REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1275.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation And Radiography Keywords: Radiation; nuclear DNA; radiobiology; mitochondrion; GCR; DNA damage and re-pair mechanisms; mitochondrial DNA; organelles; HZE
Online: 21 November 2023 (07:24:39 CET)
Astronauts in space are subject to a continuous bombardment of ionizing radiation. The Earth's magnetic field and the ISS shield some biologically damaging particles traveling through. Still, travel beyond low-Earth orbit and extravehicular activities are exceedingly more dangerous and there is a concern for the acute and late-occurring adverse health effects befalling astronauts. So, it is vital to consider the current tools and models used to describe and study the organic consequences of ionizing radiation exposure. It is equally important to see where these models may improve. This article reviews the historical development and current state of knowledge of radiation effects impacting astronauts in orbit. We explain the space radiation environment, cellular microenvironment, and how these may be incorporated in radiobiological models to aid in our understanding of the influence space travel may have on astronaut health. The topics discussed in this paper include a review of DNA damage and repair mechanisms and the numerical models that aim to explain the biological effects resulting from ionizing radiation damage. Historically, radiobiological models focused on how radiation damages nuclear DNA, built upon the hypotheses of Crowther and Lea in the 1940s and 1960s, and neglected other sub-cellular targets outside of nuclear DNA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: retinal degeneration; DNA methylation; epigenetics; oxidative stress; inflammation
Online: 28 May 2018 (10:33:13 CEST)
The role of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been pending so far. Our study investigated the effect of oxidative stress and inflammation on DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) functions, as well as on long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) methylation, in human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells. Therefore, we evaluated whether treatment with resveratrol may restore changes in LINE-1 methylation by modulating DNMTs and SIRT1 functions. Cells were treated with 25 mU/ml glucose oxidase (GOx) or 10 µg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic oxidative or inflammatory conditions, respectively. Oxidative stress decreased DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b and SIRT1 expression (p-values <0.05), as well as total DNMTs (-28.5%; p<0.0001) and SIRT1 (-29.0%;p<0.0001) activities. Similarly, inflammatory condition decreased DNMT1 and SIRT1 expression (p-values<0.05), as well as total DNMTs (-14.9%;p=0.007) and SIRT1 (-20.1%;p<0.002) activities. Interestingly, GOx- and LPS-treated cells exhibited lower LINE-1 methylation compared to controls (p-values<0.0001). We also demonstrated that treatment with 10 μM resveratrol for 24 hours counteracted the detrimental effect on LINE-1 methylation via increasing DNMTs and SIRT1 functions in cells upon oxidative and inflammatory conditions. However, further studies should explore the perspectives of resveratrol as a suitable strategy for the prevention and/or treatment of AMD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0659.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Chondrogenesis; chondrocyte; cell differentiation; C3H10T1/2; high density culture; mouse em-bryo; epigenetic signals; DNA methylation; 5-azacytidine
Online: 26 March 2021 (11:24:08 CET)
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of DNA methylation in the regulation of in vitro and in vivo cartilage formation. Based on the data of an RNA chip-assay performed on chondrifying BMP2-overexpressing C3H10T1/2 cells, the relative expression of Tet1 (tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 1), Dnmt3a (DNA methyltransferase 3) and Ogt (O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase) genes was examined with RT-qPCR in mouse cell-line based and primary micromass cultures. RNA probes for in situ hybridization were used on frozen sections of 15-day-old mouse embryos. DNA methylation was inhibited with 5-azacytidine during culturing. We found very strong but gradually decreasing expression of Tet1 throughout the entire course of in vitro cartilage differentiation along with strong signals in the cartilaginous embryonic skeleton. Dnmt3a and Ogt expressions did not show significant changes with RT-qPCR and gave weak in situ hybridization signals. Inhibition of DNA methylation applied during early stages of differentiation reduced cartilage-specific gene expression and cartilage formation. In contrast, it had stimulatory effect when added to differentiated chondrocytes. Our results indicate that the DNA demethylation-inducing Tet1 is a significant epigenetic factor of chondrogenesis, and inhibition of DNA methylation exerts distinct effects in different phases of in vitro cartilage formation.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: B cell; V(D)J recombination; mouse model; NHEJ; DNA repair
Online: 12 June 2020 (07:53:17 CEST)
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the main DNA repair mechanism for the repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) throughout the course of the cell cycle. DSBs are generated in developing B and T lymphocytes during V(D)J recombination to increase the repertoire of B and T cell receptors. DSBs are also generated during the class switch recombination (CSR) process in mature B lymphocytes, providing distinct effector functions of antibody heavy chain constant regions. Thus, NHEJ is important for both V(D)J recombination and CSR. NHEJ comprises core Ku70 and Ku80 subunits that form the Ku heterodimer, which binds DSBs and promotes the recruitment of accessory factors (e.g., DNA-PKcs, Artemis, PAXX, Mri) and downstream core factors (XLF, Lig4 and XRCC4). In recent decades, new NHEJ proteins have been reported, increasing complexity of this molecular pathway. Numerous in vivo mouse models have been generated and characterized to identify the interplay of NHEJ factors and their role in development of adaptive immune system. This review summarizes the currently available mouse models lacking one or several NHEJ factors, with a particular focus on early B cell development. We also underline genetic interactions and redundancy in the NHEJ pathway in mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1280.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: SNP Chip DNA Marker; GAPIT; GWAS; Genomic Selection; Grain traits; Rice
Online: 20 September 2023 (02:17:56 CEST)
This study investigated novel quantitative traits loci (QTLs) associated with the control of grain shape and size as well as grain weight in rice. We employed a joint strategy multiple GAPIT (Genome Association and Prediction Integrated Tool) models [(Bayesian-information and Linkage-disequilibrium Iteratively Nested Keyway (BLINK)), Fixed and random model Circulating Probability Uniform (FarmCPU), Settlement of MLM Under Progressive Exclusive Relationship (SUPER), and General Linear Model (GLM)]–High Density SNP Chip DNA Markers (60,461) to conduct a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS). GWAS was performed using genotype and grain-related phenotypes of 143 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Data show that parental lines (Ilpum and Tung Tin Wan Hein 1, TTWH1, Oryza sativa L., ssp. japonica and indica, respectively) exhibited divergent phenotypes for all analyzed grain traits), which was reflected in their derived population. GWAS results revealed the association between seven SNP Chip makers and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain length, co-detected by all GAPIT models on (Chr) 1–3, 5, 7, and 11), were qGL1-1BFSG (AX-95918134, Chr1: 3820526 bp) explains 65.2%–72.5% of the phenotypic variance explained (PVE). In addition, qGW1-1BFSG (AX-273945773, Chr1: 5623288 bp) for grain width explains 15.5%–18.9% of PVE. Furthermore, BLINK or FarmCPU identified three QTLs for grain thickness independently, and explain 74.9% (qGT1Blink, AX-279261704, Chr1: 18023142 bp) and 54.9% (qGT2-1Farm, AX-154787777, Chr2: AX-154787777 bp) of the observed PVE. For t length-to-width ratio, the qLWR2BFSG (AX-274833045, Chr2: 10000097 bp) explains nearly 15.2%–32% of PVE for LWR. Likewise, the major QTL for thousand-grain weight (TGW) was detected on Chr6 (qTGW6BFSG, AX-115737727, 28484619 bp) and explains 32.8%–54% of PVE. The qTGW6BFSG QTL coincides with qGW6-1Blink for grain width and explained 32.8%–54% of PVE. Putative Candidate genes pooled from major QTLs for each grain traits have interesting annotated functions that require functional studies to elucidate their function in the control of grain size, shape, or weight in rice. Genome selection analysis proposed makers useful for downstream marker-assisted selection based on genetic merit of RILs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0600.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: telomere length; DNA methylation; DNA microarray
Online: 24 June 2021 (15:47:38 CEST)
Background: Telomere length (TL) shortening process is associated with several known environment and individual determinants. DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic process and may be associated with TL. We investigated the associations between DNA methylation and TL in peripheral blood. Methods: Methylation wide association study was conducted in 47 women (37.1±8.8 years) with different nutritional status. Association between TL and DNA methylation levels were explored by univariate and multiple linear regression models, corrected by age and Body Mass Index. Corrections for multiple comparisons by Benjamini‐Hochberg test was also performed. WEBGestalt was used to identify pathways that are responsible for regulating TL. Results: We found negative correlations between TL and BMI (r = -0.641; p = 0.001), abdominal circumference (r = -0.622; p = 0.001) and fat mass (r = -0.656; p = 0.001). 44 CpGs sites were associated with TL, independent of age and BMI. The most of these sites were negatively correlated with TL. For the 7 remained sites, DNA hypomethylation were associated with shorter TL. These CpGs were related to nine different pathways, including thermogenesis, cancer, glutamatergic and serotonergic synapse. Conclusion: There is an epigenetic contribution in TL, independent of nutritional status and age. Genes related to TL are involved in important metabolic pathways.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA Replication; DNA repair; homologous recombination; DNA damage signalling; replication protein A, DNA binding; protein interactions
Online: 1 December 2023 (05:44:23 CET)
Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein complex and the main single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein in eukaryotes. RPA has key functions in most of the DNA-associated metabolic pathways and DNA damage signalling. Its high affinity for ssDNA helps to stabilise ssDNA structures and prevents the DNA sequence from nuclease attacks. RPA consists of multiple DNA-binding domains which are oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB)-folds, responsible for DNA binding, and interactions with proteins. These RPA-ssDNA and RPA-protein interactions are crucial for DNA replication, DNA repair, DNA damage signalling, and the conversation of the genetic information of cells. Proteins such as ATR use RPA to locate to regions of DNA damage for DNA damage signalling. Recruitment of nucleases and DNA exchange factors to sites of double strand breaks are also an important RPA function to ensure effective DNA recombination to correct these DNA lesions. Due to its high affinity to ssDNA, RPA’s removal from ssDNA is of central importance to allow these metabolic pathway to proceed and processes to exchange RPA against downstream factors are established in all eukaryotes. These facetted and multi-layered functions of RPA will be discussed in detail in the review. RPA is also a major player in a variety of human diseases, which will be discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Geant4-DNA; DNA repair; Cell surviving fraction
Online: 1 July 2021 (09:28:54 CEST)
Track-structure Monte Carlo simulations are useful tools to evaluate initial DNA damage induced by irradiation. In the previous study, we have developed a Gean4-DNA-based application to estimate the cell surviving fraction of V79 cells after irradiation, bridging the gap between the initial DNA damage and the DNA-rejoining kinetics by means of the two-lesion kinetics (TLK) model. However, since the DNA repair performance depends on cell line, the same model parameters cannot be used for the different cell lines. Thus, we extended the Geant4-DNA application with an updated TLK model for the evaluation of DNA damage repair performance in HSGc-C5 carcinoma cells which are typically used for evaluating proton/carbon radiation treatment effects. For this evaluation, we also performed experimental measurements for cell surviving fractions and DNA-rejoining kinetics of the HSGc-C5s cells. Concerning fast- and slow-DNA rejoining, the TLK model parameters were adequately optimized with the simulated initial DNA damage. Using the optimized TLK model, the Geant4-DNA simulation is now able to predict cell survival and DNA-rejoining kinetics for HSGc-C5s cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0339.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA repair; lymphocyte; immune system; DNA breaks
Online: 18 November 2020 (10:51:18 CET)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) form the basis of tumor microenvironment and possess immunomodulatory functions by interacting with other cells surrounding tumor, including T lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer cells. Ionizing radiation is a broadly-used method in radiotherapy to target tumors. In mammalian cells, ionizing radiation induces various types of DNA damages and DNA damage response. Being unspecific, radiotherapy affects all the cells in tumor microenvironment, including the tumor itself, CAFs and immune cells. CAFs are extremely radio-resistant and do not initiate apoptosis even at high doses of radiation. However, following radiation, CAFs become senescent and produce a distinct combination of immunoregulatory molecules. Radiosensitivity of immune cells varies depending on the cell type due to inefficient DNA repair in, for example, monocytes and granulocytes. In this minireview, we are summarizing recent findings on the interaction between CAF, ionizing radiation and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA replication, DNA repair, genetic recombination, mutagenesis
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:19:18 CET)
Covalent DNA protein crosslinks (DPCs) are common lesions that block replication. We examine here the consequence of DPCs on mutagenesis involving replicational template-switch reactions in Escherichia coli. 5-azacytidine (5azaC) is a potent mutagen for template-switching, dependent on DNA cytosine methylase (Dcm), implicating the trapped Dcm-DNA covalent complex as the initiator for mutagenesis. The leading strand of replication is more mutable than the lagging strand, explained by blocks to the replicative helicase and/or fork regression. We find that template-switch mutagenesis induced by 5-azaC does not require DSB repair via RecABCD. The ability to induce the SOS response is anti-mutagenic by an unknown mechanism. Mutants in recB, but not recA, exhibit high constitutive rates of template-switching and we suggest that RecBCD-mediated DNA degradation prevents template-switching associated with fork regression. A mutation in the DnaB fork helicase also promotes high levels of template-switching. We also find that other DPC-inducers, formaldehyde (a non-specific crosslinker) and ciprofloxacin (a topoisomerase II poison) are also strong mutagens for template-switching. Induction of mutations and genetic rearrangements that occur by template-switching may constitute a previously unrecognized component of the genotoxicity and genetic instability promoted by DPCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2016.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: X-ray; DNA; X-ray diffraction; attosecond pulse; USP; Nick(DNA); bending DNA.
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:55:17 CEST)
It is well known that X-ray crystallography is based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) by atoms and molecules. The diffraction pattern arises as a result of scattering of incident radiation, which makes it possible to determine the structure of the scattering substance. With the advent of ultrashort radiation sources, the theory and interpretation of X-ray diffraction analysis remained the same. This work shows that when an attosecond laser pulse is scattered on a DNA molecule, including during its nicking and bending, the pulse duration is an important characteristic of the scattering. In this case, the diffraction pattern changes significantly compared to the previously known scattering theory. The results obtained must be used in XRD theory to study DNA structures, their mutations and damage, since the previously known theory can produce large errors and, therefore, the DNA structure can be “deciphered” incorrectly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: global DNA methylation; global DNA hydroxymethylation; cord blood DNA; lead; antimony; birth cohort
Online: 3 March 2022 (15:04:56 CET)
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for gene expression modulation and can be used as a predictor of future disease risks. A prospective birth cohort study was performed to clarify the effects of neurotoxicants on child development, namely, the Tohoku Study of Child Development, in Japan. This study aimed to evaluate the association of prenatal exposure to five toxic metals—arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, N = 166)—with global DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood DNA. DNA methylation markers, 5-methyl-2’-deoxycytidine (mC) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2’-deoxycytidine (hmC), were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The mC content in cord blood DNA was positively correlated with Pb and Sb levels (r = 0.442 and 0.288, respectively) but not with cord blood PCBs. We also observed significant positive correlations among Pb levels, maternal age, and hmC content (r = 0.159 and 0.243, respectively). The multiple regression analysis among the potential predictors demonstrated consistent positive associations between Pb and Sb levels and mC and hmC content. Our results suggest that global DNA methylation is a promising biomarker for prenatal exposure to Pb and Sb.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0293.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), PARP-DNA complex,DNA-protein binding,DNA repair, 5′,8-Cyclopurine-2′-deoxynucleoside, DNA damage , DNA repair efficiency.
Online: 24 December 2018 (16:01:44 CET)
Abstract5′,8-Cyclo-2′-deoxyadenosine (cdA), in the 5′R and 5′Sdiastereomeric forms, are typical non strand-break oxidative DNA lesions, induced by hydroxyl radicals, with emerging importance as a molecular marker. These lesions are exclusively repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) mechanism with a low efficiency, thus readily accumulating in the genome. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase1 (PARP1) acts as an early responder to DNA damage and plays a key role as a nick sensor in the maintenance of the integrity of the genome by recognizing nicked DNA. So far, it was unknown whether the diastereomeric cdA lesions could induce specific PARP1 binding. Here we provide the first evidence of PARP1 to selectively recognize the diastereomeric lesions 5′S-cdA and 5′R-cdA in vitro as compared to deoxyadenosine in model DNA substrates (23-mers) by using circular dichroism,fluorescence spectroscopy, immunoblotting analysis and gel mobility shift assay. Several features of the recognition of the damaged and undamaged oligonucleotides by PARP1were characterized. Remarkably, PARP1 efficiently binds to both cdA lesions in the double stranded (ds)-oligonucleotides. In particular, PARP1 proved to bind 5′S-cdAwith a higher affinity constant for the 5'S lesion in a model of ds DNA than 5′R-cdA, showing different recognition patterns, also compared with undamaged dA. This new finding highlights the ability of PARP1 to recognize and differentiate the distorted DNA backbone in a biomimetic system caused by different diastereomeric forms of a cdA lesion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: human milk; DNA extraction; PCR; DNA quality, microbiota
Online: 14 October 2022 (03:19:46 CEST)
Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have shown that the human milk microbiota of healthy women varies substantially. The gDNA extraction method may influence the observed variation, biasing the microbiological reconstruction after all. In this study, a genomic DNA extraction method for DNA isolation from human milk samples was standardized and compared with commercial and standard hose make methods. Spectrophotometric measurements, gel electrophoresis, and PCR amplifications were used as criteria for evaluating the quantity, quality, and functionality of the extracted DNA. Furthermore, the standardized method of extracting gDNA from human milk was evaluated for its ability to isolate functional DNA from gram-positive, and gram-negative bacteria and fungi, to improve the reconstruction of microbiological profiles. The novel DNA extraction method increased the quantity and quality of the gDNA extracted compared with commercial and standard house-make protocols. This method even allowed PCR amplification of the V3-V4 regions of the 16S ribosomal gene in all samples, and the ITS-1 region of the fungal 18S ribosomal gene in 95 % of the samples as well. It is concluded that the proposed method provides better performance for the extraction of gDNA from complex samples such as human milk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0235.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNMT1; DNMT3A; DNA methyltransferase; maintenance DNA methylation; de novo DNA methylation; allosteric regulation; autoinhibition
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:57:27 CET)
DNA methylation, one of the major epigenetic mechanisms, plays critical roles in regulating gene expression, genomic stability and cell lineage commitment. Establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation in mammals is achieved by two groups of DNA methyltransferases: DNMT3A and DNMT3B, which are responsible for installing DNA methylation patterns during gametogenesis and early embryogenesis, and DNMT1, which is essential for propagating DNA methylation patterns during replication. Both groups of DNMTs are multi-modular proteins, containing a large N-terminal regulatory region in addition to the C-terminal methyltransferase domain. Recent structure-function investigations of the individual domains or large fragments of DNMT1 and DNMT3A have revealed the molecular basis for their substrate recognition and specificity, intramolecular domain-domain interactions, as well as their crosstalk with other epigenetic mechanisms. These studies highlight a multifaceted regulation for both DNMT1 and DNMT3A/3B, which is essential for the precise establishment and maintenance of lineage-specific DNA methylation patterns in cells. This review summarizes current understanding of the structure and mechanism of DNMT1- and DNMT3A-mediated DNA methylation, with emphasis on the functional cooperation between the methyltransferase and regulatory domains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0143.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Genome stability; DNA replication; DNA repair; lagging strand DNA synthesis; Okazaki fragments; initiation; DNA polymerase α; DNA primase; CTC1-STN1-TEN1 complex; SV40 T antigen; CMG complex
Online: 10 April 2023 (04:20:27 CEST)
The term ‘Hallmarks of Cancer’ was coined by Hanahan and Weinberg in their influential reviews and they described genome instability as a property of cells enabling cancer development [1, 2]. Accurate DNA replication of genomes is central to diminish genome instability. Here, the understanding of the initiation of DNA synthesis in origins of DNA replication to start leading strand synthesis and the initiation of Okazaki fragment on the lagging strand are crucial to control genome instability. Recent findings have provided new insights into the mechanism of the remodelling of the prime initiation enzyme, DNA polymerase α-primase, during primer synthesis, how the enzyme complex achieves lagging strand synthesis, and how it is linked to replication forks to achieve optimal initiation of Okazaki fragments. Moreover, the central roles of RNA primer synthesis by Pol-prim in multiple genome stability pathways such as replication fork restart and protection of DNA against degradation by exonucleases during double-strand break repair is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1616.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA replication; DNA damage; cell cycle checkpoints
Online: 24 November 2023 (16:29:38 CET)
Cells respond to DNA double-strand breaks by initiating DSB repair and ensuing a cell cycle checkpoint. The primary responder to DSB repair is non-homologous end joining, an error prone repair pathway. However, when DSBs are generated after DNA replication in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, a second DSB repair pathway, homologous recombination, can come into action. Both ATM and ATR are important for DSB-induced DSB repair and checkpoint responses. One method of ATM and ATR working together is through the DNA end-resection of DSBs. As a readout and marker of DNA end-resection, RPA is phosphorylated at Ser4/Ser8 of the N-terminus of RPA32 in response to DSBs. Here, the significance of RPA32 Ser4/Ser8 phosphorylation in response to DNA damage, specifically in S phase to G2 phase of the cell cycle is examined. RPA32 Ser4/Ser8 phosphorylation in G2 synchronized cells is necessary for increases in TopBP1 and Rad9 accumulation on chromatin and full activation of the ATR-dependent G2 checkpoint. In addition, our data suggest RPA Ser4/Ser8 phosphorylation modulates ATM-dependent KAP-1 phosphorylation and Rad51 chromatin loading in G2 cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0709.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: TLKs; DNA repair; HRR; NHEJ; replication; DNA damage; therapeutics
Online: 30 August 2023 (05:08:39 CEST)
DNA damage repair lies at the core of all cells’ survival strategy, including cancerous. Therefore, targeting such repair mechanisms forms the major goal of cancer therapeutics. The mechanism of DNA repair has been tousled with the discovery of multiple kinases. Recent studies on Tousled like Kinases have brought significant clarity on the effectors of these kinases which stands to regulate DSB repair. In addition to their well-established role in the DDR and cell cycle checkpoint mediation after DNA damage or inhibitors of replication, their suspected involvement in the actual DSB repair process has more recently been strengthened by the important finding that TLK1 phosphorylates RAD54 and regulates some of its activities and localization in the cell. Earlier findings of its regulation of RAD9 during checkpoint deactivation as well as defined steps during NHEJ ends processing were earlier hints of its important involvement broadly in DSB repair. All this has opened up new avenues to target cancer cells in combination therapy with genotoxins and TLK inhibitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0397.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: liquid biopsy; ddPCR; DNA methylation; cell free DNA; HNSCC
Online: 6 May 2023 (08:59:09 CEST)
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) develop from the mucosa of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. The methylation levels of Septin 9 (SEPT9) and short stature homeobox 2 (SHOX2) genes in ccfDNA are considered pan-cancer biomarkers and have shown prognostic value in preliminary reports in HNSCC. Liquid biopsy is a non-invasive procedure that collects tumor-derived molecules including circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA). Here, we developed a ddPCR-based assay to detect the DNA methylation levels of plasma circulating SEPT9 and SHOX2 in patients with HNSCC. We first set up the assay on commercial methylated and un-methylated DNA. Then, the dynamic changes of the methylation levels of SEPT9 and SHOX2 were quantified in 20 patients during the follow-up. The results highlighted: i) the capability of the ddPCR-based assay in detecting very low copies of methylated molecules; ii) the significant decrease in methylation levels of SEPT9 and SHOX2 in plasma of HNSCC patients at the first time points of follow-up respect to T0; iii) a different trend of longitudinally DNA methylation variations associable to the clinicopathological features of the patients. The absolute quantification of the methylation levels of SEPT9 and SHOX2 in HNSCC may be used for risk stratification and disease monitoring.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: forensic genetic genealogy; investigative genetic genealogy; DNA; forensic DNA
Online: 1 August 2020 (16:29:22 CEST)
Forensic genetic genealogy, a technique leveraging new DNA capabilities and public genetic databases to identify suspects, raises specific considerations in a law enforcement context. Use of this technique requires consideration of its scientific and technical limitations, including the composition of current online datasets, and consideration of its scientific validity. Additionally, forensic genetic genealogy needs to be considered in the relevant legal context to determine the best way in which to make use of its potential to generate investigative leads while minimising its impact on individual privacy. This article presents these issues from an Australian perspective, with the observations and conclusions likely to be applicable to other jurisdictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0011.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA sequence; helix; nucleotide frequencies; DNA epi-chains; helical antennas; Fröhlich's theory; long-range coherence; epigenetics; quantum biology; binary representation
Online: 14 May 2019 (06:22:48 CEST)
One of creators of quantum mechanics P. Jordan in his work on quantum biology claimed that life's missing laws were the rules of chance and probability of the quantum world. The article presents author’s results of studying frequencies (or probabilities) of nucleotides on so-called epi-chains of long DNA sequences of various eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. DNA epi-chains are algorithmically constructed subsequencies of DNA nucleotide sequences. According to the algorithm of construction of any epi-chain of the order n, the epi-chain is such nucleotide subsequence, in which the numerations of adjacent nucleotides differ by natural number n (n = 1, 2, 3, 4,…). Correspondingly each epi-chain of order n ≥ 2 contains n times less nucleotides than the original DNA sequence. The presented results unexpectedly discover that in long single-stranded and double-stranded DNA of any tested genome its DNA epi-chains of different orders n (values n are not too large) have practically identical frequencies (or probabilities) of each kind of nucleotides. These data allow considering DNA as a regular rich set of epi-chains, which can play a certain role in genetic and epigenetic phenomena as the author belives. Appropriate rules of nucleotide frequencies on epi-chains of long DNA sequences are formulated for further their tests on a wider set of genomes. These results testify on existence of long-range coherence in long DNA and remind the Fröhlich's theory of long-range coherence in biological systems. The phenomenological data are discussed from different standpoints: the DNA double helices and helical antennas with circular polarizations of electromagnetic waves; relations with the Fröhlich's theory; numerical analysis of DNA epi-chains under binary representations of nucleotides. Results are useful for developing quantum and algebraic biology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1857.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: γH2AX; Actinomycin D; Akt; DNA damage response; DNA double-strand break; DNA-PK; Etoposide; p95/NBS1
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:11:01 CEST)
DNA double-strand breakage is the most lethal damage to chromosomal DNA. It activates a series of cellular DNA damage response pathways, including DNA damage sensing, control of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and DNA repair. DNA damage response pathways are regulated by complex signaling machineries. Of the intracellular signaling cascades, diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG) to generate phosphatidic acid (PA). Because both DG and PA serve as second messengers, DGK activity induces a shift of signaling pathways from DG-mediated to PA-mediated cascades, thereby implicating DGK in the regulation of widely various functions. Reportedly, one member of the DGK family, DGKζ, is intimately involved in the regulation of stress responses through p53 and NF-κB. Stresses such as ischemia and infarction cause DGKζ downregulation. Experimental DGKζ depletion renders cells and mice vulnerable to various stressors such as chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing irradiation. Nevertheless, how DGKζ is involved in DNA repair, a critical event of DNA damage response for survival remains unknown. For this study, we examined how DGKζ depletion affects DNA repair mechanisms. We demonstrated that DGKζ depletion causes attenuation of Akt activation and DNA-PK protein expression upon DNA damage, which might engender downregulated BRCA1 protein synthesis and stability. Results suggest that DGKζ depletion attenuates BRCA1-mediated DNA repair machinery, thereby conferring vulnerability to DNA damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0406.v1
Online: 18 October 2018 (07:54:20 CEST)
Platinum(II) complexes have been found to be effective against cancer cells. Cisplatin curbs cell replication by interacting with the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), eventually leading to cell death and reducing cell proliferation. In order to investigate the ability of platinum complexes to affect cancer cells, two examples from the class of polyflurophenylorganoamidoplatinum(II) complexes were synthesised and tested on isolated DNA. The two compounds trans-[N,N’-bis(1,2,3,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)ethane-1,2-diaminato(1-)](2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzoato)(pyridine)platinum(II) (PFB), and trans-[N,N’-bis(1,2,3,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)ethane-1,2-diaminato(1-)](2,4,6-trimethylbenzoato)(pyridine)platinum(II) (TMB) were compared with cisplatin through their reaction with DNA. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was applied to analyse the interaction of the Pt(II) complexes with DNA in the hydrated, dehydrated and rehydrated state. These were compared with control DNA in acetone/water (PFB, TMB) and isotonic saline (cisplatin) under the same conditions. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to compare the ATR-FTIR spectra of the untreated control DNA with spectra of PFB and TMB treated DNA samples. Disruptions in the conformation of DNA treated with the Pt(II) complexes upon rehydration were mainly observed by monitoring the position of the IR-band around 1711 cm-1 assigned to the DNA base-stacking vibration. Furthermore, other intensity changes in the phosphodiester bands of DNA at ~1234 cm-1 and 1225 cm-1 and shifts in the dianionic phosphodiester vibration at 966 cm-1 were observed. The isolated double stranded DNA (dsDNA) or single stranded DNA (ssDNA) showed different structural changes when incubated with the studied compounds. PCA confirmed PFB had the most dramatic effect by denaturing both dsDNA and ssDNA. Both compounds, along with cisplatin, induced changes in DNA bands at 1711, 1088, 1051 and 966 cm-1 indicative of DNA conformation changes. The ability to monitor conformational change with infrared spectroscopy paves the way for a sensor to screen for new anticancer therapeutic agents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0470.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: B chromosome; satellite DNA; mobile element; organelle DNA; chromosome evolution
Online: 24 September 2018 (17:18:03 CEST)
B chromosomes are supernumerary chromosomes which are found in addition to the normal standard chromosomes (A chromosomes). B chromosomes are well known to accumulate several types of repeats. Although the evolution of B chromosomes has been subject of numerous studies, the mechanisms of accumulation and evolution of repetitive sequences is not fully understood. Recently, new genomic approaches have shed light on the origin and accumulation of different classes of repetitive sequences in the process of B chromosome formation and evolution. Here we discuss the impact of repetitive sequences accumulation on the evolution of plant B chromosomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0127.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cholangiocarcinoma; DNA methylation; Tumor suppressor gene; microRNA; DNA methylation inhibitor
Online: 16 May 2017 (18:08:59 CEST)
Cholangiocarcinoma is an epithelial malignancy arising in the region between the intrahepatic bile ducts and the ampulla of Vater at the distal end of the common bile duct. The effect of current chemotherapy regimens against cholangiocarcinoma is limited, and the prognosis of patients with cholangiocarcinoma is poor. Aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification induce silencing of tumor suppressor genes and chromosomal instability during carcinogenesis. Studies have shown that the tumor suppressor genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) including MLH1, p14, p16, DAPK, miR-370 and miR-376c are frequently methylated in cholangiocarcinoma. Silencing of these tumor suppressor genes and miRNAs plays critical roles in the initiation and progression of cholangiocarcinoma. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that DNA methylation inhibitors induce expression of endogenous retroviruses and exert the anti-tumor effect of via an anti-viral immune response. Aberrant DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes and miRNAs could be a powerful biomarker for diagnosis and treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. Epigenetic therapy with DNA methylation inhibitors hold considerable promise for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma through re-activation of tumor suppressor genes and miRNAs as well as induction of an anti-viral immune response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Radiofrequency electromagnetic field; DNA methylation; Neuroblastoma; LINE-1; Alu; ribosomal DNA
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:12:45 CEST)
A large body of evidence indicates that environmental agents can induce alterations in DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) are radiations emitted by everyday devices which have been classified as “possibly carcinogenic”, however their biological effects are unclear. As aberrant DNAm of genomic repetitive elements (RE) may promote genomic instability, here we sought to determine whether exposure to RF-EMFs could affect DNAm of different classes of RE, such as long interspersed nuclear element1s (LINE-1), Alu short interspersed nuclear element and ribosomal repeats. To this purpose, we analysed DNAm profiles of cervical cancer and neuroblastoma cell lines (HeLa, BE(2)C and SH-SY5Y) exposed to 900 MHz GSM-modulated RF-EMF through an Illumina-based targeted deep bisulfite sequencing approach. Our findings showed that radiofrequency exposure did not affect DNAm of Alu elements in any of the cell lines analysed. Conversely, it influenced DNAm of LINE1 and ribosomal repeats in terms of both average profiles and organization of methylated and un-methylated CpG sites, in different ways in each of the three cell lines studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0307.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: receptors; extracellular DNA; cell-surface bound DNA; cell-surface bound RNA
Online: 29 April 2022 (15:04:38 CEST)
Here, our data provide the first evidence for the existence of a previously unknown receptive system formed by novel DNA- and RNA-based receptors in eukaryotes. This system, named the TR-system, is capable of recognizing and generating a response to different environmental factors and has been shown to orchestrate major vital functions of fungi, mammalian cells, and plants.Recently, we discovered the existence of a similar regulatory system in prokaryotes. These DNA- and RNA-based receptors are localized outside of the membrane forming a type of a network around cells that respond to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical factors and enabled the TR-system to regulate major aspects of eukaryotic cell life as follows: growth, including reproduction and development of multicellular structures; sensitivity to temperature, geomagnetic field, UV, light, and hormones; interaction with viruses; gene expression, recognition and utilization of nutrients. The TR-system was also implicated in cell memory formation and was determined to be responsible for its maintenance and the forgetting of preceding events. This system is the most distant receptive and regulatory system of the cell that regulates interactions with the outer environment and governs the functions of other receptor-mediated signaling pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0171.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Bioinformatics; NGS; DNA sequencing; DNA sequence analysis; amplicons; ultrametric spaces; indexing
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:45:10 CEST)
Here we present 1. a model for amplicon sequencing 2. a definition of the best assignment of a read to a set of reference sequences 3. strategies and structures for indexing reference sequences and computing the best assign- ments of a set of reads efficiently, based on (ultra)metric spaces and their geometry The models, techniques, and ideas are particularly relevant to scenarios akin to 16S taxonomic profiling, where both the number of reference sequences and the read diversity is considerable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0033.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: DNA nanotechnology; DNA origami; self-assembly; molecular devices; mechanical movement; robotics
Online: 3 July 2018 (10:03:21 CEST)
Structural DNA nanotechnology provides an excellent foundation for diverse nanoscale shapes that can be used in various bioapplications and materials research. From all existing DNA assembly techniques, DNA origami has proven to be the most robust one for creating custom nanoshapes. Since its invention in 2006, building from the bottom up using DNA has drastically advanced, and therefore, more and more complex DNA-based systems have become accessible. So far, vast majority of the demonstrated DNA origami frameworks are static by nature, but interestingly, there also exist dynamic DNA origami devices that are increasingly coming into view. In this review, we discuss DNA origami nanostructures that perform controlled translational or rotational movement triggered by predefined DNA strands, various molecular interactions and/or other external stimuli such as light, pH, temperature and electromagnetic fields. The rapid evolution of such dynamic DNA origami tools will undoubtedly have a significant impact on molecular scale precision measurements, targeted drug delivery and diagnostics, but they can also play a role in development of optical/plasmonic sensors, nanophotonic devices and nanorobotics for numerous different tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0203.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: DNA; DNA nanotechnology; patchy particles; Wertheim theory; thermodynamic integration; phase coexistence
Online: 25 March 2018 (16:14:27 CEST)
We present a numerical study in which large-scale bulk simulations of self-assembled DNA constructs have been carried out with a realistic coarse-grained model. The investigation aims at obtaining a precise, albeit numerically demanding, estimate of the free energy for such systems. We then, in turn, use these accurate results to validate a recently proposed theoretical approach that builds on a liquid-state theory, the Wertheim theory, to compute the phase diagram of all-DNA fluids. This hybrid theoretical/numerical approach, based on the lowest order virial expansion and a nearest-neighbor DNA model, can provide, in an undemanding way, a thermodynamic description of DNA associating fluids that is in semi-quantitative agreement with experiments. We show that the predictions of such scheme are as accurate as the ones obtained with more sophisticated methods. We also demonstrate the flexibility of the approach by incorporating non-trivial additional contributions that go beyond the nearest-neighbor model to compute the DNA hybridization free energy.
OPINION | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: parallel DNA; antiparallel DNA; PCR; CRISPR; nucleic acid hybridization; microarray; siRNA
Online: 2 August 2016 (10:42:27 CEST)
Many fundamental molecular techniques (PCR, Microarray, Southern and northern hybridization, siRNA, CRISPR/Cas9 etc.) developed so far shows errors. I wish to highlight these molecular techniques are developed on basis of Watson-Crick DNA model, ignoring the concept of parallel stranded DNA. Through this opinion article, I wish to highlight specificity and accuracy of these molecular techniques can be enhanced by considering both parallel and anti parallel hybridization of DNA. Hopefully my views will also solve issue of irreproducibility in life science research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0569.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Differential extraction; Sexual Assault Kit (SAK); Sperm DNA; STRmix™, Combined DNA Index System (CODIS); Forensic DNA analysis; Low Sperm Samples; DNA Mixtures; Autosomal STR Analysis; SpermX
Online: 8 September 2023 (04:56:01 CEST)
The National Institute of Justice reported that current methods for processing sexual assault samples have a high failure rate, with 60 to 80 percent of tested kits unable to produce usable DNA profiles. Even when samples test positive for male DNA, 34 percent of sexual assault kits (SAK) do not yield recovered male DNA after differential extraction. Less than 30% recovery of available sperm DNA contributes to this low success rate. The SpermX™ method (SX) has been shown to recover 80 percent or more of sperm DNA from sexual assault samples. An interlaboratory evaluation compared SX to standard differential extraction (DE) protocols. Mock samples with known ratios of female epithelial cells and sperm cells were processed using both methods. Results revealed that SX consistently provided CODIS up-loadable DNA profiles, even with as few as 25 sperm cells, whereas DE failed to produce usable results. On average, SX yielded a seven-fold increase in the recovery of unshared male alleles compared to DE. In conclusion, SX outperformed DE in recovering higher quantities of male DNA with minimal female carryover in sexual assault-type samples. This improved success rate in obtaining usable DNA profiles can significantly aid in solving sexual assault cases. Keywords: Differential extraction, Sexual Assault Kit (SAK), Sperm DNA, STRmix™, Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), Forensic DNA analysis, Low Sperm Samples, DNA Mixtures, Autosomal STR Analysis, SpermX.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0236.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: DNA; pollution; cancer; health
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:26:29 CEST)
Comprehensive studies into the various causes of this ubiquitous disease have been prompted by the worldwide increase in cancer incidence. There are many potential causes of cancer, but environmental factors are of particular concern now. This abstract explores the complex link between environmental factors and the growing cancer epidemic, shedding light on the role that our immediate environment plays in the emergence of cancers. The environment can contain carcinogenic agents that gradually influence the course of cancer, including air pollutants, water contaminants, workplace exposures, and industrial activities. The ways through which environmental carcinogens may cause DNA damage and unchecked cell proliferation are discussed in this abstract. Environmental justice and the moral necessity to reduce inequities in exposure and health effects are highlighted to underline the disproportionate impact on vulnerable groups. The study presented here highlights the need for preemptive action to reduce environmental risks. Society can reduce the hidden threat posed by environmental carcinogens through strict legislation, sustainable practices, and community-driven initiatives. In order to lessen the cancer burden and secure a healthier future for all, the authors of this abstract argue that there must be a concerted effort to create surroundings that promote health and well-being.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1824.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: topoisomerase; thiosemicarbazone; cancer; DNA
Online: 26 June 2023 (14:18:45 CEST)
Topoisomerases, common targets for anti-tumor therapeutics, are crucial enzymes for DNA replication, transcription, and many other aspects of DNA metabolism. The potential anti-cancer effect of thiosemicarbazones (TSC) and metal-TSC complexes has been demonstrated by targeting several biological processes, including DNA metabolism. Human topoisomerases were discovered among the molecular targets for TSCs, and metal-chelated TSCs specifically displayed significant inhibition. The processes by which metal-TSCs or TSCs inhibit topoisomerases are still being studied. In this brief review, we summarize the TSCs and metal-TSCs that inhibit various types of human topoisomerases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0705.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: DNA pooling; parentage; reproduction
Online: 29 June 2021 (12:54:42 CEST)
Phenotypes are necessary for genomic evaluations and management. Sometimes genomics can be used to measure phenotypes when other methods are difficult or expensive. Prolificacy of bulls used in multiple-bull pastures for commercial beef production is an example. A retrospective study of 79 bulls aged 2-year-old and older used 141 times in 4-5 pastures across 4 years was used to estimate repeatability from variance components. Traits available before each season’s use were tested for predictive ability. Sires were matched to calves using individual genotypes and evaluating exclusions. A lower cost method of measuring prolificacy was simulated for 5 pastures using the bulls’ genotypes and pooled genotypes to estimate average allele frequencies of calves and of cows. Repeatability of prolificacy was 0.62 ± 0.09. A combination of age-class and scrotal circumference accounted for less than 5 % of variation. Simulated estimation of prolificacy by pooling DNA of calves was accurate. Adding pooling of cow DNA or actual genotypes both increased accuracy about the same. Knowing a bull’s prior prolificacy would help predict future prolificacy for management purposes and could be used in genomic evaluations and research with coordination of breeders and commercial beef producers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA; phenotyping; intelligence; interpretation
Online: 3 February 2020 (03:27:19 CET)
The ability to predict physical characteristics from DNA presents significant opportunities for forensic science. Giving scientists an ability to make predictions about the donor of genetic material at a crime scene can then give investigators new intelligence leads for cold cases where DNA evidence has not identified any person of interest. However, the interpretation of this new form of intelligence requires careful analysis. The responses to an online survey, conducted in 2018-19, were used to examine how actors in the criminal justice system assess and interpret different types of DNA evidence and intelligence. The groups of focus for the survey were investigators, legal practitioners and the general public (as potential jurors). Several statistically significant effects were identified based on occupation and whether an individual had prior exposure to new DNA technology. Monitoring how those involved in interpreting reports from different types of DNA evidence and intelligence interpret them helps to ensure that decisions are made based on a sound understanding of their capabilities and limitations and may inform broader training and awareness strategies.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: double-stranded DNA; DNA dynamical models; correlated oscillations in macromolecules; epigenetic changes
Online: 4 January 2021 (16:35:40 CET)
A fully analytical treatment of the base-pair and codon dynamics in double-stranded DNA molecules is introduced, by means of a realistic treatment which considers different mass values for G, A, T, and C nucleotides and takes into account the intrinsic three-dimensional, helicoidal geometry of DNA in terms of a Hamitonian in cylindrical coordinates. Within the framework of the Peyrard-Dauxois-Bishop model we consider the coupling between stretching and stacking radial oscillations as well as the twisting motion of each base pair around the helix axis. By comparing the linearized dynamical equations for the angular and radial variables when going from the bp local scale to the longer triplet codon scale, we report an underlying hierarchical symmetry. The existence of synchronized collective oscillations of the base-pairs and their related codon triplet units are disclosed from the study of their coupled dynamical equations. The possible biological role of these correlated, long-range oscillation effects in double standed DNA molecules containing mirror-symmetric codons of the form XXX, XX’X, X’XX’, YXY, and XYX is discussed in terms of the dynamical equations solutions and their related dispersion relations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA methylation; epigenetics; biomarkers; circulating DNA; cfDNA; prostate cancer; early detection; prognosis
Online: 7 October 2020 (09:27:34 CEST)
There is a major clinical need for accurate biomarkers for prostate cancer prognosis, to better inform treatment strategies and disease monitoring. Current clinically recognised prognostic factors, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, lack sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing aggressive from indolent disease, particularly in patients with localised intermediate grade prostate cancer. There has therefore been a major focus on identifying molecular biomarkers that can add prognostic value to existing markers, including investigation of DNA methylation, which has a known role in tumorigenesis. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of DNA methylation biomarker studies in prostate cancer prognosis, and highlight the advances that have been made in this field. We cover the numerous studies into well-established candidate genes, and explore the technological transition that has enabled hypothesis-free genome-wide studies and the subsequent discovery of novel prognostic genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0575.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: antiretroviral treatment; residual HIV replication; episomal DNA; proviral DNA; antibody quantitation; LPS
Online: 26 November 2018 (08:32:26 CET)
Background: The presence of HIV residual replication markers was investigated among distinct subgroups of individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods: One hundred sixteen patients were distributed into 5 treatment groups: first-line suppressive ART with a non-nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) (n = 26), first-line suppressive ART with boosted protease inhibitors (PI-r) (n = 25), suppressive salvage therapy using PI-r (n = 27), suppressive salvage therapy with PI-r and raltegravir (n = 22) and virologic failure (n = 16). Episomal and total DNA quantitation was evaluated. HIV antibody and LPS quantitation was performed. Results: Episomal DNA was positive in 26% to 38% of individuals under suppressive ART, and it was higher among ART virologic failure group (p = 0.04). HIV proviral load was higher among patients with detectable episomal DNA (p = 0.01). Individuals receiving initial PI-r treatment presented lower HIV antibody (p = 0.027) and LPS (p = 0.029) levels than individuals receiving NNRTI. There was a negative correlation between episomal DNA quantitation and the duration of suppressive ART (p = 0.04), CD4+ T-cell count (p = 0.08), and CD8+ T-cell count (p = 0.07). Conclusions: Residual HIV replication has been inferred among individuals under suppressive ART according to episomal DNA detection. Residual replication may decrease with longer periods of suppressive ART and higher levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The relationship between episomal DNA and total DNA suggests there is a replenishment of the proviral reservoir. Lower antibody and LPS levels among patients with initial PI-r ART suggest these regimens may more effectively suppress HIV, more effectively decreasing HIV antigenic component.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0298.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: B-DNA; Z-DNA; circular dichroism; calorimetry; enthalpy; conformational transitions; heat capacity
Online: 19 June 2018 (11:37:10 CEST)
High concentrations of Na+ or [Co(NH3)6]3+ can induce the B to Z conformational transition in alternating (dC-dG) oligo and polynucleotides. The use of short DNA oligomers (dC-dG)4 and (dm5C-dG)4 as models can allow a thermodynamic characterization of the transition. Both form right handed double helical structures (B-DNA) in standard phosphate buffer with 115 mM Na+ at 25 oC. However, at 2.0 M Na+ or 200 mM [Co(NH3)6]3+, (dm5C-dG)4 assumes a left handed double helical structure (Z-DNA) while the unmethylated (dC-dG)4 analogue remains right handed under those conditions. We have previously demonstrated that the enthalpy of the transition at 25 oC for either inducer can be determined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) [Ferreira, J. M. & Sheardy, R. D., Biophys. J. 2006, 91, 1–7]. Here, ITC is used to investigate the linkages between temperature, water activity and DNA conformation. We found that the determined enthalpy for each titration varied linearly with temperature allowing determination of the heat capacity change (DCp) between the initial and final states. As expected, the DCp values were dependent upon the cation (i.e. Na+ vs [Co(NH3)6]3+) as well as the sequence of the DNA oligomer (i. e., methylated vs unmethylated). Osmotic stress experiments were carried out to determine the gain or loss of water by the oligomer induced by the titration. The results are discussed in terms of solvent accessible surface areas, electrostatic interactions and the role of water.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: melatonin; antioxidants; RNS; ROS; embryo development; DNA integrity; DNA oxidation; gene expression
Online: 27 March 2017 (10:04:31 CEST)
Oxidative and nitrosative stress are a common problem when manipulating gametes in vitro. In vitro development in mammalian embryos is highly affected by culture conditions, especially by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), because its absence or over production causes embryo arrest and changes in gene expression. Melatonin in gamete co-incubation during IVF has deleterious or positive effects depending on the concentration used in culture medium, demonstrating the delicate balance that must exist between antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity. Further research is needed to better understand the possible impact of melatonin on the different IVP steps in domestic animals, especially in seasonal breeds where this neuro-hormone system highly regulates its reproduction physiology.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RecG; SSB; stalled DNA replication fork; DNA repair; DNA replication; helicase; atomic force microscopy; OB-fold; SH3 domain; PXXP motif
Online: 2 April 2020 (04:26:52 CEST)
In E. coli DNA replication forks stall on average once per cell cycle. When this occurs, replisome components disengage from the DNA, exposing an intact, or nearly intact fork. Consequently, the fork structure must be regressed away from the initial impediment so repair can occur. Regression is catalyzed by the powerful, monomeric DNA helicase, RecG. During this reaction, the enzyme couples unwinding of fork arms to rewinding of duplex DNA resulting in the formation of a Holliday junction. RecG works against large opposing forces enabling it to clear the fork of bound proteins. Following subsequent processing of the extruded junction, the PriA helicase mediates reloading of the replicative helicase DnaB leading to the resumption of DNA replication. The single-strand binding protein (SSB) plays a key role in mediating PriA and RecG functions at forks. It binds to each enzyme via linker/OB-fold interactions and controls fork loading sites in a substrate-dependent manner that involves helicase remodeling. Finally, it is displaced by RecG during fork regression. The intimate and dynamic SSB-helicase interactions play key roles in ensuring fork regression and DNA replication restart.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA polymerase δ; PDIP46; poldip3; PDIP38; poldip2; DNA replication; enzyme regulation; DNA damage response; p12 subunit; E3 ligases; cell cycle
Online: 10 July 2017 (08:44:53 CEST)
This review focuses on the regulation and modulation of human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). The emphasis is on mechanisms that regulate the activity and properties of Pol δ in DNA repair and replication. The areas covered are the degradation of the p12 subunit of Pol δ, which converts it from a heterotetramer (Pol δ4) to a heterotrimer (Pol δ3), in response to DNA damage and also during the cell cycle. The biochemical mechanisms that lead to degradation of p12 are reviewed, as well as the properties of Pol δ4 and Pol δ3 that provide insights into their functions in DNA replication and repair. The second focus of the review involves the functions of two Pol δ binding proteins, PDIP46 and PDIP38, both of which are multi-functional proteins. PDIP46 is a novel activator of Pol δ4, and the impact of this function is discussed in relation to its potential roles in DNA replication. Several new models for the roles of Pol δ3 and Pol δ4 in leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis that integrate a role for PDIP46 are presented. PDIP38 has multiple cellular localizations including the mitochondria, the splicesosomes and the nucleus. It has been implicated in a number of cellular functions, including the regulation of specialized DNA polymerases, mitosis, the DNA damage response, Mdm2 alternative splicing and the regulation of the Nox4 NADPH oxidase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1419.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: biodiversity; COI; DNA barcoding; insects; Lepidoptera; Parnassius; Driopa; taxonomy; mitochondrial DNA; sphragis; reinforcement
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:42:25 CET)
In our work, using the analysis of DNA barcodes and morphology (wing color, male genitalia, sphragis shape in females), we show that the group of species close to P. mnemosyne is represented by two phylogenetic lineages, the western and eastern ones. The eastern lineage includes P. stubbendorfii, P. glacialis and P. hoenei. The western lineage includes three morphologically similar species, P. mnemosyne (Western Eurasia), P. turatii (southwestern Europe) and P. nubilosus stat. nov. (Turkmenistan and NE Iran), as well as P. ariadne (Altai). The latter species differs from the rest of the group in the presence of red spots on the wings. Parnassius mnemosyne s.s. is represented by four differentiated mitochondrial clusters that show clear association with specific geographic regions. We propose to interpret them as subspecies: P. mnemosyne mnemosyne (Central and Eastern Europe, N Caucasus, N Turkey), P. mnemosyne adolphi (the Middle East), P. mnemosyne orientalis (Tian Shan) and P. mnemosyne gigantea (Gissar-Alai in Central Asia). We demonstrate that in P. ariadne the red spots on the wing evolved as a reversion to the ancestral wing pattern. This reversion is observed in Altai, where the distribution areas of the western lineage, represented by P. ariadne, and the eastern lineage, represented by P. stubbendorfii, overlap. These two species hybridize in Altai, and we hypothesize that the color change in P. ariadne is the result of reinforcement of prezygotic isolation in the contact zone. Lectotype of Parnassius mnemosyne var. nubilosus Christoph, 1873 is designated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA double-strand breaks; ionizing radiation; DNA repair pathways; homologous recombination; mathematical modeling
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:30:28 CEST)
Relative contribution of different repair pathways to the radiation-induced DNA damage responses remains a challenging issue of studying the radiation injury endpoints. Comparative manifestation of homologous recombination (HR) after application of different radiation doses greatly determines an overall effectiveness of recovery in dividing cell after irradiation, since HR is an error-free mechanism intended for repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) during S/G2 phases of cell cycle. In this article, we present an experimentally observed evidence of dose-dependent shift in relative contribution of HR in human fibroblasts after X-ray exposure at doses 20-1000 mGy, which is also supported by quantitative modeling of DNA DSB repair. Our findings indicate that the radiation dose increase leads to dose-dependent decrease in relative contribution of HR into the entire repair process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0072.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: APOBEC3A; carcinogenesis; DNA deamination; DNA mutation, hepatocellular carcinoma; molecular mechanism; RNA editing; tumorigenesis
Online: 2 May 2023 (08:12:34 CEST)
Although the APOBEC3 family of single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases are well-known as antiviral factors, these enzymes are rapidly gaining attention as prominent sources of mutation in cancer. APOBEC3 signature single base substitutions, C-to-T and C-to-G in TCA and TCT motifs, are evident in over 70% of human malignancies and dominate the mutational landscape of numerous individual tumors. Recent murine studies have established cause-and-effect relationships, with both human APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B proving capable of promoting tumor formation in vivo. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanism of APOBEC3A-driven tumor development using the murine Fah liver complementation and regeneration system. First, we show that APOBEC3A alone is capable of driving tumor development (without Tp53 knockdown as in prior studies). Second, we show that the catalytic glutamic acid residue of APOBEC3A (E72) is required for tumor formation. Third, we show that an APOBEC3A separation-of-function mutant with compromised DNA deamination activity and wildtype RNA editing activity is defective in promoting tumor formation. Collectively, these results indicate that APOBEC3A is a “master driver” that fuels tumor formation through a DNA deamination-dependent mechanism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2208.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: APE1; DNA nanotechnology; fluorescence imaging
Online: 30 June 2023 (10:09:07 CEST)
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), also known as redox factor-1 (Ref-1), is a multifunctional protein which is widely existing in living organisms. It can specifically recognize and cleave the DNA in apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, as well as regulate the expression of genes to activate some transcription factors. The abnormal ex-pression and disruptions in the biological functions of APE1 are linked to a number of diseases, including inflammation, immunodeficiency, and cancer. Hence, it is extremely desired to monitor the activity of APE1, acquiring a thorough understanding of the healing process of damaged DNA and making clinical diagnoses. Thanks to the advent of DNA nanotechnology, some nanodevices are used to image the activity of APE1 with great sensitivity and simplicity. In this review, we will summarize DNA nanotechnology-empowered fluorescence imaging in the past years for APE1 activity according to the types of DNA probe, which are classified into linear DNA probes, composite DNA nanomaterials and three-dimensional (3D) DNA nanostructures. We also highlight the future research directions in the field of APE1 activity imaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0300.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: DNA Nucleotides; Transcription; Structural Symmetry
Online: 14 September 2020 (04:39:55 CEST)
To activate gene expression, the initiation of transcription is a highly regulated process involving the interaction of proteins and DNA nucleotides at the promoter site, which consists of a small number of base pairs. As it involves interactions at the atomic scale, it is challenging to determine the mechanism of binding responsible for the great specificity between the amino acid residuals comprising the transcription binding protein and the DNA nucleotides comprising the promoter. Here, a new approach to characterize the transcription initiation process is developed and verified from analysis of comparative pharmacological efficacy data and elemental modeling. The newly developed description of a mechanism for transcription initiation involves the direct binding of small molecule ligands of approximately twenty carbon atoms, which are both structurally symmetric to DNA nucleotides, and also chemically complementary in its functional groups for interaction with the oxygen element at the carbon two position of thymine and with the phosphodiester chain. The results indicate that the activating ligands are transported to the DNA nucleotide promoter site by protein transcription factors, which serve as delivery vectors, for transfer of the ligand to the DNA nucleotide pairs. The ligands examined in this study include the steroid hormones, synthetic steroid molecules, derivatives of vitamin D, and prostaglandins, particularly PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2. The transcription factors evaluated include glucocorticoid receptors, VDR, PPAR, and TBP. Through the developments, it is shown that because of the chemically complementary binding of the ligand to DNA nucleotide pairs, the resultant intermolecular complex produces three hydrogen bonds for the A-T and T-A configurations, which matches that of G-C and C-G. The orientation of the nucleotide base pairs is also seen to adjust as an inversion of the nominal position of the nucleobases to a dimer configuration presented via TBP transcription factor. The developments comprise a new approach to characterizing the initiation of the transcription process comprising the direct binding and interaction of ligands with DNA nucleotides as verified through comparative analysis of pharmacological activity and through perfect structural correspondence between the steroid hormone class as ligands with Watson-Crick DNA nucleotide pairings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0164.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Hierarchical clustering; DNA; Fastq; HcKmer
Online: 7 November 2018 (14:24:53 CET)
We apply hierarchical clustering (HC) of DNA k-mer counts on multiple Fastq files. The tree structures produced by HC may reflect experimental groups and thereby indicate experimental effects, but clustering of preparation groups indicates the presence of batch effects. Hence, HC of DNA k-mer counts may serve as an unspecific diagnostic device. In order to provide a simple applicable tool we implemented sequential analysis of Fastq reads with low memory usage in an R package (seqTools) available on Bioconductor. The approach is validated by analysis of Fastq file batches containing RNAseq data. Analysis of three Fastq batches downloaded from ArrayExpress indicated experimental effects. Analysis of RNAseq data from two cell types (dermal fibroblasts and Jurkat cells) sequenced in our facility indicate presence of batch effects. The observed batch effects were also present in reads mapped to the human genome and also in reads filtered for high quality (Phred > 30). We propose, that hierarchical clustering of DNA k-mer counts provides an unspecific diagnostic tool and a quality criterion and for RNAseq experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1193.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: DNA methylation; DNA methyltransferases; DNMT, ovarian cancer; high grade ovarian cancer; relapsed ovarian cancer
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:05:58 CEST)
Background: Despite recent advances in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) treatment, recur-rence and mortality rates have not improved significantly. DNA hypermethylation has generally been associated with ominous prognosis and chemotherapy resistance, but the role of DNMTs in EOC remains to be investigated. Methods: In the current study, we systematically retrieved gene expression data from patients with EOC and studied the immunohistochemical expression of DNMTs in 108 primary and 26 relapsed tumors. Results: Our results showed that DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L RNA levels were higher and DNMT2 lower in tumors compared to non-neoplastic tissue, and DNMT3A and DNMT2 expression decreased from Stage II to Stage IV carcinomas. Proteomic data also suggested that DNMT1 and DNMT3A levels were increased in tumors. Similarly, DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3L protein levels were overex-pressed and DNMT2 expression was reduced in high grade carcinomas compared to non-neoplastic tissue and low-grade tumors. Moreover, DNMT1 and DNMT3L were increased in relapsed tumors compared to their primaries. DNMT3A, DNMT1 and DNMT3B mRNA lev-els were correlated with overall survival. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that DNMT1 and DNMT3L are upregulated in primary high grade EOC and further increase in relapses, whereas DNMT3A is upregulated only in the earlier stages of cancer progression. DNMT2 downregulation highlights a presumptive tumor-suppressor activity of this gene in ovarian car-cinoma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0500.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: DNA repair; long non-coding RNA; microRNA; DNA damage; double-strand breaks; NHEJ; HR
Online: 26 October 2018 (10:22:45 CEST)
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are deleterious lesions that are generated in response to ionizing radiation or replication fork collapse that can lead to genomic instability and cancer. Eukaryotes have evolved two major pathways, namely homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) to repair DSBs. Whereas the roles of protein-DNA interactions in HR and NHEJ have been fairly well defined, the functions of small and long non-coding RNAs and RNA-DNA hybrids in the DNA damage response is just beginning to be elucidated. This review summarizes recent discoveries on the identification of non-coding RNAs and RNA-mediated regulation of DSB repair
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0118.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: protein-DNA interactions; DNA recognition; transcription factors; DNA binding domains; con-formational change; nuclear magnetic resonance; circular dichroism; control of gene expression; homeodomains.
Online: 8 February 2022 (14:53:06 CET)
Transcription factors must scan genomic DNA, recognize the cognate sequence of their control element(s), and bind tightly to them. The DNA recognition process is primarily carried out by their DNA binding domains (DBD), which interact with the cognate site with high affinity and more weakly with any other DNA sequence. DBDs are generally thought to bind to their cognate DNA without changing conformation (lock-and-key). Here we used nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism to investigate the interplay between DNA recognition and DBD conformation in the Engrailed homeodomain (EnHD), as model case for the homeodomain family of eukaryotic DBDs. We found that the conformational ensemble of EnHD is rather flexible and becomes more structured as ionic strength increases following a Debye-Hückel’s dependence. Our analysis indicates that EnHD’s response to ionic strength is mediated by a built-in electrostatic spring-loaded latch that operates as conformational transducer. We also found that, at moderate ionic strengths, EnHD changes conformation upon binding to cognate DNA. This change is of larger amplitude and somewhat orthogonal to the response to ionic strength. As a consequence, very high ionic strengths (e.g. 700 mM) block the electrostatic-spring-loaded latch and binding to cognate DNA becomes lock-and-key. However, the interplay between EnHD conformation and cognate DNA binding is robust across a range of ionic strengths (i.e. 45 to 300 mM) that covers the most physiologically-relevant conditions. Therefore, our results demonstrate the presence of a mechanism for the conformational control of cognate DNA recognition on a eukaryotic DBD. This mechanism can function as a signal transducer that immediately locks the DBD in place upon encountering the cognate site during active DNA scanning. The electrostatic-spring-loaded latch of EnHD can also enable the fine control of DNA recognition in response to local/temporal changes in ionic strength induced by variate physiological processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0009.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: satellite DNA; repetitive DNA; tandem repeats; classical human satellites; HSATI; HSATII; HSATIII; HSat1; HSat2; HSat3
Online: 28 April 2022 (10:18:37 CEST)
The classical human satellite DNAs, also referred to as human satellites 1, 2 and 3 (HSat1, HSat2, HSat3, collectively HSat1-3) constitute the largest individual arrays of tandemly repeated DNA sequences in the genome. Even though they were among the first human DNA sequences to be isolated and characterized at the dawn of molecular biology, HSat1-3 have been left behind in the genomics era and remain among the most enigmatic sequences in the human genome. Although HSat1-3 total roughly 3% of the genome on average, they were almost entirely missing from the human genome reference assembly for 20 years. Recently, the Telomere-to-Telomere Consortium produced the first truly complete assembly of a human genome, including the enormous HSat1-3 arrays, opening them up for a new wave of discovery. Towards this end, here, I provide an account of the history and current understanding of HSat1-3 genomics, evolution, and roles in disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0018.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: DNA metabarcoding; pollen; pollinators; pollen metabarcoding; plant-pollinator interactions; eDNA; DNA barcoding, honeybees; bumblebees; hoverflies
Online: 1 February 2022 (16:24:01 CET)
The identification of floral visitation by pollinators provides an opportunity to improve our understanding of the fine-scale ecological interactions between plants and pollinators, contributing to biodiversity conservation and promoting ecosystem health. In this review we outline the various methods which can be used to identify floral visitation, providing a comparison between molecular and non-molecular methods. We review the literature covering the ways in which DNA metabarcoding has been used to answer ecological questions relating to plant use by pollinators and discuss the findings of this research. We present detailed methodological considerations for each step of the metabarcoding workflow, from sampling through to amplification and finally bioinformatic analysis. Detailed guidance is provided to researchers for utilization of these techniques, emphasizing the importance of standardization of methods and improving the reliability of results. Future opportunities and directions of using molecular methods to analyze plant-pollinator interactions are then discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: EGFET; ISFET; electrochemical cell; enzymatic biosensor; DNA–DNA biosensor; immunosensor; antigen–antibody biosensor; ionic sensor
Online: 12 October 2018 (04:38:42 CEST)
Since 1970s, a great deal of attention has been paid to the development of semiconductor–based biosensors because of the numerous advantages they offer, including high sensitivity, faster response time, miniaturization, and low–cost manufacturing for quick biospecific analysis with reusable features. Commercial biosensors have become highly desirable in the fields of medicine, food, environmental monitoring as well as military applications (e.g., Hoffmann–La Roche, Abbott Point of Care, Orion High technologies, etc.), whereas increasing concerns on the food safety and health issues have resulted in the introduction of novel legislative standards for these sensors. Numerous devices have been developed for monitoring of biological–processes such as nucleic–acid hybridization, protein–protein interaction, antigen–antibody bonds and substrate–enzyme reactions, just to name a few. Since 1980s scientific interest moved to the development of semiconductor–based devices which also include integrated front–end electronics, such as the extended–gate–field–effect–transistor biosensor which is one of the first miniaturized chemical sensors. This work is intended to be a review of the state of the art focused on the development of biosensors based extended–gate–field–effect–transistor within the field of bioanalytical applications, which will highlight the most recent research works reported in the literature. Moreover, a comparison among the diverse EGFET devices will be presented giving particular attention to the materials and technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1471.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer; circulating tumor dna; biomarker
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:26:39 CET)
There is no routine approach to identify patients with gynecologic malignancies at high risk for chemotherapy-resistance. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) tumor fraction (TFx) represents a minimally-invasive approach to tumor profiling, with as yet limited data on utility in gynecologic malignancies. The objective was to investigate the use of ctDNA TFx in a cohort of patients with ovarian and endometrial cancer. Plasma samples from patients with biopsy-proven ovarian or endometrial cancer collected between 4/2018 and 4/2020 were subjected to shallow whole genome sequencing with determination of TFx via ichorCNA package. The association of TFx to continuous and categorical baseline clinicopathologic factors and progression-free survival was assessed. 210 plasma samples from 78 patients with gynecologic cancers were analyzed. Mean TFx for ovarian cancer was 5.5% and endometrial cancer 2.4% and there was no significant difference in TFx among histology either for endometrial or ovarian cancers. Grade was associated with significant difference in ‘sentinel’ TFx among ovarian cancers but not endometrial cancers. ctDNA TFx dynamics over time demonstrated rapid clearance of ctDNA in most patients with ovarian cancer, while endometrial cancer had consistently low TFx. ctDNA TFx is feasible in ovarian and endometrial cancers and may be a valuable important tool for prognostication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0893.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Betula pendula 'Dalecarlica'; DNA methylation; BpIAA9
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:22:44 CET)
The European white birch, scientifically known as Betula pendula, and its variant, B. pendula 'Dalecarlica' are characterized by a serrated leaf margin that enhances their aesthetic appeal. However, the lobed leaf trait can undergo random and spontaneous reversion to the typical ovoid or cordate shape during asexual reproduction. Investigating and elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying this unpredictable reversion mutation is essential for comprehending the birch leaf development process. In this research, we employed a non-lobed-leaf mutant derived from a lobed-leaf birch clone during plant tissue culture. We adopted a multi-omics approach, including whole-genome resequencing, transcriptome sequencing, and methylation profiling, to analyze and compare genomic variations and gene expression modifications. The study revealed that the 24 variant genes affected by 1464 SNP/InDel sites in the genome of the non-lobed-leaf mutant are not associated with leaf development. While the overall methylation level in the mutant's genome closely resembles that of the serrated-leaf birch, ten genes exhibit differential methylation accompanied by differential expression. Transcriptome sequencing demonstrated that the differentially downregulated genes in the mutant are significantly enriched in the GO:0009733 (response to auxin) and GO:0009734 (auxin-activated signaling) pathways. Validation through McrBC-PCR and qRT-PCR confirmed differential methylation and expression of BpIAA9 in the reversion mutant. The elevated methylation level in the BpIAA9 promoter leads to reduced expression, resulting in changes in the expression of auxin-responsive genes. This, in turn, leads to a transcriptional downregulation enrichment effect in auxin-related pathways in the reversion mutant, ultimately inhibiting the regulation of leaf veins by auxin during their development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1250.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Medulloblastoma; Circulating tumor DNA; exosomes; DIPG
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:32:50 CEST)
Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. Diagnosis cur-rently relies on surgical biopsy to obtain tumor tissue for histological analysis. There is a great need for less invasive approaches to molecularly profile tumors and monitor therapeutic response. Liquid biopsy analysis of circulating tumor biomarkers in biofluids like cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood offers a promising minimally invasive strategy. This review discusses recent advances in developing liquid biopsy assays using next-generation sequencing, digital PCR, and emerging techniques to detect circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), cells (CTCs), and exosomes in pediatric brain tumors. The ability to use these circulating biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis, thera-peutic targeting, tracking response to therapy, and understanding resistance mechanisms is ex-amined. Technical and clinical validation challenges to translate liquid biopsies into routine clin-ical practice are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1516.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Epigenetics; DNA methylation; Pharmacogenetics; Neurological Disorders
Online: 21 July 2023 (13:20:04 CEST)
Pharmacogenetics and DNA methylation influence therapeutic outcomes and provide insights into potential therapeutic targets for brain-related disorders. To understand the effect of genetic polymorphisms on drug response and disease risk, we analyzed the relationship between global DNA methylation, drug-metabolizing enzymes, transport genes, and pathogenic gene phenotypes in serum samples from two groups of patients: Group A, which showed increased 5-methylcytosine (5mC) levels during clinical follow-up, and Group B, which exhibited no discernible change in 5mC levels. We identified specific SNPs in several metabolizing genes, including CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP4F2, GSTP1, and NAT2 that were associated with differential drug responses. Specific SNPs in CYP had a significant impact on enzyme activity, leading to changes in phenotypic distribution between the two patient groups. Group B, which contained a lower frequency of normal metabolizers and a higher frequency of ultra-rapid metabolizers compared to patients in Group A, did not show an improvement in 5mC levels during follow-up. Furthermore, there were significant differences in phenotype distribution between patient Groups A and B for several SNPs associated with transporter genes (ABCB1, ABCC2, SLC2A9, SLC39A8, and SLCO1B1) and pathogenic genes (APOE, NBEA, and PTGS2). These findings appear to suggest that the interplay between pharmacogenomics and DNA methylation has important implications for improving treatment outcomes in patients with brain-related disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0086.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: spermine; cyclooctaoxygen; DNA; selenium; glyphosate; AMPA
Online: 29 January 2023 (03:10:50 CET)
Background: Oxygen exists in two gaseous (dioxygen and ozone) and six solid allotropic modifications. An additional allotropic modification of oxygen, the cyclooctaoxygen, was predicted to exist in 1990. The first synthesis and characterization of cyclooctaoxygen as its sodium crown complex, isolated in the form of three cytosine nucleoside hydrochloride complexes, was reported in 2016.Results: The sperminium hydrogen phosphate/cyclooctaoxygen sodium complex is calculated to cover the actively transcribed regions (2.6%) of bovine lymphocyte interphase genome. Cyclooctaoxygen seems to be naturally absent in hypoxia-induced highly condensed chromatin, taken as a model for eukaryotic metaphase/anaphase/early telophase mitotic chromatin. Hence, it is proposed that the cyclooctaoxygen sodium-bridged sperminium hydrogen phosphate and selenite coverage serves as an epigenetic shell of actively transcribed gene regions in eukaryotic ‘open’ euchromatin DNA. Cyclooctaoxygen sodium-bridged sperminium hydrogen selenite was calculated to serve as a marker shell component at ATG start codons in human euchromatin DNA mRNA genes, both at the translation initiation triplet and at 5'-untranslated region upstream ATGs. The total herbicide glyphosate (ROUNDUP®) and its metabolite (aminomethyl)phosphonic acid (AMPA) are proved to represent ‘epigenetic poisons’, since they both selectively destroy the cyclooctaoxygen sodium complex. This definition is of reason, since the destruction of cyclooctaoxygen is certainly sufficient to bring the protection shield of human euchromatin into collateral epigenetic collapse.Conclusions: The total herbicide glyphosate and its environmental metabolite (aminomethyl)phosphonic acid (AMPA) can be associated in vitro with catalytic detoriation of eukaryotic euchromatin genetic information.General Significance: The epigenetic shell of eukaryotic euchromatin is susceptible to decay induced by catalytic epigenetic poisons threatening eukaryotic genomic heritage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Strongyloidiasis; Strongyloidesstercoralis; Strongyloidesratti; DNA-molecular techniques
Online: 5 January 2023 (02:09:06 CET)
Background: Strongyloidiasis, a neglected disease caused by intestinal nematodes of the genus Strongyloides, is endemic to tropical and subtropical areas such as Vietnam. The morphological diagnosis of larvae by Hara Mori culture technique and microscopicare are considered the standard diagnostic procedures in the endemic areas of Strongyloides spp. However, they could only identify the genus, not the species of Strongyloides. DNA-molecular techniques which are highly sensitive and more cost-effective have been increasingly utilized in detection of Strongyloides species. This study aims to determine prevalence and the species of Strongyloides among resident population in Duc Hoa district, Long An province, Southern Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using 1,190 stool samples collected in Duc Hoa district, Long An province, Vietnam, from July, 2017 to November 2018. The stool specimens were transported to the Laboratory of Medical Parasitology, Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine within two hours of collection at an appropriate temperature of 25 oC. All samples were stored at 2 - 8°C and processed within 48 hours for microscopic examination. Molecular detection was carried out at Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine, Hochiminh city, VietNam. Results: Of the 1,190 samples tested, Strongyloides spp. larvae were detected in 79 specimens (6.6%) by two classical parasitological methods, namely direct microscopy and the modified Harada-Mori filter paper culture. DNA was extracted from 70 of the 79 samples of Strongyloides spp. larvae, which was subsequently characterized by real-time PCR amplification of the 18S and 28S regions of the rDNA gene. The results showed that 97.1% of the DNA samples were S. stercoralis, 2.9% were co-infections with S. ratti and S. stercoralis, and 2.9% belonged to S. ratti. For all 14 isolates, nucleotide sequencing was compared with other human pathogenic species of Strongyloides whose sequences are available in GenBank. The identity of 12/14 sequences were confirmed as S. stercoralis with a high level of similarity (91.3% - 100%) and over 98% for S. ratti. Between the two co-infection samples, the higher similarity belonged to S. stercoralis. Conclusion: A molecular amplification of small subunit ribosome RNA followed by sequence analysis has been proved to be a suitable method for discrimination of Strongyloides spp. retrieved from stool samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0305.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: gastric cancer; DNA methylation; TFF1; TFF2
Online: 20 October 2022 (11:07:15 CEST)
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies around the world, and the incidence of GC is increasing in the past decades. In addition to genetic modifications, epigenetic alterations catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are a well-characterized epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. Nowadays, DNA methylation landscape is essential for maintaining the silence of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). As an important group of peptide, TFF family has been confirmed to function as a TSG in various kinds of cancers. However, whether TFFs could be modified by DNA methylation in gastric cancer remains unknown. In this study, we initially screened out two expression profiles about GC from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The higher expressions of TFF1 and TFF2 were observed in GC tumor tissues than normal tissues. Additionally, we illustrated that the expressions of TFF1/TFF2 were associated to the overall survival (OS) and tumor free survival (TFS) of GC patients via through the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Subsequently, the integrative analysis was performed to estimate the DNA methylation level of each site in TFF1/TFF2 CpG islands. Importantly, our findings indicated that hyper-methylation of cg01886855 and cg26403416 were separately responsible for the downregulation of TFF1 and TFF2 in GC samples. Besides, utilizing the gain of function assay, we demonstrated that TFF1/TFF2 could suppress the proliferation of GC cells. Based on these results, We identified that TFF1 and TFF2 acted as the putative tumor suppressors in gastric cancer, which suggested that TFFs could be two candidate biomarkers for predicting tumor recurrence in gastric cancer patients. Furthermore, these findings highlight a potential therapeutic approach in targeting the TFFs for the treatment of gastric cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0283.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: molecular ecology; functional diversity; DNA sequencing
Online: 28 April 2022 (10:31:56 CEST)
Wildfires have continued to increase in frequency and severity in Southern California due in part to climate change. To gain a further understanding of microbial soil communities’ response to fire and functions that may enhance post-wildfire resilience, soil fungal and bacterial microbiomes were studied from different wildfire areas in the Gold Creek Preserve within the Angeles National Forest using 16S, FITS, 18S, 12S, PITS, and CO1 amplicon sequencing. Sequencing datasets from December 2020 and June 2021 samplings were analyzed using DNA Subway, ranacapa, stats, vcd, EZBioCloud, and mixomics. Significant differences were found among bacterial and fungal taxa associated with different fire areas in the Gold Creek Preserve. There was evidence of seasonal shifts in the alpha diversity of the bacterial communities. In the sparse partial least squares analysis, there were strong associations (r>0.8) between longitude, elevation, and a defined cluster of Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs). The Chi-square test revealed differences in fungi:bacteria (F:B) proportions between different trails (p=2*10^-16). sPLS results focused on a cluster of Green Trail samples with high elevation and longitude. Analysis revealed the cluster included the post-fire pioneer fungi Pyronema, and Tremella. Chlorellales algae, and pathogenic Fusarium sequences were elevated. Bacterivorous Corallococcus, which secretes antimicrobials, and bacterivorous flagellate Spumella, were associated with the cluster. There was functional redundancy in clusters that were differently composed, but shared similar ecological functions. These results implied a set of traits for post fire resiliency. These included photo-autotrophy, mineralization of pyrolyzed organic matter and aromatic/oily compounds, pathogenicity and parasitism, antimicrobials, and N-metabolism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0474.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Biosensors; DNA; RNA; Cancer; Biomarkers; Proteomics
Online: 31 January 2022 (21:21:33 CET)
The deadliest disease in the world, cancer, kills many people every year. The early detection is the only hope for the survival of malignant cancer patients. As a result, in the preliminary stages of , the diagnosis of cancer biomarkers at the cellular level is critical for improving cancer patient survival rates. For decades, scientists have focused their efforts on the invention of biosensors. Biosensors, in addition to being employed in other practical scenarios, can essentially function as cost effective and highly efficient devices for this purpose. Traditional cancer screening procedures are expensive, time-consuming, and inconvenient for repeat screenings. Biomarker-based cancer diagnosis, on the other hand, is rising as one of the most potential tools for early detection, disease progression monitoring, and eventual cancer treatment. As Biosensor is an analytical device, it allows the selected analyte to bind to the biomolecules being studied (– for example RNA, DNA, tissue, proteins, cells). They can be divided based on the kind of biorecognition or transducer elements on the sensor. Most biosensor analyses necessitate the analyte being labeled with a specific marker. In this review article, the application of distinct variants of biosensors against cancer has been described.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0656.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Silicene; Graphene; DNA; hybridization; Biosensor; ISFETs
Online: 26 March 2021 (10:58:26 CET)
Two-dimensional silicon allotrodes– also called Sinicene– have recently experienced intensive scientific research interest due to their unique electrical, mechanical, and sensing characteristics. A novel silicene based nano-material has been enticed great amenities, partially because of its uniformity with graphene. Silicene is a highly sensitive for numerous sensors based on molecular sensing as pH sensor, gas sensor, ion sensor and biosensing are Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nucleobase sensor, photonic sensor, cell-based biosensor, glucose sensor, and bioelectric nose sensor. Nowadays genetic research based on DNA hybridization, which is a vital tools for sensing material and it has various detection methods. Among of them, the detection method is frequency readout used to a label-free detection of DNA hybridization. In this paper we have compared the graphene and silicene quantum capacitance that has been proposed for a DNA hybridization detection method on wireless readout. These method shows, the strands of mismatched and complementary DNA have in different range of frequency to identify output efficiency. With respect to DNA concentration the output of silicene is almost sharply linear than graphene. In addition of field effect transistor, silicene opens a new opportunities due to its band gap whereas graphene indicates zero band gap. It can be stated that silicene is much more reliable as well as much stronger than multi-layered graphene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0880.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1); tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (Tdp2); usnic acid; Tdp2 inhibitors; Tdp1 inhibitors
Online: 11 August 2023 (08:18:31 CEST)
Tdp1 and Tdp2 are DNA repair enzymes that repair DNA damages caused by various agents, including anticancer drugs. Thus, these enzymes resist anticancer therapy and could be the reasons of resistance to such widely used drugs as topotecan and etoposide. In the present work, we found compounds capable of inhibiting both enzymes among derivatives of (-)-usnic acid. Both (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of compounds act equally effectively against Tdp1, and only (-)-enantiomers inhibited Tdp2. Surprisingly, the compounds protect HEK293FT wild type cells from the cytotoxic effect of etoposide but potentiate it against Tdp2 knockout cells. We assume that the sensitizing effect of the compounds in the absence of Tdp2 is associated with effective inhibition of Tdp1, which could take over the functions of Tdp2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0528.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA strands; complementary replication; DNA alphabets; binary opposition; binary numbers; dichotomy; dichotomic tree; algebras; split-quaternions; root-complementarity
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:56:14 CEST)
This article is devoted to the results of in-depth analysis of the system of binary-oppositional structures in DNA n-plet alphabets and their algebraic-matrix representations. These results show that the molecular complementary replication of DNA strands is accompanied by the presence of an algebraic version of the principle "like begets like" in matrix representations of DNA alphabets having internal structures. This algebraic version is based on binary-oppositional structures in the genetic molecular system, which can be represented by binary numbers and corresponding matrices of DNA alphabets. The received results allow thinking that the phenomenon "like begets like" (or a complementary replication in a wide sense) is systemic in the genetic organization and is connected with algebraic features of biological organization. Correspondingly, the biological principle "like begets like" can be additionally modeled by algebraic-matrix methods and approaches. Such algebra-matrix modeling of the genetic coding system gives new ways for studying and understanding the key role of the named principle in genetic and other inherited physiological complexes. On this way, the author discovered general rules of stochastic organization of information binary sequences of genomic DNAs of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The presented rules are connected with information dichotomies of probabilities and corresponding fractal-like trees of probabilities, which fundamentally differ from constructional dichotomies in biological bodies. The received phenomenological data and rules lead to new biological ideas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0353.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chromothripsis; structural variants; DNA-repair; DNA-repair disorders; DNA-double strand breaks (DSBs); ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM); ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR); TP53; micronuclei; chromosome pulverization.
Online: 29 January 2020 (11:58:58 CET)
Chromothripsis is a mutational mechanism leading to complex and relatively clustered chromosomal rearrangements resulting in diverse phenotypic outcomes depending on the involved genomic landscapes. It may occur both in the germ and the somatic cells resulting in congenital and developmental disorders and cancer, respectively. Asymptomatic individuals may be carriers of chromotriptic rearrangements and experience recurrent reproductive failures when two or more chromosomes are involved. Several mechanisms are postulated to underly chromothripsis. The most attractive hypothesis involves chromosome pulverization in micronuclei followed by incorrect reassembly of fragments through DNA repair to explain the clustered nature of the observed complex rearrangements. Moreover, exogenous or endogenous DNA damage induction and dicentric bridge formation may be involved. Chromosome instability is commonly observed in the cells of patients with DNA-repair disorders, such as ataxia telangiectasia, Nijmegen breakage syndrome and Bloom syndrome. In addition, germline variations of TP53 have been associated with chromothripsis in Sonic-Hedgehog medulloblastoma and acute myeloid leukemia. In the present review, we focus on the underlying mechanisms of chromothripsis and the involvement of defective DNA-repair genes resulting in chromosome instability and chromothripsis-like rearrangements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0602.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: carcinogenesis; cancer treatment; cervical cancer; DNA synthesis; free-radical; retinoblastoma; ribonucleotide reductase; somatic mutation theory (SMT)
Online: 28 December 2021 (10:53:54 CET)
The presence of mutated genes strongly correlates with the incidence of cancer. Decades of research, however, has not yielded any specific causative gene or set of genes for the vast majority of cancers. The Cancer Genome Atlas program was supposed to provide clarity but it only gave much more data without any accompanying insight into how the disease begins and progresses. It may be time to notice that epidemiological studies consistently show that the environment, not genes, has the principal role in causing cancer. Since carcinogenic chemicals in our food, drink, air and water are the primary culprits, we need to look at the biochemistry of cancer, with a focus on enzymes which invariably facilitate transformations in a cell. In particular, attention should be paid to the rate-limiting enzyme in DNA synthesis, ribonucleotide reductase (RnR) whose activity is tightly linked to tumor growth. Besides circumstantial evidence that cancer is induced at this enzyme’s vulnerable free-radical-containing active-site by various carcinogens, its role in initiating retinoblastoma and HPV-related cervical cancers is well documented. Blocking the activity of malignant RnR is a certain way to arrest cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1530.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Epigenetics; DNA; Histones; Brain; Neurons; Development; Neurodegeneration
Online: 23 November 2023 (12:55:24 CET)
Epigenetic changes are changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations to the basic DNA sequence. These changes lead to establishing a so-called epigenetic code that dictates which and when genes are activated, thus orchestrating gene regulation and playing a central role in development, health, and disease. The brain, being for the most formed by cells that do not undergo a renewal process through life, is highly prone to the risk of alterations leading to neuronal death and neurodegenerative disorders, mainly at late age. Here we review the main epigenetic modifications that have been described in the brain, with particular attention to those related to the onset of developmental anomalies or neurodegenerative conditions and/or occurring in old age. DNA methylation and several types of histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, lactylation, and crotonylation) are major players in these processes. They are directly or indirectly involved in the onset of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, this review briefly describes the role of these epigenetic changes in the mechanisms of brain development, maturation, and aging and some of the most important factors dynamically regulating or contributing to these changes such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1439.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: tuberculosis; electroporation; vaccine; DNA-hsp65; nonhuman primate
Online: 23 October 2023 (11:15:50 CEST)
A Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is still the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis, providing limited protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in adulthood. New advances in delivery of DNA vaccines by electroporation have been made in the past decade. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of DNA-hsp65 vaccine administered by intramuscular electroporation (EP) in cynomolgus macaques. Animals received three doses of DNA-hsp65 at 30-days intervals. We demonstrated that intramuscular electroporated DNA-hsp65 vaccine immunization of cynomolgus macaques was safe, and there were no vaccine-related effects on hematological, renal, or hepatic profiles, compared to the pre-vaccination parameters. No tuberculin skin test conversion nor lung X-ray alteration was identified. Further, low, and transient peripheral cellular immune response and cytokine expression were observed, primarily after the third dose of the DNA-hsp65 vaccine. Electroporated DNA-hsp65 vaccination is safe but provided limited enhancement of peripheral cellular immune responses. Preclinical vaccine trials with DNA-hsp65 delivered via EP may include a combination of plasmid cytokine adjuvant and/or protein prime-boost regimen, to help the induction of a stronger cellular immune response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1002.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: autism; diagnostic yield; DNA sequencing; novel disorders
Online: 10 October 2023 (05:00:59 CEST)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common condition with lifelong implications and a strong hereditary component suggesting genetic underpinnings. The last decade has seen dramatic improvements in DNA sequencing and related bioinformatics and databases. We analyzed the raw DNA sequencing files on the Variantyx® bioinformatics platform for the last 50 ASD patients evaluated with trio whole genome sequencing (trio-WGS). “Qualified” variants were defined as coding, rare, and evolutionarily conserved. Primary Diagnostic Variants (PDV) additionally were in genes directly linked to ASD and matched clinical correlation. A PDV was identified in 34/50 (68%) of cases, including 25 (50%) cases with heterozygous de novo and 10 (20%) with inherited variants. De novo variants in genes directly associated with ASD were far more likely to be Qualifying than non-Qualifying versus a control group of genes not associated with ASD (P = 0.0002, odds ratio 29), validating that most are indeed disease related. Only 14/34 (41%) of PDV cases had the variant listed on the laboratory report, and reanalysis increased diagnostic yield from 28% to 68%. Variants that we assigned as PDVs yet not on the report were predominately de novo in genes not yet reported as ASD associated. Many subjects both with and without a PDV had inherited Qualifying variants in known ASD-associated genes, suggesting polygenic inheritance. Thirty-three subjects (66%) had treatment recommendation(s) based on DNA analyses. Our results demonstrate high yield of trio-WGS for revealing molecular diagnoses in ASD that is greatly enhanced by re-analyzing DNA sequencing files. In contrast to previous reports, de novo variants dominate the findings, mostly representing novel conditions. This has implications to the cause and rising prevalence of autism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1707.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: cGAS; self-DNA; mitosis; autoimmune diseases; DNases
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:12:24 CEST)
cGAS is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates innate immune responses through production of the second messenger 2’3’-cGAMP, which activates the adaptor STING. cGAS senses dsDNA in a length-dependent but sequence-independent manner, and it cannot discriminate self-DNA from foreign DNA. In normal physiological conditions, cellular DNA is sequestered in the nucleus by nuclear envelope and in mitochondria by mitochondrial membrane. When self-DNA leaks into the cytosol during cellular stress, or during mitosis, the cGAS can be exposed to self-DNA and be activated. Recently, many studies have investigated how cGAS keeps inactive and avoids to be aberrantly activated by self-DNA. Thus, the aim of this narrative review is to summarize the mechanisms by which cGAS avoids to sense self-DNA under normal physiological conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1042.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: biosensor; electrochemistry; graphene; gold nanoparticles; DNA detection
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:31:38 CEST)
Currently available DNA detection techniques frequently require compromises between simplicity, speed, accuracy, and cost. Here, we propose a simple, label-free and cost-effective DNA detection platform developed at screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) modified with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The preparation of the detection platform involved a two-step electrochemical procedure based on GO reduction onto SPCEs followed by the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl4 to facilitate the post-grafting reaction with AuNPs. The final sensor was fabricated by the simple physical adsorption of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe onto AuNPs-RGO/SPCE electrode. Each preparation step was confirmed by morphological and structural characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of the modified electrodes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results demonstrated that the introduction of AuNPs onto RGO/SPCEs led to an enhancement in surface conductivity, characteristic that favored an increased sensitivity in detection. The detection process relied on the change in the electrochemical signal induced by the binding of target DNA to the bioreceptor, and was monitored particularly by the change in the charge transfer resistance of a [Fe(CN)6]4−/3− redox couple added in the test solution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1753.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Botryosphaeriaceae; DNA sequence; Forest; Pseudofusicoccumaceae; Fungal Taxonomy
Online: 26 June 2023 (07:20:15 CEST)
The Botryosphaeriales order are best known for the diseases they cause in woody plants, as primary pathogens or latent pathogens residing in the woody tissue of asymptomatic hosts. In the first instance, Botryosphaeriales species have been identified in Venezuela using morphological de-scriptions in the 80's and 90's, and later, the mid-2000s using molecular techniques. The mor-phological descriptions of the asexual morphs were initially used for the identification of Botry-osphaeriales genera and species. Lasiodiplodia spp., (as L. theobromae) was the most isolated fungus in Venezuela within the Botryosphaeriales and has been found in more than 50% of the hosts in native and non-native plants, followed by Diplodia, Dothiorella, Fusicoccum, Lasiodiplodia, Micro-diplodia, Macrophomina, Neofusicoccum, Sphaeropsis, and Botryosphaeria, considered all of them cosmopolitan group. With molecular studies, that included DNA sequence data from multiple genes, such as the internal transcribed spacer of rDNA (ITS), translation elongation factor-1α (tef1), and β-tubulin (btub) used on the fungi isolated from woody plants, mainly trees or forest species, resulted in the presence of two families within the Botryosphaeriales order for Venezuela. Botryosphaeriaceae family with the genera: Botryosphaeria, Cophinforma, Diplodia, Lasiodiplodia and Neofusicoccum, and the Pseudofusicoccumaceae family that includes the genus Pseudofusicoccum. In Botryosphaeriaceae family was again the Lasiodiplodia genus the most predominant in most hosts, and the specie L. theobromae the most isolated in native and non-native plants; Botryosphaeria dothidea, Cophinforma atrovirens, Diplodia scrobiculata (syn. Diplodia guayanensis), Lasiodiplodia brasi-liensis, L. crassispora, L. pseudotheobromae, Neofusicoccum arbuti (syn. N. andinum), N. parvum, and N. ribis are cosmopolitan species, and they were isolated from native and non-native plants; while Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum was found in plantations non-native of Acacia mangium, E. urophylla x E. grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, and reported exclusively in South America; Lasiodiplodia venezue-lensis has only been reported in Venezuela, from native and non-native plants. The presence, distribution, diversity, and symptoms of these fungi, mainly of the new genus, new species, and reports found in Venezuela and other parts of the world, were also reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Microsatellite; CpG island; sex chromosomes; DNA markers
Online: 16 June 2023 (12:41:59 CEST)
DNA markers have high occurrence and mutation rates and are generally located around the controlling regions of some tissue-specific genes and housekeeping genes that can change the expression pattern. Microsatellites and CpG islands are stretches of DNA with repeats and are known to influence gene expression. Microsatellites are more prone to mutations than the rest of the genomic DNA which allows the straightforward genomic nucleotide evolutionary transformation rate in different species. In the present study, these DNA markers are mined and an in-silico comparison was carried out to understand their occurrence pattern and distribution frequency in sex chromosomes (X and Y) of 12 different animal species using Perl and R programming pipelines. It was found that female-dominant X chromosomes had higher occurrence and distribution frequencies for these DNA markers than that of male-dominant sex chromosome i.e. Y which means that the former has a higher number of the evolutionary sites. The density of DNA markers however, showed remarkable variation for different animal species The results obtained need validation through wet-lab experimentation. Tri- and hexa-nucleotide repeats are more abundant in exons, whereas other repeats are more abundant in non-coding regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: NSCLC; JAC4; DNA repair; radiotherapy; bidirectional effect
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:38:38 CEST)
More than 50% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are treated with radiotherapy (RT) during different phases of treatment. However, radiation pneu-monitis (RP) and resistance often lead to RT failure in NSCLC patients. JWA, a tumor suppressor gene, is known to enhance DNA damage in gastric cancer cells while protect normal cells from DNA damage induced by cisplatin. Recently, we have re-ported that JWA agonist compound 4 (JAC4) effectively protects intestinal epithelium from RT triggered damage in mice. However, the potential synergistic and attenuated effects of JAC4 in chest RT of lung cancer are not been illuminated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of JAC4 on the radiotoxicities of both NSCLC and normal lung tissue. CCK-8 and colony formation assays showed that JAC4 played a bidirectional role in radiation-treated SPCA-1 and BEAS-2B cells. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays showed that JAC4 in combination with RT increased DNA damage and apoptosis in SPCA-1 cells, while the opposite effect was observed in BEAS-2B cells. Mechanistically, JAC4 inhibited homologous recombination repair (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in SPCA-1 cells, but not in normal cells. JAC4 increased antioxidant capacity, and reduced oxidative stress and inhibited nu-clear factor Kappa-B (NF-κB, P65) translocation to the nucleus in BEAS-2B cells. Im-portantly, the bidirectional roles of JAC4 on RT were reversed by siJWA in both SPCA-1 and BEAS-2B cells. Finally, the bidirectional effects of JAC4 in combination with RT were further validated in NSCLC xenograft model mice. In conclusion, JAC4 enhanced effect of RT on tumor growth while alleviated RP and lung injury. Our re-sults may provide new strategy for optimizing RT regimen for NSCLC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1454.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Catastrophes; Genetic identification; Kinship analysis; DNA degradation
Online: 22 May 2023 (03:01:25 CEST)
Different types of disasters, whether natural or human character, lead to the significant loss of human lives. In the latter case, the quick action of identification of corpses and human remains is mandatory. There are a variety of protocols to identify victims, however, genetics is one of the tools that allow an exact identification of the victim. However, several factors may interfere with this identification, from the biological samples’ degradation not allowing the analysis of nuclear information, to failure to dispose of biological samples from family members. Access to certain family members could be a determinant of the proper choice of genetic markers that allow the identification of the victim, or his/her inclusion in a given genetic maternal or paternal lineage. With the new advances in the genetic field, it is expected to allow soon the identification of victims from disasters only with his/her biological postmortem samples, being possible to draw a robot portrait and its most likely physical characteristics. In all cases, genetics is the only modern tool with universal character and can be used in essentially all biological samples, giving and identification of more or less accurate statistical character, depending on whether nuclear or lineage markers are used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0409.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: smoking,; DNA methylation; cardiometabolic traits; mendelian randomization
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:56:37 CEST)
Understanding epigenome paths through which smoking contributes to cardiometabolic traits is important for downstream applications. In this study, I used a SNP-based analytical pipeline to integrate several publicly available datasets and identify CpG sites that mediate the impact of smoking on cardiometabolic traits. After applying stringent statistical criteria, 11 CpG sites were detected that showed significant association (P<5e-8) with cardiometabolic traits at both discovery and replication stage. By integrating eQTL data, I identified genes behind a number of these associations. cg05228408 was hypomethylated in smokers and contributed to higher blood pressure by lowering the expression of CLCN6 gene. cg08639339 was hypermethylated in smokers and lowered metabolic rate by increasing the expression of RAB29; furthermore, I noted TMEM120A mediated the impact of smoking-cg17325771 on LDL, and LTBP3 mediated the smoking-cg07029024 effect on heart rate. This study provides a list of CpG sites that mediates the impact of smoking on cardiometabolic traits and a framework to investigate epigenome path through which a lifestyle habit modifies disease risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0414.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: information entropy; DNA sequences; patients surviving; leukemia
Online: 23 March 2023 (13:23:45 CET)
The purpose of this study is to provide an accurate formula for calculating entropy for short DNA sequences and to demonstrate how to use it to examine leukemia patient surviving. We used IDIBAPS leukemia patient’s data base with 117 anonymized records. The generalized form of the Robust Entropy Estimator (EnRE) for short DNA sequences was proposed and key EnRE futures was showed. The Survival Analysis has been done using statistical package IBM SPSS. Entropy EnRE were calculated for leukemia patients for two samples: A. 2 groups divided by median EnRE and B. 2 groups of patients were formed according to their belonging to 1st and 4th quartiles of EnRE. The result of survival analysis are statistically significant: A. p < 0.05; B. p < 0.005. The death hazard for a patient with EnRE below median is 1.556 times that of a patient with EnRE over median and that the death hazard for a patient of 1st quartile (lowest EnRE) is 2.143 times that of a patient of 4th quartile (highest EnRE). The transition from median to quartile patients’ groups with more EnRE differentiation confirmed the unique significance of the entropy of DNA sequences for leukemia patients surviving.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0151.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: biological invasions; fish; DNA; barcoding; primers; identification
Online: 6 July 2021 (13:28:46 CEST)
Reliable species identification is critical for detection and monitoring of biological invasions. In this study, we propose four sets of primers for efficient amplification of several loci, including the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-c (COI) subunit I gene which is a basis for DNA barcoding. This set of primers gives a shorter product which can be used in high-throughput sequencing systems for metabarcoding purposes. Another mitochondrial locus encoding the large ribosomal subunit (16S) may be useful to study the population structure and as an additional source of information in the metabarcoding of communities. We propose to use a set of primers for the nuclear locus of the small ribosomal subunit (18S) as a positive control and to verify the results of the barcoding. Our proposed sets of primers demonstrate a high amplification efficiency and a high specificity both for freshwater alien and indigenous fishes. The proposed research design makes it possible to carry out extremely cheap studies on the assessment of biological diversity using genetic analysis without expensive equipment, and with the technique for conducting laboratory work and processing of the results available to any researcher. The paper also presents original data on the genetic polymorphism of all mass alien fish species in the Volga-Kama region. High efficiency of DNA identification based on our primers is shown as compared to traditional monitoring of biological invasions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0629.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: pancreatic cancer; epigenetics; metastasis; enhancer; DNA methylation
Online: 25 June 2021 (16:05:34 CEST)
Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the most common (90%) and aggressive type of pancreatic cancer. Genomic analyses of PDA specimens have identified the recurrent genetic mutations that drive PDA initiation and progression. However, the underlying mechanisms that further drive PDA metastasis remain elusive. Despite many attempts, no recurrent genetic mutation driving PDA metastasis has been found, suggesting that PDA metastasis is driven by epigenetic fluctuations rather than genetic factors. Therefore, establishing epigenetic mechanisms of PDA metastasis would facilitate the development of successful therapeutic interventions. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in PDA as a critical contributor on PDA progression and metastasis. In particular, we explore the recent advancements elucidating the role of nucleosome remodeling, histone modification, and DNA methylation in the process of cancer metastasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0176.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: DNA nanotechnology; Protein Nanotechnology; Self-assembly; Bionanomaterials
Online: 5 March 2021 (09:13:43 CET)
Proteins and DNA exhibit key physical chemical properties that make them advantageous for building nanostructures with outstanding features. Both DNA and protein nanotechnology have growth notably and proved to be fertile disciplines. The combination of both types of nanotechnologies is helpful to overcome the individual weaknesses and limitations of each one, paving the way for the continuing diversification of the structural nanotechnologies. Recent studies have implemented a synergistic combination of both biomolecules to assemble unique and sophisticate protein-DNA nanostructures. These hybrid nanostructures are highly programmable and display remarkable features that create new opportunities to build in the nanoscale. This review focuses on the strategies deployed to create hybrid protein-DNA nanostructures. Here, we will discuss strategies such as polymerization, spatial directing and organizing, coating, rigidizing or folding DNA into particular shapes or moving parts. The enrichment of structural DNA nanotechnology by incorporating protein nanotechnology has been clearly demonstrated and still shows a large potential to create useful and advanced materials with cell-like properties or dynamic systems. It can be expected that structural protein-DNA nanotechnology will open new avenues in the fabrication of nano-assemblies with unique functional applications and enrich the toolbox of bionanotechnology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0003.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA repair; NHEJ; synthetic lethality; genetic interaction
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:41:58 CET)
Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a major DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells that recognizes, processes and fixes DNA damages throughout the cell cycle, and is specifically important for homeostasis of post-mitotic neurons and developing lymphocytes. Neuronal apoptosis increases in the mice lacking NHEJ factors Ku70 and Ku80. Inactivation of other NHEJ genes, either Xrcc4 or Lig4, leads to massive neuronal apoptosis in the central nervous system (CNS) that correlates with embryonic lethality in mice. Inactivation of either Paxx, Mri or Dna-pkcs NHEJ gene results in normal CNS development due to compensatory effects of Xlf. Combined inactivation of Xlf/Paxx, Xlf/Mri and Xlf/Dna-pkcs, however, results in late embryonic lethality and high levels of apoptosis in CNS. To determine the impact of NHEJ factors on early stages of neurodevelopment, we isolated neural stem and progenitor cells from mouse embryos and investigated proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation capacity of these cells lacking either Xlf, Paxx, Dna-pkcs, Xlf/Paxx or Xlf/Dna-pkcs. We found that XLF, DNA-PKcs and PAXX maintain the neural stem and progenitor cell populations and neurodevelopment in mammals, which is particularly evident in the double knockout models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0356.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Sanger Sequencing; DNA Sequencing; Chain Termination Sequencing
Online: 12 November 2020 (17:20:07 CET)
The world has now entered into a replacement era of genomics due to the continued advancements within the next generation high throughput sequencing technologies, which incorporates sequencing by synthesis-fluorescent in place sequencing (FISSEQ), pyrosequencing, sequencing by ligation using polony amplification, supported oligonucleotide detection (SOLiD), sequencing by hybridization alongside sequencing by ligation, and nanopore technology. Great impacts of those methods are often seen for solving the genome related problems of plant and Animalia which will open the door of a replacement era of genomics. This might ultimately overcome the Sanger sequencing that ruled for 30 years. NGS is predicted to advance and make the drug discovery process more rapid.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: DNA charge transfer; effective Hamiltonians; renormalization techniques
Online: 6 November 2020 (09:05:14 CET)
By introducing a suitable renormalization process the charge carrier and phonon dynamics of a double-stranded helical DNA molecule is expressed in terms of an effective Hamitonian describing a linear chain, where the renormalized transfer integrals explicitly depend on the relative orientations of the Watson-Crick base pairs, and the renormalized on-site energies are related to the electronic parameters of consecutive base pairs along the helix axis, as well as to the low-frequency phonons dispersion relation. The existence of synchronized collective oscillations enhancing the π-π orbital overlapping among different base pairs is disclosed from the study of the obtained analytical dynamical equations. The role of these phonon-correlated, long-range oscillation effects on the charge transfer properties of double standed DNA homopolymers is discussed in terms of the resulting band structure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0163.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Sanger Sequencing; DNA Sequencing; Chain Termination Sequencing
Online: 3 November 2020 (14:41:11 CET)
DNA sequencing methods were first developed more than 20 years ago with the publication of two approaches to sequencing methodology that became known as Sanger sequencing (1), based on enzymatic synthesis from a single-stranded DNA template with chain termination using dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs) and Maxim-Gilbert sequencing (2),which involved chemical degradation ofend-radio-labeled DNA fragments. Both methods relied on four-lane,high resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to separate the labeled fragment and allow the base sequence to be read in a staggered ladder-like fashion. Sanger sequencing was technically easier and faster, and thus became the main DNA sequencing method for the vast majority of applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0349.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: neurodegeneration; tauopathies; cancer, Tau protein, DNA protection
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:31:41 CEST)
For its microtubule-binding properties, the expression level of the neurodegeneration-associated protein Tau is pondered as a potential modifier of cancer resistance to chemotherapy since decades. Indeed, Tau binds microtubules at the same site as taxanes, a class of chemotherapeutic drugs designed to stabilize the microtubule network in order to stall cell division and to induce tumor cell death. Whilst independent studies report the association between low Tau expression and superior taxane response, the data were refused by a meta-analysis, suggesting interference of other parameters. Unpredictably, Tau expression level was identified as a prognostic cancer marker, whereby its positive or negative predictive value for survival depended on the cancer type. With recent experimental evidence linking Tau to P53 signaling, DNA stability and protection and to the implication of Tau in cancer is strengthened. The identification of a role of Tau at the interface between two major aging-related disorder families, neurodegeneration and cancer, offers clues for the epidemiological observation inversely correlating these disorders. Elucidating how Tau is mechanistically implicated in cellular pathways common to these devastating illnesses may extend the Tau-targeting therapeutic opportunities to cancer.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0683.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: DNA extraction; normal; patients; protocol; frozen blood
Online: 28 September 2020 (10:52:59 CEST)
Herein, we describe a highly efficient, non-complicated, and non-organic procedure to overcome the negative effect of chemotherapeutic drugs on the quality of the extracted DNA by applying several modulations in cell washing, suspension, and lysis of cells treated with these drugs. In this protocol, 500µl were extracted from patients who received systemic sessions of chemotherapy. The validity of this protocol for digestion with restriction endonucleases and both conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction were tested. This protocol proved obvious purity (1.8±0.02 and 2.1±1.2, for A260/280 and A260/230, respectively) and adequate yields (10±2.24) µg/100 ml. The positive results of validation experiments proved the validity of the extracted DNA for downstream applications of molecular biology. In addition to the proven efficiency of this protocol to extract DNA from normal samples, its validity was also confirmed from patients who were exposed to chemotherapy. This entails a novel approach to extract a molecular biology grade DNA without having inhibitors against enzymes used in digestion, amplification, and subsequent sequencing even after the systemic sessions with several doses of chemotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mutations; exon; p53; regulation; DNA; tumour suppressor
Online: 26 August 2020 (09:10:14 CEST)
Introduction: The tumour suppressor protein p53 commonly referred to as guardian of the genome plays important role in preserving the genome through the regulation of programmed cell death, DNA repair, energy metabolism, cell cycle entry or exit and senescence. Mutations in p53 can either result to a loss of tumour suppressor function or gain of oncogenic properties. Hence, mutations in p53 are the most frequent genetic mutational alteration in human cancers, associated with worse prognosis and more aggressive disease outcome. Methods: To assess the mutational hotspots and conserved regions of p53, I analyzed 76 complete p53 protein sequences covering whole exons from the NCBI GenBank database. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) was done using ClustalX version 2.1. Results: Thirty-five (19) mutations were identified with more frequent mutations in amino acid (aa) position 72 and 79 (Exon 4), amino acid deletion in codon 112-122 (Exon 4), codon 213 (Exon 6), codon 248 (Exon 7), codon 273 (Exon 8) and codon 278 (Exon 8). Mutations at amino acid position 79, 248, 278 located in the DNA-binding domain exhibited more than one alteration in same position. Conclusions: Findings from this study revealed the prevalence of mutations in the DNA binding domain of p53 and the structure-function effect of the mutations. Assessing the pattern and frequency of p53 alterations, and analyzing it thoroughly for each carrier, could help in identifying correlations between p53 status and outcome and possible candidate for gene therapy.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0193.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: human origins; mitochondrial DNA; Africa; human evolution
Online: 17 November 2019 (00:55:26 CET)
Chan and colleagues in their paper titled “Human origins in a southern African palaeo-wetland and first migrations” (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1714-1) report 198 novel whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and infer that ‘anatomically modern humans’ originated in the Makgadikgadi–Okavango palaeo-wetland of southern Africa around 200 thousand years ago. This claim relies on weakly informative data. In addition to flawed logic and questionable assumptions, the authors surprisingly disregard recent evidence and debate on human origins in Africa. As a result, the emphatic and high profile conclusions of the paper are unjustified.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: whole exome sequencing; melanoma; circulating tumor dna
Online: 4 October 2019 (10:35:02 CEST)
The use of circulating cell-free (cf) DNA to monitor cancer progression and response to therapy has significant potential but there is only limited data on whether this technique can detect the presence of low frequency subclones that may ultimately confer therapy resistance. In this study, we sought to evaluate whether whole-exome sequencing of cfDNA can accurately profile the mutation landscape of metastatic melanoma. We used whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify variants in matched tumor-derived genomic (g) DNA and plasma-derived cfDNA isolated from a cohort of 10 metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients. WES parameters such as sequencing coverage and total sequencing reads were comparable between gDNA and cfDNA. There was significant concordance between gDNA and cfDNA based on the total number of variants identified and the degree of overlap in variants which was independent of the site of tumor biopsy. The mutant allele frequency of common single nucleotide variants was lower in cfDNA reflecting lower read depth and dilution of circulating tumor DNA in the circulation by other cfDNA species. In addition to known melanoma driver mutations, several other melanoma-associated mutations were found to be concordant between matched gDNA and cfDNA. This study highlights that WES of cfDNA can capture clinically-relevant mutations present in melanoma metastases, but does not appear to provide any additional unique information on tumor heterogeneity. Targeted deep sequencing may be required to detect low frequency genomic aberrations known for predicting therapy resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0170.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: 16S analysis, metagenomics, amplicons, bioinformatics, DNA sequencing
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:41:43 CEST)
Here we describe ARSA-16S, a tool and accompanying reference database for the analysis of bacterial 16S amplicons. Among other features, ARSA-16S is based on a new model, approach, and algorithm for sequence-level assignment of reads understood as probability distributions, assigns reads individually, and is designed with non-overlapping amplicons covering two non-contiguous regions. A new set of primers for the amplification and sequencing of the V4 and V6 regions is also provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: radioresistance; DNA-damage recognition; CRISPRa; multiplex overexpression
Online: 11 December 2018 (09:27:42 CET)
Current understanding of mechanisms of cellular resistance to genotoxic stress is incomplete but is critical for a variety of medical applications. Recent developments in the CRISPR/Cas technologies open new opportunities for targeted interrogation of resistance genes and pathways. In the present work, we used nuclease dead Cas9 constructs to achieve targeted overexpression of endogenous genes encoding two essential subunits of DNA damage sensor complex, XPC and HR23B, in HEK293T cells. Both individual and simultaneous overexpression of the two genes was achieved and the effects on cellular resistance to ionizing radiation and paraquat was examined. Using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay, we showed that simultaneous, but not separate overexpression of the two genes lead to a 30% increase in survivability. Irradiated cells that overexpressed both XPC and HR23B genes showed higher clonogenic capacity and proliferation rate compared to the irradiated transfection control as revealed by the clonogenic survival assay. Modulation of the gene expression did not affect cell resistance to paraquat. In summary, our results demonstrate a high potential of CRISPR/dCas9-enabled multiplex overexpression of stress-response genes in functionally justified combinations, exemplified here by the XPC-HR23B complex, for achieving an enhanced cellular radioresistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0266.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: genetics; injury; sport; soccer; DNA; inflammation; football
Online: 9 February 2018 (02:24:40 CET)
Genetics plays an integral role in athletic performance and is increasingly becoming recognised as an important risk factor for injury. Ankle and knee injuries are the most common injuries sustained by soccer players. Often these injuries result in players missing training and matches, which can incur significant costs to clubs. This study aimed to identify genotypes associated with ankle and knee injuries in soccer players and how these impacted the number of matches played. 289 soccer players including 46 professional, 98 semi-professional and 145 amateur players were genetically tested. Ankle and knee injuries and the number of matches played were recorded during the 2014/15 season. Four genes were assessed in relation to injury. Genotypes found to be associated with injury included the TT genotype of the GDF5 gene, TT and CT genotypes of AMPD1 gene, TT genotype of COL5A1 and GG genotype of IGF2 gene. These genes were also associated with a decrease in the number of matches played.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Agrobacterium; Xenorhabdus; NR-AMP; T-DNA keyword; TI-plasmid; Intact/Cured/T-DNA Deleted; Sensitive/Resistant; EMA_PF2; HPLC
Online: 2 November 2023 (07:42:14 CET)
Keywords: Agrobacterium 1; Xenorhabdus 2; NR-AMP 3 T-DNA keyword 4; TI-plasmid 5; Intact/Cured/T-DNA Deleted 6 Sensitive/Resistant 7; EMA_PF2 8; HPLC 9
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0635.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Bacillus cereus; phylogenomics; DNA-DNA hybridization (ddH); biocontrol; plant growth promotion (PGP); biosynthesis gene cluster (BGC); kurstakin; thumolycin
Online: 11 October 2023 (12:22:18 CEST)
Seventeen bacterial strains able to suppress plant pathogens have been isolated from healthy Vietnamese crop plants, and taxonomically assigned as members of the Bacillus cereus group. In order to prove their potential as biocontrol agents, we performed a comprehensive analysis which included whole genome sequencing of selected strains, and mining for genes and gene clusters involved in the synthesis of endo- and exotoxins, and secondary metabolites, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Kurstakin, thumolycin, and other AMPs were detected and characterized by different mass spectrometric methods, such as MALDI-TOF-MS, and LIFT-MALDI-TOF/TOF fragment analysis. Based on their whole genome sequences, the plant-associated isolates were assigned to the following species and subspecies: B. cereus subsp. cereus (6), B. cereus subsp. bombysepticus (5), Bacillus tropicus (2), and Bacillus pacificus. Three isolates represented novel genomospecies. Genes encoding entomopathogenic crystal and vegetative proteins were detected in B. cereus subsp. bombysepticus TK1. In vitro assays revealed that many plant-associated isolates enhanced plant growth and suppressed plant pathogens. Our findings indicated that plant-associated representatives of the B. cereus group are a rich source of putative antimicrobial compounds with potential in sustainable agriculture. However, the presence of virulence genes might restrict their application as biologicals in agriculture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2170.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA damage; base excision repair; nucleotide excision repair; UV-DDB; chromatin; nucleosome; DNA glycosylases; single molecule; cell biology; biochemistry
Online: 31 May 2023 (05:44:02 CEST)
Base excision repair (BER) is a cellular process that removes damaged bases arising from exogenous and endogenous sources including reactive oxygen species, alkylation agents, and ionizing radiation. BER is mediated by the actions of multiple proteins that work in a highly concerted manner to resolve DNA damage efficiently to prevent toxic repair intermediates. During the initiation of BER, the damaged base is removed by one of 11 mammalian DNA glycosylases resulting in abasic sites. Many DNA glycosylases are product inhibited by binding to the abasic site more avidly than the damaged base. Traditionally apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, APE1, was believed to help turnover the glycosylases to undergo multiple rounds of damaged base removal. However, in a series of papers from our laboratory we have demonstrated that UV-damaged DNA binding protein (UV-DDB) stimulates the glycosylase activities of human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (OGG1), MUTY DNA glycosylase (MUTYH), alkyladenine glycosylase/N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (AAG/MPG), and single-strand selective monofunctional glycosylase (SMUG1), between three-to-five-fold. Moreover, we have shown UV-DDB can assist chromatin decompaction facilitating access of OGG1 to 8-oxoguanine damage in telomeres. This review summarizes the biochemistry, single-molecule, and cell biology approaches that our group used to directly demonstrate the essential role of UV-DDB in BER.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.2000.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: microbiome; bacteria; DNA extraction; poultry; swine; air sampling
Online: 30 November 2023 (15:40:03 CET)
DNA extraction for downstream molecular diagnostic applications can be an expensive, time-consuming process. We devised a method to quickly extract genomic DNA from environmental samples based on sodium hydroxide lysis of cells with or without capture by magnetic beads, for subsequent PCR or quantitative PCR. The final DNA extraction method using NaOH is extremely low-cost and can be completed in 10 minutes at room temperature. NaOH extraction was effective for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in samples from air, soil, sewage, food, laboratory surfaces, and chicken cloacal swabs. The NaOH extraction method was comparable to commercial kits for extraction of DNA from pig fecal samples for 16S amplicon sequencing analyses. We demonstrate that an impinger and portable pump can efficiently capture bacteria in poultry facilities for rapid DNA extraction for quantification of total bacteria and for detection of specific species using qPCR. The air sampling and NaOH extraction procedures are well-suited for routine, high throughput screening, and for metagenomic analyses for specific pathogens, even in resource-limited situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1981.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Mitochondria; ROS; drug repurposing; oxidative phosphorylation; DNA damage
Online: 30 November 2023 (11:26:10 CET)
Breast cancer is a serious disease and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the U.S. New treatments for this aggressive disease are urgently needed. Repurposing FDA-approved drugs for cancer treatment is an alternative that saves time and lowers the costs needed for drug development. In this study, we investigated the effects of proguanil, an anti-malarial drug, in breast cancer cells. Proguanil exhibited a significant cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cell lines including patient derived cell lines. Proguanil caused apoptosis through increased production of ROS and consequent decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP production rates. ROS generation by proguanil was up to 3-fold higher when compared to the control. Proguanil treatment increased the expression of Bax, p-H2AX, cleaved-caspase 9, cleaved PARP, and down-regulated bcl-2 and survivin in breast cancer cell lines. The enlargement of 4T1 breast tumors in female Balb/c mice was suppressed by 55% through daily oral administration of 20mg/kg of proguanil. Western blot analyses of proguanil- treated tumors showed increased levels of p-H2AX, Bax, c-PARP, and c-caspase3 compared to control. Proguanil proved to be an efficient in vitro and in-vivo inhibitor of breast cancer cells, hence should be considered further for clinical investigation against breast cancer.