ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0451.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Allelopathy; Gossypium hirsutum; chromosome substitution; sustainable weed management.
Online: 27 September 2021 (12:56:50 CEST)
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is a problematic common weed species, especially in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). With the wide use of chemical herbicide and herbicide-tolerant transgenic cotton lines, Palmer amaranth populations have developed tolerance to commonly used herbicides. It is imperative to develop alternative weed control methods to slow the evolution of herbicide-resistant weed populations and provide new sources for weed management. Eleven chromosome substitution (CS) cotton lines CS-B26lo, CS-T17, CS-B16-15, CS-B17-11, CS-B12, CS-T05sh, CS-T26lo, CS-T11sh, CS-M11sh, CS-B22sh, and CS-B22lo were screened for weed-suppressing abilities in this study. The cotton lines were tested using the established stair-step structure methodology, which provided scope to study the effect of individual CS lines on the growth and development of Palmer amaranth weed without any interference of other external factors in the greenhouse. Height (cm) and chlorophyll concentration (cci) were measured for each plant in the system. The data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design using LSD mean comparisons of the genotypes at the P≤ .05 level. The 14th day after establishment resulted in the most significant variation in Palmer amaranth height reduction among the CS lines. Results indicated that CS-B22sh had the highest effect in reducing Palmer amaranth height and chlorophyll concentration with the most heightened susceptibility for Palmer amaranth. The cluster analysis revealed that Enlist® cotton, CS-CS-B22sh, and CS-T26lo were clustered in one group suggesting similar genetic potential with reference to Palmer amaranth growth and development. CS-B22sh showed novel genetic potential to control the growth and development of Palmer amaranth, a major weed in cotton fields. In the future, it will be interesting to investigate if CS-B22sh exudates from its root contain allelochemicals able to impede the growth and development of Palmer amaranth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0395.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: 2,4-D; upland cotton; chromosome substitution lines; herbicide tolerance; 2,4-D absorption and translocation
Online: 23 September 2021 (08:10:50 CEST)
Upland cotton is sensitive to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and the identification of potentially 2,4-D tolerant cotton chromosome substitution (CS) lines and understanding tolerance mechanisms provide a significant step into the development and genetic improvement of upland cotton to reduce yield loss caused by 2,4-D herbicide effects including the drifts. Experiments were conducted to understand the possible mechanism of herbicide tolerance in CS-T04-15, CS-T07, and CS-B15sh, 2,4-D herbicide-tolerant cotton CS lines compared with TM-1, the 2,4-D herbicide susceptible recurrent parent of the CS line as control, using [14C]2,4-D. Percent absorption rate and translocation patterns of the 14C-labeled herbicide application at 5.17 kBq at 6 to 48 hours after treatment (HAT) were determined. The tolerant cotton CS lines showed 15-19% [14C]2,4-D uptake while TM-1 exhibited a reduced uptake of only 1.4% [14C]2,4-D at 24 HAT. Distribution of the absorbed [14C]2,4-D showed that 2-5% was translocated outside the treated leaf. In TM-1, 77% of the herbicide was translocated above and below the treated leaf, contrasting with the reduced translocation of 14C-labeled herbicide observed in the tolerant CS lines. Interestingly, CS-T04-15 showed a restricted movement of 14C below the treated leaf at 6 to 48 HAT, suggesting a novel mechanism of herbicide tolerance. This finding is the first report on upland cotton demonstrating a complex differential uptake and translocation associated with herbicide tolerance for [14C]2,4-D in cotton CS lines.