ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Crocin; Multiple scleroses; Cognition; BDNF; NGF; Demyelination
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:46:09 CEST)
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Crocin on brain neuroterophins, cognition, sensory and motor dysfunction and compare to fingolimod effects in experimental model of demyelination with Ethidium Bromide EB in female Wistar rats. Methods: Animals were assigned in to 8 groups; Sham, Sham operated (ShOp), EAE, crocin treated (Cr5,10,20 mg/kg), Vehicle, Fingolompd (Fing) and fingolimod + crocin (Cr+Fing). Demyelination was induced by single dose injection of 10 μl of EB 0.1% into the fourth ventricle of the brain. Crocin and fingolimod were applied for 21 days, daily, oral gavage. BDNF, NGF1, nerve conduction velocities, tail flake latency, balance and behavioral variables were sampled and analyzed by paired t-test and ANOVA test with repeated post hoc measurements. Results: The results showed that crocin improves all studied factors, but remarkable imrovments were observed in dosage of 10 mg/kg. Crocin (10mg/kg) and fingolimod (1mg/kg) significantly improved cognition variables in open field test, sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity, tail flick latency and clinical signs (p<005). In addition, applying of crocin co-administered with fingolimod led to significant increases in all assessed factors, greater than crocin or fingolimod intervention alone (α≤0.001). Conclusion: Based on the current findings, crocin can improve the level of brain neurotrophins, exploratory behavior and nerve conduction after demyelination as close as fingolimod results. So, crocins can be considered as a neuro supportive agent in the management of degenerative diseases maybe similar to fingolimod mechanism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: neuro-degeneration; MS; demyelination; vascular disease; stroke; AD; vitamin D-OH 25; VDR; VDH; calcium
Online: 28 June 2018 (05:38:49 CEST)
It is widely known that vitamin D receptors have been found in neurons and glial cells and their highest expression is in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus and subcortical grey nuclei, and substantia nigra. The vitamin D helps the regulation of neurotrophin, neural differentiation and maturation, through the control operation of growing factors synthesis (ie NGF and GDNF), the trafficking of the septo-hyppocampal pathway, and the control of the synthesis process of different neuromodulators (such as Ach, DA, and GABA). Based on these assumptions, we have written this review in order to summarize the potential role of vitamin D in neurological pathologies. The work could be titanic, and might result very fuzzy and even incoherent, if we would not have conjectured to taper our first intentions and devoted our interests towards three mainstreams: demyelinating pathologies, vascular syndromes and neurodegeneration. Due to the lack of effective therapeutic options, a part from the disease modifying strategies, the role of different risk factors should be investigated in neurology, as far as their correction may lead to the improvement of the cerebral conditions. We have explored the relationships between the gene-environmental influence and long term vitamin D deficiency, as a risk factor for the development of different types of neurological disorders, along with the role and the rationale of therapeutic trials with vitamin D implementation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0277.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: energy metabolism; oligodendrocyte; oligodendrocyte progenitor cell; myelin; remyelination; multiple sclerosis; glucose; ketone bodies; lactate; N-acetyl aspartate; demyelination
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:57:28 CET)
Central nervous system (CNS) myelin has a crucial role in accelerating the propagation of action potentials and providing trophic support to the axons. Defective myelination and lack of myelin regeneration following demyelination can both lead to axonal pathology and neurodegeneration. Energy deficit has been evoked as an important contributor to various CNS disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). This suggests that dysregulation of energy homeostasis in oligodendroglia may be an important contributor to myelin dysfunction and lack of repair observed in the disease. This article will focus on energy metabolism pathways in oligodendroglial cells and highlight differences dependent on the maturation stage of the cell. In addition, it will emphasize that the use of alternative energy sources by oligodendroglia may be required to save glucose for functions that cannot be fulfilled by other metabolites, thus ensuring sufficient energy input for both myelin synthesis and trophic support to the axons. Finally, it will point out that neuropathological findings in a subtype of MS lesions likely reflect defective oligodendroglial energy homeostasis in the disease.