REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0097.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: pathogens; Legionella; amoeba; protozoa; biofilm; antibacterial; antimicrobial; cooling towers; biocides; polyvalent metals
Online: 20 December 2016 (10:26:22 CET)
Application of toxic antibacterial agents is considered necessary to control prevalent fresh water microorganisms in evaporative cooling water systems, but these agents can adversely affect the environment and human health. Alternatively, natural antibacterial water chemistry has been applied in industrial cooling water systems for over 10 years with excellent results. The tower water chemistry method concentrates natural salts in highly-softened water to produce elevated pH and dissolved solids, with low calcium and magnesium. This practice conserves water while generating only a small volume of non-toxic natural salt concentrate for cost efficient separation and disposal if required. This review presents a novel perspective of natural antimicrobial chemistry for inhibiting parasitic microbiome functional relationships within the bio-triad of Legionella outbreaks, "Trojan Protozoans" and biofilms. The review further examines practical application and function of polyvalent metal ions in the inhibition of biofilms. Reducing global dependence on toxic antibacterial agents discharged to the environment is an emerging concern due to their impact on the natural microbiome, plants, animals and humans. Discharge of antibacterial agents also contributes to development of pathogen resistance. Use of natural antibacterial chemistry can play a key role in managing the cooling water environment in a more ecologically sustainable manner.