ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0051.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: socio-demographic positions; socio-demographic success; socio-demographic evolution; socio-demographic hierarchy; analytical measures
Online: 16 December 2020 (12:11:53 CET)
Socio-demography of statuses reflects the demographic and social roles and achievements of an individual(s) in a population. In the theoretical frameworks, little was known about the theory, analytical measures, and evolutionary mechanism of the socio-demographics of statuses of an individual(s). In this paper, three (3) methodological issues regarding the concept of socio-demographics were proposed, these are: (a) identified the basic features that clarify our understanding about the conception of the socio-demographic statuses of an individual(s) as common, universal, and desirable positions, achievements, and advantages every individual strives and competes to attain, achieve, maintain, update, and upgrade which are determined by biological and social environments, driven and regulated by a continuum of competitions and natural selections; (b) presented a new paradigm of analytical measures of an individual’s socio-demographic statuses and the established hierarchical transitions; (c) proposed theoretical assumptions for the evolution of a socio-demographically unique population. Seven (7) factors (the driving forces) and eight (8) conditions responsible for the evolution of socio-demographically unique populations were identified and explained. The evolutionary transitions were organized into six (6) socio-demographic ranks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0894.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: demographic indicators; marriage rate; divorce rate; demographic potential; demographic behavior; Bihor county; Romania
Online: 13 July 2023 (07:32:14 CEST)
A nation's vitality, dynamism and economic strength will always be related to its demographic component, and a healthy and vigorous population will ensure its long-term future. However, the current realities demonstrate the existence of an obvious population decrement at the level of the entire country particularly triggered by the birth rate decrease and the high demographic aging to which other factors add ap specific to local communities, which in their turn determined a particular type of demographic behaviour. Therefore we aim to analyze those elements with a major population dynamics impact such as family stability and demographic potential that can generate a specific demographic behaviour, as a result of the major changes that have occurred in the last period of time. These elements are translated through several demographic indicators that characterize the family, such as the nuptiality index and the divorce index whose evolution was registered and analyzed for the period 1992-2021. Their evolution indicates the demographic potential of Romania, as well as of Bihor county.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0063.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: human urine; biomonitoring; chlorophenol; demographic characteristics
Online: 8 March 2018 (09:50:42 CET)
Humans are exposed to the environmental pollutants 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2, 4-DCP) and 2, 5-dichlorophenol (2, 5-DCP) through air, use of water and consuming products. In this study, we evaluated the urinary concentrations of these compounds in Korean people from the age of 18 to 69 years by making use of the data from the Korean National Human Biomonitoring Survey that was completed in 2009. Of 1,865 representative Koreans, 63.4% and 97.9% were found to have concentrations of 2, 4-DCP and 2, 5-DCP > 0.05 μg/L (limit of detection) in their urine. The geometric mean urinary concentrations were 0.14 μg/L (confidence interval of 95% = 0.13–0.16) and 0.44 μg/L (confidence interval = 0.41–0.48), respectively. It was fond that the adjusted proportional changes in 2, 4-DCP concentrations were significantly associated with body mass index, whereas those of 2, 5-DCP concentrations were influenced by place of residence. From these findings, it is evident that most adults in Korea have levels of 2, 4-DCP and 2, 5-DCP that are detectable in their urine and burden of these compounds on their bodies varies depending on numerous demographic factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0582.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: under-five; mortality; demographic health survey data; Ethiopia
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:12:13 CEST)
Introduction: Over decades, much have been said and done regarding under-five mortality in Ethiopia. The country has been following the lead of sustainable development goals and UNICEF with its transformation plan targets. However, unless the efforts supported by status assessing studies, it might be difficult for the country to progress. Thus, the current study was directed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of under-five mortality in 2019. Methods: According to the study criteria, we extract and cleaned data in STATA v. 15.0. The data then weighted as per the sampling weight, primary sampling unit, and strata before analyzing in STATA 15.0. Data management consisted of descriptive (mean, standard deviation, and proportion or percent) and association statistics. We deliberated binary logistic regression for this analysis and we checked each variable at 0.25 p-values to include in the model. The final p-value to declare association was p <0.05 and AOR with 95% CI was also applied to describe the results. The data source was the Ethiopian Mini Demographic Health Survey (EMDHS) 2019. EMDHS collected the data from 8,885 in a face-to-face manner with a 99% response rate. Results: From 5,527 numbers of weighted women with under-five analysed in this study, the proportion of under-five mortality was 277.23(5.02%). Factors like 2nd birth order 0.52(0.35, 0.79), 3rd-4th 0.49(0.28, 0.84), 1-2 ANC visits 0.24(0.12, 0.49, ANC visit three’ 0.14(0.07, 0.28), ANC visit four and above 0.22(0.14, 0.36), in marriage mother 0.43(0.19, 0.96), ‘1-2 under-five children 0.02(0.011, 0.03), and greater than three under-five children 0.007(0.0007, 0.004) were all negatively associated with under-five mortality rate. Conclusion: To obtain the exalted outcome out of this study, the government might need to increase antenatal care, women education, institutional delivery, and the modern contraceptive methods use through enhanced community mobilization, health education using community health workers, increasing access to essential cares of mothers and children, and the policy commitment for the issues related to family size, birth order, and birth interval.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0332.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: coronavirus; substitution rate; positive selection; demographic dynamics
Online: 21 June 2020 (16:10:26 CEST)
A new form of coronavirus called severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently causing a pandemic. A six-month evolutionary history of SARS-CoV-2 is witnessed by characterising the total genome of 821 samples using comparative phylogenomic approaches. Our analyses produced striking inclusive results that may guide scientists/professionals for the past/future of pandemic. Phylogenetic and time estimation analyses suggest the proximate origin of pandemic strain as Guangdong and the origin time as first half of September 2019, not Wuhan and December 2019, respectively. The viral genome experienced a substitution rate similar to other RNA viruses, but it is particularly high in some of the peptides encoding sequences such as leader protein, E gene, orf8, orf10, nsp10, N gene, S gene and M gene and nsp4, while low in nsp11, orf7a, 3C-like proteinase, nsp9, nsp8 and endoRNase. Most strikingly, the divergence rate of amino acid sequences is high proportional to nucleotide divergence. Additionally, specific non-synonymous mutations in nsp3 and nsp6 evolved under positive selection. The exponential growth rate (r), doubling time (Td) and R0 were estimated to be 47.43 per year, 5.39 days and 2.72, respectively. Comparison of synapomorphies distinguishing the SARS-CoV-2 and the candidate ancestor bat coronavirus indicates that mutation pattern in nsp3 and S gene enabled the new strain to invade human and become a pandemic strain. We arrive at the following main conclusions: (i) six months evolution of viral genome is nearly neutral, (ii) origin of pandemic is not Wuhan and predates formal reports, (iii) although viral population is ongoing an exponential growth, the doubling time is evolving towards shortening, and (iv) divergence rate of total genome is similar to other RNA viruses, but it is prominently high in some genes while low in some others and evolution in these genes should be closely monitored as their protein products intervening to pathogenicity, virulence and immune response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0590.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: Ageing; contemporary issues; demographic correlates; grandparent caregiver
Online: 8 September 2023 (09:56:23 CEST)
Background: In the 21st century, grandparenthood is a significant phenomenon in the fields of demography, gerontology and sociology. It is mainly explored in the context of ageing, as it is poised to become one of the most significant demographic phenomena and social issues in contemporary South Africa. Therefore, this study examined the determinants associated with grandparents who are parenting as caregivers and the health challenges they are exposed to as a caregiver. Methods: The National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS) Wave 5 dataset was utilized, and a total of 302 476 grandparents aged 25 years and older, who reported to be primary caregivers of double orphans, were included in the analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate binary logistics regression were performed to determine the predictors of the determinants of grandparents parenting as a caregiver and their health challenges in South Africa. Estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used, and the threshold for statistical significance was established at ρ< 0.05. Results: A majority of the male and female grandparent caregivers are aged 24-34 years, were black Africans (69.8%), had secondary education (46.9%), reported health challenges (HC) (59.7%), with 26.4% reporting headaches in the last 30 days. Logistic regression revealed that grandparent caregivers aged 55-64 years were 8.9 times more likely to report health challenges as compared to those aged 25-34 years. Non-black African grandparent caregivers were found to be 0.61 times less likely to be report health challenges, compared to Black African grandparent caregivers. Those with perceived poor health status were 3.3 times more likely to report health challenges, compared to those with excellent perceived health status. Conclusion: Therefore, there is an urgent need to redesign health interventions to address these health burdens among grandparent caregivers and to take cognizance of providing economic and social support for these vulnerable populations.
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: demographic growth; displacement; remote sensing; forced migration; urban sprawl; mobility
Online: 27 March 2020 (04:08:12 CET)
Anthropogenic change is associated with population growth, land use change, and changing economies. However, internal migration patterns and armed conflicts are also key drivers behind anthropogenic and demographic processes. To better understand this sort of change, we explore the spatial relationship between forced migration due to armed conflict and changing demographic factors in Colombia, a country which has a recent history of 7 million internal migrants. In addition, we use remote sensing, Google Earth Engine, as well as spatial statistical analyses of demographic data in order to measure anthropogenic change between 1984 and 2008; and we look into spatiotemporal relationships between both demographic and anthropogenic changes, which are caused by forced migration. We find, thus, that the latter is significantly and positively related to an increasing rural-urban kind of migration which originates in armed conflict, and results show that it is also negatively associated with interregional expulsion. Indeed, anthropogenic prints (term hereafter used to denote changes in nighttime satellite imagery) pertaining to different regions have had different sensitivities towards forced migration, and across different time periods. Finally we discuss how social and political phenomena such as Colombia’s armed conflict can have significant effects on the dynamics and motions of humans and territories in countries of the Global South.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0272.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: disaster; fire; preparedness; respond; employee; demographic; socio-economic; factors
Online: 9 March 2021 (14:49:26 CET)
This paper presents the results of quantitative research regarding the examination of the levels of efficiency of the fire protection system and the training of employees in Electrical power distribution of Serbia for fire protection, ie the analysis of the manner of implementation of fire protection measures, and determining whether these measures are adequately applied. Following the subject set in this way, the aim of the research was set, and that is the scientific analysis of the manner of application of fire protection measures. The results of this research showed that the employees of Electro distribution Belgrade perceive the preparedness of their company highly positively and certain socio-demographic characteristics also affect certain attitudes, especially those related to the experience with fire, the knowledge of employees to react in case of fire, and the choice of the appropriate response, assessment of the readiness of the company and the employees themselves. It was found that knowledge of how to react in case of fire is influenced by gender and level of education; the choice of one of the methods of action in case of fire is influenced by gender; the assessment of the readiness of the employees themselves is influenced by the marital status; the desire of employees to participate in training to increase their preparedness for fires is influenced by gender. The results of the research can be used to improve the preparedness of employees in various organizations to respond to disasters caused by fires.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0660.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Carcharhinidae sharks; Prionace glauca; demographic parameters; exploitation; Gulf of Guinea
Online: 30 August 2020 (11:27:39 CEST)
Prionace glauca, blue shark is a cosmopolitan species. Together with Carcharhinus falciformis, it co-dominated the landings of carcharhinidae sharks at the Artisanal Fishing Port of Cotonou. The objective of this study is to determine the demographic parameters of the blue shark in Gulf of Guinea marine waters. The different routines of the FISAT II v 1.2 software associated with the empirical equations of Froese and Nohland, allowed the evaluation of the different demographic parameters of the blue shark in Benin's marine waters. From August to December 2015, 244 individuals shark sizes; ranging from 175cm to 325cm were sampled. The total asymptotic length obtained was 341.25cm with a growth rate of 0.35/year, which indicates that the species is growing rapidly and the optimal total length of the species is 232.01cm. The age of first maturity of the species is 3 years with a longevity of 10 years. The exploitation rate is E= 0.74 with total mortality being 2.4; natural mortality is 0.6 and fishing mortality is 1.8. The sex ratio remains in favour of males throughout the study period. Monitoring programme were suggested with effective management measures established and executed for sustainability of the blue shark’s stock in the Gulf of Guinea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0199.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Open defecation; rural women; Ghana; Environmental Health; Demographic and Health Survey
Online: 12 December 2022 (10:03:35 CET)
The study investigated determinants of open defecation among rural women in Ghana. The study extracted data from the female’s file of the 2003, 2008 and 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). A total of 4,284 pooled sample size of rural women aged 15-49 with complete information about the variables analyzed in the study. The outcome variable was “open defecation” (i.e., defecating in an open space rather than a toilet facility) whilst fourteen (14) key explanatory variables were used. Two regression models were built, and output reported in odds ratio. Descriptively, 42 in every 100 women aged 15-49 practised open defecation (n=1811, 95’CI=49-52). Open defecation significantly correlated with educational attainment, wealth status, religion, access to mass media, partner's education, and zone of residence. The likelihood to practice open defecation reduced among those with formal education [aOR=0.69, CI=0.56-0.85], those whose partners had formal education [aOR=0.64, CI=0.52-0.80], women in the rich wealth quintile [aOR=0.12, CI=0.07-0.20], the traditionalist [aOR=0.33, CI=0.19-0.57], and those who had access to mass media [aOR=0.70, CI=0.57-0.85]. Residents in the Savannah zone were over 21-fold higher to defecate openly [aOR=21.06, CI=15.97-27.77]. The prevalence of open defecation is disproportionately pro-poor indicating that impoverished rural women are more likely to perform it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: car sharing; forecasting; machine learning; socio-demographic; weather
Online: 13 November 2019 (12:31:49 CET)
Free Floating Car Sharing (FFCS) services are a flexible alternative to car ownership. These transportation services show highly dynamic usage both over different hours of the day, and across different city areas. In this work, we study the problem of predicting FFCS demand patterns -- a problem of great importance to an adequate provisioning of the service. We tackle both the prediction of the demand i) over time and ii) over space. We rely on months of real FFCS rides in Vancouver, which constitute our ground truth. We enrich this data with detailed socio-demographic information obtained from large open-data repositories to predict usage patterns. Our aim is to offer a thorough comparison of several machine learning algorithms in terms of accuracy and easiness of training, and to assess the effectiveness of current state-of-art approaches to address the prediction problem. Our results show that it is possible to predict the future usage with relative errors down to 10%, and the spatial prediction can be estimated with relative errors of about 40%. Our study also uncovered the socio-demographic features that most strongly correlate with FFCS usage, providing interesting insights for providers opening service in new regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1719.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; asymptomatic; COVID-19; symptom profile; demographic; testing; ethnicity
Online: 26 October 2023 (11:34:13 CEST)
We investigated 328 SARS-CoV-2 cases in Barwon South West Victoria, Australia, in the 2020 pre-vaccination period, comparing infections with symptoms to those that remained asymptomatic. De-identified self-reported data from three sequential questionnaires on case characteristics and symptom progression were examined. Multivariable logistic regression were used to model associations between demographic profile and symptoms. Asymptomatic cases were more than three times as likely to be from ethnic minority groups [OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5 – 6.7, p<0.01], and approximately seven times more likely to be seniors (≥ 65 years) [OR 7.3, 95% CI 1.0 – 50.1] after adjusting for sex and occupation. The overrepresentation of ethnic minority groups among asymptomatic infections is suggestive of genetic haplotype variability by ethnic group, conferring greater cross protection from other coronaviruses in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. This research should be repeated post-vaccination to reassess symptom expression according to ethnicity, and better comprehend case ascertainment impacts of cultural biases in testing and infection reporting, and the reliance on symptoms to trigger testing. These findings may in part reflect differences in testing patterns by ethnicity and true differences in disease expression, both important for appropriate transmission prevention strategies, and tailoring testing messaging towards ethnic minority communities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0519.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: emergency department; frequent presenter; frequent presentation; socio-demographic characteristics; clinical characteristics
Online: 8 November 2023 (06:31:25 CET)
Background Frequent presenters (FPs) define a group of individual who visit hospital emergency depart-ment (ED) frequently for urgent care. Many among the group present with main diagnosis of mental health conditions. This group of individual tend to use ED resources disproportionally and significantly affect overall healthcare outcome. No previous reviews have examined the profiles of FPs with mental health conditions. Aims This study aims to identify the key socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who frequently present to ED with mental health primary diagnosis by performing systemic review from existing literature. Method PRISMA guideline was used. PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science (WOS) were searched in May 2023. A manual search on reference list of included articles were conducted at same time. Covidence was used to perform extraction and screening, completed by two authors independently. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined. Results The abstracts of 3341 non-duplicate articles were screened with 40 full texts assessed for eligi-bility. 20 studies were included from 2004-2022 conducted in 6 countries with total patient number of 25688 (52% male, 48% female, mean age 40.7 years old). 27% were unemployed, 20% married, 41% homeless, and 17% had tertiary or above education. 44% had history of substance abuse or alcohol dependence. Top 3 diagnosis are found to be anxiety disorders (44%), depressive disorders (39%) and schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders (33%). Conclusion On average, FPs are middle aged and equally prevalent in both gender. Current data lacks rep-resentation for gender diverse group. They are significantly associated with high rate of unem-ployment, homelessness, lower than average education level, and being single. Anxiety disor-der, depressive disorder, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are the most common clinical diagnosis associated with the group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0062.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: environmental inequality; environmental justice; industrial pollution; prefectures; demographic and socioeconomic factors; China
Online: 10 October 2017 (11:47:20 CEST)
In China, environmental pollution generated via industrialization as well as the profound changes in the social structure and gradual maturation of the social hierarchy have jointly contributed to the Chinese people's increased environmental consciousness and appeals for environmental justice (EJ). Because of the absence of an EJ theory and a lack of empirical research focused on China, this paper proposes a ‘Pyramid Model’ for China’s EJ research that involves the following three factors: basic demographic and socioeconomic factors, U.S.-based EJ principles, and Chinese characteristics. A nationwide pilot analysis of environmental inequity at the prefecture level is conducted by empirically studying the association of demographics and socioeconomic status with sources of industrial pollution in China. The prefecture-based results are shown to be robust and indicate that areas inhabited by ethnic minorities and western regions in China carry disproportionate environmental burdens. However, a different picture for migrants is presented, revealing that Chinese migrants are not currently exposed to greater levels of industrial pollution, and relevant interpretations of these findings are provided. The results also show that environmental inequality associated with income level, which is observed in the U.S., does not occur in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0109.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Diabetes; Socio demographic characteristics; machine learning; polydipsia; sudden weight loss.
Online: 3 October 2023 (08:54:18 CEST)
Diabetes is one of the fatal diseases that play a vital role in the growth of other diseases in the human body. Controlling and curing diabetes in its early stages is the most significant technique to avoid its effects of diabetes. However, lack of awareness and expensive clinical tests are the primary reasons to skip clinical diagnosis and take preventive methods in lower-income countries like Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India. From this perspective, the study aims to build an automated machine learning (ML) model, which will predict diabetes at an early stage using socio-demographic characteristics rather than clinical attributes. Because clinical features are not always known to all people from lower-income countries. To find the best fit supervised ML classifier of the model, we applied six classification algorithms and found that RF outperformed with an accuracy of 99.36%. In addition, the most significant risk factors were found based on the SHAP value by all the applied classifiers. The study reveals that polyuria, polydipsia, and delayed healing are the most significant risk factors for growing diabetes. The findings indicate that the proposed model is highly capable of predicting diabetes in the early stages.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: social system, sustainable transformation, institutions, technologies, demographic and climate changes
Online: 22 March 2019 (15:59:16 CET)
The paper is devoted to fundamental issues concerning to the ideology of the future sustainable development. Its implementation has available in the first place basing on the recognized framework concept of sustainable development (SD). At the same time, this concept requires serious improvement. As follows from the argumentation, a realistic design of institutional changes in connection with resource and organizational/behavioral changes needed for SD is called for to realize in the line of overall social system transformation. Its adequate understanding presupposes an exhaustive study of interconnected transformations in the main social fields as system processes taking into account the influence of relatively exogenous factors (technological, demographic and climate changes).According to the author, the transition to global sustainable social transformation is achievable. Main attention focuses on a number of possible fundamental shifts, the synergetic implementation of which will make such a transition possible.Proceeding from the arguments, the sustainable reproduction of the economy of a mature post-industrial type, including the green sectors, implies its stable and quiet growth, although the rapid growth of individual markets, especially innovative ones, may take place. The main findings also include the substantiation in favor of the choice of the national middle way model as the most appropriate for the corresponding sustainable system transformation of society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0118.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: noise disturbances; residents complaints; logistic regression; spatio-temporal effects; socio-demographic and environmental effects; GIS
Online: 8 July 2019 (12:42:05 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to explore the presence of spatial and temporal effects on the calls for noise disturbance service reported to the Local Police of València (Spain) in the time period from 2014 to 2015, and investigate how some socio-demographic and environmental variables affect the noise phenomenon. The analysis is performed at the level of València's boroughs. It has been carried out using a logistic model after dichotomization of the noise incidents variable. The spatial effects consider first and second order neighbours. The temporal effects are included in the model by means of one and two weeks temporal lags. Our model confirms the presence of strong spatio-temporal effects. We also find significant associations between noise incidence and specific age groups, socio-economic status, land uses and recreational activities, among other variables. The results suggest that there is a problem of ``social'' noise in València that is not exclusively a consequence of coexistence between local residents. External factors such as the increasing number of people on the streets during weekend nights or during summer months increase severely the chances of expecting a noise incident.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1388.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Malaria; Machine Learning; Demographic and Health Survey; biological insights; control interventions
Online: 21 August 2023 (02:42:09 CEST)
The discovery of interesting inter-relationships between the different malaria epidemiological parameters is essential towards the disease control. However, existing associative rule-based machine learning algorithms for pattern discovery are slow while working on high-dimensional Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) data, with the further challenge of data under fitting and inadequate result visualization. Hence, this work proposed a novel and efficient associative rule-based machine-learning algorithm with enhanced graphical visualization capacity for rigorous and confident biological result interpretation for malaria control. Through empirical and asymptotic comparative time-complexity performance evaluations, the proposed algorithm scaled better than other existing associative rule-based machine learning algorithms while maintaining its accuracy. The algorithm was applied to two real MIS data sets obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey repository and other supplementary literature source using Nigeria as a case study. The resulting interesting malaria epidemiological discovered novel trends were: a) the malaria disease might not be associated with the anemia symptom; b) there was no significant association between the anemia symptom and the wealth indices of individuals; c) there were other parameters associated with the insecticide resistance capacity of the malaria vector asides the knock down resistance alleles; d) the population dynamics of the malaria vector was not associated with the malaria disease endemicity. In conclusion, this work developed a computationally efficient and user-friendly associative rule-based machine-learning algorithm called E_Apriori for the control of the malaria disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1956.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: COI; teleostei; nucleotide diversity; haplotypic diversity; qPCR; demographic history; environmental DNA
Online: 28 June 2023 (07:37:41 CEST)
Fish tissue samples from 203 adult individuals were collected in the main ports and markets of the Pacific coast of Panama. Molecular identification based on cytochrome oxidase I gene segment of all species was verified GENBANK reference sequences. 34 species from 14 families (Ariidae, Lutjanidae, Caranjidae, Scianidae, Centropomidae, Serranidae, Scombridae, Sphyraenidae, Haemulidae, Gerreidae, Stromotidae, Lobotidae, Malacanthidae, Mugilidae) were identified at species molecular level from 164 sequences. Also, three Caribbean species were molecularly identified among the analyzed samples (Mycteroperca xenarcha, Paralonchurus brasilensis and Lobotes surinamensis). Species diversity was slightly higher in the Gulf of Panama than in the Gulf of Chiriquí. For species with 5 or more individual sequences, genetic diversity and genetic connectivity parameters such as: total number of haplotypes (H), haplotype diversity (Hd), and nucleotide diversity (π) were calculated. Overall, pelagic-migratory species showed higher values of genetic diversity than coastal and estuarine species with some exceptions. Connectivity between Gulf areas was compared using values of genetic distances and genetic differentiation (Fst). High level of connectivity observed between Gulf of Chiriqui and Gulf of Montijo indicates the existence of a single stock in that area for the following species: Scomberomorus sierra, Caranx caninus and Lutjanus guttatus. Demographic history of the most common species was examined using Tajima’s D values suggesting population expansion for two snapper species, L. peru and L. argentiventris, having significant and higher values. Another important contribution from this research was the production of primers and dual labeled probes for environmental DNA detection using qPCR for the five most abundant species (spotted rose snapper, yellow snapper, green jack, Pacific crevalle jack and the Pacific sierra fish). These markers represent a new set of tools for environmental DNA (eDNA) detection and molecular traceability of three commercially important fish species along the supply chain including landing sites and markets of the main fishery areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0027.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Population genetics; Statistical modelling; Demographic modelling; Ancient DNA; Population history; Archaeology
Online: 2 March 2020 (15:17:14 CET)
Demographic processes directly affect patterns of genetic variation within contemporary populations as well as future generations, allowing for demographic inference from patterns of both present day and past genetic variation. Advances in laboratory procedures and sequencing and genotyping technologies in the last decades have resulted in massive increases in high quality genome-wide genetic data from present day populations and allowed retrieving genetic data from archaeological material, also known as ancient DNA. This has resulted in an explosion of work exploring past changes in population size, structure, continuity and movement. However, as genetic processes are highly stochastic, patterns of genetic variation only indirectly reflect demographic histories. As a result, past demographic processes need to be reconstructed using an inferential approach. This usually involves comparing observed patterns of variation with model expectations from theoretical population genetics. A large number of approaches have been developed based on different population genetic models that each come with assumptions about the data and underlying demography. In this article I review some of the key models and assumptions underlying the most commonly used approaches for past demographic inference and their consequences for our ability to link the inferred demographic processes to the archaeological and climate records.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Frequency of hepatitis; Lifestyle determinants of hepatitis; Risk factors of hepatitis; Socio-demographic determinants of hepatitis
Online: 15 July 2022 (16:00:00 CEST)
Hepatitis is the eighth highest cause of mortality globally and second-highest in Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to determine frequency of Hepatitis B and C and related lifestyle and socio-demographic risk factors among adults. The data were collected though questionnaire from Hepatitis B and C patients from Mayo and Jinnah hospital Lahore. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 18. There were 5095 patients with Hepatitis B and C out of which 146 patients (67 males and 79 females) filled questionnaire. The frequency of hepatitis C was higher than hepatitis B. The significant risk factors associated with hepatitis B and C were education, marital status, family history, household income, and type of food consumed. Therefore, socio-demographic and lifestyle risk factors related interventions are needed to reduce frequency of Hepatitis B and C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0258.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; cell-entry receptor; ACE2; The Cancer Genome Atlas; susceptibility; demographic factors; polymorphism
Online: 25 February 2020 (06:30:17 CET)
The recurrent coronavirus outbreaks in China (SARS-CoV and its relative, SARS-CoV-2) have raised speculations that perhaps Asians are somehow more susceptible to these coronaviruses. Here, we test this possibility based on an analysis of the lung-specific expression of ACE2, which encodes the known cell-entry receptor of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. We show that ACE2 expression is not affected during tumorigenesis, supporting that the abundant transcriptomes in cancer genomic studies can be informatively used to study ACE2 expression among diverse individuals without cancer. We find that ACE2 expression in the lung increases with age, but is not associated with sex. Further, Asians do not differ from other populations for ACE2 expression and do not harbor unique genetic polymorphisms in the ACE2 locus. Thus, beyond illustrating an innovative method for assessing the potential impacts of demographic factors for non-cancer diseases from large-scale cancer sample datasets, our statistically robust findings emphasize that individuals of all races require the same level of personal protection against SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1833.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: cooking fuel choice; clean cooking fuels; wellbeing index; access to electricity; health; demographic variables; regression analysis
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:15:16 CEST)
This paper examines the importance of choice of cooking fuels in wellbeing, analysing relationships between the proportion of population with primary reliance on different types of fuels for cooking (predictor variable), and key wellbeing indices (outcome variables) - Personal Health, Social Life, Civic Engagement, Life Evaluation, Negative Experience. By combining two global datasets from Gallup and WHO, the study adds to current evidence by taking a global perspective. Controlling for demographic factors such as income per capita, age, education level, employment, etc., regression modelling of these relationships show that clean cooking fuels are influential in all of the key wellbeing indices with the exception of the Life Evaluation Index. Among the key wellbeing indices, Personal Health and Negative Experience Indices are the most strongly influenced by choice of clean cooking fuels. By adding access to electricity as an additional predictor variable, the analysis highlights the potential for integrating eCooking into national electrification plans as part of sustainable energy transitions, given that health outcomes (Personal health and Negative experience indices) appear to be as closely linked to choice of cooking fuels as to access to electricity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: demographic change; barrier-free design; living space; quality of life; specific needs; modular home design
Online: 16 July 2018 (11:51:08 CEST)
In Europe we can see a change in the social structure in the last period. Average life expectancy has increased dramatically over the last 50 years. Because of the improved life situation and advanced level of health care, older people are slower. With advancing age, the likelihood of experiencing a variety of constraints such as visual impairment, reduced hearing or physical ability increases. In such a life stage tenants are often forced to leave their long-term living space because these homes can not serve "new" individual needs and the resulting personal protection goal. This transition from the privacy of their home to the new environment often appears to be a painful change. They will take their familiar and well-known surroundings, because their homes can not be adapted to serve new needs. It must be the policy’s role to create a new inclusive social space and the requirement for architects and designers to create new goals for the design of an adaptable environment. This is a comprehensive approach to the design of the outer and inner space that could serve people even if there is an unexpected situation and changes in movement and physiological limitations of older people. The contribution shows the results of the survey conducted in Germany and Slovakia. In the survey respondents expressed their opinion on what they considered important in creating an adaptive environment. Results are processed graphically with explanation. The results were mainly for designers and developers of the indoor environment. Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, studies of possible modifications in the interior of the flats were then prepared. The contribution yielded these results in three age groups of respondents; i. people aged 35, 50 and over 50.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV/AIDS; testing; trends; Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; socio-demographic; Georgia
Online: 5 September 2016 (11:21:36 CEST)
Georgia is ranked fifth highest among states for rates of HIV diagnosis. About 4% of persons living with HIV infection in the United States reside in Georgia, and almost 19% of these people do not know their HIV status. The present study examined the trends and associated factors of HIV testing among adults in Georgia between 2010 and 2014 by analyzing data of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). A total of 30,791 persons aged ≥18 years were identified who responded to the question “Have you ever been tested for HIV?” Overall, there were 11,543 respondents who had been tested for HIV, with a decrease in percentage from 49.4% in 2010 to 43.7% in 2014 (p<0.001). Factors associated with HIV testing were being black (p<0.001), being younger than 55 years (p<0.001), single (p=0.02), attaining education level above high school (P<0.001), engaging in HIV high-risk behaviors (p<0.001), and not having healthcare coverage (p=0.03). Overall in Georgia, there has been a decline in the temporal trend of HIV testing, and more than half of adults have never been tested for HIV. For reducing HIV transmission in Georgia, enhancing access and utilization of HIV testing should be a public health priority.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: anemia; infancy and toddlerhood; low and middle-income countries; demographic and health survey; infant feeding; multilevel regression
Online: 9 July 2018 (11:14:48 CEST)
In Low and Lower-Middle-Income countries, the prevalence of anemia in infancy remains high. In early childhood anemia cause irreversible cognitive deficits and represents a higher risk of child mortality. The consequences of anemia in infancy are a major barrier to overcome poverty traps. The aim of this study was to analyze based on a multi-level approach, different factors associated with anemia in children 6–23 m old based on recent available Standard Demographic Health Surveys (S-DHS). We identified 52 S-DHS that had complete information in all covariates of interest in our analysis between 2005 and 2015. We performed traditional logistic regressions and multilevel logistic regression analyses to study the association between hemoglobin concentrations and household, child, maternal, socio-demographic variables. In our sample, 70 % of the 6–23 m old children were anemic. Child anemia was strongly associated with maternal anemia, household wealth, maternal education and low birth weight. Children fed with fortified foods, potatoes and other tubers had significantly lower rates of anemia. Improving overall household living conditions, increasing maternal education, delaying childbearing and introducing iron rich foods at six months of age may reduce the likelihood of anemia at in toddlerhood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0675.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; socio-demographic analysis; Ferritin; Lymphocytes; General hospital Ninh Thuan province
Online: 9 June 2023 (06:15:27 CEST)
Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 infection was first reported in 2019 and has since spread throughout the world. This is a cross-sectional study in cooperation with 118 Department of Pre-Hospital and Territorial Emergency (118 SET) of Taranto City and the University of Bari, Aldo Moro, and the School of Medicine from Italy. We conducted a study on how the COVID-19 epidemics evolved and how it was contained by different countermeasures by taking into account data showing socio-demographic and that older persons, as well as individuals with comorbidities and poor metabolic health, and people coming from economically depressed areas with lower quality of life in general, are more likely to develop severe COVID-19 infection. Objective: Examine the association between county-level socio-demographic risk factors and COVID-19 incidence and mortality, determining the possible emo-biological markers, ferritin, and lymphocytes, that could be indicative of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study on 600 patients examined and treated at general hospital Ninh Thuan from January to September 2022. Results: 33/600 patients were confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 (5.5%), males 4.8% and females 5.8%, the median age of infected patients is 36 years. Most infections were mild (75.8%). Our results revealed that the structure and the spatial arrangement of socio-demographic arrangements are important either as epidemiological determinants or as disease markers. Conclusion: Approximately 5.5% of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 come to examination and treatment at the hospital, these findings suggested that possible infection rate in the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, the sociodemographic risk factors, and their root causes must be addressed. In addition, lab results obtained from affected patients showed that lymphocytes and ferritin could be considered traits of mild COVID-19 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0166.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: satellite images; image analysis; self organizing maps; quantization error; structural change; demographic data
Online: 20 March 2018 (10:38:43 CET)
The quantization error (QE) from Self-Organizing Map (SOM) output after learning is exploited in this studies. SOM learning is applied on time series of spatial contrast images with variable relative amount of white and dark pixel contents, as in monochromatic medical images or satellite images. It is proven that the QE from the SOM output after learning provides a reliable indicator of potentially critical changes in images across time. The QE increases linearly with the variability in spatial contrast contents of images across time when contrast intensity is kept constant. The hitherto unsuspected capacity of this metric to capture even the smallest changes in large bodies of image time series after using ultra-fast SOM learning is illustrated on examples from SOM learning studies on computer generated images, MRI image time series, and satellite image time series. Linear trend analysis of the changes in QE as a function of the time an image of a given series was taken gives proof of the statistical reliability of this metric as an indicator of local change. It is shown that the QE is correlated with significant clinical, demographic, and environmental data from the same reference time period during which test image series were recorded. The findings show that the QE from SOM, which is easily implemented and requires computation times no longer than a few minutes for a given image series of 20 to 25, is useful for a fast analysis of whole series of image data when the goal is to provide an instant statistical decision relative to change/no change between images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1001.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: news recommendation system; cold start problem; hybrid approach; demographic information; new users; popular news
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:42:17 CEST)
News recommendation schemes utilize features of the news itself and information about users to suggest and recommend relevant news items to the users towards the interest they have. However, the effectiveness of the existing news recommendation scheme is limited in the occurrence of new user cold start problems. Therefore, we designed a news recommender system using hybrid approaches to address new user cold start problems to ease and suggest more related news articles for new users. To achieve the objective mentioned above, user demographic data with a hybrid recommendation system that contains the scheme of both content-based and collaborative filtering approaches is proposed. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model, an extensive experiment is conducted using a dataset of news articles with user rating value and user demographic data. The performance of the proposed model is done by two ways of experiment. So, the performance of the proposed model performs around 68.05% of Precision, 42.46% of Recall and 52.1% of the average F1 score for the experiment based on individual user similarity in the system. And also performs around 93.75% of precision, 40.25% of recall and 56.31% F1-score for the similarity of users based on the similarity of users within the same category which is better than the first experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0476.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Religion; migration; Political Economy; demographic economic policies; sanctuary movement; persecution; civil disobedience; The United States of America (USA/US).
Online: 28 September 2021 (21:27:59 CEST)
This is a study of Political Economy on religion and migration management in the United States of America (USA). This paper offers a review of migrants-citizens relations in the USA, with attention to the pendulum effect, moving from integration policies (open doors and melting pot agenda) to official persecution (raids and deportations), with a high social opportunity cost. There has been a split between the State and civil society, causing civil disobedience and sanctuary network across the country. Also, it is paid attention to the American post-modern paradox, as a result of culture wars and identity politics that imply a violation of American constitutional principles (i.e. religious liberty, freedom of movement, to pursuit the happiness). Special attention is paid to the development of the Sanctuary Movement, as an ongoing example of the sociocultural upheaval bringing grassroots society into confrontation with powerful elites by promoting resistance and offering help to the needy, even if this results in sanctions. This movement was revitalized after the values crisis of 2008, but it has also been polarized between those who follow the traditional approach to socio-religious action in the form of peaceful civil disobedience, and those who follow the ideological anti-system and communitarian approach, which causes greater tension for the immigrants themselves
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: age-friendliness; aging society; rural aging; urban aging; demographic aging; depopulation; land price; single person household; outdoor spaces; Japan
Online: 29 June 2023 (05:20:44 CEST)
Japan has the world’s largest old population ratio, and aging is an urgent societal issue. As global trends seem to be following Japan’s social changes, there is an emphasis on municipalities becoming more age-friendly. Hence, we examine the age-friendliness of 135 Japanese municipalities, selecting 240 resident architectural designers and constructors to assess their municipalities, using the Age-Friendly Cities and Communities Questionnaire (AFCCQ). The findings indicate that Japan lacks “outdoor spaces and buildings.” Additionally, the evaluation of “housing,” “community support and health services,” and “transportation” in populated municipalities in the past five years is significantly higher than those in depopulated ones. Age-friendliness is significantly affected in the AFCCQ total score (hereafter, Score) based on “housing,” “social participation,” “community support and health services,” “transportation” and “financial situation” evaluations. High specificity (0.939) was found when the Score was treated as a marker of depopulation and, therefore, an age-friendly approach is a necessary condition to prevent depopulation. Furthermore, a lack of “communication and information” is observed in municipalities with a higher rate of single-person households aged 65 years and above. Therefore, resident architectural designers’ and constructors’ assessments, combined with the AFCCQ can be a powerful tool in evaluating the age-friendliness of municipalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0489.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: academia; affective dimension; defense formats; ethnicity; field of study; gender; socio-demographic dimensions; viva; viva voce
Online: 21 July 2021 (11:26:00 CEST)
The doctoral defense, which is an essential requirement for the doctoral degree, is considered to have three dimensions: the scholarly dimension, the emotional (affective) dimension, and the cultural dimension. In this work, I explore the link between sociodemographic factors and students’ perception of the doctoral defense. In particular, I focus on gender, ethnicity, and age at time of defense, as well as current position, and field of study. To address the influence of these aspects on the affective dimension of the doctoral defense, I first reviewed the literature on these socio-demographic aspects as well as the affective dimension of the defense. I then carried out an international survey on doctoral defenses, defense formats, and students’ perceptions and analyzed the 204 completed surveys for this study using quantitative and qualitative methods. The analysis included cross-correlations between students’ perceptions and the studied sociodemographic aspects. The main results of these analyses are that gender affects various aspects of the students’ perception of the doctoral defense and long-term perception, and that female candidates experience more issues with their committee. Ethnicity is important as well, although the participations of non-white respondents in this survey was limited. The influence of age at the defense is limited, and only for the youngest and oldest age groups I observe some differences in perception. There is no relation between current position and perception of the candidates during the defense. Finally, field of study is correlated for various aspects of student perception, committee issues, and long-term perception. The conclusion of this work is that socio-demographic aspects, and in particular gender, ethnicity, and field of study, influence how doctoral candidates experience their defense.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0246.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; university student; socio-demographic factors, satisfaction; perception; online learning; mental health; habits; institutions; continents
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:20:09 CEST)
The paper presents the most comprehensive and large-scale study to date on how students perceive the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on various aspects of their lives on a global level. With a sample of 30,383 students from 62 countries, the study reveals that amid the worldwide lockdown and transition to online learning students were most satisfied with the support provided by teaching staff and their universities’ public relations. Still, deficient computer skills and the perception of a higher workload prevented them from perceiving their own improved performance in the new teaching environment. Students were mainly concerned about issues to do with their future professional career and studies, and experienced boredom, anxiety and frustration. The pandemic has led to the adoption of particular hygienic behaviours (e.g. wearing masks, washing hands) and discouraged certain daily practices (e.g. leaving home, shaking hands). Students were also more satisfied with the role played by hospitals and universities during the epidemic compared to the government and banks. The findings also show that students with selected socio-demographic characteristics (male, part-time, first level, applied sciences, lower living standard, from Africa or Asia) were generally more strongly affected by the pandemic since they were significantly less satisfied with their academic work/life. Key factors influencing students' satisfaction with the role of their university are also identified. Policymakers and higher education institutions around the world may benefit from these findings while formulating policy recommendations and strategies to support students during this and any future pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0070.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: COVID-19; university student; socio-demographic factors; satisfaction; perception; online learning; mental health; habits; institutions; continents; Natural Language processing; Swivel embedding; Words Cloud.
Online: 3 November 2021 (09:06:22 CET)
The review of previous works shows this study is the first attempt to analyse the lockdown effect using Natural Language Processing Techniques, particularly sentiment analysis methods applied at large scale. On the other hand, it is also the first of its kind to analyse the impact of COVID 19 on the university community jointly on staff and students and with a multi-country perspective. The main overall findings of this work show that the most often related words were family, anxiety, house and life. On another front, it has also been shown that staff have a slightly less negative perception of the consequences of COVID in their daily life. We have used artificial intelligence models like swivel embedding and the Multilayer Perceptron, as classification algorithms. The performance reached in terms of accuracy metric are 88.8% and 88.5%, for student and staff respectively. The main conclusion of our study is that higher education institutions and policymakers around the world may benefit from these findings while formulating policy recommendations and strategies to support students during this and any future pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0322.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Parentalstress; Maternal stress; Heart rate variability as an index of parental stress; Socio-economic; demographic; environmental and gender factors associated with maternal stress
Online: 28 October 2019 (12:06:26 CET)
Parental stresses are normal responses to raising children. They are affected by stresses parents and children accumulate and bring to their interrelations. Background factors like economic difficulties or the relations between the parents may affect parental stresses as well as demographic and environmental factors like noise and access to urban parks. Most studies on parental stress are based on a verified psychological questionnaire. We suggest using frequency domain heart rate variability index (HRV) to measure parental stress enabling, by thus, the measurement of physiological aspects of stress and risk to health. Parental stress is measured as the difference between HRV accumulated at home while staying with the children and without the husband and HRV measured in the neighborhood while staying without the children and the husband. We use the index to compare differences among Muslim and Jewish mothers in exposure to maternal stress at their homes and to expose the factors that predict differences in maternal stress. We found that Muslim mothers suffer from home-related maternal stress while Jewish mother do not. Number of children and ethnically related environmental aspects predict differences in maternal stress between Muslim and Jewish mothers. Muslims' lower access to parks stems from lack of home garden and parks in their neighborhoods in the Arab towns but mainly by restrictions on Muslim women's' freedom of movement to parks. Despite differences in levels of noise at home and in the status of the mother in the household, these factors did not predict differences in parental stress. Instead, the study highlights the crucial role of greenery and freedom of movement to parks in moderating home-related maternal stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1918.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: MCV1 coverage; DTP1 coverage; composite coverage; zero-dose prevalence; demographic and health surveys; multiple indicator cluster survey; Bayesian geostatistical modelling; Bayesian multilevel modelling
Online: 1 November 2023 (02:34:23 CET)
The persistence of geographic inequities in vaccination coverage often evidences the presence of zero-dose and missed communities and vulnerabilities to vaccine-preventable diseases. These inequities were exacerbated in many places during the COVID-19 pandemic, due to severe disruptions to vaccination services. Understanding changes in zero-dose prevalence and associated risk factors in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic is, therefore, critical to designing effective strategies to reach vulnerable populations. Using data from nationally representative household surveys conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic in 2018 and during the pandemic in 2021 in Nigeria, we fitted Bayesian geostatistical models to map the distribution of three vaccination coverage indicators: receipt of DTP1, MCV1 and any of the four basic vaccines (BCG, OPV0, DTP1 and MCV1), and corresponding zero-dose estimates independently at 1x1 km resolution and the district level during both time periods. We also explored changes in the factors associated with non-vaccination at the national and regional levels using multilevel logistic regression models. Our results revealed no increases in zero-dose prevalence due to the pandemic at the national level, although considerable increases were observed in a few districts. We found substantial subnational heterogeneities in vaccination coverage and zero-dose prevalence both before and during the pandemic, showing broadly similar patterns in both time periods. Areas with relatively higher zero-dose prevalence occurred mostly in the north and a few places in the south in both time periods. We also found consistent areas of low coverage and high zero-dose prevalence using all three zero-dose indicators, revealing areas in greatest need. At the national level, risk factors related to socioeconomic/ demographic status (e.g., maternal education), maternal access to and utilization of health services and remoteness were strongly associated with the odds of zero dose in both time periods, while those related to communication were mostly relevant before the pandemic. These associations were also supported at the regional level, but we additionally identified risk factors specific to zero dose in each region; for example, communication and cross-border migration in the northwest. Our findings can help guide tailored strategies to reduce zero-dose prevalence and boost coverage levels in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0621.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SAR-COV-2; COVID-19; Asymptomatic patients; Viral transmission networks; Exponential random graph model (ERGM) network analysis; Demographic homogeneities and heterogeneities; Symptomological homogeneities and heterogeneities
Online: 22 April 2021 (21:10:10 CEST)
Background Hokkaido is the northernmost, least populous, and coldest of the Japanese islands. It was the first prefecture to be affected by COVID-19, while Kanagawa is home to one of the most populous areas of Japan, namely the Tokyo metro area. The Japanese government responded early during the pandemic by identifying infected patients, contact tracing, and performing PCR analysis on anyone who was suspected of having been exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The government has also been publishing information about each individual who tested positive for the virus. Both Hokkaido and Kanagawa started recording COVID-19 cases in the winter of 2020 and have detailed records of thousands of patients, thus providing an invaluable resource for the transmission and behavior of the virus. Methods The current study analyzed the COVID-19 registry data from the Hokkaido and Kanagawa prefectures. The Hokkaido registry contained 1,269 cases (674 (53%) females and 595 (47%) males) recorded between February 14 and July 22, 2020. The Kanagawa registry had 3,123 cases (1,346 (43%) females and 1,777 (57%) males. The final data contained a total of 4,392 cases (2,020 (46%) females and 2,372 (54%) males). By leveraging the information on viral transmission paths available in the registry data, we performed exponential random graph model (ERGM) network analysis to examine demographic and symptomological homophilies of the SARS-CoV-2 viral transmission networks. Results We observed age, symptomatic, and asymptomatic homophilies in both prefectures. Furthermore, those patients who contracted the virus through secondary or tertiary contacts were more likely to be asymptomatic than those who contracted it from primary infection cases. The transmission networks showed that transmission occurred significantly in healthcare settings, as well as in families, although the size of the networks was small in the latter. Most of the transmissions stopped at the primary and secondary levels and no transmission beyond quaternary was observed. We also observed a higher level of asymptomatic transmission in Kanagawa than in Hokkaido. Conclusions Symptom homophilies are an important component of COVID-19 and suggest that nuanced genetic differences in the virus may affect its epithelial cell type range and can thus result in the diversity of symptoms seen in individuals infected by SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, environmental variables such as temperature and humidity may also be playing an important role in the overall pathogenesis of the virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Approximate Bayesian computation; demographic history; distributional shift; evolutionary history; machine learning; phylogeography; range contraction; range expansion; Reticulitermes flavipes; species distribution modeling
Online: 4 February 2019 (16:47:40 CET)
The eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes, currently inhabits previously glaciated regions of the northeastern U.S., as well as the unglaciated southern Appalachian Mountains and surrounding areas. We hypothesized that Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have influenced the distribution of R. flavipes, and thus the evolutionary history of the species. We estimated contemporary and historical geographic distributions of R. flavipes by constructing Species Distribution Models (SDM). We also inferred the evolutionary and demographic history of the species using mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I and II) and nuclear (endo-beta-1,4-glucanase) DNA sequence data. To do this, genetic populations were delineated using Bayesian spatial genetic clustering, competing hypotheses about population divergence were assessed using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), and changes in population size were estimated using Bayesian skyline plots. SDMs identified areas in the north with suitable habitat during the transition from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum, as well as an expanding distribution from the mid-Holocene to the present. Genetic analyses identified three geographically cohesive populations, corresponding with northern, central, and southern portions of the study region. Based on ABC analyses, divergence between the Northern and Southern populations was the oldest, estimated to have occurred 64.80 thousand years ago (kya), which corresponds with the timing of available habitat in the north. The Central and Northern populations diverged in the mid-Holocene, 8.63 kya, after which the Central population continued to expand. Accordingly, phylogeographic patterns of R. flavipes in the southern Appalachians appear to have been strongly influenced by glacial-interglacial climate change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0549.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; Africa; SARS-CoV-2 virus spread; lower COVID-19 disease burden; African populations; demographic pyramid; trained immunity; government measures
Online: 24 May 2021 (09:56:05 CEST)
COVID-19 differential spread and impacts across regions is a major focus for researchers and policy makers. Africa has attracted tremendous attention due to predictions of catastrophic impacts that have not yet materialized. Early in the pandemic, the seemingly low African case count was largely attributed to low testing and case reporting. However, there is also reason to consider that many African countries got out ahead of the virus early on. Factors explaining low spread include early government mandated lockdowns, community-wide actions, population distribution, social contacts, and ecology of human habitation. While recent data from seroprevalence studies posit more extensive circulation of the virus, continuing low COVID-19 burden may be explained by the demographic pyramid, prevalence of pre-existing conditions, trained immunity, genetics, and broader sociocultural dynamics. Though all these prongs contribute to the observed profile of COVID-19 in Africa, some provide stronger evidence than others. This review is important to expand what is known about the differential impacts of pandemics enhancing scientific understanding and gearing appropriate public health responses. Also, highlighting potential lessons the world may draw from Africa for global health on assumptions regarding deadly viral pandemics given its long experience with infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0189.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus; Global Burden of Disease Study; dietary risk factors; Age- Standardized Mortality Rate; Age-Standardized DALY Rate; Socio-Demographic Index
Online: 4 October 2023 (04:55:59 CEST)
The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019 reveals an increasing prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) from 1990 to 2019. This study delves into the role of dietary risk factors across different demographic and socioeconomic groups. Utilizing data from the GBD 2019, it analyzes age-adjusted T2DM metrics—death counts, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), and Age-Standardized Rates (ASR)—stratified by age, sex, and region. The study employed Estimated Annual Percentage Changes (EAPCs) to track trends over time. Results show that in 2019, 26.07% of T2DM mortality and 27.08% of T2DM DALYs were attributable to poor diets, particularly those low in fruits and high in red and processed meats. Geographic variations in T2DM trends were significant, with regions like Southern Sub-Saharan Africa and Central Asia experiencing the most substantial increases in Age-Standardized Mortality Rate (ASMR) and Age-Standardized DALY Rate (ASDR). A positive correlation was noted between Socio-Demographic Index (SDI) and T2DM burden due to dietary risk factors. The study concludes that targeted public health initiatives promoting dietary changes could substantially reduce the global T2DM burden.