on semantic and episodic memory, executive functions, and attention tests as measured with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Psychiatry. Both HDRS and HAM-A are significantly increased in non-responders to treatment as compared with partial responders. Both affective scores are strongly associated with latent vectors extracted from all symptoms, reflecting overall severity of psychosis (OSOS), and neurocognitive test scores, reflecting a generalized cognitive decline (G-CoDe). The HDRS score was strongly and positively associated with IL-6, HMGB1, KOR, and MOR levels, and the HAM-A score with IL-6, IL-10, CCL11, HMGB1, KOR, and MOR levels. A single latent trait may be extracted from OSOS, G-CoDe, and the HDRS and HAMA scores, and this latent vector score is strongly predicted by HMGB1, MOR, and DKK1.Conclusion. Immune-inflammatory and EOS pathways contribute to the phenome of schizophrenia, which comprises OSOS, affective, and physiosomatic symptoms, and G-CoDe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; health care workers; Greece; mental health; depression; anxiety; traumatic stress; burnout
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:41:59 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to adversely affect the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs). The public healthcare system in Greece was already facing serious challenges at the outset of the outbreak following years of austerity and an escalating refugee crisis. The multi-center, cross-sectional study aims to assess the levels and associated risk factors of anxiety, depression, traumatic stress and burnout of frontline staff in Greece. A total of 464 HCWs in six reference hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising of sociodemographic and work-related information and psychometric scales. The proportion of HCWs with symptoms of moderate/severe depression, anxiety and traumatic stress were 30%, 25% and 33% respectively. Burnout levels were particularly high with 65% of respondents scoring moderate/severe in Emotional Exhaustion, 92% severe in Depersonalization and 51% low/moderate in Personal Accomplishment. Predictive factors of adverse psychological outcomes included fear, perceived stress, risk of infection, lack of protective equipment and low social support. The psychological burden associated with Covid-19 in healthcare professionals in Greece is considerable with more than half experiencing at least mild mental health difficulties. Findings signal the need for immediate organizational and individually tailored interventions to enhance resilience and support wellbeing under pandemic conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: depression, anxiety, stress, ischemic stroke, psychiatry, mental disorders
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:49:20 CEST)
Objectives To delineate the features of ischemic stroke patients and their caregivers that may predict distress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in the caregivers. Methods The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS), Zarit Burden Interview (22 item-ZBI), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) were used to assess caregivers' burden, stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. We performed partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in order to delineate a multi-step mediation model.Results In this study, 97 stroke patients and their caregivers were included. Multiple regression analysis revealed that ZBI-personal strain and stroke of other determined etiology explained 15.0 percent of the variance in the HADS depression score (p=0.001). We discovered that the caregiver's underlying disease and the National Institute Stroke Score (NIHSS) of the patients explained 13.6 percent of the variance in the total ZBI score of the caregivers (p=0.001). The total ZBI score, the presence of lacunar circulation infarction in the patients, and the caregiver's underlying disease explained 40.9 percent of the variance in the total PSS score of the caregivers (p <0.001). Moreover, PLS analysis showed that the NIHSS and the caregiver's underlying disease had significant indirect effects on the HADS score which were mediated by the ZBI score. Conclusions A large part of the variance in stress and depressive scores in caregivers of ischemic stroke patients is determined by the patient's disability, dependency, cognition, and stroke phenotypes, as well as the caregiver's health status and burden. Screening for the aforementioned factors in ischemic stroke caregivers is critical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1117.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Depression; Anxiety; Sexual orientation; Violence; Mental health
Online: 16 November 2023 (15:16:48 CET)
Background. Depression and anxiety and its association with sexual orientation in Latvia is un-derstudied. Outcomes. Kinsey scale, primary outcomes for mental health disturbances were defined as per-son`s subjective feeling of depression and anxiety. Materials and Methods. Participants aged 18-30 year old (n=503) was asked to do a self-administered anonymous web-based survey regarding social and family status, sexual iden-tification and behaviour, violence experience and mental health information. To describe person`s sexual orientation Kinsey scale was used. Prevalence of depression and anxiety, univariate and multivariate regression analysis was performed to measure relations between investigated fac-tors. Results. A total of 503 participants (i.e., 365 females, 133 males, 5 others) were included in the study. Mean (SD) age of participants was 23.0 (3.7) years. Mean (SD) value on the Kinsey scale was 1.4 (1.8) and median (IQR) value was 1.0 (0-2.0) where 1 is defined as ‘mostly heterosexual, only slightly homosexual’ person and 2 is ‘mostly heterosexual, but more than slightly homosexual’. Prevalence of persons reported violence experience was 20.3%, anxiety 56.3% and depression 37.6%. Logistic regression analysis showed that experience of violence was associated with higher odds of developing anxiety and depression (OR: 2.6 [95% CI: 1.7-4.0] and 2.4 [95% CI: 1.5-3.9], respectively). Being in relationship was associated with higher odds of developing anxiety (OR: 2.8[95% CI: 1.3-6.3]). Male sex and income 1001-2000 euros a month were associated with lower odds of developing anxiety (OR: 0.4 [95% CI: 0.2-0.5] and aOR: 0.3 [95% CI: 0.1-0.8], respectively). Sexual orientation showed no significant value in association with anxiety and depression (OR: 1.1 [95% CI: 1.0-1.2] and OR: 1.1 [95% CI: 1.02-1.2], respectively). Conclusions. In our study, the significant factors for developing depression and anxiety were experiencing violence, being female, being in a relationship, and having no income, while sexual orientation showed no significance in relation to depression and anxiety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0763.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: ADHD; anxiety; depression; suicidal ideation; self-esteem
Online: 12 October 2023 (05:19:08 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Although there has been growing interest in the association of ADHD with anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and self-esteem, there is a lack of consistent results and these associations remain unclear. This study investigated the differential patterns of anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and self-esteem with regard to the presence of ADHD. Materials and Methods: The subjects were divided into a patient group and a control group. The patient group included 49 patients diagnosed with ADHD at the department of psychiatry of one university hospital. For the control group, 3,727 students were invited to complete a questionnaire. Of the 1,717 students who responded to the questionnaire, 245 were selected for patient-controlled studies. All the subjects were instructed to complete the Beck Suicide Ideation Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, Beck’s Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results: ADHD subjects experienced more anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation as well as lower self-esteem compared to the control group comprising participants without ADHD. Conclusions: These findings suggest that ADHD symptoms may contribute to greater suicidal ideation through experienced depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem in school-aged children. Therefore, appropriate ADHD symptom management is necessary to reduce suicidal ideation among school-aged children with ADHD symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1559.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: anxiety; cardiac rehabilitation; depression; medical education; primary care
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:16:09 CEST)
Depression and anxiety in cardiovascular disease worsen the prognosis of patients. Treatments for these disorders often provide limited improvement. The present study aimed to test, for the first time, the impact of educational technology on anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program. A 12-month randomized controlled trial was conducted, in which 207 patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental (n=76) or control (n=69) groups. The intervention involved a structured patient education program provided by medical students who had undergone specially designed training in cardiac rehabilitation. The primary outcomes were death, hospitalization, heart failure, and recurrent myocardial infarction. The study also assessed anxiety and depression. A year later, the experimental group showed a statistically significant decrease in anxiety and depression on the HADS scale, with reductions of 2.0 and 1.9 points respectively (p<0.05). The control group showed reductions of 1.5 and 1.2 points (p<0.05). The difference in depression (HRDS) between the groups at 12 months was -1.29 in favor of the main group (95% CI, -0.7 to -1.88), and the standardized effect size (SMD) was 0.36 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.69). No treatment-related adverse events were observed. The results suggest that educational interventions can have a positive impact on mental health. The study's strengths include a structured intervention, randomization, and long-term follow-up. Limitations include the lack of blinding of study participants and a relatively small sample size.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0920.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depressive symptoms; older adults; geriatric depression scale; depression screening
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:07:25 CEST)
Although the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a well-established instrument for the assessment of depressive symptoms in older adults, this has not been validated specifically for Portuguese cognitively impaired persons. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of two Portuguese versions of the GDS (GDS-27 and GDS-15) in a Portuguese mild-to-moderate cognitively impaired sample. Clinicians assessed for major depressive disorder and cognitive functioning in 117 participants with mild to moderate cognitive decline (76.9% female, Mage = 83.66 years). The internal consistency of GDS-27 and GDS-15 were 0.874 and 0.812, respectively. There was a significant correlation between GDS-27 and GDS-15 with Beck Depression Inventory-II GDS-27: rho = 0.738, p < 0.001; GDS-15: rho = 0.760, p < 0.001), suggesting good validity. A cutoff point of 15/16 in GDS-27 and 8/9 in GDS-15 resulted in identification of persons with depression (GDS-27: sensitivity 100%, specificity 63%; GDS-15: sensitivity 90%, specificity 62%). Overall, the GDS-27 and GDS-15 are reliable and valid instruments for the assessment of depression in Portuguese-speaking cognitively impaired persons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1429.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Post Mastectomy Pain Syndrome; pain; physical exercise; depression; anxiety
Online: 22 November 2023 (13:01:57 CET)
Background: Chronic post-surgical pain is a condition persisting at least three months after surgery. It is estimated that 25-60% of patients who underwent breast cancer removal surgery suffer from post-mastectomy pain syndrome and occurred anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance and catastrophizing. Physical activity can reduce the risk of chronic diseases and has a good impact on mood and cognitive function. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of physical activity on the intensity of pain, depression and anxiety in women underwent mastectomy for breast cancer removal. Methods: A prospective observational unicentric cohort study was performed. Patients were female underwent unilateral or bilateral mastectomy. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), was used to assess pain intensity, Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorders-7 (GAD-7), for anxiety evaluation. Physical activity was assessed by International Physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). Interleukin (IL)-17, IL-1β, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were also evaluated in the blood of patients. All the evaluation was assessed 3 and 6 months after the surgery. Results: Adequate physical activity reduced intensity of pain, depression and anxiety symptoms in women affected by post-mastectomy pain syndrome. Moreover, adequate active women, showed a reduction of biomarkers of inflammation, cortisol, ACTH and an increase of BDNF. Conclusions: Our results suggest that physical activity can improve quality of life, reducing intensity of pain, inflammatory markers and it can be useful in the reduction of associated anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0466.v1
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:34:46 CET)
Background: Pregnancy can be a period of increased psychological susceptibility for women living with HIV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with depression and psychological stress among women living with HIV during their perinatal period in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: This study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey conducted in three HIV treatment centers. The study population consisted of women living with HIV 18 years and above who were pregnant or had given birth within the last two years. Data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 25. Results: A total of 402 participants were eligible for this study. About 69.0% and 78.0% of the participants were depressed and had perceived stress respectively. Women who had positive partners (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.20-1.30) were found to be significantly associated with perceived depression. Women who reported having a gestational age between 29-40 weeks (OR=0.054 95% CI = 0.006, 0.500) were found to be significantly associated with perceived stress. Factors associated with the co-occurrence of symptoms of depression and perceived stress were partner status, income level, family support, gestational age, and years on ART. Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of major depression, perceived stress, and the co-occurrence of depression and perceived stress among women living with HIV, mental health care should be incorporated into the routine maternal healthcare for all women, especially those living with HIV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1093.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: chronic stress; depression; microglia; neuroinflammation; proinflammatory cytokines
Online: 28 April 2023 (03:28:05 CEST)
Chronic stress is a major risk factor for various psychiatric diseases, including depression; it induces a range of cellular and structural adaptations, culminating in altered neurocircuitry and subsequent depression. Accumulating evidence suggests that microglial cells orchestrate stress-induced depression. Preclinical studies of stress-induced depression revealed microglial inflammatory activation in regions of the brain that regulate mood. Although studies have identified several molecules that trigger inflammatory responses in microglia, the pathways that regulate stress-induced microglial activation remain unclear. Understanding the exact triggers that induce microglial inflammatory activation can help find therapeutic targets to treat depression. In the current review, we summarize the recent literature on possible sources of microglial inflammatory activation in animal models of chronic stress-induced depression. In addition, we describe how microglial inflammatory signaling affects neuronal health and causes depressive behavior. Finally, we propose ways to target the microglial inflammatory cascade to treat depressive disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0690.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: adolescents; depression; Laos; psychometric testing
Online: 29 July 2020 (10:37:26 CEST)
This study aimed to develop a Laotian adolescent version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), determine its reliability and validity, and examine its factorial properties. The study targeted at 7,554 students in lower secondary schools and teacher training colleges in Lao PDR. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 2012 to 2014. Exploratory factor analysis performed in three age groups using the weighted least square mean and variance adjusted estimation with robust maximum likelihood methods. The factor structure for each age group was the same; therefore, data from the full sample were analyzed further. The model was then tested by confirmatory factor analysis. A 2-factor model was determined as a common model among the age groups by using paralleled analysis. We determined a best-fitting structure comprising two factors: “Negative affect” and “Positive affect.” The Cronbach’s alpha was .81. “Effort” items loaded on the “Somatic and retarded activity” factor in the original model but loaded on the “Positive affect” factor in the adolescent model. “Depressed affect,” “Somatic and retarded activity,” and “Interpersonal” items were combined into the “Negative affect” factor in the adolescent model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: social support; anxiety; depression; quality of life; breast cancer
Online: 6 April 2021 (11:31:59 CEST)
Background: Breast cancer is the second type of cancer diagnosed in women and is the first cancer in women worldwide. Breast cancer also causes high morbidity and mortality in women and becomes a heavy burden due to the incidence of disability due to the disease. Purpose: This literature review aims to examine how social support affects anxiety, depression and quality of life in breast cancer sufferers. Method: The data were obtained by searching for reputable and trustworthy journals. have high quality criteria, namely Scopus, Proquest, Science Direct, Elsevier, Pubmed. Journals or articles used in this review literature are searched using keywords and Boolean operators (AND, OR NOT, or AND NOT). Keywords in this review literature are as follows: social support OR family support, quality of life OR Quality, anxiety OR depression, AND Cancer OR cancer treatment OR Chronic disease. Results: The results of this literature review show that there is a significant influence between the social support received by breast cancer patients on the improvement of their quality of life. The social support provided is also able to reduce anxiety and depression in breast cancer sufferersConclusion: Social support given to breast cancer patients is proven to have an effect on improving the quality of life, reducing anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0556.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Sports; Psychogenetics; Psychophysiology; Elite athletes; Stress-resistance; Machine learning; Extreme professions; Depression; Anxiety
Online: 8 November 2023 (13:55:11 CET)
Background: A personalized approach to occupational medicine allows specialists to 1 prevent professional hazards such as stress-related depression and anxiety in extreme work environments. Objective: we aim to detect genetic markers of low resilience to stress. Methods: The study cohort included 97 elite athletes and 167 special forces personnel. The research team collected buccal mucosa samples and examined psychological status with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We assessed 35 variants within selected genes that are most often associated with low resilience to stress, anxiety, and depression. Fisher’s Exact test was used to determine nonrandom associations between scores in the HADS scale and the genetic variants. We also trained machine learning models to predict score values from genotyping findings and ranked genetic biomarkers according to their predictive power. Results: High-risk depression profiles included C/T genotype of MTHFR C677T and A/C variant of MTHFR A1298C. Susceptibility to anxiety was associated with several polymorphisms regulating neuroactive substances, immune response, and coagulation. The ML models accurately detect depression or anxiety levels with MAE/ROV of 17.69±1.35 and 17.86±2.09% respectively. Conclusions: The study findings justify a polymorphic nature of anxiety and confirm the immune system's involvement in regulating stress response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: spinal cord injury; robotic rehabilitation; coordinative rehabilitation; depression; mood; anxiety
Online: 5 September 2023 (04:18:22 CEST)
Background: Mood disorders, especially depression, and emotional difficulties such as anxiety are very common problems among patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The loss of physical training may deteriorate their mental state, which in turn has a significant impact on the improvement of functioning. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of innovative rehabilitation approaches involving robotic assisted gait therapy (RAGT) on mood and anxiety symptoms in pa-tients with SCI. Methods: To this single-centre, single-blinded, single-arm, prospective study, 110 participants with subacute SCI were enrolled; patients were divided into experimental (robotic assisted gait therapy -RAGT) and control (conventional gait therapy with dynamic parapodium - DPT) groups. They received five training sessions per week over 7- weeks. The severity of de-pression was assessed by Depression Assessment Questionnaire (KPD) and anxiety symptoms by State - Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI X-1) on the beginning and end of therapy. Results: SCI patients experienced significantly lower levels of anxiety and depression-related symptoms after completing the seven-week rehabilitation program (KPD: Z=6.35; p<0.001; r=0.43; STAI X-1: Z=-6.20; p<0.001; r=0.42) in both group of patients. In the RAGT group, post-rehabilitation measurements also indicated an improvement in psychological functioning, i.e., a decrease in depression and anxiety, and an increase in self-regulation. Significant results were noted for each variable (STAI X-1: Z = -4.93; KPD: Z = -5.26; SR: Z = -3.21). In the control group, there was also a decrease in the effect on the depression, anxiety-state and an increase in self-regulation ability (STAI X-1: Z=-4.01; KPD: Z=-3.65; SR: Z=-2.83). Rehabilitation modality did not appear to have a statistically significant relationship with the magnitude of improvement in KPD (including SR) and STAI scores. However, there were some significant differences when comparing the groups by extent and depth of injury and type of paralysis. The study also did not find a significant rela-tionship between improvements in physical aspects and changes in psychological factors. Conclusion: Subjects in RAGD and DPT groups experienced a decrease in anxiety and depres-sion after a 7-week rehabilitation program. However, the rehabilitation modality (DPT vs. RAGT) did not differentiate patients with SCI in terms of the magnitude of this change. Our results may suggest that individuals with severe neurological condition and complete spinal cord injury (AIS A) may experience more benefit in terms of change in psychological parameters after rehabilitation with RAGT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: temporal lobe epilepsy; antioxidants; oxidative stress; neuroimmune; major depression; schizophrenia
Online: 19 March 2020 (02:11:32 CET)
Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common focal epilepsy subtype in adults and is frequently accompanied by depression, anxiety and psychosis. Aberrations in total paraoxonase (PON)1 status may occur in TLE and those psychiatric conditions. Methods: We examined paraoxonase (PON)1 status, namely Q192R PON1 genotypes and PON1 enzymatic activities, in 40 normal controls and 104 TLE patients, 27 without comorbidities, and 77 with comorbidities including mood disorders (n=25), anxiety disorders (n=27) and psychosis (n=25). Outcomes: CMPAase and arylesterase activities were significantly lower in TLE and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) with and without psychiatric comorbidities than in normal controls. The areas under the ROC curve of CMPAase were 0.893 (0.037) for TLE and 0.895 (±0.037) for MTS. Partial Least Squares (PLS) path analysis showed that there were specific indirect effects of PON1 genotype on TLE severity (p<0.0001) and psychopathology (p<0.0001), which were both mediated by lowered CMPAase activity, while arylesterase activity was not significant. The severity of TLE was significantly associated with psychopathology scores. Furthermore, PON1 CMPAase activity was inversely associated with Mini Mental State Examination scores. Interpretation: The severity of TLE and comorbidities are to a large extent explained by lowered PON1 enzyme activities and by effects of the Q192R genotype which are mediated by lowered CMPAase activity. Total PON1 status plays a key role in the pathophysiology of TLE, MTS and psychiatric comorbidities by increasing the risk of oxidative toxicity. PON1 enzyme activities are new drug targets in TLE to treat seizure frequency and psychiatric comorbidities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: premenstrual syndrome; depression; anxiety; antioxidants; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative stress
Online: 9 January 2020 (08:17:43 CET)
Objective: To examine whether 1) immune and nitro-oxidative stress (IO&NS) biomarkers are associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS); and 2) changes in IO&NS biomarkers during the menstrual cycle (MC) are associated with PMS symptoms and plasma estradiol and progesterone. Methods: Forty-one women completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) rating scale during 28 consecutive days and MC Associated Syndrome (MCAS) was diagnosed when the summed DRSP score during the MC is > 0.666 percentile. We assayed plasma levels of complement C3 and C4, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), haptoglobin (Hp), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), sulfhydryl (-SH) groups and the activity of paraoxonase (PON)1 at days 7 (D7), 14 (D14), 21 (D21) and 28 (D28) of the MC. Results: All biomarkers, except hsCRP, showed significant alterations during the MC. Arylesterase (AREase) was lowered at D28, while LOOH increased at D14 and C4 at D21 in women with MCAS. The total DRSP score was predicted by the combined effects of C4 (positively) and AREase and malondialdehyde (MDA) (both inversely associated). Progesterone lowered levels of LOOH, AOPP and C3 and estradiol lowered levels of Hp while both sex hormones increased 4-(chloromethyl)phenyl acetate (CMPA)ase and AREase activities and levels of -SH groups. Conclusion: PMS/MCAS is not accompanied by a peripheral inflammatory response. Lowered MDA and antioxidant defenses and increased C4 may play a role in MC-associated symptoms while sex hormones may have a protective effect against oxidative stress toxicity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0625.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; anxiety disorders; existential psychotherapy; logotherapy; meaning-centered psychotherapy; functional magnetic resonance imaging; biomarker; kynurenines; Martin Heidegger; Viktor Frankl
Online: 24 March 2021 (13:18:24 CET)
Psychotherapy is a comprehensive biological treatment modifying complex underlying cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and regulatory responses in the brain, leading patients with mental illness to a new interpretation of the sense of self and others. Psychotherapy is an art of science integrated with psychology and/or philosophy. Neurological science studies the neurological basis of cognition, memory, and behavior as well as the impact of neurological damage and disease on the functions, and their treatment. Both psychotherapy and neurological science deal with the brain; nevertheless, they continue to stay polarized far. Existential phenomenological psychotherapy (EPP) has been in the forefront of meaning-centered counseling for almost a century. The phenomenological approach in psychotherapy originated in the works of Martin Heidegger, Ludwig Binswanger, Medard Boss and Viktor Frankl, and it has been committed to account for the existential possibilities and limitations of one’s life. EPP provides philosophically rich interpretations and empowers counseling techniques to assist mentally suffering individuals by finding meaning and purpose of life. The approach has proven to be effective in treating mood and anxiety disorders. This narrative review article demonstrates the development of EPP, the therapeutic methodology, evidence-based accounts of its curative techniques, current understanding of mood and anxiety disorders in neurological science, and a possible converging path to translate and integrate meaning-centered psychotherapy and neuroscience, concluding that the existential phenomenological psychotherapy potently plays a synergistic role with the currently prevailing medication-based approaches for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0313.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: resilience; depression; anxiety; COVID-19; amygdala; hippocampus; burnout; researchers; narrative; ordering memory
Online: 23 March 2022 (08:51:08 CET)
Depression and anxiety are prevalent, persistent and difficult to treat industrialized world mental health problems. These disorders negatively modify an individual’s life perspective through brain function imbalances, notably in the amygdala and hippocampus, and are primarily treated with pharmaceuticals and psychotherapy. Nevertheless, these mental health issues have only increased in the number of individuals affected and the intensity of their suffering—especially as a result of COVID-19 restrictions and fears. An approach to alleviating depression and anxiety in relation to researchers self-identifying as experiencing burnout is promising. Enhancing resilience, the approach considers depression and anxiety as consequences of the particular method people adopt in ordering their memories, and focuses on narrative development. The method encourages accepting of different perspectives as unique and necessary in creating safe protection from research burnout. Moving from an identification of personal character to prompting plot development of memory, the method promotes resilience by encouraging thoughtful reconsideration of the negative assessments by participants of their circumstances that can lead to depression and anxiety. The method of ordering and group members’ feedback are inspected, including during the period of COVID-19 restrictions, and conclusions are offered regarding further research to encourage burnout resilience to diminish depression and anxiety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1587.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: self-esteem; occupational factors; depression; anxiety; healthcare workers; Covid-19
Online: 26 November 2023 (06:21:45 CET)
The prevalence of depression and anxiety among healthcare workers (HCWs) during the Covid-19 pandemics is high. The aim of the study is to identify the importance of self-esteem and occupational factors in association with the incidence of depression and anxiety among HCWs through a longitudinal cohort study during the Covid-19 pandemics in Latvia. Participants were interviewed repeatedly seven times during the Covid-19 pandemics. 322 participants were included in the data analysis for depression and 352 for anxiety. Low self-esteem and working in the general practitioner's office is associated with the incidence of depression and anxiety. Undergraduate education and direct contact with Covid-19 patients are associated with the incidence of depression. The risk of anxiety decreases by 1% each year among HCWs. Our study shows the importance of personality factors of HCWs during the Covid-19 pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: resilience; Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; Brief Resilience Scale; depression; life satisfaction; confirmatory factor analysis
Online: 4 January 2022 (12:34:37 CET)
The Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) are two widely used scales to measure resilience. Although both scales seek to assess an individual’s ability to recover from and adapt to disruptions or stressful events, they may capture different aspects of resilience. While the CD-RISC focuses on resources that can help individuals recover from and adapt to disruptions or stressful events, the BRS directly measures one’s ability to bounce back or be resilient. The aim of this study is to empirically examine the differences between the CD-RISC and the BRS. Two samples (n = 202, 246) consisting of undergraduate students from Taiwan were used. The results of confirmatory factor analysis show that the CD-RISC and the BRS are highly correlated but still distinct. The results of regression analyses show that the CD-RISC and the BRS have unique predictive effects on depression and life satisfaction. The research findings suggest that the CD-RISC and the BRS capture different aspects of resilience. For future research on resilience, researchers should pay attention to the differences between these scales and choose the one that most closely fits their research purpose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0853.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: burnout; anxiety; depression; health professionals; medical staff; nursing staff
Online: 24 April 2023 (10:52:35 CEST)
The presence of burnout, anxiety and depression among health professionals is a crucial issue that must be carefully addressed. The aim of the present study is to investigate levels of burnout, anxiety and depression among health professionals (medical and nursing staff) during the pandemic crisis, the association of burnout with anxiety and depression as well as the impact of occupational and demographic factors. One hundred twenty-five health professionals (medical and nursing staff) participated who were working in a public hospital in the broader area of Athens (sample of convenience). Specifically, 41 males and 84 females with the majority of them being in the category of 36-45 years of age. For the data collection, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the HADS questionnaire were used. The results showed that there was a statistically significant and negative correlation of emotional exhaustion to HADS total (r= -0,377, p=0,000) as well as HADS anxiety (r= -0,417, p=0,000). Also, there was a statistically significant and negative correlation of depersonalization to HADS total (r= -0,370, p=0,000) as well as HADS anxiety (r= -0,431, p=0,000). Moreover, there was a statistically significant effect (p<0,05) of occupational and demographic characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; depression; chronic fatigue syndrome; inflammation; neuro-immune; psychiatry
Online: 14 June 2021 (13:01:31 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 is associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms including increased depressive, anxiety and chronic fatigue-syndrome (CFS)-like physiosomatic (previously known as psychosomatic) symptoms.Aims: To delineate the associations between affective and CFS-like symptoms in COVID-19 and chest CT-scan anomalies (CCTAs), oxygen saturation (SpO2), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), albumin, calcium, magnesium, soluble angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2) and soluble advanced glycation products (sRAGEs).Method: The above biomarkers were assessed in 60 COVID-19 patients and 30 heathy controls who had measurements of the Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAM-A) and the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue (FF) Rating Scales. Results: Partial Least Squares-SEM analysis showed that reliable latent vectors could be extracted from a) key depressive and anxiety and physiosomatic symptoms (the physio-affective or PA-core), b) IL-6, IL-10, CRP, albumin, calcium, and sRAGEs (the immune response core); and c) different CCTAs (including ground glass opacities, consolidation, and crazy paving) and lowered SpO2% (lung lesions). PLS showed that 70.0% of the variance in the PA-core was explained by the regression on the immune response and lung lesions latent vectors. Moreover, one common “infection-immune-inflammatory (III) core” underpins pneumonia-associated CCTAs, lowered SpO2 and immune activation, and this III core explains 70% of the variance in the PA core, and a relevant part of the variance in melancholia, insomnia, and neurocognitive symptoms.Discussion: Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection is accompanied by lung lesions and lowered SpO2 which both may cause activated immune-inflammatory pathways, which mediate the effects of the former on the PA-core and other neuropsychiatric symptoms due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; depression; anxiety; post-acute COVID-19 syndrome; post-COVID
Online: 12 August 2022 (04:56:33 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to examine the course of Depression and anxiety in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history compared with those without a psychiatric history. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey for COVID-19 survivors was conducted from July to September 2021. 6016 COVID-19 survivors, the accuracy of whose responses was determined to be assured, were included in analyses. Exposures included psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection, and the main outcomes and measures included severity of depression and anxiety, as assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), respectively. Results: Mean severity of PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were significantly higher in participants with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history. Two-way analysis of covariance for PHQ-9 showed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and a significant interaction effect of psychiatric history × time since infection. Two-way analysis of covariance for the GAD-7 score revealed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection and the interaction effect of these factors. Conclusions: The course of depression and anxiety was more severe in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3; depression, anxiety; perceived stress; hostility
Online: 3 June 2020 (04:55:29 CEST)
We aimed to test the hypothesis that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] concentration is associated with mental health and life stress measures in young adults, and investigate sex and racial disparities in these associations. This study comprised 327 black and white participants. Depression, trait anxiety, perceived stress, and hostility were measured by validated instruments: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). Linear regression was used to estimate correlations between serum 25(OH)D concentration and mental health measurements in total population and in subgroups stratified by sex and race. In this sample (28.2 ± 3.1 years, 48% male, 53% black), serum 25(OH)D concentration was negatively related to BDI, STAI, PSS, total CMHS score and the majority of CMHS subscale scores (p-values < 0.05). Stratified by sex, most of these associations remained significant only in women (p-values < 0.05). Stratified by race, higher 25(OH)D concentrations in the whites were significantly related to lower BDI, STAI, PSS, and CMHS-cynicism subscale (p-values < 0.05); 25(OH)D concentrations in the blacks were only inversely associated with CMHS and most CMHS subscales (p-values < 0.05), but not with BDI, STAI and PSS. We present novel findings of consistent inverse relationships between serum 25(OH)D concentration and various measures of mental health and life stress. Long-term interventional studies are warranted to investigate the roles of vitamin D supplementation in prevention and mitigation of depression, anxiety and psychological stress in young adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: inflammation; neuro-immune; cytokines; major depression; chronic fatigue syndrome; affective disorders
Online: 27 September 2021 (16:30:00 CEST)
Background. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorder which affects the joints in the wrists, fingers, and knees. RA is often associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-like symptoms.Aim. To examine the association between depressive symptoms (measured with the Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, HAMA), and CFS-like (Fibro-fatigue Scale) symptoms and immune-inflammatory, autoimmune, and endogenous opioid system (EOS) markers, and lactosylceramide in RA. Methods. The serum biomarkers were assayed in fifty-nine RA and fifty-nine patients without increased psychopathology (PP) and fifty healthy controls.Results. There were highly significant correlations between the BDI, FF, and HAMA scores and severity of RA, as assessed with the DAS28-4, clinical and disease activity indices, the number of tenders and swollen joints, and patient and evaluator global assessment scores. A common latent vector (reflective model) could be extracted from the PP and RA-severity scales, which showed excellent psychometric properties. Partial least squares analysis showed that 69.7% of the variance in this common core underpinning PP and RA symptoms could be explained by the regression on immune-inflammatory pathways, rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, CD17, and mu-opioid receptor levels. Conclusions. Depression, anxiety, and CFS-like symptoms due to RA are reflective manifestations of the phenome of RA and are mediated via the effects of the same immune-inflammatory, autoimmune, and EOS pathways and lactosylceramide that underpin the pathophysiology of RA. These PP symptoms are clinical manifestations of the pathophysiology of RA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1272.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Diabetes; mental health; anxiety; depression; supplementation; nutrition; chronic disease; blood glucose; cardiovascular health; integrative medicine; mental disorders; nutrition education; life-style medicine
Online: 19 July 2023 (12:10:42 CEST)
Diabetes and mental disorders have been recognized as two significant public health concerns globally. Recent research indicates that there is a bidirectional relationship between these two conditions, with each influencing the other's course and outcomes. Nutrition plays an essential role in the prevention and treatment of both mental disorders and diabetes. A comprehensive review of existing literature was conducted to examine the impact of anxiety and depression on the development of diabetes and the influence of diabetes on the occurrence of mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression. Additionally, the effects of nutrition on the prevention and management of mental disorders, diabetes, and related complications in at risk individuals were assessed. Our findings show that mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and are associated with poorer glycemic control, increased diabetes-related complications, and higher mortality rates. Conversely, diabetes is also linked with an increased risk of developing mental health disorders, including depression, anxiety, and cognitive decline. The biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to the comorbidity between these two conditions are complex and multifaceted. Therefore, an integrated approach to the management of both conditions is critical for improving patient outcomes and reducing the overall burden of disease. Nutritional interventions should be utilized to reduce the risk of diabetes in patients with anxiety and depression as well as enhance mental health in patients with diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0291.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Yoga of Immortals (YOI); depression; healthcare workers; insomnia; anxiety; PHQ-8 (Pa-tient Health Questionnaire-8); ISI (Insomnia Severity Index); digital health
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:49:45 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant medical and psychological challenges worldwide, and not only exceeded the capacity of hospitals and intensive care units but also an individuals’ ability to cope with life. Health-care workers have continued to provide care for patients despite exhaustion, fear of transmission to themselves and their family, illness or death of friends and colleagues, and losing many patients. They have also faced additional stress and anxiety due to long shifts combined with unprecedented population restrictions, including personal isolation. In this study, we study the effect of an app-based Yoga of Immortals (YOI) intervention on mental health of healthcare workers. In this study, the health care workers were digitally recruited, and their psychological parameters were measured using validated questionaries. The participants were randomly grouped into control and test groups. The validated psychological measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scales. The digital YOI intervention significantly reduced the anxiety, depression symptoms, and insomnia in healthcare workers of all age groups. In contrast, there was no improvement in the control group. This study details the effectiveness of an app-based YOI intervention in healthcare workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1808.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Oroxylum indicum, baicalein, unpredictable chronic mild stress, HPA-axis, depression
Online: 28 August 2023 (03:35:17 CEST)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of life-threatening disorders that is prevalent worldwide. The evident etiology of this disease is still poorly understood. Therefore, a possible mechanism is used to evaluate the antidepressant effect. Nowadays, herbal medicine is gaining more interest as an alternative antidepressant. Oroxylum indicum, which is used in traditional medicine and contains a potential antidepressive compound, baicalein, has an antidepressive property. In vitro inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) enzyme was used to preliminarily screen the antidepressant effect of the O. indicum seed (OIS) extract. Mice were subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) for 6 weeks and daily administration of the OIS extract started from week 4. The mechanisms involved in antidepressive activity were investigated. The OIS extract significantly alleviated anhedonia and despair behaviors in UCMS-induced mouse model via two possible pathways: (i) normalize the HPA-axis function by restoration of negative feedback (decreased FKBP5 and increased GR expressions) and reduction of glucocorticoid-related negative gene (SGK-1), (ii) improve neurogenesis by escalation of BDNF and CREB expression in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex. HPLC analysis of the extract showed the presence of All the results obtained from this study emphasize its potential as an effective and novel alternative treatment for MDD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: depression; mood disorders; inflammation; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; neuro-immune; antioxidants; psychoneuroimmunology
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:36:47 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is frequently accompanied by affective disorders with a prevalence of comorbid depression of around 25%. Nevertheless, the biomarkers of affective symptoms including depression and anxiety due to T2DM are not well established.Aims: This study was conducted to delineate the serum biomarkers predicting affective symptoms due to T2DM above and beyond the effects of insulin resistance and atherogenicity. Methods: The present study delineated the effects of serum levels of copper, zinc, β-arrestin-1, FBXW7, lactosylceramide (LacCer), serotonin, albumin, calcium, magnesium, IR and atherogenicity on severity of depression and anxiety in 58 men with T2DM and 30 healthy male controls. Severity of affective symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety rating scales.Results: We found that 61.7% of the variance in affective symptoms was explained by the multivariate regression on copper, β-arrestin-1, calcium, and insulin resistance coupled with atherogenicity, while 44.4% of the variance in the latter was explained by copper, β-arrestin-1, LacCer (all positively) and calcium and FBXW7 (both negatively). Copper and LacCer (positive) and calcium and BXW7 (inverse) had significant specific indirect effects on affective symptoms which were mediated by insulin resistance and atherogenicity. Copper, β-arrestin-1, and calcium were associated with affective symptoms above and beyond the effects of insulin resistance and atherogenicity.Discussion: T2DM and affective symptoms share common pathways namely increased atherogenicity, insulin resistance, copper, and β-arrestin-1, and lowered calcium, whereas copper, β-arrestin-1, calcium, LacCer, and FBXW7 may modulate depression and anxiety symptoms by affecting T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: oxidative stress; neuroimmunomodulation; major depression; inflammation; neurotoxicity; schizophrenia
Online: 24 January 2020 (14:46:17 CET)
Oxidative stress toxicity (OSTOX), as well as lowered antioxidant defenses (ANTIOX), play a role in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Nevertheless, the associations between OSTOX/ANTIOX and psychiatric comorbidities in TLE are largely unknown.Thus, this study examines plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and sulfhydryl (-SH) groups in Depression due to TLE (n=25); Anxiety Disorders due to TLE (n=27); Psychotic Disorder due to TLE (n=25); “pure TLE” (n=27); and healthy controls (n=40).TLE and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) were characterized by significant increases in OSTOX (MDA, AOPP, LOOH) and lowered ANTIOX (-SH groups, TRAP). The discrimination of pure TLE from controls yielded a significant area under the ROC curve for MDA (0.999), AOPP (0.851), -SH groups (0.899) and the OSTOX/ANTIOX ratio (0.996). Seizure frequency is significantly associated with increased MDA and lowered LOOH and NOx levels. Increased MDA was associated with the severity of depressive and physiosomatic symptoms, whilst increased AOPP levels predicted suicidal ideation. Depression and anxiety disorders co-occurring with TLE showed significantly lower MDA levels than TLE without any comorbidities. The psychotic and negative symptoms of TLE are associated with increased MDA levels and excitation with increased LOOH and lowered TRAP levels.These results indicate that oxidative stress toxicity especially protein oxidation and aldehyde formation coupled with lowered -SH groups play a key role in the pathophysiology of TLE/MTS. Increased aldehyde formation also impacts psychopathology, psychosis, as well as negative and depressive symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Ankaful Prison Complex; depression; inmates; management strategies; stress levels
Online: 20 January 2023 (04:21:00 CET)
Background: Stress among prison inmates is a neglected psychological health issues, but this phenomenon seems worse in Ghana’s prisons. This study examined the stress levels, predictors and management strategies utilized among inmates at Ankaful Prison Complex. Method: This survey sampled 1,160 inmates using the census approach at the Ankaful Prison Complex with a self-developed questionnaire for the data collection. Frequency counts, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were applied to the data. Results: The findings indicate that more than half of the inmates were moderately or highly stressed. Specifically, inmates at the Maximum-Security Prison were the most stressed, followed by Annex Prison, Communicable Disease Prison, and the least, Main Camp Prison inmates. Inmate engagement in exercises, sporting activities, visit and chat with colleagues, and family connectedness outside the prison were stress management strategies. Inmates’ self-reported stress levels were influenced by the prison of custody and state of depression. Conclusion: The moderate to high stress levels identified among inmates of Ankaful Prison Complex are influenced by person-environment factors. Management of Ankaful Prisons Complex is encouraged to initiate health screening services for inmates on common mental health challenges like stress and promote functional stress reduction interventions to improve prisoners’ mental health and overall wellbeing
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: major depression; oxidative and nitrosative stress; antioxidants; inflammation; neuro-immune; biomarkers
Online: 15 May 2020 (16:52:52 CEST)
Background: Hypertension, atherogenicity and insulin resistance are major risk factors of cardiovascular disorder (CVD), which shows a strong comorbidity with major depression (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Activated oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), inflammatory pathways, and increased atherogenicity are shared pathways underpinning CVD and mood disorders. Methods: The current study examined the effects of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and malondialdehyde (MDA) on systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in 96 mood disordered patients and 60 healthy controls. Results: A large part of the variance in SBP (31.6%) was explained by the regression on a z unit-weighted composite score (based on LOOH, AOPP, SOD, NOx) reflecting nitro-oxidative stress toxicity (NOSTOX), coupled with highly sensitive C-reactive protein, body weight and use of antihypertensives. Increased DBP was best predicted (23.8%) by body mass index and NOSTOX. The most important O&NS biomarkers predicting an increased SBP were in descending order of significance: LOOH, AOPP and SOD. Higher levels of the atherogenic index of plasma, HOMA2 insulin resistance index and basal thyroid-stimulating hormone also contributed to increased SBP independently from NOSTOX. Although there were no significant changes in SBP/DBP in mood disorders, the associations between NOSTOX and blood pressure were significant in patients with mood disorders but not in healthy controls. Conclusions: Activated O&NS pathways including increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, which indicates hypochlorous stress, are the most important predictors of an increased BP, especially in patients with mood disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: depression; acculturation stress; social connectedness; international students, university students, ASSIS, suicidal ideation
Online: 24 December 2018 (14:52:30 CET)
(1) This study aimed to examine the prevalence of depression and its correlation with acculturative Stress and Social Connectedness among domestic and overseas students in Japan International University. (2) Methods: A Web-based survey was distributed among students of International University, which resulted in 263 responses. On the survey together with socio-demographic data, a nine-item tool from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), was used to measure the prevalence of Depression and its relationship with socio-demographic data, Social Connectedness Scale was used to measure Social Connectedness, and Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (ASSIS) was used to measured acculturative stress. (3) Results: Depression was significantly high in international and domestic students (37.81% and 29.85% respectively). English language proficiency and students age (20 years old) showed a significant correlation with depression among domestic students (β=-1.63, p=0.038 and β=2.24, p=0.048). Stay length (third year) also displayed a significant correlation with depression among international students (β=1.08, p=0.032). Among international and domestic students statistically significant positive correlation between depression and acculturative stress, negative associations of social connectedness with depression and acculturative stress were also found. Suicidal or self-hurting ideation thoughts are found among around 20% of all students. (4) Conclusions: These findings indicate a relatively high prevalence of depression among students of International University, and overseas students are more affected. Depression, Acculturation stress and Social Connectedness show statistically strong intercorrelation, which highlights the need of host University to recognise the role of Acculturation and Social Connectedness in the development of Depression among students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0253.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: stess; chronic fatigue syndrome; depression; dysbiosis; serotonin/cortisol
Online: 5 September 2023 (07:52:50 CEST)
Intestinal microbiota attracts daily attention of a growing number of study which have attempted to link gut dysbiosIs with a variety of disease states: irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflamed bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD), leaky gut syndrome (LGS), food intolerance, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cancer, etc.. In our study we analyzed how intestinal dysbiosis may be related to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and depression through the exchange of information through the gut-brain axis (GBA). We studied 33 subjects, 13 males and 20 females, who reported CFS or/and depression: we investigated their salivary cortisol levels, blood serotonin, omega 3/6 ratio, intestinal dysbiosis (calculated on the urinary levels of indoxyl sulfate and skatole), and we looked for the presence of Candida a. or mycetes in the stool; the data accumulated with this research show a correlation between the presence of Candida a./miceti, indoxyl sulfate urine values beyond the physiological and low serotonin levels. In addition, data analysis showed that the EPA/DHA values also show pro-inflammatory levels in case of dysbiosis and low serotonina levels. The relationship, however, with cortisol levels requires further research although this study showed a statistically significant positive correlation between these values, measured at specific times, and serotonin levels. Aims its connections with We investigated the relationship between stress (evaluated through the measurement of salivary cortisol levels) and gastrointestinal efficiency measured as a function of intestinal fermentative and putrefactive dysbiosis, evaluating the levels of urinary indoxyl sulfate in the first case (a possible correlation with the presence of Candida spp or Mycetes in the subjects feces was investigated), urinary skatole levels in the second one, in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (SFC) and depression. In these patients we also have studied omega 3/6 ratio, and finally we have analized the impact that the alteration of these parameters can have on the serotonin levels. This research attemps to highlight the contact points, in some cases not so obvious, among these topics, contact points that, although they give us interesting indications, show the need to be further deepened by analyzing a larger amount of data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Smartphone Addiction; Middle School Students; Smartphone Usage Types; Depression; Parenting Attitude
Online: 6 September 2020 (16:27:01 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smartphone addiction of middle school students and smartphone usage types, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude. This study was also performed with the aim of verifying the relationships among depression, ADHD, perceived stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude, which are predictors of smartphone addiction. The subjects of this study were 487 local middle school students (234 males and 253 females). The measurement instruments used were the smartphone addiction scale, depression scale (PHQ-9), ADHD scale (K-ARS), perceived stress scale (PSS), interpersonal problem scale (KIIP-SC), and the parenting attitude scale. This study identified the relationships between the variables with correlation analysis and examined the predictors of smartphone addiction with hierarchical multiple regression analysis. According to the study results, the factors that influenced smartphone addiction were gender, stress, and interpersonal problems. In addition, when the confounding variables of smartphone addiction were controlled to examine the effects of smartphone usage types on smartphone addiction, social media use and music/videos were found to have a positively significant effect on smartphone addiction while study had a negatively significant effect. The order of the usage types with the highest influence on smartphone addiction was enjoying music/videos, social media use, and study. This suggests that selective intervention depending on the main smartphone usage type can be effective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: staging, affective disorders, major depression, bipolar disorder, oxidative, neuro-immune
Online: 7 December 2018 (13:56:04 CET)
Although, staging models gained momentum to stage define affective disorders, no attempts were made to construct mathematical staging models using clinical and biomarker data in patients with major depression and bipolar disorder.The aims of this study were to use clinical and biomarker data to construct statistically-derived staging models, which are associated with early lifetime traumata (ELTs), affective phenomenology and biomarkers.In the current study, 172 subjects participated, 105 with affective disorders (both bipolar and unipolar) and 67 controls. Staging scores were computed by extracting latent vectors (LVs) from clinical data including ELTs, recurring flare ups and suicidal behaviors, outcome data such as disabilities and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), and paraoxonase (PON)1 actvities and nitro-oxidative stress biomarkers.Recurrence of episodes and suicidal behaviors could reliably be combined into a LV with adequate composite reliability (the “recurrence LV”), which was associated with female sex, the combined effects of multiple ELTs, disabilities, HR-QoL and impairments in cognitive tests. All those factors could be combined into a reliable “ELT-staging LV” which was significantly associated with nitro-oxidative stress biomarkers. A reliable LV could be extracted from serum PON1 activities, recurrent flare ups, disabilities and HR-QoL.Our ELT-staging index scores the severity of a relevant affective dimension, shared by both major depression and bipolar disorder, namely the trajectory from ELTs, a relapsing course and suicidal behaviors to progressive disabilities. Patients were classified into three stages, namely an early stage; a relapse-regression stage; and a suicidal-regression stage. Lowered lipid-associated antioxidant defenses may be a drug target to prevent the transition from the early to the later regression stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: depression; metabolic syndrome; probiotics; microbiota; inflammation; oxidative stress
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:20:26 CET)
There is a huge need to search for new treatment options and potential biomarkers of therapeutic response to antidepressant treatment. Depression and metabolic syndrome often coexist while pathophysiological overlap, including microbiota changes, may play a role. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of probiotic supplementation on symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, metabolic parameters, inflammation and oxidative stress markers, and faecal microbiota in adult patients with depressive disorders depending on the co-occurance of MetS. The trial will be a four-arm, parallel group, prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled design that will include 200 participants and will last 20 weeks. The probiotic preparation will contain Lactobacillus helveticus Rosell®-52, Bifidobacterium longum Rosell®-175. We will assess the level of depression, anxiety and stress, quality of life, blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference, white blood cells count, serum levels of C-reactive protein, HDL cholesterol, triglicerides, fasting glucose, faecal microbiota composition and the level of some faecal microbiota metabolites, as well as inflammation markers and oxidative stress parameters in serum. The trial may establish a safe and easy-to-use treatment option as an adjunct in a subpopulation of depressive patients only partially responsive to pharmacologic treatment. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: ).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: suicide; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative and nitrosative stress; depression; mood disorders; schizophrenia; psychiatry
Online: 8 September 2021 (20:03:03 CEST)
A meta-analysis showed a significant association between activated immune-inflammatory and nitro-oxidative (IO&NS) pathways and suicide attempts (SA). There are no data whether suicidal ideation (SI) is accompanied by activated IO&NS pathways and whether there are differences between SA and SI. The current study searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science, for articles published from inception until May 10, 2021, and systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed the association between recent SA/SI (< 3 months) and IO&NS biomarkers. We included studies which compared psychiatric patients with and without SA and SI and controls (either healthy controls or patients without SA or SI) and used meta-analysis (random-effect model with restricted maximum-likelihood) to delineate effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Our search included 59 studies comprising 4.034 SA/SI cases and 12.377 controls. Patients with SA/SI showed activated IO&NS pathways (SMD: 0.299; CI: 0.200; 0.397) when compared to controls. The immune profiles were more strongly associated with SA than with SI, particularly when compared to healthy controls, as evidenced by activated IO&NS pathways (SMD: 0.796; CI: 0.503; 1.089), an immune-inflammatory response (SMD: 1.409; CI: 0.637; 1.462), inflammation (SMD: 1.200; CI: 0.584; 1.816), and neurotoxicity (SMD: 0.904; CI: 0.431; 1.378). The effects sizes of the IO&NS, immune-inflammatory response and inflammatory profile were significantly greater in SA than in SI. In conclusion: increased neurotoxicity due to inflammation and nitro-oxidative stress and lowered neuroprotection may explain at least in part why psychiatric patients show increased SA and SI. The IO&NS pathways are more pronounced in recent SA than in SI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0030.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: occupational stress; job burden-capital model; structural equation model; depression; well-being
Online: 4 August 2016 (12:47:57 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF=5.37, AGFI=0.915, NNFI=0.945, IFI=0.952, RMSEA=0.052). Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0518.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; anxiety; somatic symptom; organizational factor; occupational factor; effort–reward imbalance; health-promoting leadership; health climate; inner strength; perceived social support; international salespeople; medical device industry
Online: 7 June 2023 (08:42:51 CEST)
Background: Physical and mental health of corporate employees is equally important, especially in international salespeople in the in vitro diagnostic (IVD) medical device industry. The rapid growth of the IVD market is driven by the increasing prevalence of chronic and infectious diseases. This study aims to identify the association of socio-demographic, occupational, organizational, and psychosocial factors with mental health outcomes for depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms in Chinese IVD international salespeople. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey of ISs in IVD companies officially registered in China. An online survey was designed to collect data through email contact with IVD companies and social media between August 2022 and March 2023. Measured factors included effort-reward imbalance (ERI), health-promoting leadership (HPL), health climate (HC), inner strength (IS), and perceived social support (PSS). Mental health outcomes assessed using the Core Symptom Index (CSI) were depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms. Results: A total of 244 salespeople responded to the survey. CSI scores indicated that 18.4% (n = 45) and 10.2% (n = 25) of the respondents had symptoms of major depression and anxiety, respectively. ERI was positively correlated, while the IS and PSS were negatively correlated with major depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms (p < .01). Health climate was negatively correlated with major depression (p < .05). Education background was associated with somatic symptoms (p < .05). ERI, IS, and gender were significant predictors of major depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms (p < .05). Conclusion: The prevalence of depression and anxiety in China’s IVD international salespeople was considered low compared with prevalence in Chinese populations during COVID-19, but higher than those before the pandemic. Effort–reward imbalance, inner strength, and gender were significant factors in major depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among IVD international salespeople.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0479.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: suicide; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative and nitrosative stress; depression; mood disorders; schizophrenia; psychiatry
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:46:06 CEST)
Background: Suicide attempts (SA) frequently occur in patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia, which are both accompanied by activated immune-inflammatory and nitro-oxidative (IO&NS) pathways. Methods: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science, for articles published from inception until February 1, 2021. We included studies that compared blood biomarkers in psychiatric patients with (SA+) and without SA (SA-) and heathy controls and we combined different IO&NS biomarkers into immune, inflammatory, and neurotoxic profiles and used meta-analysis (random-effect model with restricted maximum-likelihood) to delineate effect sizes with 95% confidence interval (CI).Findings: Our search included 51 studies comprising 4.945 SA+ patients and 24.148 controls. We stratified the control group into healthy controls and SA- patients. SA+ patients showed significantly (p<0.001) increased immune activation (SMD: 1.044; CI: 0.599-1.489), inflammation (SMD: 1.109; CI: 0.505, 1.714), neurotoxicity (SMD: 0.879; CI: 0.465, 1.293), and lowered neuroprotection (SMD: 0.648; CI: 0.354, 0.941) as compared with healthy controls. When compared with SA- patients, those with SA+ showed significant (p<0.001) immune activation (SMD: 0.290; CI: 0.183, 0.397), inflammation (SMD: 0.311; CI: 0.191, 0.432), and neurotoxicity (SMD: 0.315; CI: 0.198, 0.432), and lowered neuroprotection (SMD: 0.341; CI: 0.167, 0.515). Patients with current, but not lifetime, SA showed significant (p<0.001) levels of inflammation and neurotoxicity as compared with controls. Conclusions: Patients with immune activation are at a higher risk of SA which may be explained by increased neurotoxicity due to inflammation and nitro-oxidative stress. This meta-analysis discovered new biomarkers of SA and therapeutic targets to treat individuals with SA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Danggui-Shaoyao-San, chronic restraint stress, learning and memory, anxiety/depression, structural plasticity
Online: 31 January 2017 (15:30:41 CET)
Background: Clinical trails have revealed that patients with depression generally accompanied with learning and memory impairment, which critically impact on individual’s health and development. Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), a famous Chinese complex prescription, significantly overcame depression and relieved cognitive disorder based on previous research and publication. However, its effectsand potential mechanism against chronic restraint stress (CRS) remained unknown. Methods: CRS animal model was established and mice were divided to six groups while they were oral administrated with Danggui-Shaoyao-San at doses of 1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg for 14 days. Emotional and cognitive performances were detected by behavior tests, meanwhile neural plasticity and its molecular mechanism were examined by Dil staining, western blot and immunofluorescence. Results: DSS treatment dose-dependently improved locomotion ability in open filed test, overcame depression behavior in forced swimming test and elevated plus maze test, enhanced learning and memory ability in Morris water maze test. CRS decreased number of total spines and mushroom spines, while DSS treatment dose-dependently restored these by Dil staining. Expression of BDNF and GluR1 were significantly down-regulated in CRS group, which were significantly normalized by DSS. Conclusions: DSS treatment dose-dependently reversed CRS-induced cognitive impairments by inducing structural remodeling of neurons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1717.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder; trauma; depression; physical disabilities; intensive care unit; coronavirus disease 2019
Online: 25 June 2023 (05:15:40 CEST)
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a major impact on the mental and physical health of hospitalized patients. In our study we focused on the onset of symptoms correlated with Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and physical disabilities in patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) because of a severe respiratory distress related to COVID-19 (COVID Group) compared with patients admitted to the same ICU for trauma and other medical conditions than COVID-19 (No-COVID Group). The physical symptoms and the level of disability were evaluated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E), the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) and the 3 levels version of EQ-5D (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire; psychiatric symptoms were investigated using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised 22-item (IES-R), the Patient Health Questionnaire, 9-Item Version (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment, 7-items version (GAD-7). These questionnaires were administered 6 months after discharge. Patients in the No-COVID Group showed statistically significant more severe scores in all the physical assessments while similar relevant PTSD and depressive symptoms were reported in both groups. The results of the present study underline the psychopathological impact of being hospitalized in ICU because of COVID-19 even after 6 months from discharge ,suggesting the importance of assessing the psychiatric effects of COVID-19 in the long term in order to create supportive measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0623.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: depression; neuroimmune; inflammation; oxidative and nitrosative stress; autoimmune; bacterial translocation
Online: 29 January 2021 (13:17:48 CET)
The approach towards myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) remains in a permanent state of crisis with fierce competition between the psychosocial school, which attributes ME/CFS to the perception of effort, and the medical approach (Maes and Twisk, BMC Med, 2010,8,35). The aim of this paper is to review how to construct a nomothetic model of ME/CFS using Partial Least Squares (PLS) path analysis and ensembling causome (bacterial translocation as assessed with IgM/IgA responses to LPS), protectome (lowered coenzyme Q10), adverse outcome pathways (AOP) including increased lysozyme, CD38+ T cell activation, cell-mediated immune activation (CMI), and IgM responses to oxidative specific epitopes and NO-adducts (IgM OSENO). Using PLS, we trained, tested and validated this knowledge- and data-driven causal ME/CFS model, which showed adequate convergence, construct and replicability validity. This bottom-up explicit data model of ME/CFS objectivates the descriptive narratives of the ME/CFS phenome, using causome-protectome-AOP data, whereby the abstract concept ME/CFS is translated into pathways, thereby securing the reification of the ME/CFS phenome. We found that 31.6% of the variance in the physiosomatic symptom dimension of ME/CFS was explained by the cumulative effects of CMI and CD38+ activation, IgM OSENO, IgA LPS, lysozyme (all positive) and coenzyme Q10 (inversely). Cluster analysis performed on the PLS-generated latent vector scores of all feature sets exposed three distinct immune groups of ME/CFS, namely one with increased lysozyme, one with increased CMI + CD38 activation + depressive symptoms, and another with increased bacterial translocation + autoimmune responses to OSENO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0276.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: chronic mild stress; depression; imipramine; heat shock protein; HSP90; inducible HSP90A; constitutive HSP90B; HSP70; inducible HSP72; constitutive HSC70
Online: 6 November 2023 (11:35:13 CET)
The HSP70 and HSP90 family members belong to molecular chaperones that exhibit protective functions during the cellular response to stressful agents. We investigated whether the exposure of rats to chronic mild stress (CMS), a validated model of depression, affects the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HIP) and thalamus (Thal). Male Wistar rats were exposed to CMS for 3 or 8 weeks. The antidepressant imipramine (IMI, 10 mg/kg, i.p., daily) was introduced in the last five weeks of the long-term CMS procedure. Depressive-like behavior was verified by the sucrose consumption test. The expression of mRNA and protein was quantified by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. In the 8-week CMS model, stress alone elevated HSP72 and HSP90B mRNA expression in the HIP. HSP72 mRNA was increased in the PFC and HIP of rats not responding to IMI treatment vs. IMI responders. The CMS exposure increased HSP72 protein expression in the cytosolic fraction of the PFC and HIP, and this effect was diminished by IMI treatment. Our results suggest that elevated levels of HSP72 may serve as an important indicator of neuronal stress reactions accompanying depression pathology and could be a potential target for antidepressant strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0381.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Alcohol dependence; Depression; Stress; Gender; Income; Differences; Behavioural disorders; Mental disorders; Socio-economic effects; Pandemic; Isolation; COVID-19; Slovak students
Online: 13 November 2020 (13:24:34 CET)
The objective of the study was to examine the effects of perceived stress on depression and subsequently to examine the effects of depression on alcohol use disorders. The data were obtained by an electronic questionnaire survey during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (n=1523 Slovak college students). Descriptive, regression and correlation analysis were used in the analytical processing, while the analyses included students' scores in three diagnostic tools (Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ 9) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)), as well as gender and income characteristics. The PSS identified an increased level of perceived stress in female students, in contrast, the AUDIT showed an increased level of alcohol use disorders in male students. Differences in mental and behavioural disorders between the gender and income categories were significant in most of the analysed cases. In terms of gender-income characteristics, it was possible to confirm a significant positive effect of the PSS score on the PHQ 9 score, as well as a significant positive effect of the PHQ 9 score on the AUDIT score. As a result, efforts to reduce stress will be reflected in a reduction of depressive disorders as well as a reduction of excessive alcohol consumption among students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mental health; psychological well-being; depression; anxiety; stress; COVID-19; students' academic satisfaction; undergraduate students; Bachelor's degree students
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:20:50 CET)
Background University students’ psychological health is linked to their academic satisfaction. This study aimed to investigate students’ psychological health and academic satisfaction in the context of COVID-19 and academic year-end stress. Methods Standardized self-filled scales for anxiety, depression, stress, psychological well-being, and an ad-hoc COVID-19 stress scale were used in this cross-sectional study. Participants were first- to third-year students of eight different health-related tracks in Geneva, Switzerland. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical regression analyses were applied. Results In June 2020, out of 2835 invited students, 433 (15%) completed the survey. Academic satisfaction was a stronger mental health predictor than COVID-19, which mainly predicted stress and anxiety. Lower academic satisfaction scores were significantly associated with stress (β = -.53, p < .001), depression (β = -.26, p < .001), anxiety (β = -.20, p < .001), while higher scores with psychological well-being (β = .48, p < .001). Being female was strongly associated with anxiety and stress but not with depression or psychological well-being. Lower age was associated with stress only. The nature of the academic training had a lesser impact on mental health and the academic year none. Compared to students starting the academic year, year-end students reported significantly lower academic satisfaction, higher depression, and particularly higher anxiety and stress. There was, however, no difference in psychological well-being. Conclusion Students suffer more from anxiety, stress, depression, and lower satisfaction with studies at the end of the academic year than at the beginning. Academic satisfaction plays a more substantial role than COVID-19 in predicting students’ overall mental health status. Training institutions should address the underlying factors that can enhance students’ academic satisfaction, especially during the COVID-19 period, in addition to ensuring that they have a continuous and adequate learning experience, as well as access to psychosocial services that help them cope with mental distress and enhance their psychological well-being.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0470.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: social support; depression; stroke
Online: 7 November 2023 (13:25:24 CET)
Research has shown a protective association between social support and depression, depression among stroke patients, and health impacts of depression. Yet not much is known on the effect of social support on depression among stroke patients. This review aims to summarize the current research examining the association between social support and depression among stroke patients. A literature search was performed in PubMed to find original peer-reviewed journal articles from 2016 to Mar. 12, 2023 that examined the association between social support and depression among stroke patients. The search terms were depression and "social support" and stroke, which lead to 172 articles. After abstract review, seven observational studies that studied the target association among stroke patients were selected. One additional study was found using PsycINFO as a complementary source with the same search strategy and criteria. Overall, a negative association was found between social support and depression among stroke patients in seven studies, with more social support leading to lower rates of depression post-stroke. One study found that social support was positively related with depression, but the result was nonsignificant. Overall, the results of recent studies suggest that social support is negatively associated with depression among stroke patients. In most studies, this association was statistically significant. The findings suggest the importance of improving social support perceived by stroke patients in the prevention of depression after the occurrence of stroke.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0251.v1
Online: 5 October 2023 (05:50:42 CEST)
Depression is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by pervasive feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and cognitive impairments that can profoundly impact an individual's quality of life. Despite extensive research efforts, the precise mechanisms underlying depression remain elusive. Recent studies have highlighted the intricate interplay between the immune system and the central nervous system in the pathophysiology of depression. In this context, CD4+ T cells, a key component of the adaptive immune system, have emerged as potential players in the neuroinflammatory processes associated with depression. Concurrently, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a multifunctional neurotrophin, has garnered significant attention for its roles in neural plasticity, mood regulation, and cognitive function. This review paper explores the intriguing intersection between CD4+ T cells and BDNF in the context of depression and delves into the exciting prospects it offers for therapeutic interventions. By examining the intricate crosstalk between the immune system and the neurotrophic factors, we aim to shed light on the potential avenues for novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1652.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Postpartum depression; Screening; Pandemic; COVID-19; Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS)
Online: 25 September 2023 (10:04:31 CEST)
Background: The potential impact of the pandemic on mental health should not be overlooked, especially among vulnerable populations such as women who gave birth during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was to assess the mental health status of women who gave birth during a pandemic and to examine the possible links between the onset of depressive disorder symptoms in close proximity to the time of delivery and the socio-demographic conditions, health status and obstetric circumstances of the patients. Materials and Methods: The study is a cross-sectional survey conducted from 01.03.2020 to 01.03.2023, during the period of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, based on a retrospective evaluation of 860 postpartum women. The screening tool used to assess symptoms of postpartum depression was the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS) questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed both in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinical Sections I and II of the "Pius Brînzeu" County Emergency Hospital from Timisoara, Romania and online using Google Forms. Results: The highest severity of postpartum depression symptoms was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of the study conducted during the period of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (COVID-19) showed that the prevalence of major postpartum depressive disorder (EPDS ≥ 13) was 54.2% (466 patients), while 15.6% (134) had minor depressive disorder (10 < EPDS ≤ 12) in the first year after delivery. Comparing these results with those obtained in research conducted before the onset of the pandemic period shows an alarming increase in the prevalence of postpartum depression. Risk factors associated with postpartum depression included type of delivery, level of education, socio-economic conditions, health status, age, background, personal obstetric history (number of abortions on demand, parity). Conclusions: The effects of the pandemic on mental health are of particular concern for women in the first year after childbirth. Observing these challenges and developing effective measures to prepare our health system early can help and facilitate effective mental health screening for postpartum women, promoting maternal and child health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0318.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: antenatal depression; Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; COVID-19; women; mental health; pregnancy
Online: 19 December 2022 (03:56:31 CET)
Globally, the impact of COVID-19 on mental health has been significant. Pregnant women are known to be a vulnerable population in relation to mental health. In Australia, there was an unprecedented demand during the pandemic for mental health services, including services for pregnant women. Maternal mental health has unique and enduring features that can significantly shape a child’s overall development and poor maternal mental health can have considerable social and economic costs. This cross-sectional study evaluated antenatal depression and COVID-19 related distress in a sample of two hundred and sixty-nine pregnant women residing in Australia aged between 20 and 43 (M = 31.79, SD = 4.58), as part of a larger study. Social media advertising was used to recruit participants between September 2020 and November 2021. Prevalence rates for antenatal depression were found to be higher in this study (16.4%) compared with previous Australian prevalence rates (7%). COVID-19 distress in relation to having a baby during a COVID-19 outbreak significantly predicted antenatal depression, B = 1.46, p < .001. Results from this study suggest that mothers and families may have increased mental health vulnerabilities as a consequence of the pandemic for some time yet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0136.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acute toxicity; cardiovascular depression; intravenous lipid emulsion; propofol; rat model; respiratory depression
Online: 23 October 2018 (09:34:43 CEST)
Abstract: Background and objective: Propofol is an anesthetic agent that is frequently used in anesthesia induction, maintenance and sedation. Propofol has severe side effects such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression. Although propofol is commonly used, there is no known antidote for its toxic effects. An approach to prevent toxic effects of propofol would be beneficial. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy in the prevention of depressive effects of propofol on cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. The saline-administered group was determined as the Control group. The second group was administered propofol (PP group); the third group was administered ILE (ILE group), and the fourth was administered propofol with ILE therapy (ILE+PP group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), Respiratory rate (RR), Heart rate (HR) and mortality were recorded at 10 points during 60 minutes. A repeated measures linear mixed-effect model with unstructured covariance was used to compare the groups. Results: In the PP group, SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels were declining steadily; all rats in this group died after 60 minutes. In the ILE+PP group, after a while, the decreased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels increased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels of the Propofol group were found to be significantly lower than those of the other groups (p<0.01). The mortality rate was 100% (surviving period, 60 min) for the PP group, whereas 0% for the ILE, ILE+PP and Control groups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that undesirable side effects that can be seen after propofol application such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression might be prevented by using ILE therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Postpartum depression, Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, general help-seeking, mothers, military barracks
Online: 27 August 2018 (14:59:46 CEST)
Postpartum depression (PPD) has serious effects on maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of postpartum depression in mothers of under-twos in military barracks in Lagos. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a modified version of the General Help-Seeking questionnaire (GHSQ) were administered to 316 mothers of under-twos in 3 of 12 military barracks in Lagos, Nigeria to determine PPD and major depressive events (MDE). Risk of PPD was established at EPDS scores of >12. Good help-seeking practices were ascribed to scores of 20 or more on the GHSQ. Risk of PPD was found in 15.5% of respondents, and good help-seeking in 3.8% and 11.4% for personal/emotional and harming self/baby respectively. Bivariate analysis using Chi square showed statistically significant positive associations between lower scores for EPDS and higher educational levels of respondents, perception of partner support and being in lower wealth quintiles (p<0.05). Use of the EPDS was accepted among mothers of children aged under two years. Opportunities to educate pregnant women and new mothers about PPD using existing social networks, perinatal and infant screening programmes in the barracks can be leveraged upon to improve mental health delivery as part of maternity care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0734.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: exercise; endocannabinoids; kynurenines; obesity; depression
Online: 12 September 2023 (16:51:21 CEST)
The kynurenine pathway (KP) and the endocannabinoid system (ECS) are known to be deregulated in depression and obesity; however, it has been recognized that acute physical exercise has an important modulating role inducing changes in the mobilization of their respective metabolites -endocannabinoids (eCB) and kynurenines (KYN)- which overlap at some points, acting as im-portant antidepressant, anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant biomarkers. There-fore, the aim of this review is to analyze and discuss some studies performed recently to investigate the potential interactions between both systems, particularly, those related with exercise-derived endocannabinoidome and kynurenine mechanisms and to elucidate how, the prescription of physical exercise could represent a new approach for the clinical manage of these two conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: anorexia; aged; intensive care; depression
Online: 14 January 2022 (13:52:25 CET)
Abstract: Appetite loss is common in older patients and an independent risk factor for sarcopenia, which is associated with high mortality. However, few studies have explored the phenomenon of appetite loss after discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore, we aimed to describe the prevalence of appetite loss and the relationship between appetite loss and depression in patients living at home 12 months after intensive care. We conducted a post hoc analysis, which was a published ambidirectional study examining post-intensive care syndrome at 12 months after discharge. We included patients aged > 65 years. The Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ) and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) were used for the analysis. Descriptive statistics and a multilevel generalized linear model were used to clarify the relationship between appetite loss and depression. Data from 468 patients were analyzed. The defined appetite loss was 25.4% (95%CI, 21.5–29.4). High severity of depression was an independent factor for high probability of appetite loss (OR, 1.2; 95%CI, 1.14–1.28; p=0.00). Poor appetite is common 12 months after intensive care and is associated with the severity of depression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0507.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; BDNF
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:03:01 CET)
Various autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune hypothyroidism (AHT), are associated with a higher risk of developing mood disorders throughout life. Depression is accompanied by the changes in the levels of inflammatory and trophic factors, including interleukines (IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6), interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Similar disturbances in the cytokine profile are seen in AHT patients and their relatives. Disclosure of the relationship between the co-existence of depression and autoimmune subclinical thyroiditis indicates that the pathomecha-nism of depression may be related to the changes in the immune system, it is possible that both conditions may be caused by the same immune processes. The above hypothesis is indirectly sup-ported by the observations that the treatment with both antidepressants and levothyroxine leads to a decrease in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines with an increase in BDNF concentrations, simultaneously correlating with an improvement in the clinical parameters. However, so far there are no long-term studies determining the causal relationship between depression, thyroid auto-antibodies, and cytokine profile, which could bring us closer to understanding the interrelation-ships between them and facilitate the use of an adequate pharmacotherapy, not necessarily psy-chiatric. We consider the above issues insufficiently investigated but of great importance. This ar-ticle is an overview of the available literature as well as an introduction to our research project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: depression; serum levels; phthalates; bisphenols
Online: 16 November 2021 (09:53:20 CET)
Public concern has emerged about the effects of endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) on neuropsychiatric disorders. Preclinical evidence suggests that exposure to EDCs is associated with the development of the major depressive disorder (MDD) and could result in neural degeneration. The interaction of EDCs with hormonal receptors is the best-described mechanism of their biological activity. However, the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal adrenal axis has been reported and linked to neurological disorders. On the other hand, at a worldwide level and in Mexico, the incidence of MDD has recently been increasing. Of note, in Mexico, there are no clinical associations on blood levels of EDCs and the incidence of the MDD. Methodology: Thus, we quantified for the first time the serum levels of parent compounds of two bisphenols and four phthalates in patients with MDD. Results: The levels of di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate (DEHP), butyl-benzyl-phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and di-ethyl-phthalate (DEP), bisphenol A (BPA), and bisphenol S (BPS) were determined with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Results/ conclusion: We found significant differences between concentrations of BBP between controls and patients with MDD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: pediatric; depression; biomarker; BDNF; cytokines
Online: 5 July 2021 (14:48:24 CEST)
Depressive disorder in childhood and adolescence is a highly prevalent mood disorder that tends to recur throughout life. Untreated mood disorders can adversely impact a patient's quality of life and cause socioeconomic loss. Thus, an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment is crucial. However, until now, diagnoses and treatments are conducted according to clinical symptoms. Objective and biological validation are lacking. This may result in a poor outcome for patients with depressive disorder. Research has been conducted to identify the biomarkers that are related to depressive disorder. Cumulative evidence has revealed that certain immunologic biomarkers in-cluding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cytokines, gastrointestinal biomarkers, hormones, oxidative stress, and certain hypothalamus-pituitary axis biomarkers are associated with depressive disorder. This article reviews the biomarkers related to the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric depressive disorders. To date, clinical biomarker tests are not yet available for diagnosis or for the prediction of treatment prognosis. However, cytokines such as Interleukin-2, interfer-on-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and BDNF have shown significant results in previous studies of pediatric depressive disorder. These biomarkers have the potential to be used for diagnosis, prognostic assessment, and group screening for those at high risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Sexual Dysfunction; antidepressant; vortioxetine; depression; sexuality
Online: 4 December 2023 (09:17:50 CET)
Treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction (TESD) is one of the most frequent and persistent adverse effects of antidepressant medication. Sexual dysfunction (SD) secondary to SSRIs occurs in >60% of sexually active patients and >80% of healthy volunteers, with this causing treatment discontinuation in >35% of patients. However, this factor is rarely addressed in routine examinations, and only 15%-30% of these events are spontaneously reported. A strategy of switching to a different non-serotonergic antidepressant could involve a risk of relapse or clinical worsening due to a lack of serotonergic activity. Vortioxetine appears to have less impact on sexual function due to its multimodal mechanism of action. No studies have been published on the effectiveness of switching to vortioxetine in patients with poorly tolerated long-term antidepressant-related SD at naturalistic settings. Study objectives: To determine the effectiveness of switching to vortioxetine due to SD in a routine clinical practice setting. Methodology: observational pragmatic and naturalistic study to determinate the effectiveness of the switch to vortioxetine (mean dosage 13.11±4.03) in 74 patients aged 43.1 ± 12.65 ( 54% males) at risk of discontinuing treatment due to sexual dysfunction. The SALSEX Scale was applied at two moments: baseline visit and after 3 months of follow-up. Results. The global Sexual Dysfunction (SD) measured with the SALSEX Scale, decreased significantly from baseline visit (10.32; SD 2.73) to follow-up visit (3.78; SD 3.68) p<0.001. There was a significant improvement ( p<0.001) at the endpoint including decreased libido, delay of orgasm, anorgasmia and arousal difficulties in both sexes. After switching to Vortioxetine, 83.81% of patients experienced sexual function improvement (43.2% felt greatly improved). Most patients (83.3%) who switched to vortioxetine continued treatment after the follow-up visit. 58.1% of patients showed an improvement in depressive symptoms from baseline visit. Conclusion. Switching to vortioxetine is an effective and reliable strategy to treat patients with poor tolerated previous antidepressant -related sexual dysfunction in the real-life clinical settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1906.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Iberian pig; litter size; inbreeding depression
Online: 28 September 2023 (03:36:29 CEST)
Inbreeding depression is expected to be more pronounced in fitness-related traits, such as pig litter size. Recent studies have suggested that the genetic determinism of inbreeding depression may be heterogeneous across the genome. Therefore, the objective of this study is to conduct a genomic scan across the pig autosomal genome to detect the genomic regions that control inbreeding depression for litter size in two varieties of Iberian pigs (Entrepelado and Retinto). The datasets consist of 2,069 (338 sows) and 2,028 (327 sows) records for litter size (Total Number Born and Number Born Alive) for the Entrepelado and Retinto varieties. All sows were genotyped using the Geneseek GGP PorcineHD 70 K. We employed the Unfavorable Haplotype Finder software to extract runs of homozygosity (ROHs) and conducted a mixed model analysis to identify highly significant differences between homozygous and heterozygous sows for each specific ROH. A total of 8 genomic regions located on SSC2, SSC5, SSC7, SSC8, and SSC13, were significantly associated with inbreeding depression, housing some relevant genes such as FSHR, LHCGR, CORIN, AQP6, and CEP120.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1479.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Mental Health, ChatGPT, Anxiety, Depression, LLM
Online: 21 July 2023 (08:34:03 CEST)
The launch of Open AI's chatbot, ChatGPT, has generated a lot of attention and discussion among professionals in several fields. Many concerns and challenges have been brought up by researchers from various fields, particularly in relation to the harm that using these tools for medical diagnosis and treatment recommendations can cause. Additionally, it has been debated if ChatGPT is dependable, efficient, and helpful for clinicians and medical professionals. Therefore, in this study, we assess ChatGPT's effectiveness in providing mental health support, particularly for issues related to anxiety and depression, based on the chatbot's responses and cross-questioning. The findings indicate that there are significant inconsistencies and that ChatGPT's reliability is low in this specific domain. As a result, care must be used when using ChatGPT as a complementary mental health resource.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0829.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: depression; vitamins and supplements; adults; prevention
Online: 12 June 2023 (11:04:19 CEST)
Background: Studies addressing diet quality and mental health have shown a strong association. There is limited evidence of specific vitamins essential for treating depression. This study aims to understand the impact of diet quality through supplementation of vitamins D, B6, and magnesium on depressive symptoms. Methods: Multiple datasets from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017-March 2020 investigated the associations between vitamin D, B6, and magnesium on depression symptoms. A cross-sectional sample of adults over 20 was extracted (n=9,232). Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations. Results: Individuals with low doses of vitamin D were more likely to report symptoms of depression relative to those with low doses of vitamin B6 (χ²=3.9063, p=0.0481 vs. χ²=5.2071, p=0.0225). These results remained significant among those with high magnesium proportionate to high vitamin B6 (χ²=6.1272, p=0.0133 vs. χ²=5.2071, p=0.0225). Logistic regression results provided associations for all models except unadjusted vitamin D and adjusted vitamin D. Conclusions: Preventive measures could be addressed by identifying the risks of vitamin deficiencies. Further epidemiological research is needed for the individual effects of vitamin supplementation and depression symptoms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0821.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; distress; internet addiction; depression
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:18:41 CEST)
The new coronavirus SARS Cov2 disease from 2019. (COVID-19), started as a cluster of unexplained pneumonia cases in Wuhan in December 2019, has spread globally and caused a serious public health threat. People were scared due to the COVID-19 cases that were rapidly increasing all over the world and the quick changes in how people lived. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected various aspects of life, one of which is the increased use of the internet, especially social media platforms. Past research has clearly linked a pandemic with signs of stress, depression, anxiety, and suicide thoughts, as well as with excessive internet use. The findings of research conducted around the world indicate that the higher the level of stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in an individual, the greater the tendency to develop an addiction to the internet. The aim of this paper was to provide a brief overview of the available scientific findings on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and internet addiction. Methods: A sweep through available literature was performed using the database Medline via the PubMed interface for articles written in English, using keywords and MeSH terms "Internet addiction", "mental health" and "COVID-19". Results: With insight into the scientific literature on COVID-19, mental health, and internet addiction, we have concluded that during the COVID-19 pandemic, time spent on the internet increased. Conclusion: Additionally, due to reduced social activities, above mentioned consequently led to internet addiction and thus to psychological distress, increased loneliness and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2199.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: esketamine; arketamine; bioinformatical analysis; depression; suicide
Online: 31 May 2023 (08:24:53 CEST)
Ketamine, a racemic mixture of esketamine (S-ketamine) and arketamine (R-ketamine), has re-ceived particular attention for its rapid antidepressant and antisuicidal effects. NMDA receptor inhibition has been indicated as one of the main mechanisms of action of the racemic mixture, but other pharmacological targets have also been proposed. This study aimed at exploring the possible multiple targets of ketamine enantiomers related to their antidepressant and antisuicidal effects. To this end, targets were predicted in SwissTargetPrediction software for each ketamine enan-tiomer. The targets related to depression and suicide were collected by GeneCards database. The intersections of targets were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Network pharmacology analysis was performed in GeneMania and Cy-toscape softwares. Molecular docking was used to predict the main targets of the network. The results indicated that esketamine and arketamine share some biological targets, particularly NMDA receptor and phosphodiesterases 3A, 7A and 5A, but have specific molecular targets. While esketamine is predicted to interact with the GABAergic system, arketamine may interact with macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Both ketamine enantiomers activate neuroplas-ticity-related signaling pathways and show addiction potential. Our results identified novel poorly explored molecular targets that may be related to the beneficial effects of esketamine and arketamine against depression and suicide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0405.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Suicide; risk factor; polymorphism; CYP46A1; depression.
Online: 23 January 2023 (09:37:54 CET)
Background: Currently, completed suicide, suicide ideation, suicide behavior, and suicide attempts are major public health problems worldwide. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common mental disorders associated with an increased risk of suicide. Since the relationship between suicide and cholesterol levels is still controversial, in this study, we explore the association between SNPs rs754203 and rs4900442 of CYP46A1 with suicide risk in Mexican patients with major depressive disorder. Methods: We evaluated 188 unrelated suicide completers and compared them to 144 non-suicidal individuals (controls) and 126 MDD patients. Genotypes were analyzed using the Real Time-polymerase chain reaction method and two allele-specific probes to detect specific SNP targets. A chi-square test was used to identify a possible risk genotype or allele type for suicide. Results: Statistical analysis showed significant differences between completed suicide and controls in their allelic and genotypic frequencies in rs754203 SNP. The genotype G/G of CYP46A1 rs754203 was significantly associated with suicide. Also, the G allele was associated with an increased risk of suicide (OR= 1.370, 95% CI= 1.002-1.873). No differences in either genotype distribution or allele frequencies of CYP46A1 rs4900442 were observed. Conclusions: The results of the current study report the first association between G allele carriers (A/G + G/G) of rs754203 and increased risk for suicide, especially in males.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mass multivariate analysis; neuroimaging, depression, schizophrenia
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:07:48 CET)
We have used Mass Multivariate Method on structural, resting state and task related fMRI data from two groups of patients with schizophrenia and depression, respectively, in order to define several regions of significant relevance to the differential diagnosis between those conditions. The regions included the left Planum polare, Left opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus (OpIFG), Medial orbital gyrus (MOrG), Posterior Insula (PIns), and Parahippocampal gyrus (PHG). This study delivers evidence that multimodal neuroimaging approach can potentially enhance the validity of psychiatric diagnosis. Either structural, or resting state or task related functional MRI modality cannot provide independent biomarkers. Further studies need to consider and implement a model of incremental validity to combine clinical measures with different neuroimaging modalities to discriminate depressive disorders from schizophrenia. Biological signatures of disease on the level of neuroimaging are more likely to underpin broader nosological entities in psychiatry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: depression; metabolic syndrome; microbiota; probiotics; obesity
Online: 1 April 2021 (10:07:32 CEST)
Depression and metabolic diseases often coexist having several features in common, e.g., chronic low-grade inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis. Different microbiota interventions have been proposed to be used as a treatment for these disorders. In the paper we review the efficacy of probiotics in depressive disorders, obesity, metabolic syndrome and its liver equivalent based on the published experimental studies, clinical trials and meta-analyses. Probiotics seem to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms when administered in addition to antidepressants. Additionally, probiotics intake may ameliorate some of the clinical components of metabolic diseases. However, standardized methodology regarding probiotics clinical trials has not been established yet. In this narrative review we discuss current knowledge on the recently used methodology with its strengths and limitations and propose criteria that may be implemented to create a new study of the effectiveness of probiotics in depressive disorders comorbid with metabolic abnormalities. We put across our choice on type of study population, probiotics genus, strains, dosages and formulations, intervention period, as well as primary and secondary outcome measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0236.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: greenness; brownness; depression; structural equation models
Online: 12 October 2020 (12:19:23 CEST)
Background: While greenness has been associated with lower depression, the generalizability of this association in arid landscapes remains undetermined. We assessed the association between depression and greenness among nursing students living in El Paso, Texas (the Chihuahuan desert). Methods: Depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale, and greenness with the normalized difference vegetation index (at buffer sizes =250m, 500m, 1000m). Using data from the National Land Cover Database two additional measures of land patterns were analyzed: grayness and brownness. Structural equation models were used to assess the relationships of these land patterns to depression and quantify the indirect effects of peer alienation. Results: After adjusting for individual characteristics, at buffers 250 m greenness was associated with a decrease in the Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) of depression by 49% (IRR, 0.51; 95%CI, 0.12-2.10), greyness with increases by 64% (IRR, 1.64; 95%CI, 1.07-2.52) and brownness with decreases by 35% (IRR, 0.65; 95%CI, 0.42-0.99). At buffer 250 m peer alienation explained 17.43% (95% CI, -1.79-36.66) of the association between depression and brownness, suggesting a pathway to depression. Conclusions: We did not observe an association between depression and residential greenness in El Paso, Texas. However, we did observe a protective association between brownness and depression as well as an adverse association with grayness. These results have theoretical implications as based on commonly used frameworks in this literature and adverse association of brownness (and the lack of greenness) and depression was expected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: anxiety; depression; stress; coronavirus; Dilla; Ethiopia
Online: 30 June 2020 (08:00:58 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is the global public health emergency concern and had an impact on the day to day life of individuals. Its effect on an individual’s mental health is significant to the extent of suicide. Objective: This study aimed to assess the magnitude of psychological problems and their associated factor among communities living in Dilla town in response to the pandemic. Methods: From Apr 1- Apr 15, 2020, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage sampling techniques. Self-administered the questioner, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and logistic regression analysis (95% CI, p-value <0.05) was used. Results: This study included 445 respondents with a 94% non- response rate who was living in Dilla town. In total, 34.4% of respondents had a psychological problem (11.4 % mild and 23% moderate level of the psychological problem). Female, Greater secondary level of education, monthly income below 500 ETB, more than three family size, and wearing face mask were variables associated with the outcome variable (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Nearly one-third of the respondents had mild to moderate psychological among communities living in Dilla town. There is a need for mental health support on those identified groups of peoples to enhance their resilience in response to the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: adolescents; depression; insomnia; mobile phone; Japanese
Online: 7 April 2017 (04:33:14 CEST)
Adolescents spend an increasing amount of time on mobile phones. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between duration of mobile phone use and insomnia and depression in senior high school students. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 295 senior high school students in Japan. Mobile phones were owned by 98.6% of students; 58.6% of students used mobile phones for more than 2 h daily and 10.5% used them for 5 h daily. The risk of insomnia was significantly high in students who used mobile phones for 5 h or more (OR: 3.89 [95% CI: 1.21-12.49]). There was no significant association between depression and duration of mobile phone use. However, individuals who spent 120 min or more using mobile phones for social network services (OR: 3.63 [1.20-10.98]) and online chats (OR: 3.14 [1.42-6.95]) were at risk for depression. Excessive mobile phone use is associated with unhealthy sleep habits and insomnia. Moreover, the excessive use of the social network services and online chats are related to depression rather than duration of mobile phone use. Adolescents should use mobile phones appropriately to avoid sleep disturbances and the impairment of mental health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: systematic review; forest therapy; depression; adults
Online: 14 March 2017 (08:45:56 CET)
The purpose of this study was to systematically review forest therapy programs designed to decrease the level of depression among adults and subsequently identify the gaps in the literature. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The authors independently screened full-text articles from various databases using the following criteria: 1) intervention studies assessing the effects of forest therapy on depression in adults aged 18 years and over; 2) studies including at least one control group or condition; 3) been peer-reviewed; and 4) been published either in English or Korean before July 2016. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) measurement tool was used to assess the risk of bias in each trial. In the final sample, a total of 28 articles (English: 13, Korean: 15) were included in the present systematic review. This review concluded that forest therapy is one of the emerging and effective interventions for decreasing the level of depression in adults. However, the studies included in this review lacked methodological rigor. Future studies assessing the long-term effect of forest therapy on depression using rigorous study designs are needed.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: depression; measurement scale; ratings; literature review
Online: 16 December 2016 (07:57:02 CET)
The range of rating instruments in depression measurement and the depth of their analytical relevance constitutes a major development in this psychiatric and psychotherapeutic field of mental health. Though the competition is acute amongst these various instruments, the results for the public have been outstandingly positive. A depression rating scale is essentially a psychiatric measuring instrument utilized in the identification and ranking of depression severity within the patient. The scale provides the practitioner, psychiatrist or psychotherapist, with sufficient information to assess the severity of the depression plotted on the scale. Not used as a “diagnostic tool” itself, nevertheless, the depression rating scale does function as an effective device for designating and assigning a behavioral score which may, then, be used in establishing the severity of depression of value in the designation of a diagnosis and treatment formula. In this paper, we will take a close look at the leading depression rating scales and briefly summarize their scope of assessment value in rating depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1585.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: depression; predictive biomarkers; electroencephalography; transcranial magnetic stimulation
Online: 25 October 2023 (11:39:04 CEST)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent, debilitating disorder with a high rate of treatment resistance. One strategy to improve treatment outcomes is to identify patient-specific, pre-intervention factors that can predict treatment success. Neurophysiological measures such as electroencephalography (EEG), which measures the brain’s electrical activity from sensors on the scalp, offer one promising approach for predicting treatment response for psychiatric illnesses, including MDD. In this study, a secondary data analysis was conducted on the publicly available Two Decades-Brainclinics Research Archive for Insights in Neurophysiology (TDBRAIN) database. Specifically, hierarchical regression modeling was used to predict treatment response from baseline demographics, symptom severity, and resting-state EEG features in 119 MDD patients receiving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Across models, both age and baseline symptom severity, assessed by the Beck’s Depression Inventory, were significant predictors of rTMS treatment response, with older individuals and more severe depression scores associated with decreased odds of a positive treatment response. EEG measures contributed predictive power to these models; however, these improvements in outcome predictability only trended towards statistical significance (p~0.07 in multiple models). These findings provide confirmation of previous demographic and clinical predictors, while pointing to EEG metrics that may provide predictive information in future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1427.v1
Online: 21 September 2023 (03:54:17 CEST)
The association between depressive symptomatology and cognitive decline has been examined using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), however, concerns have been raised about this self-report measure. Here, we examined how the CES-D total score from the 14- and 10-item versions compared to the 20-item version in predicting progression to cognitive decline from a cognitively unimpaired baseline. Data from 1,054 participants were analysed using ordinal logistic regression, alongside moderator and receiver-operating characteristics curve analyses. All baseline total scores significantly predicted progression to cognitive decline. The 14-item version was better than the 20-item version in predicting consensus diagnosis, as shown by their AICs, while also showing the highest accuracy when discriminating between participants by diagnosis at last visit. We did not find sex to moderate the relationship between CES-D score and cognitive decline. Current findings suggest the 10- and 14-item versions of the CES-D are comparable to the 20-item version, and that the 14-item version may be better at predicting longitudinal consensus diagnosis compared to the 20-item version.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: lizard dung; substance abuse; toxicity; CNS; depression
Online: 15 September 2023 (03:46:14 CEST)
Though studies have characterized lizard dung as an unconventional psychoactive substance of abuse, this has not been demonstrated in experimental settings. We evaluated the toxicity and CNS activity of lizard dung in Wistar rats. The acute and subacute toxicity studies were conducted via oral and inhalational routes. Classical models of tail suspension, forced swim, elevated plus maze, hole board, and sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time tests were adopted and the lizard dung were administered via both routes. No mortality was observed for all doses of the test substance administered via both routes during the toxicity studies. Significant changes in serum urea, creatinine, bilirubin, ALP, ALT and AST were recorded. Mixed inflammatory infiltrates and oedema were observed in the lungs from the group that inhaled 1.0g darkish part of lizard dung. Lizard dung produced marked reduction in the exploratory behaviour. Our findings indicate depression of the CNS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0987.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: toxicity; glue; central nervous system; behaviour; depression
Online: 15 September 2023 (03:42:25 CEST)
Purpose: Glue inhalation is a common unconventional substance of abuse and it contains neurotoxic and volatile solvents. We examined the toxicity profile and CNS activities of glue inhalation in Wistar rats.Methods: Acute toxicity was investigated using graded concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mL of glue inhalation (n=3/group) for 4 hours in phase one followed by concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 mL of glue (n=1/group) for 4 hours in phase two. These animals were then observed for signs of toxicity and/or mortality for 24hours. The sub-acute toxicity was studied using 24 male Wistar rats at graded concentrations of Air, 2, 4 and 8mL glue (n=6/group) for 28 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical and haematological evaluations, and vital organs (lung, liver, kidney, heart, brain, and eye) were used for histological analysis. Behavioural studies were carried out using Elevated Plus Maze, Hole Board Test, Open Field Test, Tail Suspension Test and Forced Swim Test. Dependence and abstinence effect were also evaluated. Results: The Lethal Dose (LD50) of the inhalational glue was 14.14 ml. Glue significantly increased liver function parameters like TB, DB, ALP, ALT, TP, electrolyte levels (K+ and HCO3) but reduced cholesterol level in exposed rats. Glue inhalation had significant anxiolytic and depressant effects on the rats at concentrations of 4mL and 8mL. Histological analysis revealed liver and lung tissue abnormalities and subconjunctival inflammation in eye tissue at 8mL. Conclusion: The study therefore suggests that glue inhalation has anxiolytic and depressant effects in Wistar rats.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0536.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: PET; MRI; SPECT; CT; Depression; Epilepsy; Atrophy
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:26:01 CEST)
Imaging-based biomarkers have developed as an effective tool in neurology, providing vital understandings of the structural, functional, and molecular changes associated with neurological disorders. Imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and computed tomography (CT) have been widely employed to record disease-related alterations in the brain. These techniques provide a wide range of biomarkers, such as functional connectivity patterns, volumetric measurements, molecular imaging agents, and perfusion parameters, enabling the correct identification of neurological disorders. These biomarkers have proven useful in early diagnosis, disease progression tracking, therapy response prediction, and surgical planning. This review emphasizes the various obstacles and limitations that are associated with imaging-based biomarkers. Technical constraints, standardization obstacles, ethical concerns, regulatory challenges, and cost-effectiveness concerns all offer substantial barriers to wider use. It is vital to overcome these challenges if imaging biomarkers are to be successfully integrated into routine clinical practice. Imaging technology advancements like high-resolution imaging, multimodal imaging, and artificial intelligence-based analysis hold immense promise for imaging-based biomarkers in the future. While more study and standardization are needed, their ongoing development and integration into clinical practice have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis, treatment, and management of neurological disorders, resulting in better patient care and outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0663.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: depression detection; fusion; feature extraction; deep learning
Online: 9 May 2023 (13:20:58 CEST)
This study compares the performance of existing studies on multimodal emotion recognition, and proposes a model that fuses two modalities with the speaker's text and voice signals as input values and detects depression. Based on the DAIC-WOZ dataset, voice features were extracted using CNN, text features were extracted using Transformers, and two modalities were fused through a tensor fusion network. We also build a model to detect whether the speaker is depressed or not using LSTM in the final layer. This study suggests the possibility of increasing access to mental illness diagnosis by enabling patients to detect depression on their own in daily conversations. If the model proposed in this study is developed and the voice conversation system is connected, it will be easier for patients who cannot visit the hospital periodically or who are reluctant to visit the hospital to check their condition and seek recovery. Furthermore, it can be expanded to multi-label classification for various mental diseases and used as a simple self-mental disease diagnosis tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: violence; depression; pregnancy; primary prevention; mental health
Online: 6 March 2023 (06:48:40 CET)
Violence can promote various mental complications such as depression, however, the type of violence that promotes it has not been estimated in detail. The purpose of this study was to assess whether depression is associated with domestic violence in pregnant women treated at a Peruvian health center, 2022. A quantitative, observational, cross-sectional analytical study. A total of 180 pregnant adults who attend the health facility in person were selected. Intrafamily violence was assessed using a questionnaire from the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations of Peru and depression using the Beck Depression Inventory. The study has the approval of the ethics committee of the university and the permission of the head of the health establishment. 36.11% [95%CI: 29.39-43.43] of the pregnant women presented depression and 1.11% severe de-pression; likewise, 41.67% [95%CI: 36.64-49.05] reported having experienced domestic violence. It was identified that presenting domestic violence increases the probability of presenting depression during pregnancy (aPR: 9.89; p<0.001). The associated types of violence were psychological (aPR: 10.44; p<0.001) and physical (aPR: 1.78; p=0.007). There is an association between domestic violence and depression during pregnancy, the types of violence associated being psychological and physical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: international students, social support, depression, vital exhaustion
Online: 8 December 2022 (08:51:35 CET)
Background: Our study aimed to assess the differences between domestic and international students in terms of social support, vital exhaustion, and depression during the time of COVID-19. Methods: The online cross-sectional survey was conducted via Google Forms® at three time intervals during the pandemic. Results: Respectively 1320, 246, and 139 students completed our questionnaires in the different time intervals. International students reported significantly lower values of perceived social support. Women reached higher scores regarding vital exhaustion in both samples. Concerning depression, international female students had higher values than their male counterparts but the difference diminished with time. No differences could be found in the comparison of depression between domestic female and male students. Significant correlations were found between depression, perceived social support, and vital exhaustion. Discussion: International students perceive diminished social support just when they need more. Decreased levels of perceived social support may contribute to the development of their psychological problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Perinatal depression; prognosis; prognostic modeling; nomogram; Pakistan
Online: 10 May 2022 (15:40:48 CEST)
Task sharing approaches are challenged by the barriers fundamental to the use of non-specialists who lack specialist mental health training required to triage the candidates who could benefit from task-shared treatments. However, these challenges could be offset by using standardized and easy-to-implement algorithmic devices (e.g., nomograms) to help with the targeted dissemination of interventions. Therefore, the present investigation posits a prognostic model and a nomogram to predict the prognosis of perinatal depression among women in rural Pakistan. This secondary analysis utilizes data based on 903 pregnant women with depression who participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of the Thinking Healthy Program in rural Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The participants were recruited from 40 union councils in two sub-districts of Rawalpindi and randomly assigned to intervention and enhanced usual care. Sixteen sessions of the THP intervention were delivered by trained community health workers to women with depression over pregnancy and the postnatal period. A trained assessment team used the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-4 current major depressive episode module to diagnose depression at the baseline and post-intervention. The intervention received by the participants emerged as the most significant predictor in the model. Among clinical factors, baseline severity of core-emotional symptoms emerged as an essential predictor, followed by atypical symptoms and insomnia. Higher severity of these symptoms was associated with a poorer prognosis. Other important predictors of a favorable prognosis included living with paternal and maternal grandmothers, financial empowerment, higher socioeconomic class, and living in a joint family system. This prognostic model yielded acceptable discrimination (c-statistic =0.75) and calibration to aid in personalized delivery of psychological treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19; psychological distress; anxiety; depression; PTSD
Online: 7 December 2020 (10:32:10 CET)
Background. The novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) and related syndrome (COVID-19) has required a worldwide measure of quarantine with severe consequences for millions of people. Methods. Since psychopathological consequences related to social restrictions have been reported, a systematic review according to Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and the PRISMA Statement was performed to quantify the effects of quarantine on mental health of adults. Major databases - Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, PsycInfo, and Web of Science- were researched for observational studies with data on mental health indexes related to quarantine or isolation for epidemic infections. Results. Twenty-one independent studies were included for 82,312 subjects. Conclusions. The results showed that at least 20% of people exposed to these conditions reported a psychological distress, with a prevalence of PTSD, depression and, less often, generalized anxiety. Important methodological bias weakens the conclusion of most studies, opening to the need of further research on mental health after quarantine and related risk/buffering factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mental health; working population; labour; migration; depression
Online: 3 November 2020 (13:52:38 CET)
Background: Mental health is a growing concern worldwide. It is not well understood whether Nepali workers, including international labour migrants from Nepal, are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. The purpose of our study is to determine the prevalence of and examine the risks factors for depression among returnee migrants and non-migrant working male adults in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a probability-based sample of 725 participants was conducted in February 2020. The sample was comprised of two groups based on migration status: returning migrants and non-migrants. Logistic regression was applied to investigate factors associated with symptoms depression.Results: The overall prevalence of depression was 10.1%. However, the prevalence of depression was lower (7%) among returnee migrants compared to non-migrants (13.7%). Participants in the lower income group were more at risk of depression (OR=5.38, 95% CI: 1.96-14.78) than those in the higher income group. Similarly, Buddhists and Christians were more likely to be depressed (OR=2.17, 95% CI: 1.02-4.64) than Hindus. Interestingly, participants having more than two children had a higher prevalence of depression (OR=5.14, 95% CI: 1.22-21.63) compared with those having no children. Unmarried participants were more likely to be depressed (OR=4.05, 95%, CI:1.10-14.93) than those who were married. Conclusion: The working Nepali adult male population in Nepal, including returning migrants, is at risk of depression, but this risk is lower in those in the higher income group, returnee migrants, married, Hindus and those with no children. This study highlights the need to monitor and develop national policies to ensure the mental health of Nepali male adult population, including returnee migrants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: bipolar depression; inflammation; neuroimmunomodulation; cytokines; psychoneuroimmunology; staging
Online: 11 March 2020 (10:45:16 CET)
There is now evidence that, based on cytokine profiles, bipolar disorder (BD) is accompanied by simultaneous activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS), and that both components may be associated with the staging of illness. Nevertheless, no BD studies have evaluated the IRS/CIRS ratio using CD (cluster of differentiation) molecules expressed by peripheral blood activated T effector (Teff) and T regulatory (Treg) subpopulations. This study examined T cell subsets both before and after ex vivo anti CD3/CD28 stimulation using flow cytometric immunophenotyping in 25 euthymic BD patients and 21 healthy controls as well as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific IgG antibodies. BD is associated with a significantly lowered frequency of baseline (unstimulated) CD3+CD8+CD71+ and CD4+CD25+FOXP3 and increased CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD152+ frequencies and with lowered stimulated frequencies of CD3+CD8+CD71+, CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD152+ and CD4+CD25+FOXP3+GARP cells and, consequently, by an increased stimulated Teff/Treg ratio. Moreover, the number of manic, but not hypomanic or depressive episodes, is significantly and negatively associated with the stimulated proportions of CD3+CD4+CD154+, and CD69+ and CD71+ expression on CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while duration of illness (≥ 10 years) is accompanied by a depleted frequency of stimulated CD152+ Treg, and CD154+ and CD71+ CD4+ T cells. BD and anti-human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IgG levels significantly interact to decrease the expression of CD4+CD25+FOXP+GARP T phenotypes. In conclusion, BD is characterized by deficits in immune-regulatory functions while the staging of illness is characterized by additional impairments is Teff and Treg activation. HCMV seropositivity may contribute to an immune-risk phenotype associated with BD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0413.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: infant cry; post-partum depression; acoustic analysis
Online: 31 December 2019 (15:55:20 CET)
Postpartum depression (PPD), a condition that affects up to the 15% of mothers in high-income countries, reduces attention toward the needs of the child and it is among the first causes of infanticide. PPD is usually identified using self-report measures and therefore the diagnosis may not always be valid. Previous studies highlighted the presence of significant differences in the acoustical properties of the vocalizations of children of depressed and healthy mothers. In this study, cry episodes of infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers are analyzed to investigate the possibility that a machine learning model can identify PPD in mothers from the acoustical properties of infants' vocalizations. Acoustic features (F0, F1-4, Intensity) are first extracted from recordings of crying infants, then novel cloud-based artificial intelligence models are employed to identify maternal depression versus non depression from estimated features. Trained model shows that commonly adopted acoustical features can be successfully used to individuate Post-Partum Depressed mothers with very high accuracy (89.5%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0329.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: premenstrual syndrome; chemokines; inflammation; neuro-immune; depression
Online: 29 September 2019 (06:29:54 CEST)
Objective: To examine associations between chemokines and menstrual cycle associated symptoms (MCAS). Methods: Forty-one women completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) rating scale during 28 consecutive days of the menstrual cycle. MCAS is diagnosed when the total daily DRSP score during the menstrual cycle is > 0.666 percentile. We assayed plasma CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL8, CXCL10, EGF, IGF-1, and PAI-1 at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the menstrual cycle. Results: CCL2, CCL5, CCL11 and EGF are significantly higher in women with MCAS than in those without. Increased CCL2, CXCL10, CXCL8, CCL11 and CCL5 levels are significantly associated with DRSP scores while CCL2 is the most significant predictor explaining 39.6% of the variance. The sum of the neurotoxic chemokines CCL2, CCL11 and CCL5 is significantly associated with the DRSP score and depression, physiosomatic, breast-craving and anxiety symptoms. The impact of chemokines on MCAS symptoms may differ between consecutive weeks of the menstrual cycle with CCL2 being the most important predictor of increased DRSP levels during the first two weeks, and CXCL10 or a combination of CCL2, CCL11 and CCL5 being the best predictors during week 3 and 4, respectively. Discussion: The novel case definition “MCAS” is externally validated by increased levels of uterus-associated chemokines and EGF. Those chemokines are involved in MCAS and are regulated by sex hormones and modulate endometrium functions and brain neuro-immune responses, which may underpin MCAS symptoms. As such, uterine-related chemokines may link the uterus with brain functions via a putative uterine-chemokine-brain axis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; cytokines; inflammation; endogenous opioid; opioid receptor
Online: 16 April 2019 (09:49:14 CEST)
Background: There is now evidence that immune and opioid systems show functional reciprocal relationships and that both systems may participate in the pathophysiology of major depression (MDD). Objective: The present study was carried out to delineate differences between MDD patients and healthy controls in dynorphin and kappa opioid receptor (KORs) in association with levels of β-endorphins and mu opioid receptors (MORs), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. Method: The present study recruited 60 drug-free male participants with MDD aged 24-70 year and 30 age-matched healthy males as control group and measured serum levels of dynorphin, KOR, β-endorphin, MOR, IL-6 and IL-10. Results: Serum dynorphin, KOR, β-endorphin and MOR are significantly increased in MDD as compared with controls. The increases in the dynorphin/KOR system and β-endorhin/MOR system are significantly intercorrelated and are both strongly associated with increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Dynorphin, β-endorphin, KOR and both cytokines showed a good diagnostic performance for MDD versus controls, whereby both opioid peptides and cytokines show a bootstrapped (n=2000) area under the receiver operating curve of 0.972. KOR and the dynorphin/KOR system are both significantly decreased in depressed subjects with comorbid nicotine dependence. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in MDD, immune activation is associated with a simultaneous activation of dynorphin/KOR and β-endorhin/MOR signaling and that these opioid systems may participate in the pathophysiology of depression by a) exerting immune regulatory activities attenuating the primary immune response; and b) modulating reward responses and mood as well as emotional and behavioral responses to stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Depression, inflammation, neuro-immune, interleukins, ketoprofen, zinc
Online: 14 January 2019 (11:47:42 CET)
There is now evidence that major depression is accompanied by lowered serum zinc, an immune-inflammatory biomarker. However, the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs as adjuvant to antidepressants on serum zinc and copper in relation to pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are not studied. The aim of the present work is to examine the effects of treatment with sertraline with and without ketoprofen on serum levels of zinc and copper in association with immune-inflammatory biomarkers in drug-naïve major depressed patients. We measured serum zinc and copper, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, interferon (IFN)-γ, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in 40 controls and 133 depressed patients. The clinical efficacy of the treatment was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at baseline and 8 weeks later. In drug-naïve major depressed patients we found significantly reduced baseline levels of serum zinc and copper in association with upregulation of all cytokines, indicating activation of the immune-inflammatory responses system (IRS) as well as the compensatory immune regulatory system (CIRS). Treatment with sertraline significantly increased zinc and decreased copper levels, while ketoprofen did not have a significant add-on effect on zinc but attenuated the suppressant effects of sertraline on copper levels. During treatment, there was a significant inverse association between serum zinc and activation of the IRS/CIRS. The improvement in the BDI-II during treatment was significantly associated with increments in serum zinc coupled with attenuation of the IRS/CIRS. In conclusion, lower serum zinc is a hallmark of depression, while increments in serum zinc and attenuation of the immune-inflammatory response during treatment appear to play a role in the clinical efficacy of sertraline. Intertwined changes in zinc levels and the immune response play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression and participate in the mechanisms underpinning the clinical efficacy of antidepressants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Suicidal Ideation, major depression in adults, natural language written texts, Romanian depression support forum, machine learning text mining,
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:44:06 CEST)
Detecting suicidal ideation in adults with major depression is crucial for timely intervention and prevention of self-harm. As suicide is influenced by various biological, socio-cultural and psychological factors, traditional screening methods have accuracy and efficiency limitations. In certain cultures, societal stigma and marginalization can compel individuals with depression to conceal their suffering. Such individuals often turn to online social media platforms and share their experiences with peers under the protection of anonymity. Our research explored the potential of machine learning detection of suicidal ideation among Romanian adults with major depression that contributed to a web-based depression support forum. A trained algorithm (C4.5 decision tree) analyzed 125 posts fed to on a free access online support forum over 5 years (2014 – 2018) and classified them based on suicidal ideation content. 32 texts (25%) were identified as having a high probability of suicidal ideation content. 65% of the authors were male, with a mean age of 36.7±10.3 years and an average duration of illness of 3.4±1.4 years. Texts indicating positive suicidal ideation were generally shorter and elicited more general responses but fewer professional responses compared to those without suicidal ideation content. The study's main limitations include the relatively small number of classified texts, the absence of prospective information and the lack of qualitative evaluation of the excerpts' content. As socio-demographic and linguistic actuarial results were comparable to data reported by real life studies, we may consider basic text mining techniques as a screening tool that is able to detect suicidal ideation in texts written in unstructured Romanian language.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0221.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: arousal level; emotion; major depression severity; voice index; Hurst exponent; zero-crossing rate; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression
Online: 9 August 2020 (21:15:01 CEST)
Recently, the relationship between emotional arousal and depression has been studied. Focusing on this relationship, we first developed an arousal level voice index (ALVI) to measure arousal levels using the Interactive Emotional Dyadic Motion Capture database. Then, we calculated ALVI from the voices of depressed patients from two hospitals (Ginza Taimei Clinic [GTC] and National Defense Medical College hospital [NDMC]) and compared them with the severity of depression as measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Depending on the HAM-D score, the datasets were classified into a no depression (HAM-D<8) and a depression group (HAM-D≥8) for each hospital. A comparison of the mean ALVI between the groups was performed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and a significant difference at the level of 10% (p = 0.094) at GTC and 1% (p = 0.0038) at NDMC was determined. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic was 0.66 when categorizing between the two groups for GTC, and the AUC for NDMC was 0.70. The relationship between arousal level and depression severity was indirectly suggested via ALVI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1934.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: breast cancer; depression; fatigue; insomnia; quality of life
Online: 30 October 2023 (13:51:16 CET)
The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of quality of life (QOL) changes in breast cancer survivors (BCS) and to determine factors associated with subgroups of consistently low or deteriorated QOL. We enrolled 101 women recently diagnosed with breast cancer in South Korea and asked them to complete a questionnaire at baseline (within 1 month of diagnosis), 1 year later (Year 1), 2 years later (Year 2), and 3 years later (Year 3). We assessed QOL using the global QOL subscale from the EORTC QLQ-C30. We defined low QOL as a global QOL score 10 points below the mean score of the general population. Based on low QOL as defined in this study, we identified subgroups of QOL changes over 3 years. We identified four subgroups of QOL changes: improved (47.4%), stable (30%), continuously low (8.8%), and deteriorated (13.8%) and considered the last two categories (22.6%) as poor QOL. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that significant determinants of poor QOL were insomnia at Year 1, fatigue and anxiety at Year 2, and fatigue, depression, and comorbidity at Year 3. In conclusion, persistent symptoms of insomnia, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and comorbidity are potential risk factors for poor QOL in BCS.