REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0232.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Cyperus exculentus; Neglected/Underutilized Crop species; Biology; Uses; Production constraints
Online: 10 August 2021 (12:33:44 CEST)
Food security relies mainly on a few major crop such as wheat, maize, rice and yam. Many of the cultivated plant such as Cyperus exculentus are still considered invasive plants and are neglected and underutilized. In the perspective to valorization of the species, this systematic review aimed at identifying the biology, production constraints and uses of tigernut for future research directions. Extensive searches were carried out and studies were screened and extracted using established systematic review methods. A total of 175 papers met the inclusion criteria. Approximately 52% and 21.71% of the studies were undertaken in Europe and Africa respectively. Most of the papers reviewed for the study were published between [2010-2015[. The review highlighted the critical research gaps in genetic diversity using SSR makers and evolutionary biology. Further, production constraints and solution approaches for the promotion of the species were the other gaps identified in the reviewed studies. Production constraints were specifically related to the insufficient mineral fertilizers and difficult in harvesting. Tigernut is used in more fields such as food, medicinal, cosmetic, biofuel and fishing and fish breeding. Such investigations would help in decision-making and elaboration of breeding strategies, and advancing steps towards sustainable use of the species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0179.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Cyperus rotundus rhizomes; Diabetes; Lipids Profile; Hepatorenalprotective; Oxidative marker
Online: 10 December 2021 (13:11:59 CET)
Objective: The hypoglycemic, hepatorenalprotective, and antioxidant Activities of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes extract in an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model were investigated in this work.Methods: 25 Male rats were divided into 5 groups: normal control, diabetic control, diabetic of C. rotundus (200 mg/kg b.w), diabetic of C. rotundus (400 mg/kg b.w), diabetic of glibenclamide (0.6mg/kg).Treatments were administered orally for 6 weeks.Results: A single injection of alloxan to rats (150mg/kg b.w) caused pathological alterations in all studied parameters and histological structure of the pancreas. On the other hand, results showed that oral administration of C. rotundus rhizomes extract in dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg caused significant reduction in glucose, HbA1C%, α-amylase level and plasma lactate together with significant elevation in serum insulin, serum pyruvate with an improvement in insulin resistance. In line with amelioration of the diabetic state, C. rotundus rhizomes extract improved of the liver and kidney functions, and oxidative marker levels. Moreover, the extract succeeded to reduce the elevated serum total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and to elevate the reduced high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C) level of diabetic rats.Conclusion: The investigation data concluded that C. rotundus rhizomes extract could be used as alternative treatments as antidiabetic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic, and agent as well as in liver and kidney protective in alloxan induced-diabetic rats. This may be related to the presence of saponin glycosides, polyphenols, flavonoids, and terpenoids in the ethanolic extract of C. rotundus rhizomes, which was discovered by phytochemical screening in this study to be present in the plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0331.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Cyperus esculentus; soaking; husking; microorganism; tiger nuts; black tubers
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:59:56 CEST)
Black variety of tiger nut tubers (Cyperus esculentus) were differently processed in ascorbic acid and alkaline (Ca(OH)2 and Kanwa) solutions at different concentrations and temperatures. The effect of these treatments on the water content (swelling), soluble loss, dehulling efficiency and microbial load was investigated. Water content or swelling of the tiger nut soaked in acid and alkaline solutions can be predicted by Peleg model like with brown variety. This swelling lead to enhance dehulling efficiency of tuber but caused soluble solute loss overall at the highest temperature of soaking in vitamin C solution. Like soaking in water, the constant of Peleg (k1) decrease with the increase of the temperature of soaking, whereas the constant of capacity of Peleg (k2) is approximately 0.018% for all the conditions. Dehulling efficiency also increased with increasing temperatures (65% at 20°C to 70% at 60°C) for tiger nut tubers soaked in water (0 g/L), dehulling efficiency appeared most strongly affected by concentrations and temperatures of soaking solutions. Like dehulling efficiency, ascorbic solutions has given the best results in term of reduction of microbial load compared to the other soaking solutions. This reduction is considerable at the higher temperatures, reaching a maximum of 4.8 log reduction. Soaking and dehulling treatments gave to tiger nut tuber effective decontamination in term of microbial load and obtained good microbiological quality for final process.