REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0402.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Epitranscriptome; PCIF1; N6; 2’-O-dimethyladenosine; cap-adjacent m6Am; cytoplasmic capping
Online: 16 November 2020 (08:56:55 CET)
Although RNA modifications were discovered decades ago, the identification of enzymes that write, read, and erase RNA modifications enabled their functional study and spawned the field of epitranscriptomics. Coupling that knowledge to new methods has enabled the precise pinpointing of epitranscriptomic modifications across the transcriptome plus the elucidation of their functional consequences. PCIF1 (Phosphorylated CTD Interacting Factor 1) was shown to add N6, 2’-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am) marks at the first nucleotide after the 5’ N7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap. In this review, we discuss the epitranscriptomic regulation of mRNA in general, and focus on m7G cap-adjacent m6Am in particular. m6Am positions can now be distinguished from N6-methyladenosine (m6A) using new techniques leveraging PCIF1-knockout cells. Although m6Am modification sites can be detected precisely, conflicting data have been published regarding how cap-adjacent m6Am marks affect their host mRNA. Discrepancies in the data mean that the effects of cap-adjacent m6Am on mRNA stability, decapping, and translation continue to be debated. Finally, while PCIF1 is predominantly nuclear, a subset of results suggest a possible cytoplasmic role as well. Taken together, these contradictory results which employed different methodologies and cell lines means that further experiments are required to determine the ultimate biological function(s) of m7G cap-adjacent m6Am.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RNA therapeutics; cardiovascular disease; mRNA therapeutics; siRNA therapeutics; antisense oligonucleotide therapeutics
Online: 16 December 2021 (14:07:05 CET)
Abstract Purpose of review: RNA therapeutics are a new and rapidly expanding class of drugs to prevent or treat a wide spectrum of diseases. We discuss the defining characteristics of the diverse family of molecules under the RNA therapeutics umbrella. Recent findings:RNA therapeutics are designed to regulate gene expression in a transient manner. For example, depending upon the strategy employed, RNA therapies offer the versatility to replace, supplement, correct, suppress, or eliminate the expression of a targeted gene. RNA therapies include antisense nucleotides, microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, RNA aptamers, and messenger RNAs. Further, we discuss the mechanism(s) by which different RNA therapies either reduce or increase the expression of their targets. Summary: We review the RNA therapeutics approved (and those in trials) to treat cardiovascular indications. RNA-based therapeutics are a new, rapidly growing class of drugs that will offer new alternatives for an increasing array of cardiovascular conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: RNA therapeutics; skin; mRNA therapeutics; siRNA therapeutics; antisense oligonucleotide ther-apeutics; ASO; melanoma; hypertrophic scars; wound healing; dermatology
Online: 27 February 2023 (01:53:06 CET)
Despite being under development for decades, RNA therapeutics have only recently emerged as viable platform technologies. The COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have demonstrated the promise and power of the platform technology. In response, novel RNA drugs are entering clinical trials at an accelerating rate. As the skin is the largest and most accessible organ, it has always been a preferred target for drug discovery. This holds true for RNA therapies as well, and multiple candidate RNA-based drugs are currently in development for an array of skin conditions. In this mini review, we catalog the RNA therapies currently in clinical trials for different dermatological diseases. We summarize the main types of RNA-related drugs and use examples of drugs currently in development to illustrate their key mechanism of action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Messenger RNA • Hospital-based mRNA therapeutics • circular mRNA • self-amplifying mRNA • RNA-based CAR T-cell • RNA-based gene-editing tools
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:20:59 CET)
Hospital-based programs democratize mRNA therapeutics by facilitating the processes to translate a novel RNA idea from the bench to the clinic. Because mRNA is essentially biological software, therapeutic RNA constructs can be rapidly developed. The generation of small batches of clinical grade mRNA to support IND applications and first-in-man clinical trials, as well as personalized mRNA therapeutics delivered at the point-of-care, is feasible at a modest scale of cGMP manufacturing. Advances in mRNA manufacturing science and innovations in mRNA biology, are increasing the scope of mRNA clinical applications.