ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0380.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic crisis; crisis management; text mining; network analysis
Online: 15 March 2021 (12:34:01 CET)
This study aims to understand the global environment of COVID-19 management and guide future policy directions after the pandemic crisis. To this end, we analyzed a series of the World Economic Forum’s COVID-19 response reports through text mining and network analysis. These reports, written by experts in diverse fields, discuss multidimensional changes in socioeconomic situations, various problems created by those changes, and strategies to respond to national crises. Based on 3,897 refined words drawn from a morphological analysis of 26 reports (as of the end of 2020), this study analyzes the frequency of words, the relationships among words, the importance of specific documents, and the connection centrality through text mining. In addition, network analysis helps develop strategies for sustainable response to and management of national crises through identifying clusters of words with a similar structural equivalence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Natural disaster; anticipation; crisis management strategy; return on experience
Online: 30 June 2023 (09:40:12 CEST)
This paper sheds light on how crisis management affects post-disaster re-covery. Based on the study of the management of a major environmental disaster, hurricane IRMA, we consider how post-disaster recovery is impacted by crisis management strategies. The perspectives of local stakeholders from the islands of St Martin and St Barthélémy will be shared. We analyze how territories exposed to the same natural phenomena have different outcomes and consider some of the possible reasons. This study reveals underlying risk drivers, to address governance reorganization with a view to better managing socio-economic recovery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0685.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Addison’s disease; adrenal crisis; adrenal gland; corticosteroid; primary adrenal insufficiency.
Online: 28 December 2020 (11:19:22 CET)
Adrenal crisis (AC) is an unexpected and possibly lethal situation of stressful interventions in patients with Addison’s disease (AD). Despite being rare in dentistry, it is to be noted that evidence indicates that 5-8% of patients with AD necessitate emergency glucocorticoid administration to treat AC annually. For that, dentists must be aware of this condition and be prepared when the clinical signs and symptoms occur.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0221.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: financial crisis; management information system; financial system; confidence level
Online: 19 July 2019 (07:59:58 CEST)
There has been rampant fold-ups, merger and acquisitions occurring in the Ghanaian banking industry. Then, the questions arise: Is the Ghanaian Financial System in Crisis? This study was conducted to find answers to these problems unsolved with prior literature. A sample of seventy customers of the Royal Bank, 8 employees of the Royal Bank and 2 managers of the Royal Bank were selected for a case-survey. The study also monitored the Trend of the Ghanaian Financial System through the reading and monitoring of daily news on the Financial System and reports of banks. The data from the field and the secondary data from news and reports were analysed symmetrically. The study drew on Minsky’s Financial Crisis Theory to explain the phenomenon in the Ghanaian economy and to draw predictions of what would happen in other developing economies. The study found out that: (1) The Ghanaian financial system is fragile and it holds true for most developing economies; (2) The financial system suffers greatly when the confidence level of customers falls significantly; (3) Management information systems raises the confidence level of customers (borrowers and lenders) such that there is a greater fall and impact in times of instability in the economy; (4) The higher the level of MIS adoption in an unstable economy, the more fragile the Financial System becomes and (5) A higher adoption of Management Information Systems in a Fragile Financial System indirectly contributes to Financial Crisis of the Financial System.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0731.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; crisis management; Korean fitness center; Importance–Performance Analysis
Online: 28 April 2021 (07:47:57 CEST)
: The purpose of this research was to verify the importance and performance of crisis management in Korean fitness center using Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA). For this study, 304 fitness center executives and managers in Seoul and Gyeonggi region were selected as from March 21 to May 17, 2020. Frequency analysis was performed using SPSS 24.0 and exploratory factor analysis was conducted to verify the validity and reliability. Priority analysis and IPA analysis were performed to compare the mean values, and the following results were obtained. First, in the first quadrant, there were 6 attributes besides keep social distancing between employees and customers. Second, in the second quadrant, there were four attributes in addition to regular disinfection of the gymnasium. Third, in the third quadrant, there were 6 attributes besides maintain furniture clean. Third, there were 6 attributes other than maintaining furniture clean in the third quadrant. Fourth, in the fourth quadrant, there are three attributes in addition to the restriction of face-to-face meetings. The conclusion is as follows. First, equip supplies for prevention of covid19, keep social distance, and check government support policies. Second, analyze of economic support policies, and research on their application methods. Third, Prepare various non-face-to-face communication methods and Untact(non-contact) marketing strategies. Fourth, make a checklist for factors with relatively little importance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2059.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Ecological modernization; Climate crisis; Shrimp aquaculture; Coastal embankment project; Space for feasible action
Online: 30 May 2023 (09:35:42 CEST)
Climate change, one of the severest environmental threats to humankind, disproportionately affects low-income developing countries in the global South. Having no feasible mitigation alternatives, these countries resort to adaptation efforts in addressing the climate perturbations. Climate change adaptation (or resilience) is primarily a localized course of action that depends on individuals, social networks, economies, ecologies, political structures, and the capabilities of all those to work collectively to absorb, learn from and transform in the face of new realities. With a view to controlling the floods that shattered the life and economy of the then East Pakistan, which is Bangladesh now, during the mid-twentieth century, the coastal embankment project (CEP) was instituted as an adaptation strategy to natural disasters in southwestern Bangladesh. Based on the qualitative analysis of primary and secondary data, this paper seeks to critically evaluate the efficacy of the CEP in terms of the space for feasible action and ecological modernization. The findings of this research indicate that the CEP has become an unrealistic venture that hinders the growing economic activity of shrimp aquaculture in the area. This paper is expected to contribute to generate further theoretical and empirical discourse on evaluating similar development projects around the globe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0024.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Decision Making; Cost Estimation; COVID-19 Crisis; Health Economics; Wellbeing Economics; Political Economy
Online: 4 May 2021 (15:27:04 CEST)
This paper reviews the management of the COVID-19 crisis and the difficulty of cost estimation model, comparing centralized management or bureaucratic government coaction and the agile market alternative or spontaneous social coordination. This is a study of Political Economy and Health Economics from the perspective of Austrian Economics. We describe and compare the al-ternative models, which are adapted to the current crisis. The analysis is based on the theorem of the impossibility of the economic calculation under coactive systems, and other principles of economy. In this context we pay also attention to collateral problems of the centralized and coac-tive management. Finally we propose a solution based on dynamic efficiency and the constitutions of wellbeing economics
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Crisis Resource Management; obstetric hemorrhage; non-technical skills; High Fidelity Simulation; delivery room
Online: 15 December 2017 (08:54:25 CET)
Human factors are the most relevant issues contributing to adverse events in obstetrics. Specific training of Crisis Resource Management (CRM) skills (i.e., problem solving and team management, resource allocation, awareness of environment, and dynamic decision-making) are now widespread and are often based on High Fidelity Simulation. In order to be used as a guideline in simulated scenarios, they need to be translated into specific and observable behavioral markers. To this purpose, we developed a set of observable behaviors related to the main elements of CRM in the delivery room. The observational tool was then adopted in a two-days seminar on obstetric hemorrhage where teams working in obstetric wards of six Italian hospitals took part to simulations. The tool was used as guide for the Io and as a peer-to-peer feedback. It was then rated for its usefulness in facilitating the reflection upon one’s own behavior, its ease of use, and its usefulness for the peer-to-peer feedback. The ratings were highly positive, around 4 in a 5-point scale. The CRM observational tool is therefore a useful, quick and easy solution to facilitate the debriefing, the peer-to-peer feedback and, most of all, the transfer of safe behavior from simulation to everyday practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0351.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: Keywords: Social Media; Social Networks; Crisis Management; Mental Model; Situational Awareness; Disinformation, Misinformation and Fake News; Infodemic; Covid 19
Online: 5 July 2023 (16:02:34 CEST)
This paper proposes a concise literature review aimed at identifying the current body of knowledge on the adoption of Social Networks in Crisis Management. The major input is a structured research question based on the initial reading around the topic. Before the recent pan-demic, most literature has focused on local crises, with a relatively low number of exceptions. Additionally, self-organizing system are spontaneous established between people who are af-fected by a crisis. Among the identified challenges, there is the need to integrate official commu-nication by emergency agencies with citizen-generated contents in a contest of credibility and trustworthiness. In certain cases, it has been reported a lack of specific competence, knowledge, and expertise, as well as a lack of sufficient policies and guidelines in the use of Social Networks. Those challenges need to be framed by considering the classic difficulties to provide timely and accurate information, to deal with fake news, unverified or misleading information, and infor-mation overload. Bridging major gaps though advanced analytics and AI-based technology is expected to provide a key contribution to establish and safely enable in practice an effective and efficient communication, to contrast dissonant mental models, which are often fostered by Social Networks, and to enable a shared situational awareness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1610.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: healthcare; unmet healthcare needs; economic crisis; health crisis; Greece
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:07:34 CEST)
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of the unmet health care needs during the financial and recent health crisis in Greece. (2) Methods: Time series analysis was performed for the years 2008 through 2022 using the Eurostat database. The dependent variable was the percentage of people who reported unmet need for medical care. Demographic, socioeconomic and health data as well as health expenditures were used as independent variables. Correlation analysis and simple linear regression models were conducted to analyze the results. (3) Results: Unmet health needs in Greece increased from the start of the crisis until 2016, as a gradual de-escalation of the crisis is observed. However, in 2019 the country recorded the second highest level of unmet needs for medical care before the health crisis. People with limitations in usual activities, those who report bad/very bad health status, unemployed and with low-income increased the likelihood of unmet needs. Health expenditures (public or private) were also significant determinants of unmet healthcare needs. (4) Conclusions: The increased unmet health needs widen inequalities in health and healthcare access. Therefore, health policy should eliminate barriers which restrict the access to health and enhance healthcare services, developing conditions for citizens' well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0590.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: healthcare companies; financial performance; crisis periods; economic crisis; COVID-19
Online: 8 September 2023 (04:33:25 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the financial performances of the publicly held healthcare companies in crisis periods in Türkiye. The 2018 Economic Crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic crisis were included in the study as the crisis periods. We collected the financial data of the publicly held healthcare companies and calculated three liquidity, three turnover, three leverage and three profitability ratios by ratio analysis to use as financial performance indicators. We then conducted Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and we did separate analyses for the 2018 Economic Crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. The results of the analyses showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the publicly held healthcare companies’ liquidity, turnover, leverage, profitability ratios and thus their financial performances before the crises and after the crises. While the results are reassuring and give valuable insights to managers and policy makers to determine the areas that needs to be strengthened to be better prepared for possible future crises, our sample was limited. Therefore, this study presents an exploratory foundation for future studies which are needed to make a case of financial stability for the publicly held healthcare companies before and after the crisis periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0068.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: reproducibility crisis; replication crisis; data reliability; bias; publication bias; meta-research
Online: 5 April 2018 (10:54:09 CEST)
A lack of data reproducibility (“reproducibility crisis”) is debated across many scientific and medical disciplines. A systematic analysis of the available evidence on the reliability of scientific data revealed that, although the existence of a reproducibility crisis is widely perceived, conclusive data on the scale of the problem are lacking. Most importantly we found that, although the debate is largely focused on methodological issues, researcher conduct defines research standards and in turn data reliability. The availability of reliable methods itself does not guarantee good practice. Moreover, research is typically characterised by a lack of established methods due to its immanent novelty. Despite the crucial importance of researcher conduct, research and conclusive data on the determinants of researcher behaviour are missing. In conclusion, meta-research is urgently needed that establishes an understanding of the factors that determine researcher behaviour. This knowledge can then be used to implement and iteratively improve measures, which incentivise researchers to apply the highest standards resulting in high quality data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Anthropocene; nature; capitalism; ecological crisis; geoengineering; planetary boundaries; climate change; extinction; environmental crisis
Online: 7 May 2018 (07:39:13 CEST)
The Anthropocene has emerged as the dominant conceptualization of the current geological epoch and, more significantly, of Humanity’s relation to nature. By its proponents the Anthropocene is espoused as a “solution formulation,” an analytical tool which clarifies Humanity’s multifarious impacts on nature and nature’s subsequent crises; and further as a conceptual apparatus from which to launch mitigation and adaption strategies, promising deliverance from or at least engagement with ecological crises. However, the Anthropocene is not a neutral concept, merely illuminating transition within ecological conditions and connections between human activities and nature; rather, it is a particular prism from which to understand humanity’s relation to nature. And, as the Anthropocene becomes ascendant both analytically and politically, it becomes vital to question its imaginary, how it constructs nature and Humanity, how it influences and constrains responses to ecological crises, and what the long-term implications of operating within this imaginary are. I argue that the Anthropocene as a political/analytical prism rests upon flawed conceptions of nature, history, and humanity, rending it an impotent construct from which to respond to ecological crises; offering only partial and presumptive “solutions” in the form of intensified governmental regulation and the application of manifold technological “fixes” through the geoengineering of Earth’s systems, in an attempt to address isolated aspects of ecological destruction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0089.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Fractals; Strange attractors; Crisis; Bifurcation
Online: 6 January 2022 (12:49:24 CET)
The laser differential equations are used to transform them into identical coupled maps. Valuable results are deduced during analytical and numerical studies on cavity loss. Phase and spatiotemporal synchronized attractors are observed via quasi-chaos under a certain range of controlling parameters, and symmetry breaking of chaotic attractors due to collision with their basin boundaries, and transpire differently from the previous attractors. During the numerical simulation, it is found that the sequence of repeated strange attractors if the coupling strength further increases, which are orthogonal mirror images (the dynamics of the system is the same at different values of controlling parameters). Moreover, it can help us to predict future problems and their solutions based on current issues, if we develop this model in more general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0231.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: forestry; wood-based sector; anti-crisis economic strategy; pandemic crisis; Analytic Hierarchy Process; Poland
Online: 14 May 2020 (06:15:23 CEST)
Forestry and the wood-based sector, including the wood industry, which is an important element of economic systems and a source of budget revenues for many countries in the world, found itself in the first quarter of 2020 in a situation of a serious threat of a prolonged crisis as a consequence of the pandemic. In this perspective, it is necessary to review existing sector strategies and look for new solutions to ensure first survival, then functioning and finally development of entities forming the wood market. In the scientific research, which is the subject of this work, an attempt was made to multi-criteria analysis of the selection of the optimal anti-crisis strategy for actors from forestry and the wood-based sector in the face of a pandemic. Preparatory studies were conducted on the example of Poland, where both forestry and the wood industry belong to the dominant sectors of the economy, conducting them at the turn of March and April 2020. The research was referred to the primary wood raw material market in Poland, which is the main link in the value chain, created first by the dominant owner: Państwowe Gospodarstwo Leśne "Lasy Państwowe" - the “State Forests” National Forest Holding (SFNFH), and then forest service entrepreneurs, to entities representing the wood industry. The work uses a concept modified for the purposes of the author's research scenario, based on the method of multi-criteria hierarchical analysis AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). The best possible decision was to be searched that would allow the selection of the optimal anti-crisis strategy for enterprises - actors of the sector concerned. Based on the collected results and their expert discussion, recommendations for sectoral policy for forestry and the wood-based sector were then formulated. The proposed solutions are located against the background of a dispute between the concept of institutional intervention and a model taking into account the effects of market factors. The work is both cognitive (optimization and adaptation of the research method) and practical up-to-date. An accurate development strategy for forestry and the wood-based sector is urgently needed and necessary to implement as quickly as possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0492.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: dispersed urbanism; residential strategies; residential mobility; economic crisis; Barcelona Metropolitan Region; social crisis; land squandering
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:14:10 CEST)
The development of dispersed urbanism in Spain ran parallel to the real estate boom and consolidated a new model of city sprawl based on the expansion of suburban areas. This process, which started in the mid 1980s, came to a halt with the onset of the economic crisis in 2007. With it, construction stopped, mobility fell and urban growth came to a standstill. The purpose of this article is to carry out an analysis of the recent evolution and chronology of the expansion of dispersed urbanism in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR) in order to gain an insight into some of the explanatory factors of such expansion and to deal with the future prospects of middle-term development of dispersed urbanism in the BMR and in Spain. To do this, we examine the trends in the housing market, in residential mobility and we take stock of the impact of business cycles. The conclusion is that dispersed areas retain their appeal in the stages of creation and expansion of households. For this reason, an effective economic recovery and a renewed rise in the price of housing in denser cities may contribute to an upturn in the popularity of the dispersed residential model, which nowadays could be considered to be in a ‘lethargic’ stage, waiting for certain factors to coincide and re-activate its expansion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0455.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: collective behavior; vicsek model; financial crisis
Online: 20 July 2020 (07:34:29 CEST)
According to its inner property, a crisis in the financial market can be considered as a collective behavior phenomenon. Through the prism of collective behavior, the crisis does not happen if the companies are independent of each other. In this work, cooperative movement processes in a stock market are investigated in a manner similar to that Vicsek first described collective behavior for self-propelled entities. To this end, a phase space is defined as the one in which the return of volume of transactions versus return of price is represented with each share in each day corresponding to a unique point in the space. The findings of the observation show that during times of crisis, the phase space is limited with the vector velocity of shares in the same direction. In contrast, on a regular day, the phase space is entirely accessible, with vector velocity aligned randomly. Moreover, in line with the Vicsek model, an order parameter is introduced, which evaluates the cooperative effects for the shares so that the higher the value of this parameter, the stronger the collective behavior of the shares.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online education; corona crisis; challenges; possibilities
Online: 3 June 2020 (08:25:46 CEST)
Online class now is the demand of the day as little scopes are to find out alternatives to online class in these unprecedented days caused by corona pandemic across the globe. The study was qualitative in approach and data were collected from secondary sources i.e. different newspapers and journals in the recent times along with a mini interview with students of private universities studying in different subjects over mobile phone by the researcher. Findings of the study show that though online education has a number of challenges faced by two main stakeholders; students and teachers, handling all these challenges carefully can have the chance to create a positive atmosphere in the field of education as an alternative teaching learning resulting in positive outcomes in all regards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0059.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Self-employment; household determinants; financial Crisis
Online: 7 June 2019 (12:48:50 CEST)
While some researchers have suggested that the self-employment (SE) sector is a haven during a financial Crisis, others believe that SE is not necessarily the desired outcome, but an indicator that the labor market is tightening for some groups. Few researchers have compared the SE sector before and after the occurrence of a significant financial Crisis, especially in developed countries. This paper analyzes the determinants of entry into self-employment during the 2008 Spanish Crisis. Using data from the Encuesta de Presupuesto Familiar (EPF), results show that although the rate of SE did not experience a significant change during this time the Crisis affected people differently based on gender, with being females more affected than males. Results also suggest differences between Comunidades Autonomas in how the self-employment sector behaved during the Crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1690.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Aerobic rice; hybrids; heterosis; stability; water crisis
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:51:04 CEST)
An experiment was conducted in 2016 & 2017 for development of novel rice hybrids for aerobic ecology with lesser yield penalties in comparison to irrigated ecosystem, further with added advantage of reduced methane emissions and water budget as witnessed in irrigated system. Based on the restorer / maintainer reaction and spikelet fertility (%), 10 restorer lines were selected to cross with 3 CMS lines in the line by tester fashion in Yasangi (summer) season 2016-17. Resulting 30 experimental hybrids besides 13 parental lines (10 Restorer lines and 3 B - lines of akin CMS lines) and checks (GK 5022, CR Dhan 201) assessed during Vankalam (rainy) season 2017 at three different places/locations viz., Rajendranagar, Warangal and Kampasagar. The outcome of experiment were two experimental hybrids viz., APMS-6A × HRSV – 7 and IR-79156A × ATR – 372, were categorized as stable hybrids with desirable sca effects, heterosis (ranging from 7% to 13%) over best check GK 5022 along with an in-essence performance for yield and other yield attributing characters.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0723.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: airlines; human resource management; COVID-19; crisis
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:24:11 CET)
In January 2020, the World Health Organization declared a public health emergency and announced a new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which would later go on to be declared as a pandemic, changing the global sphere and placing the economies of almost all countries under heavy stress. The airline industry, that had just begun recovering after facing crises one after another in the last two decades, from early 2000 due to 9/11, to the global financial crisis later, is now oce again facing an enormous challenge of closed borders and greater lockdowns due to the pandemic. Borders are closed, with very few planes are in the air, while the rest are grounded. The purpose of this paper is to give a conceptual understanding of the current pandemic situation and its consequences on the airline industry. The paper takes a unique perspective of human resource management (HRM) that is rarely used in the airline industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0281.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Sana’a Region; Rainfall; Surface Water; Groundwater; Water Crisis
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:07:08 CET)
Yemen is a water-scarce country with inadequate fresh water and considerable groundwater depletion, as well as a lack of adequate surface water. The study region is considered an arid region, and there is insufficient water to meet the needs of the region's yearly population growth rate of 4 %. This study aims to assess the water resources in the Sana'a region and to identify the current water situation and forecast for the future. Rainfall changes spatial and temporal in very few quantities and an annual average of 267 mm. Water harvesting facilities are entirely filled by 75% of the total water facilities in the rainy seasons. The groundwater level in Sana’a Basin decreases about 6-8 meters annually due to the increase in the number of wells, the abundance of abstraction, and the lack of recharge. The amount of abstraction exceeds 400% of the recharge in the Sana'a basin. The water per capita is 70 - 85 m³ annually. It is an abstraction from the aquifers by private wells. The crop cultivated area decreased from 184217 hectares in 2007 to 122583 hectares in 2018 due to lack of water. The sewage treatment plant treats 18.25 Mm³ annually, with less than 70 % efficiency. The water deficit is about 500 to 723 Mm³ annually; it is an abstraction from the aquifers by private wells. The current water situation in the Sana'a region is catastrophic, and the planning and management must ensure a water balance in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0268.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: intellectual capital; sustainability; harness; bio-economy; global crisis
Online: 24 April 2019 (12:10:55 CEST)
Bio-economy is a major area of the strategy that can afford the European Union to achieve growth: (i) smart, through the development of knowledge and innovation; and (ii) sustainable, based on a greener, more efficient economy in resource management. We believe that the progress of bio-economy cannot be achieved without the harnessing of intellectual capital. Our research aimed to emphasize the benefits of the dynamics of the intellectual capital growth on the evolution of the bio-economy. Thus, the information published by Eurostat (European Statistic Institute) during a period spanning seven years (2011-2018) was used to assess the influence exerted by the conduct of the harness of intellectual capital related to sustainability as well as for the reporting of indicators relevant to appreciating an economic progress and sustainability (renewable waste material, share of renewable energy and energy intensity of the economy). The ultimate goal was represented by the generation of a regression model to see what factor influences mostly the progress of the bio-economy at European and Romanian level. Significant dependency relationships were identified. The results remain robust even after the introduction of certain control variables, such as gross domestic product rate, food production, population growth, urbanization growth and inflation. Our paper sets out to contribute to expanding the specialty literature by highlighting the involvement of intellectual capital as a factor in optimizing sustainability growth and, at a methodological level, by using a multiple regression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: dental care; immigrants; inequalities; health survey; economic crisis
Online: 10 April 2019 (09:44:49 CEST)
This study evaluates inequalities in the use of dental services according to place of birth before and after the economic crisis in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed in the population aged 18 to 65 years in Spain. We used data from three Spanish National Health Surveys for years 2006 (before the crisis), 2014 and 2017 (after the crisis). Log-binomial regression was used to quantify the association between region of origin and use of dental care services before and after controlling for the selected covariates. In 2006, we found a greater probability of not using dental care services in immigrants from Asia (PR:1.36, 95% CI:1.10–1.67) and Africa (PR:1.16; 95% CI:1.05–1.28) compared to the natives. For 2014, the probability of not using dental care services was greater for all immigrants compared to the natives, with the greatest odds for those from Africa (PR:1.71; 95% CI:1.46–2.01) and Asia (PR:1.3; 95% CI:1.23–1. 47). The associations for 2017 were weaker in magnitude than the ones observed for 2014, although stronger than for 2006. This study suggests that the economic recovery did not have the same impact for natives and immigrants regardless of regions of origin, given the observed inequalities in use of dental services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0282.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: intellectual capital; sustainability; harness; bio-economy; global crisis
Online: 3 January 2019 (11:08:57 CET)
Bio-economy is a major area of the strategy that must enable the European Union to achieve growth: smart, through the development of knowledge and innovation; and sustainable, based on a greener, more efficient economy in resource management. We believe that the progress of bio-economy cannot be achieved without the harnessing of intellectual capital. Our research aimed to emphasize the benefits of the dynamics of the intellectual capital growth on the evolution of the bio-economy. The aim of this analysis was to study the established link between the Energy Intensity of the Economy (EIE) and a number of factors that can measure the intellectual capital, such as: Market Capitalization of Bitcoin, Patent applications listed by European Patent Office and the Turnover from Innovation as a proportion of the total Turnover. The ultimate goal was represented by the generation of a regression model to see what factor influences mostly the progress of the bio-economy at European and Romanian level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0430.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: neoliberalism; social welfare; crisis; maintenance role; critical activity.
Online: 18 October 2018 (17:14:19 CEST)
Background: The financial austerity policy imposed to Portugal by Troika - the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund in 2011, led to a tremendously social crisis. Under these dominant trends in Europe, which were felt especially in certain countries, such as Portugal, we feel ourselves forced into an analysis and reflection on the impact of this conjuncture in social workers, especially analyzing the role played by social workers and its critical consciousness relative to this neoliberal model and imposed austerity policies. Methods: This article results from an analysis of empirical data collected after the entry of Troika in Portugal, during 2013. Were conducted 26 in-depth interviews to front line social workers, with the purpose of obtaining a narrative of their daily work practice and with the concern of encouraging reflection on them. Results: Analysis shows the predominance of a maintenance role at the expense of more emancipatory approaches and thus, this results point to the relationship of this maintenance role with the sociological paradigm of social regulation and shows also, how social work is still attached to a conservative agenda. Secondly, one finds a weak critical reflection among social workers, being very afraid to speak out against the system, taking on a submissive attitude and subservient to the policies of social cuts imposed. The analysis then raises the challenge for social workers to develop a critical reflexivity Conclusion: The results highlight several important observations in terms of social woker role and that a critical activity is urgently required to social workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0053.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: emerging stock market, financial liberalization, Crisis, Cmax method
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:52:35 CEST)
In this paper, we focus on the impact of financial liberalization on stability of emerging stock market. We identify crises in a group of Latin American (Argentina, Brazil and Chile) and Asian countries (Philippines, Korea, Taiwan and Thailand) during 1975–2005. This paper aims to apply the methodology of CMAX method. Our results indicate that liberalization triggers more unstable stock market in the short run and generate several crises. Still, liberalization seems to generate more stable financial markets in the long run. Financial liberalization does not increase the frequency of crises in emerging countries and at long-term, crises are less several.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0083.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Ratios; Financial Crisis; Covid-19; Big Data; Accounting Data
Online: 3 August 2022 (10:42:06 CEST)
The effects of the 2008 financial crisis undoubtedly caused problems not only to the banking sector but also to the real economy of the developed and the developing countries in almost all around the globe. Besides, as is widely known, every banking crisis entails the corresponding cost to the economy of each country affected by it, which results from the shakeout and the restructuring of its financial system. The purpose of this research is to investigate the consequences of the financial crisis and the COVID-19 health crisis and how these affected the course of the four systemic banks (Eurobank, Alpha Bank, National Bank, Piraeus Bank) through the analysis of ratios for the period of 2015-2020.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0090.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: performance appraisal; management; financial crisis; covid-19; banking sector; Lebanon
Online: 6 April 2023 (10:45:48 CEST)
The Covid-19 health crisis and its related confinement measures and policies has had a significant impact on the telework adoptions rates, where many businesses were affected abruptly without being prepared, resulting in numerous ad-hoc applications especially while assessing employee’s performance and productivity while working remotely. The difficulties that have emerged with the pandemic have revealed the fragility of the traditional performance appraisal process and the unintentional existence of proximity bias. The Lebanese liquidity crisis is an ongoing financial crisis affecting Lebanon that became fully apparent toward late-2019 when large demonstrations erupted amid acute political instability and economic challenges. In light of the compounded simultaneous occurrence of recurring episodes of COVID-19 outbreaks and the ongoing country’s financial liquidity crisis, the standing of the Lebanese banking sector – who played key roles in the Lebanese economy and were long considered as financially sound and stable – has drastically changed. Faced with such a situation, Lebanese commercial banks started contracting both their branch network and human capital base, and thus they been forced to rethink their human capital strategies by implementing new practices allowing them to adapt to this context of crisis. It is in this perspective that the present research work is inscribed, where we explore the main managerial practices and processes implemented within top Lebanese banks to assess their employee’s performance during the compounded simultaneous crises. A thematic qualitative analysis method of an exploratory nature was adopted, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with senior managers from top Lebanese commercial banks. Results were processed using a deductive approach for themes identifications. Accordingly, it was concluded that in such times of acute crisis, Lebanese banks have altered the purpose of their Performance Appraisal Review (PAR) process and have implicitly or explicitly adopted a Forced Ranking method to primarily focus on retaining just the top performers, while placing those at the bottom on probation with the risk of termination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0311.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Statistical inference; p-hacking; pre-registration; publication bias; replication crisis
Online: 20 January 2022 (15:32:13 CET)
A vivid debate is ongoing in the scientific community about statistical malpractice and the related publication bias. No general consensus exists on the consequences and this is reflected in heterogeneous rules defined by scientific journals on the use and reporting of statistical inference. This paper aims at discussing how the debate is perceived by the agricultural economics community and implications for our roles as researchers, contributors to the scientific publication process, and teachers. We start by summarizing the current state of the p-value debate and the replication crisis, and commonly applied statistical practices in our community. This is followed by motivation, design, results and discussion of a survey on statistical knowledge and practice among the researchers in the agricultural economics community in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. We conclude that beyond short-term measures like changing rules of reporting in publications, a cultural change regarding empirical scientific practices is needed that stretches across all our roles in the scientific process. Acceptance of scientific work should largely be based on the theoretical and methodological rigor and where the perceived relevance arises from the questions asked, the methodology employed, and the data used but not from the results generated. Revised and clear journal guidelines, the creation of resources for teaching and research, and public recognition of good practice are suggested measures to move forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: cost estimation; cost deviation; financial crisis; promotor-contractor; statistical modelling
Online: 13 October 2021 (12:48:56 CEST)
For the majority of the contractual arrangements used in construction projects, the owner is not responsible for the cost deviations due to the variability of labor productivity or material price, amongst many other aspects. Consequently, the cost performance of a project may be entirely distinct for the owner and the contractor. Since the majority of the quantitative research on cost estimation and deviation found in the literature adopts the owners’ perspective, this research provides a contribution towards modelling costs and cost deviation from a contractors’ perspective. From an initial sample of 13 residential building and 10 office building projects, it was possible to develop models for cost estimation at the early stage of development including both endogenous and exogenous variables. Although the sample is relatively small, the authors were able to fully analyze all the cost data, using no secondary sources of data (very frequent in cost modelling studies). The statistically significant variables in the cost estimation models were the areas above and below ground and the years following the 2008 financial crisis, including the international bailout (2011-2014) period. For estimating the unit cost, a nonlinear model was obtained with the number of underground and total floor, the floor ratio and the years following the 2008 financial crisis, including the international bailout (2011-2014) period as predictors. For the office buildings, it was also found a statistically significant correlation between the cost deviation and the number of underground floors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0501.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Crude oil; Global financial crisis; COVID-19; Stock; Returns; Persistence
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:15:29 CEST)
This study investigates the impact of global financial crisis and the present COVID-19 pandemic on daily and weekly Crude oil futures using four variants of ARMA-GARCH models: ARMA-sGARCH, ARMA-eGARCH, ARMA-TGARCH and ARMA- aPARCH with dummy variables We also investigated the persistence, half-life and backtesting of the models. This study therefore seeks to contribute to the body of literature on the impact of global financial crisis and the present COVID-19 pandemic on crude oil futures market. This investigation of the impact of global financial crisis and the COVID-19 on crude oil futures has not been much studied at present. We obtained and analyzed the daily and weekly crude oil futures from secondary sources. Daily crude oil futures used in this study covers the period from the 4th January 2000 to 27th April 2020 while the weekly crude oil futures covered from 2ndJanuary 2000 to 26th April 2020 . The global financial crisis period covered from 2nd July 2007 to 31st March 2009 and the current COVID-19 pandemic covered from 1st January 2020 to 27th April, 2020. The study used both student t and skewed student t innovations with AIC, goodness-of-test fit and backtesting to select the best model. Most of the estimated ARMA-GARCH models are supported by skewed student t distribution while most of the ARMA-GARCH models exhibited high persistence values in the presence of global financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic. In the overall, the estimated ARMA(1,0)-eGARCH(2,1) and ARMA(1,0)-eGARCH(2,2) model for daily crude oil futures and weekly crude oil futures respectively have been significantly impacted by the global financial crisis and the Present COVID-19 pandemic while the preferred estimated models also passed the goodness-of-test fit and backtesting.This study recommends shareholders and investors should think outside the box as crude oil futures tend to be affected by global financial crisis and COVID-19 pandemic while countries also that depend mostly on crude oil are encouraged to diversify their economy in other to survive and be sustained during financial and health crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1955.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Egg shortage; Poultry supply chain; Influenza; Economic crisis; One Health surveillance
Online: 29 May 2023 (03:59:14 CEST)
Poultry eggs are a critical source of protein, vitamins, and minerals for people worldwide; facing the current global egg shortage is a significant concern. The shortage results from various factors, including avian flu outbreaks, changes in consumer demand, and supply chain disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The economic crisis caused by the pandemic has also impacted the availability and affordability of eggs, particularly in low-income countries. The global egg shortage has implications for public health, particularly for vulnerable populations who rely on eggs for essential nutrients. One Health, an approach that recognizes the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, provides a useful framework for understanding and addressing the egg shortage. One Health approaches to the egg shortage involve collaboration between agriculture and environmental sectors to address the root causes of the lack and ensure the sustainable production and distribution of eggs. Addressing the global egg shortage requires a multifaceted approach considering the complex social, economic, and environmental factors. One Health perspectives offer a way to understand and address the interconnected factors contributing to the shortage to ensure access to affordable, nutritious eggs for all in a healthy way
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0216.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: resistance; physical resistance; crisis preparedness; anticipation ability; security measures; critical infrastructure resilience
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:43:19 CEST)
Technical sectors are an inseparable and elementary part of a critical infrastructure (CI) complex system. The services they provide are essential to the functioning of all the dependent sectors of CI on whose services society depends, especially in areas with high levels of urbanisation. The starting point for effective CI elements protection of is permanent assessing and strengthening their resilience to the negative effects of internal and external threats. Current perceptions of resilience focus primarily on repressive components responsive to incident (i.e., robustness, recoverability, and adaptability), while little attention is paid to preventative components. Therefore, the benefit of the article is to define resistance which could be seen as the CI element ability or characteristic to prevent the occurrence of incidents. Based on that, the article defines 1) the individual factors (variables and parameters) determining the CI resistance and 2) the methodological procedure for infrastructure elements resistance assessment in order to identify weak points and subsequently strengthen them. The essence of the article is defining the starting points for extending the CIERA method by a component strengthening the critical infrastructure resilience in the prevention phase. A practical example of resistance assessment for a selected critical energy infrastructure element is presented at the end of the article.
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: catastrophes; COVID-19; civil unrests; inflation; public health; Health safety; Health crisis
Online: 28 January 2023 (04:52:49 CET)
Aim: Shockwaves have been felt all over the world as a result of war, inflation, food shortages, and the COVID-19 pandemic's long tail. The aim of the study is to correlate present global conflicts, pandemic and socio-economic crises with present healthcare sustainability, identifying possible threats and visualize future global health crises if all these catastrophes persist for long. Materials and Methods: PubMed, ALTAVISTA, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Registers were prioritized to collect public health issues. Results: The global economic slowdown, sharp decline in financial asset values, decline in imports and exports, contraction of industrial production, rise in inflation, decrease in wages, rise in unemployment, damage to the social security caused by numerous natural calamities, human displacement due to pandemic and ongoing conflicts tear down not only the economic sector but also the health sector. It is already late for taking corrective measure by the participation every country, community or intelligence. Only healthcare issues, highlighted in this study, if focused in the highest platforms, could compel global leaders to forego conflicts and work together. Conclusion: The global health sector will be collapsed soon, if proper initiatives are not taken right now, which has already been grossly mistreated by the pandemic.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0458.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: strategy; national security; competitive gaming; wargaming; military; defense force; arboviruses; crisis management
Online: 18 March 2021 (07:20:31 CET)
The emergence of existing and novel vector-borne disease pathogens is highly unpredictable because there are so many possible causal factors of sociological, ecological, biological, behavioral and political origin. Traditional data-driven forecasting tools have limited use in circumstances featuring low-probability crises for which trend data is unreliable and non-predictive. Commercial and security sectors have been quick to adopt various forms of wargames to address this gap and provide intelligent insights on possible outcomes in the short, mid and long term future. The lack of commitment and action against vector-borne diseases by governments and local authorities requires a new approach that presents risk in terms of potential actions, possible outcomes and resulting consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0599.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: crisis self-efficacy; work commitment; education workers; public schools; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 24 July 2020 (14:47:56 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic has affected the public educational sectors in terms of adjustment in educational modalities of instructional delivery, school operations, and policies. With this emerging paradigm shift, teachers' crisis self-efficacy and work commitment are relevant for research. This study's main objective was to determine the significant influence of crisis self-efficacy on the work commitment of public school teachers in Region XI (Davao Region), Philippines, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample consisted of 1,340 public school teachers across the Davao Region. The researchers collected the data through adapted questionnaires contextualized to the local setting and administered through online Google forms with appended consent. Mean, standard deviation, Pearson r, and regression analysis were used to analyze data. Results revealed that crisis self-efficacy significantly influences the work commitment of public school teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Uncertainty management during this crisis, in particular, best predicts teachers’ work commitment. Data also showed a high level of crisis self-efficacy in terms of action, preventive, achievement and uncertainty management, and high level of teachers’ work commitment in terms of commitment to school, commitment to students, commitment to teaching, and commitment to profession. Correlation results also showed a link between crisis self-efficacy and the work commitment of teachers amid pandemic. Finally, the study concluded with practical recommendations and directions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: politics; political speech; economic crisis; Greece; deictics; space; time; image schemas; metonymicity
Online: 27 July 2019 (00:51:33 CEST)
This paper discusses the metonymic uses of the greek deictic adverbs εδώ [here] and εκεί [there] in the language of politics. The paper draws examples from political speeches which taken place in the Hellenic Parliament during 2011 and discussed the financial situation of Greece during that time. The paper discusses the multiple senses of these deictic adverbs and suggests that the temporal and spatial denotations of εδώ and εκεί are subject to image schemas. It is argued that the image schemas in which εδώ and εκεί are rooted have a metonymic basis. The paper also suggests that the spatio-temporal senses of εδώ and εκεί go beyond their deictic function due to their metonymic basis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0613.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Mussel die-off; food availability; marine heatwaves; Adriatic Sea; climatic crisis; synergistic effect.
Online: 11 September 2023 (09:19:24 CEST)
The effects of the climate crisis are affecting ecosystems at different scales and magnitudes. This paper focuses on a massive Mediterranean mussel die-off observed along the middle Italian Adriatic coast in the summer of 2022. We considered the possible environmental causes of this phenomenon and carried out a climatic analysis of the last decades and in detail of recent summers. We performed field surveys in different locations along a 16 Km coastal stretch (from Martinsicuro (TE) on the South, to Grottammare (AP) on the North). The study area includes two marine Sites of Community Importance under the European Natura 2000 network. The mussels die-off has in-terested practically all the natural mussel-beds colonizing the study area. Mussels are sessile fil-ter-feeding organisms inhabiting the intertidal zone, therefore, are highly exposed to variations in environmental conditions such as temperature and nutrient load. We discuss the possible causes of this die-off, proposing that high temperature and the scarce availability of food acted simulta-neously as stress factors, generating local unsustainable living conditions for this species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0248.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Liquidity Risks; Financial Liquidity Factors; Liquidity Crisis; Stock Market; Market Transparency; Greedy Approach
Online: 13 January 2023 (09:30:56 CET)
This research article focused on discovering appropriate liquidity risk concerns in the financial Sector. Primarily, it deals with the appropriate liquidity factors that affect financial performance services pertained to several liquidity crises and the respective liquidity measures. Liquidity is considered the primary constraint. The Liquidity Ratios are the defective condition of calculating the financial performance services and their respective status. For fulfilling this performance service status prediction, this research use calculation for consistency index procedure. Liquidity index-based predictions have collaborated concerning the price movement in the stock market. The Liquidity will affect the trading and market transparency whenever the price moment varies. To control this trading and not market transparency of liquidity index be employed the greedy approach for estimating the most factor affected by the liquid index. Hence, this research elaborates on the greedy approach today with 25 essential financial factors. Each Panther will have combined with the tractor-confirmed liquidity crisis whenever the factors of liquidity crisis are combined with the actual financial factor, the minimum and maximum Degree of matching are calculated. This calculation determines the factors that affected the Liquidity concerning their exact, Plugin, subsume, and fail condition. Eventually, the search concludes the determination of factors affecting Liquidity concerning the actual finance factor and liquidity crisis. Finally, the result was concluded with the Degree of matching and their efficiency of finding liquidity factors with a successful reasonable result. Based on the Degree of matching result, this research found the actual reason for Liquidity with the help of various financial factors
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0488.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Opioid crisis; PDMP; Pill Mill; Difference-in-Difference; Policy Analysis; Pharmaceutical Supply Chain
Online: 26 December 2022 (11:10:57 CET)
The opioid crisis in the United States has had devastating effects on communities across the country, leading many states to pass legislation that limits the prescription of opioid medications in an effort to reduce the number of overdose deaths. This study evaluates the impact of two categories of PDMP and Pill Mill regulations on the supply of opioid prescriptions at the level of dispensers and distributors (excluding manufacturers) using ARCOS data. The study uses a difference-in-difference method with a two-way fixed design to analyze the data. The study finds that both of the regulations are associated with reductions in the volume of opioid distribution. However, the study reveals that these regulations may have unintended consequences, such as shifting the distribution of controlled substances to neighboring states. For example, in Tennessee, the implementation of Operational PDMP regulations reduces in-state distribution of opioid drugs by 3.36% (95% CI, 2.37 to 4.3), while the out-of-state distribution to Georgia, which did not have effective PDMP regulations in place, increases by 16.93% (95% CI, 16.42 to 17.44). Our studies emphasize that policymakers should consider the potential for unintended distribution shifts of opioid drugs to neighboring states with laxer regulations as well as varying impacts on different dispenser types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0329.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Sickle cell disorder; vaso-occlusive crisis; hydroxyurea; microcirculation; microfluidics; personalized medicine; deformation; transit time.
Online: 25 February 2022 (09:30:03 CET)
Sickle cell disorder (SCD) is a multisystem disease with heterogeneous phenotypes. Although all patients have the mutated haemoglobin (Hb) in the SS phenotype, the severity and frequency of complications are variable. When exposed to low oxygen tension, the Hb molecule becomes dense and, forms tactoids which, lead to the peculiar sickled shapes of the affected red blood cells, giving the disorder its name. This sickle cell morphology is responsible for the profound and widespread pathologies associated with this disorder, such as vaso-occlusive crisis, (VOC). How much of the clinical manifestation is due to sickled erythrocytes and what is due to the relative contributions of other elements in the blood, especially in the microcapillary circulation, is usually not visualized and quantified for each patient during clinical management. Here, we used a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic (MMM) which has 187 capillary-like constrictions to impose deformations on erythrocytes of SCD patients, visualizing and characterizing the morpho-rheological properties of the cells in normoxic, hypoxic (using of sodium meta-bisulfite) and in treatment conditions (using hydroxyurea). The MMM enabled a patient-specific quantification of shape descriptors (circularity and roundness) and transit time through the capillary constrictions, which are readouts for morphorheological properties implicated in VOC. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of microfluidics-based monitoring of individual patients for personalized care in the context of SCD complications such as VOC, even in re-source-challenged settings.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0094.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19 Lockdown; Shortage of PPEs; Global Pandemic Crisis; Incentives for Officials at Risk
Online: 6 May 2020 (08:45:39 CEST)
COVID-19 has affected 210 countries around the world, killed more than 240,000 and infected more than 3.4 million. Bangladesh, a South Asian low-middle-income economy, has experienced a demographic and epidemiological transition with rapid urbanization and a gradual increase in life expectancy. It is the seventh most populous country in the world and population of the country is expected to be nearly double by 2050. The increasing burden of noncommunicable diseases in Bangladesh can be attributable to rapid urbanization and nearly 50% of all slum dwellers of the country live in Dhaka division. In 2017, National Rapid Response Team of IEDCR investigated 26 incidents of disease outbreak. The joint survey of the Power and Participation Research Centre and BRAC Institute of Governance and Development reveals that per capita daily income of urban slum and rural poor drops by 80% due to present countrywide shutdown enforced by the government to halt the spread of Covid-19. 40%-50% of these population took loans to meet the daily expenses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0433.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: primary health care; workforce crisis; general practitioner vacancy; aging of general practitioners; premature mortality
Online: 30 May 2018 (05:47:53 CEST)
The workforce crisis of primary care is reflected in the increasing number of general medical practices (GMP) with vacant general practitioner (GP) position, and the GPs’ ageing. Our study aimed to describe the association between this crisis and premature mortality. Age-sex-standardized mortality for 18-64 years old adults were calculated for all Hungarian GMPs annually in the period from 2006 to 2014. The relationship of premature mortality with GPs’ age and vacant GP position were evaluated by standardized linear regression controlled for list size, urbanization, geographical location, clients’ education, and type of the GMP. The clients’ education was the strongest protective factor (beta=-0175; p<0.001), followed by urban residence (beta=-0.149; p<0.001), and the bigger list size (beta1601-2000=-0.054; p<0.001; beta2001-X=-0.096; p<0.001). The geographical localization influenced significantly also the risk. Although, GMP with a GP aged older than 65 years (beta=0; p=0.995) did not affected the risk, GP vacancy was associated with higher risk (beta=0.010; p=0.033), but the corresponding number of attributable cases was 23.54 for 9 years. The vacant GP position is associated with significant but hardly detectable increased risk of premature mortality without considerable public health importance. Nevertheless, employment of GPs aged more than 65 does not impose premature mortality risk elevation.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Foreign Exchange Market, Volatility Spillover, Return Spillover, VAR Framework, Variance Decomposition, Financial Crisis, Financial Interdependence
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:03:39 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the “statics and dynamics” return and volatility spillovers transmission across developed and developing countries. Quoted against the U.S. dollar, we study twenty-three global currencies over 2005 – 2016. Focusing on the spillover index methodology, the generalised VAR framework is employed. Our findings indicate no evidence of bi-directional return and volatility spillovers between developed and developing countries. However, a unidirectional volatility spillover from developed to developing countries is highlighted. Furthermore, our findings document significant bi-directional volatility spillovers within the European region (Eurozone and non-Eurozone currencies) with the British Pound (GBP) and the Euro (EUR) as the most significant transmitters of volatility. The findings reiterate the prominence of volatility spillovers to financial regulators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0452.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: corona; covid-19; crisis management; basic income; environmental politics; globalization; public policy; inequality; sustainable development
Online: 19 May 2021 (14:38:12 CEST)
The rapidly expanding corona pandemic in 2020 brought the world to virtual economic stagna-tion. While the impact on the environment from suspended air traffic, idle industry and economic lockdown has been considerable, so have the economic and social consequences of the crisis. To make matters worse, the resulting state of stagnation is neither economically nor socially sustaina-ble. Nevertheless, we need to ask ourselves what we can learn from the situation in order to ex-plore the benefits of globalization, intercept similar crisis situations more effectively in the future and move towards more sustainable development on an ecological, economic and social level. This paper identifies the areas of expanded externality management needed to further improve environmental quality, digitalization, network expansion and basic income. These central issues need to be addressed both during and after the crisis in order to deal with problems of inequality and climate change mitigation for current and future generations. Concrete concepts will be put forward and discussed in the paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Community health workers; Primary healthcare; Mental health; Psychosocial support; Vulnerable populations; COVID-19; Health crisis
Online: 2 March 2021 (14:31:40 CET)
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic some family physicians were overburdened and experienced difficulties reaching vulnerable patients and meeting the increased need for psycho-social support. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) tested whether a primary healthcare (PHC) based community health worker (CHW) intervention could tackle psychosocial suffering due to physical distancing measures in patients with limited social networks. Methods: CHWs provided 8 weeks of tailored psychosocial support to the intervention group. Control group patients received ‘care as usual’. The impact on feelings of emotional support, social isolation, social participation, anxiety and fear of COVID-19 were measured longitudinally using a face-to-face survey to determine their mean change from baseline. Self-rated change in psychosocial health at 8 weeks was determined. Results: We failed to find a significant effect of the intervention on the prespecified psychosocial health measures. However, the intervention did lead to significant improvement in self-rated change in psychosocial health. Conclusions: This study confirms partially the existing evidence on the effectiveness of CHW in-terventions as a strategy to address mental health in PHC in a COVID context. Further research is needed to elaborate the implementation of CHWs in PHC to reach vulnerable populations during and after health crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0518.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: smart cities; health crisis; COVID-19; pandemics; intelligent ecosystems; connected intelligence; environmental sustainability; climate change
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:18:15 CET)
Fundamental principles of modern cities and urban planning are challenged during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the advantages of large city size, high density, mass transport, free use of public space, unrestricted individual mobility in cities. These principles shaped the development of cities and metropolitan areas for more than a century, but currently, there are signs that they have turned from advantage to liability. Cities Public authorities and private organisations responded to the COVID-19 crisis with a variety of policies and business practices. These countermeasures codify a valuable experience and can offer lessons about how cities can tackle another grand challenge, this of climate change. Do the measures taken during the COVID-19 crisis represent a temporal adjustment to the current health crisis? Or do they open new ways towards a new type of urban development more effective in times of environmental and health crises? We address these questions through literature review and three case studies that review policies and practices for the transformation of city ecosystems mostly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic: (a) the central business district, (b) the transport ecosystem, and (c) the tourism-hospitality ecosystem. We assess whether the measures implemented in these ecosystems shape new policy and planning models for higher readiness of cities towards grand challenges. And how, based on this experience, cities should be organized to tackle the grand challenge of environmental sustainability and climate change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: water supply; crisis situation; safety of water supply; flood; water decontamination; water filtration; flexible tanks
Online: 17 February 2021 (07:56:01 CET)
Various methods of water purification, the aim of which is to obtain such a purity class that makes it suitable for consumption are presented in the article. It is a review of solutions, ranging from methods known and used for over 100 years, through research and experiments underway, to those that are only a concept. Some of the solutions are so effective that they should also be combined with the possibility of safe storage of purified water. Flexible tanks are used for this, which significantly improve logistics and provide a supply of water in all places where it is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1413.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: Smart Government Strategies; Crisis Environments; Governance Robustness; Institutional Capacities; Effective Local Governance; Evaluation; Indicators Analytical Model.
Online: 19 May 2023 (08:40:37 CEST)
Crisis environments, which are becoming systemic, pose significant challenges to smart government strategies. The paper aims to contribute to academic debate by proposing an analytical framework for examining the institutional capacities of smart government systems in addressing local crises. The paper focuses on the recent approach of robust governance and highlights a set of variables that promote effective smart government: contingency planning capacity, analytical capacity, organizational management capacity, and collaborative capacity. The study presents an analytical model for evaluating the robustness and effectiveness of local smart government systems in crises. One of the significant findings of this study has been the identification of critical indicators that inform institutional capacities of smart government systems. By analyzing these indicators, the proposed analytical framework provides a comprehensive approach to assess the preparedness of smart government systems in dealing with crises. Moreover, it can be used to benchmark the performance of local smart government systems in similar contexts and identify best practices for improving crisis management.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS); resource mobilization; Digital Sequence Information (DSI); Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework; biodiversity crisis
Online: 7 September 2021 (16:07:18 CEST)
Facing unprecedented global declines in the extent and integrity of ecosystems, the 15th UN Biodiversity Conference (COP-15) in Kunming, China, presents an opportunity for transformative change. However, a lack of consensus on two key issues – resource mobilization and Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) associated with Digital Sequence Information (DSI) – risks stalling negotiations for an ambitious ‘Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework’ as the next 10-year strategic plan under the Convention on Biological Diversity. We highlight systemic misconceptions concerning the financing of biodiversity and the burden this places on the ABS system. In the context of DSI, we caution that conflating ABS with resource mobilization risks disrupting modern science policy built on open access, with potentially severe ramifications for scientific research and innovation. To resolve these tensions, we call for a recalibration of discussions on ABS in order to maximize the value delivered by biodiversity for all of society, including indigenous peoples and local communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0395.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Quark confinement; Asymptotic freedom; Relative force strength; Dark matters; Proton crisis; Deep inelastic scattering; Neutron structure; Two lepton system
Online: 13 October 2021 (10:31:18 CEST)
The relative force strengths of the Coulomb forces, gravitational forces, dark matter forces, weak forces and strong forces are compared for the dark matters, leptons, quarks, and normal matters (p and n baryons) in terms of the 3-D quantized space model. The quark confinement and asymptotic freedom are explained by the CC merging to the A(CC=-5)3 state. The proton with the (EC,LC,CC) charge configuration of p(1,0,-5) is p(1,0) + A(CC=-5)3. The A(CC=-5)3 state has the 99.6% of the proton mass. The three quarks in p(1,0,-5) are asymptotically free in the EC and LC space of p(1,0) and are strongly confined in the CC space of A(CC=-5)3. This means that the lepton beams in the deep inelastic scattering interact with three quarks in p(1,0) by the EC interaction and weak interaction. Then, the observed spin is the partial spin of p(1,0) which is 32.6 % of the total spin (1/2) of the proton. The A(CC=-5)3 state has the 67.4 % of the proton spin. This explains the proton spin crisis. The EC charge distribution of the proton is the same to the EC charge distribution of p(1,0) which indicates that three quarks in p(1,0) are mostly near the proton surface. From the EC charge distribution of neutron, the 2 lepton system (called as the koron) of the koron is, for the first time, reported in the present work.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Sickle Cell Disease; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Vaso-occlusive Crisis; Pain; Thromboxane; Prostaglandin D2; Thrombo-inflammation; Acute Chest Syndrome; Ramatroban
Online: 5 December 2022 (08:00:45 CET)
People with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at greater risk of severe illness and death from respiratory infections, including COVID-19 than people without SCD (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA). Vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) in SCD and severe SARS-CoV-2 infection are both characterized by thrombo-inflammation mediated by endothelial injury, complement activation, inflammatory lipid storm, platelet activation, platelet-leukocyte adhesion, and activation of the coagulation cascade. Notably, lipid mediators, including thromboxane A2, significantly increase in severe COVID-19 and SCD. In addition, the release of thromboxane A2 from endothelial cells and macrophages stimulates platelets to release microvesicles which are harbingers of multicellular adhesion and thrombo-inflammation. Currently, there are limited therapeutic strategies targeting platelet-neutrophil activation and thrombo-inflammation in either SCD or COVID-19 during acute crisis. However, due to many similarities between the pathobiology of thrombo-inflammation in SCD and COVID-19, therapies targeting one disease may likely be effective in the other. Therefore, the preclinical and clinical research spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic, including clinical trials of anti-thrombotic agents, are potentially applicable to VOC. Here, we first outline the parallels between SCD and COVID-19; second, review the role of lipid mediators in the pathogenesis of these diseases and lastly, examine the therapeutic targets and potential treatments for the two diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0148.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; Infectious diseases; Global diffusion; Environmental factors; Compartmental models; Epidemiologic models; Outlook; Prediction; Preparedness; Surveillance; Health policy; Crisis management; Strategies.
Online: 8 November 2022 (08:40:47 CET)
One of the most important problems in the presence of epidemics and pandemics is an accurate prediction and preparedness. Scholars and experts argue that future pandemics and/or epidemics are almost inevitable events and is not whether next pandemics will happen, but when a new heath emergency will emerge. Epidemiologic models for prediction of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shown many limitations because of unpredictable dynamics of the new viral agent SARS-CoV-2 in environment and society. The main goals of this study are twofold: first, the analysis of anthropogenic activities and factors that may trigger pandemic threats; second, the planning of new directions for strategies to reduce risks that a pandemic threat emerges and/or in the initial phase to reduce vast diffusion and negative impact of new viral agents that can generate hazards and problems in public health, environment and socioeconomic systems. In particular, the investigation and understanding of sources and driving factors concerning the emergence and diffusion of new pandemics have critical aspects for strategic actions of forecast, prevention and preparation of effective policy responses to cope with next pandemic crises and health emergencies. Insights here endeavor, whenever possible, to clarify these problems to increase the knowledge of the sources and factor determining the emergence of new viral agents in order to design optimal response policies to face next pandemic diseases similar to COVID-19. .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0229.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 antibody; reproducibility crisis; peptide mass fingerprinting; monoclonal antibody; trace-ability; identity; antibody identification; antibody light chain; MALDI-TOF-MS
Online: 16 March 2022 (10:01:41 CET)
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, many virus-binding monoclonal antibodies have been developed for clinical and diagnostic purposes. This underlines the importance of antibodies as universal bioanalytical reagents. However, little attention is given to the reproducibility crisis that scientific studies are still facing to date. In a recent study, not even half of all research antibodies mentioned in publications could be identified at all. This should spark more efforts in the search for practical solutions for the traceability of antibodies. For this purpose, we used thirty-five monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 to demonstrate how sequence-independent antibody identification can be achieved by simple means applied onto the protein. First, we examined the intact and light chain masses of the antibodies relative to the reference material NIST-mAb 8671. Already half of the antibodies could be identified based solely on these two parameters. In addition, we developed two complementary peptide mass fingerprinting methods with MALDI-TOF-MS that can be performed in 45 minutes and had a combined sequence coverage of over 80%. One method is based on the partial acidic hydrolysis of the protein by 5 mM of sulfuric acid at 99 °C. Furthermore, we established a fast way for a tryptic digest without an alkylation step. We were able to show that the distinction of clones is possible simply by a brief visual comparison of the mass spectra. In this work, two clones originating from the same immunization gave the same fingerprints. Later, a hybridoma sequencing confirmed the sequence identity of these sister clones. In order to automate the spectral comparison for larger libraries of antibodies, we developed the online software ABID 2.0 (https://gets.shinyapps.io/ABID/). This open-source software determines the number of matching peptides in the fingerprint spectra. We propose that publications and other documents critically relying on monoclonal antibodies with unknown amino acid sequences should include at least one antibody fingerprint. By fingerprinting an antibody in question, its identity can be confirmed by comparison with a library spectrum at any time and context.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Efficiency of mutual funds, a deep crisis in the economy, efficiency forecast, model formation, financial investments, estimated income, mutual funds, CAPM, neural networks
Online: 31 March 2021 (22:04:28 CEST)
. In this article, a search for a calculation method and an analysis of performance indicators of mutual investment funds is carried out. Many factors can influence the return on investments in portfolio investments, which makes the choice of the fund incredibly difficult. However, in addition to the fact that it is difficult to determine which indicators should be given more attention and which should be omitted, it is not so easy to get these data. Some of them are publicly available on the Internet, while others can only be found in trading systems that are not accessible to people outside of this area. The article proves that a well-trained neural network can easily find existing patterns between risk and expected return on investment. It is a well-trained neural network that provides the ability to use the "what-if" function to justify your choice on real factors, as well as the ability to download available data and calculate the estimated income and its changes. This makes it much easier to choose a Fund, especially for inexperienced investors. The article also presents the results of a study of the dependence of estimated income on correlation, standard deviation, and volatility using a trained neural network. According to the theory, higher values of these three factors correspond to a higher amount of income. The obtained graphs of the calculated income dependence on correlation, standard deviation, and volatility confirmed the correctness of the neural network training and compliance with the relations described in the theory. The paper presents graphs of the dependence of the estimated income on the beta and alpha coefficients. The higher the beta and alpha indicators, the higher the expected return on investment. This corresponds to the dependency accepted in the model. When the values of the beta and alpha coefficients increase, the income also increases, which is completely consistent with the theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0774.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Efficiency of mutual funds; a deep crisis in the economy; efficiency forecast; model formation; financial investments; estimated income; mutual funds; CAPM; neural networks
Online: 31 March 2021 (14:54:57 CEST)
In this article, a search for a calculation method and an analysis of performance indicators of mutual investment funds is carried out. Many factors can influence the return on investments in portfolio investments, which makes the choice of the fund incredibly difficult. However, in addition to the fact that it is difficult to determine which indicators should be given more attention and which should be omitted, it is not so easy to get these data. Some of them are publicly available on the Internet, while others can only be found in trading systems that are not accessible to people outside of this area. The article proves that a well-trained neural network can easily find existing patterns between risk and expected return on investment. It is a well-trained neural network that provides the ability to use the "what-if" function to justify your choice on real factors, as well as the ability to download available data and calculate the estimated income and its changes. This makes it much easier to choose a Fund, especially for inexperienced investors. The article also presents the results of a study of the dependence of estimated income on correlation, standard deviation, and volatility using a trained neural network. According to the theory, higher values of these three factors correspond to a higher amount of income. The obtained graphs of the calculated income dependence on correlation, standard deviation, and volatility confirmed the correctness of the neural network training and compliance with the relations described in the theory. The paper presents graphs of the dependence of the estimated income on the beta and alpha coefficients. The higher the beta and alpha indicators, the higher the expected return on investment. This corresponds to the dependency accepted in the model. When the values of the beta and alpha coefficients increase, the income also increases, which is completely consistent with the theory.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: domestic violence during lockdown; healthcare denial; poor adherence to self-quarantine; natural Disasters amid Covid-19; repatriation of migrant workers; supply chain crisis
Online: 15 May 2020 (18:09:10 CEST)
COVID-19 has affected 212 countries around the world, killing nearly 300,000 and infecting more than 4.4 million by May 14, 2020. Bangladesh, a South Asian low-middle-income economy, has experienced a demographic and epidemiological transition with rapid urbanization and a gradual increase in life expectancy. It is the seventh most populous country in the world and population of the country is expected to be nearly double by 2050. The increasing burden of communicable diseases in Bangladesh can be attributable to rapid urbanization and nearly 50% of all slum dwellers of the country live in Dhaka division. In 2017, National Rapid Response Team of IEDCR investigated 26 incidents of disease outbreak. The joint survey of the Power and Participation Research Centre and BRAC Institute of Governance and Development reveals that per capita daily income of urban slum and rural poor drops by 80% due to present countrywide shutdown enforced by the government to halt the spread of Covid-19. 40%-50% of these population took loans to meet the daily expenses. However, the country has just 127,000 hospital beds, 91,000 of them in government-run hospitals. Researchers say, the country’s economy is economy is losing BDT 33 billion every day from its service and agriculture sectors during the nationwide shutdown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0431.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Dark energy; Photon flat space; Charged black holes; Big bang and inflation; Universe evolution; Vacuum energy crisis; Hubble’s constant puzzle; 4-D Euclidean space
Online: 23 November 2021 (15:04:41 CET)
Space-time evolution of our universe is explained by using the 3-dimensional quantized space model (TQSM) based on the 4-dimensional (4-D) Euclidean space. The energy (E = cDtDV), charges and energy density (|q| = r = cDt) and absolute time (ct) are newly defined based on the 4-D Euclidean space. The photon flat space with the constant energy density of r = cDtq is proposed as the dark energy (DE). The dark energy is separated into the n DE and photon DE which create the new photon spaces with the constant energy density of r = cDtq. The v DE is from the n pair production by the CPT symmetry and the photon DE is from the photon space pair production by the T symmetry. The vacuum energy crisis and Hubble’s constant puzzle are explained by the photon space with the n DE and photon DE. The big bang and inflation of the primary black hole is connected to the accelerated space expansion and big collapse of the photon space through the universe evolution. The big bang from the nothing is the pair production of the matter universe with the positive energy and the partner anti-matter universe with the negative energy from the CPT symmetry. Our universe is the matter universe with the negative charges of electric charge (EC), lepton charge (LC) and color charge (CC). This first universe is made of dark matter -, lepton -, and quark - primary black holes with the huge negative charges which cause the Coulomb repulsive forces much bigger than the gravitational forces. The huge Coulomb forces induce the inflation of the primary black holes, that decay to the super-massive black holes and particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0467.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Elementary particles; Galaxy structures; Charged black hole decay; Big bang and inflation; Super-massive black holes; Coulomb forces; Proton spin crisis; Dark matters; 4-D Euclidean space.
Online: 11 October 2021 (11:46:24 CEST)
Space-time evolution is briefly explained by using the 3-dimensional quantized space model (TQSM) based on the 4-dimensional (4-D) Euclidean space. The energy (E=cDtDV), charges (|q|= cDt) and absolute time (ct) are newly defined based on the 4-D Euclidean space. The big bang is understood by the space-time evolution of the 4-D Euclidean space but not by the sudden 4-D Minkowski space-time creation. The big bang process created the matter universe with the positive energy and the partner anti-matter universe with the negative energy from the CPT symmetry. Our universe is the matter universe with the negative charges of electric charge (EC), lepton charge (LC) and color charge (CC). This first universe is made of three dark matter -, lepton -, and quark - primary black holes with the huge negative charges which cause the Coulomb repulsive forces much bigger than the gravitational forces. The huge Coulomb forces induce the inflation of the primary black holes, that decay to the super-massive black holes. The dark matter super-massive black holes surrounded by the normal matters and dark matters make the galaxies and galaxy clusters. The spiral arms of galaxies are closely related to the decay of the 3-D charged normal matter black holes to the 1-D charged normal matter black holes. The elementary leptons and quarks are created by the decay of the normal matter charged black holes, that is caused by the Coulomb forces much stronger than the gravitational forces. The Coulomb forces are very weak with the very small Coulomb constants (k1(EC) = kdd(EC) ) for the dark matters and very strong with the very big Coulomb constants (k2(EC) = knn(EC)) for the normal matters because of the non-communication of the photons between the dark matters and normal matters. The photons are charge dependent and mass independent. But the dark matters and normal matters have the similar and very weak gravitational forces because of the communication of the gravitons between the dark matters and normal matters. The gravitons are charge independent and mass dependent. Note that the three kinds of charges (EC, LC and CC) and one kind of mass (m) exist in our matter universe. The dark matters, leptons and quarks have the charge configurations of (EC), (EC,LC) and (EC,LC,CC), respectively. Partial masses of elementary fermions are calculated, and the proton spin crisis is explained. The charged black holes are not the singularities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0223.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: digitization; virtualization; digital twin; blockchain; crowdsourcing; decentralization; non-fungible token; NFT; smart contract; oracle; tokenization; digital ownership; consensus; governance; trust; incentivization; staking; reputation systems; reproducibility crisis; exponentiality; digital twin; metaverse; DeSci; decentralized science; citizen science; open science; distributed ledger; digital scarcity
Online: 17 May 2022 (05:50:03 CEST)
Fundamental science and applied research and technology development (RTD) are facing significant challenges that particularly compound to the notorious credibility, reproducibility, funding and sustainability crises. The underlying, serious shortcomings are substantially amplified by a metrics-obsessed publication culture, and a growing cohort of academics fishing for fairly stagnant (public) funding budgets. This work presents, for the first time, a groundbreaking strategy to successfully address these severe issues; the novel strategy proposed here leverages the distributed ledger technology (DLT) “blockchain” to capitalize on cryptoeconomic mechanisms, such as tokenization, consensus, crowdsourcing, smart contracts, reputation systems as well as staking, reward and slashing mechanisms. This powerful toolbox, which is so far widely unfamiliar to traditional scientific and RTD communities (“TradSci”), is synergistically combined with the exponentially growing computing capabilities for virtualizing experiments through digital twin methods in a future scientific “metaverse”. Project contributions, such as hypotheses, methods, experimental data, modelling, simulation, assessment, predictions and directions are crowdsourced using blockchain, and captured by so-called non-fungible tokens (“NFTs”). The so enabled, highly integrative approach, termed decentralized science (“DeSci”), is destined to move research out of its present silos, and to markedly enhance quality, credibility, efficiency, transparency, inclusiveness, sustainability, impact, and sustainability of a wide spectrum of academic and commercial research initiatives.