SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0096.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: corrosion inhibitor; coumarin; resonance
Online: 31 July 2017 (16:37:19 CEST)
Corrosion inhibitors are the natural or synthetic compounds that have the ability to inhibit the average of corrosion and reduce the damage of the mild steel. Enormous organic inhibitors nowadays employed in the corrosion domain but excluded due to costly. Comparatively cheap, and stable organic compound, namely 3-((4-nitrobenzylidene)amino)coumarin, have been utilized as an excellent corrosion inhibitor in hydrochloric acid for mild steel. The inhibition efficiency has been figured regarding to weight loss method. The corrosion inhibitor was identified according to spectroscopic techniques namely Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance in addition to micro-elemental analysis. Inhibition efficiency for the studied inhibitor was 71.4% that, at the highest studied concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0021.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: 3-((2-chlorobenzylidene)amino)coumarin; corrosion inhibitor; damage reduction
Online: 7 August 2017 (10:51:42 CEST)
New corrosion inhibitor derived from coumarin-3-amine namely 3-((2-chlorobenzylidene)amino)coumarin was synthesized and characterized by CHN elemental analysis in addition to Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The anti-corrosion ability of 3-((2-chlorobenzylidene)amino)coumarin to inhibit the impacts of corrosion has been demonstrated and damage reduction of the mild steel also. 3-((2-chlorobenzylidene)amino)coumarin, has been employed as a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in HCL solution. The efficiency of the inhibition was figured according to weight loss method and it was 74.6%.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: finite element modeling; electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE); electrical injection of corrosion inhibitor (EICI); rebar corrosion; repair mortar
Online: 19 June 2017 (13:40:09 CEST)
Repair mortar is commonly used to rehabilitate reinforced concrete structures or components that exhibit a relatively high level of distresses. Yet, this repair mortar can be contaminated by salt from its service environment. This work employs a two-dimensional finite element model to investigate the transport behavior of ionic species in salt-contaminated and water-saturated repair mortar under an externally applied electric field. The model was experimentally validated and then utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) with or without electrical injection of corrosion inhibitor (EICI). In the case study, both the ECE alone and the ECE+EICI treatment was found effective in decontaminating the zone in front of the steel rebar. In both techniques, the magnitude of current density has a significant effect on removing chloride out of the mortar and increasing the pH of the pore solution near the rebar, whereas the treatment time any not have a significant effect under some scenarios. The injection of the organic corrosion inhibitor significantly slowed down the removal of chloride. Changes in the ionic distribution in the mortar were generally beneficial in reducing the corrosion risk of the steel rebar and thus extending the service life of the repair mortar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0118.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: ZnO-NPs; corrosion; synthesis; carbon steel; convolvulus; leaf; extract
Online: 12 January 2020 (13:53:53 CET)
This paper studies the use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) synthesized using an extract of convolvulus leaves and expired ZnCl2, as an efficient inhibitor for carbon steel corrosion in 1M HCl solution. ZnO-NPs are characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and UV–Vis analysis. The technique of weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has also been used to investigate the prevention of carbon steel corrosion in 1M HCl. The results showed that the efficiency of restraint increased when the concentration of ZnO-NPs was raised to 91% and that the inhibition efficiency is still high despite its decrease at high temperature, and it acts as a mixed-type inhibitor A sample of carbon steel with the protective inhibitor layer on top was immersed for 20 hours and observed; an increase in the charge transfer resistance (Rct) and stability of the inhibitor was noticed after 6 hours. Adsorption isotherm models demonstrated that the inhibitor adsorption mechanism on the carbon steel surface followed Langmuir, more than Freundlich and Temkin, behavior. The thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption process is a mixed adsorption, spontaneous, and exothermic. The results illustrated that the acid medium was a strong inhibitor of carbon steel corrosion. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the ZnO-NPs formed a good protective film on the carbon steel surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0512.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Intelligent corrosion inhibitor; Oleate imidazoline; Polyacrylamide; pH-controlled release; L80 carbon steel.
Online: 27 December 2022 (07:49:22 CET)
To provide carbon steel a long corrosion protection effect in NaCl solution with various pH, a pH-controlled intelligent inhibitor based on poly-acrylamide (PAM) and oleate imidazoline (OIM) was synthesized. SEM, FT-IR and TGA results indicating the OIM inhibitor was successfully loaded into PAM hydrogel with a very high content (39.64 wt%). The OIM release behavior from hydrogel structure have two stages, quickly release and sustained release. The pH of solution could affect the initial release kinetics of OIM inhibitor and the diffusion path in hydrogel structure. Weight loss measurement of L80 steel in different pH solution with OIM@PAM proved the inhibitor responsive release mechanism and an-ti-corrosion performance. The inhibition efficiency of OIM@PAM can maintain over 80% after long term immersion in harsh corrosive environment (pH 3), which is much higher than the inhibition efficiency of inhibitor in moderate corrosive solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0001.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: corrosion behavior; FG20; electrochemical measurements; EPMA; corrosion mechanism
Online: 1 November 2017 (04:15:39 CET)
In some sour reservoirs and tertiary oil recovery blocks, SO42- in solution can cause the corrosion and corrosion fatigue of the sucker rods. In this paper, the corrosion behaviors of super-strength sucker rod FG20 (16Mn2SiCrMoVTiA) steel in the well fluid are investigated by electrochemical measurements, and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) analysis. The results show that FG20 steel has a favorable corrosion resistance in neural solutions. When the hydrogen ion content increases, the hydrolysis of SO42- greatly accelerates the corrosion of FG20 steel. The energy dispersive X-ray(EDX)results demonstrate that the corrosion process of FG20 steel in neural well liquid is an oxygen concentration process, and the protective FeCO3 and Fe2O3 on the surface of the samples can prevent further corrosion. With the increase of the acidity in the well liquid, the corrosion process converts into a sulphide concentration process, and the sloppy FeS and mackinawite film cannot provide effective protection for the specimens, resulting in the increase of corrosion rate.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: concrete; pore solution; silica; pozzolan; corrosion; cyclic voltammetry; silicate; corrosion inhibition
Online: 14 October 2020 (10:48:58 CEST)
Reinforcement corrosion due to chloride attack is of major economic significance for reinforced concrete structures. Pozzolans are known to inhibit corrosion initiation mainly by reducing concrete permeability. However, there is evidence in the literature that changes in the chemical environment in the concrete due to the pozzolans may be creating improved corrosion resistance, by themselves. In this study, the composition of a pore solution of mature hydrated cement paste containing silica-fume at different ratios was analyzed. The electrochemical behavior of reinforcing steel was studied in simulated pore solutions with silicate concentrations ranging from 0 to 35.6 mM, which are within the concentration range found by pore solution extraction to be up to 49 mM. Polished reinforcing steel specimens were used for cyclic voltammetry in simulated pore solutions with chloride concentrations of 10-20%. Better corrosion protection was found with increasing silicate concentration up to 3.56 mM. This was indicated by lower corrosion currents both in the passive state and after anodic activation. Anodic activation of steel in a 35.6 mM silicate solution with 20% NaCl yielded a higher potential than the anterior potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0174.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: operational aircraft; skin corrosion; fatigue crack growth; stress corrosion cracking; buckling
Online: 12 June 2018 (08:36:13 CEST)
This paper studies the combined effect of corrosion and fatigue on the growth of cracks in aircraft and on the effect of skin corrosion and stress corrosion cracking on the load bearing capacity of rib stiffened aircraft wings. In this context it is shown that the growth of cracks from surface pitting, and also from intergranular cracking at a fastener hole, can be accurately computed using the Hartman-Schijve variant of the NASGRO crack growth equation. The examples studied support the lead crack approach, that has been independently developed by the USAF and the Australian Defence Science Technology Group, in which the growth of lead cracks is often exponential. In the case of skin corrosion it is shown that to be consistent with the US Joint Service Structural Guidelines (JSSG2006) assessment of its effect on the load bearing capacity of the wing should involve an assessment of whether at 115% DLL the remaining material exceeds the yield stress of the material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0097.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: acoustic emission; atmospheric corrosion; aluminum; aircraft structure; pitting corrosion; hydrogen bubbles; structural health monitoring
Online: 4 August 2022 (03:55:40 CEST)
Atmospheric corrosion of aluminum aircraft structures occurs due to numerous reasons. A typical phenomenon leading to corrosion is the deliquescence of contaminants such as salts due to changes in relative humidity (RH) caused by aircraft operation at different altitudes and climate zones. Currently, corrosion of aircrafts is controlled by scheduled inspections. In contrast, the present contribution aims for a continuous monitoring approach by using the acoustic emission (AE) method to detect and further evaluate atmospheric corrosion. The AE method is frequently used for corrosion detection at typically immersion-like conditions or for corrosion types where stress-induced cracking is involved. However, it has not yet been demonstrated for atmospheric corrosion at unloaded aluminum structures. To address this question, the present investigation uses small droplets of a corrosive sodium chloride (NaCl) solution to induce atmospheric corrosion on aluminum alloy AA2024-T351. Operating conditions of an aircraft are simulated by a controlled variation in RH. In addition, videos of the corrosion site are recorded to visually observe the corrosion process. Pitting corrosion is generated and clearly measurable AE signals are detected. An automatic video processing algorithm looking for sudden changes on the corrosion site mainly detects hydrogen bubbles formed when aluminum reacts with aqueous solutions. A clear correlation between the observed pitting corrosion, the AE and the hydrogen bubble activity and the RH, i.e., the electrolyte present at the aluminum surface, is found. Thus, the findings demonstrate the applicability of the AE method for monitoring atmospheric corrosion of aluminum aircraft structures by today’s measurement equipment. Numerous potential effects that can cause measurable AE signals are investigated and discussed. Among these, bubble activity is clearly considered to be the most emissive one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0319.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Three-phase separator; Perforation; Corrosion; Galvanic
Online: 25 February 2022 (01:46:40 CET)
The three-phase separator was perforated after four years’ service. The perforation position is at the bottom of the vessel under the baffle plate in an oil transfer station. The cause of perforation was investigated by chemical analysis using a direct-reading spectrometer, microstructure examined by optical microscope(OM), and lab simulated corrosion experiments by electrochemical workstation, and the corrosion products examined with scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS) in this paper. The analyses indicated that the coating at the base of the pressure vessel failed and this led to the direct exposure of the carbon steel plate to the corrosive medium. The electrical contact between the carbon steel and the stainless steel, sets up a galvanic cell that accelerated the corrosion of the pressure vessel which eventually led leads to the perforation.
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: oxygen depletion; heritage metals; corrosion testing
Online: 10 August 2021 (09:46:39 CEST)
The altered nature of archaeological metals means they deteriorate at conditions where metals would be stable. The study of deterioration for such materials is hampered by their complexity, variability and difficulties in measuring deterioration. Placing an object in a sealed container, controlling the RH and pollutant gases and measuring any decrease in oxygen concentration is an accessible method to measure deterioration rate. It has been used for research into suitable environmental conditions to manage deterioration rates of such artefacts including differences in response for artefacts from different excavation sites. Some objects need careful control of RH to low values, this is expensive to maintain and poses risks to other artefacts displayed together. Many objects are actually stable up to quite high RH values and oxygen depletion testing has been used to identify those that can be safely displayed with minimal environmental control. The accelerated corrosion, ‘Oddy’ test is frequently used to sift out unsuitable display materials. The visual assessment is widely recognized to be subjective. The test container has been modified and oxygen depletion appears to give good quantitative measurements of corrosion that correspond with both visual comparison and corrosion quantification for copper, lead and steel, but not for silver.
Online: 12 November 2019 (10:17:53 CET)
Given of the outstanding versatile properties, the multilayered anti-corrosion coatings have drawn great interests in academic and engineering fields. However, the application of multilayered coatings is restricted by some limitations such as low interlayer compatibilities, harsh preparation process, etc. This work introduced a composite film fabricated on 2A12 aluminum alloy surface, including an anodic oxide film, a sol-gel film as well as a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembling film from bottom to top. The microstructure and elemental characterization indicated that the finish of the coating with the LBL film resulted in a closely connected multilayered coating with a smoother surface. The anticorrosion performance was systematically evaluated in the simulated corrosive medium and neutral salt-spray environment. The intergrated coating with the LBL film presented an excellent anticorrosion ability with the system impedance over 108 Ω•cm2 and the self-corrosion current density two orders of magnitude lower than that of the other coatings. After the acceleration test in salt-spray environment, the multilayered coatings could still show a good protective performance with almost no cracks and no penetration of chloride ions. It is believed that the as-constructed multilayered coating with high corrosive properties and fine surface state will have promising applications in the field of anticorrosion engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0332.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: cobalt; ZnO; photocathodic protection; corrosion protection
Online: 29 October 2019 (10:30:46 CET)
In this work, cobalt doped ZnO nanorod arrays with anticorrosion function were successfully prepared on FTO substrate by a simple aqueous solution method. XRD and EDS results indicate the doped Co2+ has successfully incorporated into the ZnO crystal lattice. Photocurrent density and open circuit potential (OCP) results indicate the photocathodic protection performance for 316 stainless steel (316 SS) and Q235 carbon steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution under 300 W Xe lamp enhanced with the increase of cobalt concentration, and the photoanode with 15% Co/Zn ratio has the optimal photocathodic protection effect. The mechanism of enhancement may be result from the narrowed band gap, the lower recombination rate of photogenerated electron-holes, the intermediate impurity level and the split of the hypo-outer shell of cobalt ions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0258.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Microstructure; Grain size; Hardness; Tribology; Corrosion; Passivation
Online: 18 October 2022 (09:52:45 CEST)
Nanopeening treatment was applied to the AISI 420 steel to decrease its sensitivity to the tribocorrosion damage. Microstructural investigation highlighted that the Nanopeening treatment led to a high plastic deformation and nanostructured surface layer with 110 µm depth. . In order to study the combined effect of corrosion and mechanical wear, tribocorrosion tests were performed on non–treated and nanopeened samples in boric acid and lithium hydroxide solution, considering both continuous and intermittent sliding. It was found that the AISI 420 steel is sensitive the synergism between mechanical friction and electrochemical corrosion with a domination of abrasive wear. Adhesive wear was also detected in the wear track. Indeed, the mechanical wear was pronounced under intermittent sliding because of hard wear debris generation from the repassivated layer during rotating time. The Nanopeening treatment led to enhance mechanical performance and corrosion properties. Such improvement could be explained by the high plastic deformation resulting in the nano-structuration of grains and increasing hardness of AISI 420 steel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: LBE; Corrosion products; CFD simulation; Fast reactor
Online: 16 September 2021 (10:09:57 CEST)
For better understanding the corrosion and corrosion products behavior in the primary circuit of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant reactor, the concentration distribution of soluble impurities and the transport of solid particles are investigated through finite-element method. An axisymmetric model of the primary circuit of LBE reactor was constructed to accelerate the calculation the thermal hydraulic filed of circuit. The saturation concentration of solute Fe, Cr and Ni in LBE coolant are identified through the equilibrium of their oxides and PbO. And the very different saturation concentrations of Fe/Cr/Ni in LBE will lead to significant element selective corrosion. The migration of solid oxides particles in the primary circuit is also investigated by the Euler-Lagrange tracing model. The simulation shows that driving force for the movement of particles >100 μm is buoyancy, which lets particles float on a free surface, while particles <10 μm tend to suspend in coolant. However, the behavior of particles also depends on the formation position, the particles formed above the core have the high possibility of re-entering in the core.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: soil-cement; corrosion; deteriorated layer; permeability coefficient
Online: 10 July 2019 (11:26:42 CEST)
The deterioration of soil-cement in corrosive environment leads to the reduction of strength and the increase of permeability. Effective methods of determining deteriorated layer permeability coefficient of soil-cement are currently lacking. A laboratory test method for permeability coefficient of deteriorated layer was proposed using the modified permeability coefficient testing apparatus. According to the proposed method, the permeability coefficient of deteriorated layer can be obtained after testing the permeability coefficient of the soil-cement specimen in curing room and the equivalent permeability coefficient and deterioration depth of the soil-cement specimen in corrosion environment. Taking the marine dredger fill of Jiaozhou Bay for example, the deteriorated layer permeability coefficients of soil-cements with different cement contents were tested. It turned out that the permeability of deteriorated layer increases with the increase of age. At the beginning of curing age, larger cement content leads to smaller permeability coefficient of the deteriorated layer of soil-cement. As the curing age increases, the deteriorated layer permeability coefficient of the soil-cement with larger cement content becomes larger. The evolution of the permeability coefficient of deteriorated layer with age can be formulated as the Logistic function. This study provides a support for anti-permeability designs of soil-cement structures in corrosive environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0159.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Corrosion, fem model, degradation abaci, flexural strength
Online: 17 June 2019 (10:24:30 CEST)
Worldwide the steel corrosion is one of the greatest deterioration problems for reinforced concrete structures. Comparing some literature experimental results with a complex FEM model, the present paper points out the principal aspects those characterize the static behavior of RC elements damaged by corrosion. Moreover, the non-dimensional abaci defined for some specific case studies finalized to the evaluation of the residual flexural strength of corroded elements highlight the dangerousness of the corrosion degradation if the failure of the element is governed by the steel
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0072.v1
Online: 18 October 2016 (08:04:51 CEST)
Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37)wt.% Cr alloys were corroded at 700 and 800 oC for 70 h under 1 atm of N2, 1 atm of N2/3.2%H2O-mixed gas, and 1 atm of N2/3.1%H2O/2.42%H2S-mixed gas. The corrosion rate of Fe-9Cr alloy increased with the addition of H2O, and furthermore with the addition of H2S in N2 gas. Fe-9Cr alloy was always nonprotective. In contrast, Fe-(19, 28, 37) wt.%Cr alloys were protective in N2 and N2/H2O-mixed gas because of formation of the Cr2O3 layer. They were, however, nonprotective in N2/H2O/H2S-mixed gas because sulfidation dominated to form the outer FeS layer and the inner Cr2S3 layer containing some FeCr2S4.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0191.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: nano-composite; blasting; pretreatment; adhesion; microhardness, corrosion resistance
Online: 7 June 2021 (15:14:17 CEST)
In this study, grit blasting pretreatment was used to improve the adhesion and corrosion resistance and microhardness of Ni-W/SiC nanocomposite coatings fabricated using conventional electrodeposition technique. Prior to deposition, grit blasting and polishing (more commonly used) pretreatment were used to prepare the surface of the substrate and the 3D morphology of the pretreated substrates was characterized using laser scanning confocal microscopy. The coatings surface and the cross section morphology were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical composition, crystalline structure, microhardness, adhesion, and the corrosion behavior of the deposited coatings were characterized using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness tester, scratch tester and electrochemical workstation, respectively. The results indicated that the grit blasting and SiC addition, improved the microhardness, adhesion and corrosion resistance. The Ni-W-SiC nanocomposites pretreated by grit blasting exhibited the best adhesion strength, up to 36.5 ± 0.75 N. Its hardness was the highest and increased up to 673 ± 5.47Hv and its corrosion resistance was the highest compared to the one pretreated by polishing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fatigue; thickness effect; offshore wind turbine; corrosion fatigue
Online: 12 September 2020 (09:54:28 CEST)
This paper reassesses the detrimental effect on fatigue performance due to thicker sections based on extensive fatigue strength test database, taken from research program worldwide over the past half of a century in offshore oil & gas and renewable industry. The data entries in the database have been evaluated to ensure its data integrity. Statistical analyses on these S-N data are performed with or without the thickness correction at different exposure level to corrosive environment, in order to re-evaluate the suitability of current standards in regard to the thickness effect. The study has concentrated on T-joint, transverse butt welded joint and tubular joint as these are the most commonly used joint types in the offshore wind industry. The analysis indicates general agreement of fatigue strength with the thickness effects in current standard for in air conditions but great conservatism for corrosive environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0084.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: titanium-based alloys; microstructure; passivity breakdown; pitting corrosion
Online: 7 March 2019 (06:49:58 CET)
The effect of microstructure and chemistry of passive films on the kinetics of passive layer growth and passivity breakdown of some Ti-based alloys, namely Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb and TC21 alloys was studied. The rate of pitting corrosion was evaluated using cyclic polarization measurements. Chronoamperometry was applied to assess the passive layer growth kinetics and breakdown. Microstructure influence on the uniform corrosion rate of these alloys was also investigated employing Tafel extrapolation and dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Corrosion studies were performed in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37 oC, and the obtained results were compared with ultrapure Ti (99.99%). The different phases of the microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Chemical composition and chemistry of the corroded surfaces were studied using X-ray photoelectron analysis. For all studied alloys, the microstructure consisted of α matrix, which was strengthened by β phase. The highest and the lowest values of the β phase’s volume fraction were recorded for TC21 and Ti-Al-Nb alloys, respectively. The uniform corrosion rate and pitting corrosion resistance (Rpit) of the studied alloys were enhanced following the sequence: Ti-6Al-7Nb < Ti-6Al-4V << TC21. The corrosion resistance of Ti-Al-Nb alloy approached that of pure Ti. The obvious changes in the microstructure of these alloys, together with XPS findings, were adopted to interpret the pronounced variation in their corrosion rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0333.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Corrosion inhibitor; Synergistic effect; Electrochemical measurements; Theoretical calculation
Online: 14 November 2018 (10:23:29 CET)
The corrosion inhibition performance of pyridine derivatives (4-methylpyridine and its quaternary ammonium salts) and sulfur-containing compounds (thiourea and mercaptoethanol) with different molar ratios on carbon steel in CO2-saturated 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The synergistic corrosion inhibition mechanism of mixed inhibitors was elucidated by the theoretical calculation and simulation. The molecule of pyridine derivatives compound with larger volume has the priority to adsorb on the metal surface, while the molecules of sulfur-containing compounds with smaller volume fill in vacancies. A dense adsorption film would be formed when 4-PQ and sulfur-containing compounds are added at a proper mole ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0464.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: corrosion; plastic deformation; titanium; titanium alloys; surface treatment
Online: 25 July 2018 (04:14:36 CEST)
1) Background: The objective was to evaluate the corrosion resistance of different commercially pure ultrafine-grained (UFG) titanium and its alloys with acid etched surface processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP); 2) Methods: Coarse-grained and UFG titanium samples were investigated using polarization resistance technique. Surface characteristics of the native oxidized layer were evaluated by TEM and XRD. Electrochemical tests were under physiological electrolyte at a rate of 1 and 10 mV/s. Weight loss tests were performed after immersion into HCl solution for up to 3 years; 3) Results: UFG titanium was less susceptible to corrosion which was identified under lower rates and at higher polarization resistance than its coarse grain counterparts. Titanium Grade 2 and Grade 4 demonstrated similar corrosion susceptibility. Titanium Grade 5 revealed a thin and tightly adhered native oxide layer with adequate corrosion resistance; 4) Conclusions: ECAP process imposed a more compact and adhered oxidized layer. Surface etching techniques delivered a thicker native TiO2 layer, being both grain refinement and surface etching techniques responsible for the improved corrosion resistance of Titanium samples under physiological environment after 3 years of observation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0103.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Corrosion Resistance; TIG; Hardness; Wear Resistance; SS 304
Online: 5 July 2018 (16:30:30 CEST)
The aim of this work is evaluation of corrosion behavior of SS 304 coated through TIG process. In this work, Ti tube cored with graphite powder was applied. Experimental processes were shown that the optimum parameters for coating procedure are voltage of 15V, current density of 120A and the speed of 2.1mm/s. Investigations on corrosion resistance of coating are shown that not only this composite coating can improve the tribological behavior of this type of stainless steel, but also there is an improvement in its deteriorative property. Moreover, it is observed that mass reduction in coating is 5 times lower than the base metal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0116.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: oxazole-triazole; inhibition corrosion; mild steel; EIS; DFT
Online: 15 March 2018 (05:10:29 CET)
1-[(4-ethyl-2-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3-oxazol-4-yl)methyl]-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (Ph4) and1-[(4-ethyl-2-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3-oxazol-4-yl)methyl]-5-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (Ph5) are new isomers of the triazole derivative family, were synthesized and tested on the corrosion of mild steel in molar hydrochloric acid molar media using weight loss, electrochemical polarization and impedance spectroscopy. Then the experimental results were confirmed by quantum chemical calculations using DFT at B3LYP /6-31G (d,p). The compound Ph4 is the best inhibitor and its inhibitory efficiency increased with increasing concentration and reaching 95% at 10−3 M. Polarization curves studies show that both compounds tested are mixed-type inhibitors. Nyquist curves presented a single capacitive loop, their diameter increases progressively with both inhibitors concentration. The change of the substitution phenyl from position 5 to position 4 in the triazole ring increases the inhibitory effect of the triazole compounds. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of iron indicates that the inhibitory efficiency of the two inhibitors decreases with increasing temperature in the range of 308 to 338K. DFT study is in good correlationwith the experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0501.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: titanium alloy; ultrafine-grained microstructure; equal channel angular pressing; spark plasma sintering; diffusion welding; corrosion; hat salt corrosion; diffusion; grain boundary.
Online: 27 January 2023 (10:29:04 CET)
A diffusion welding of coarse-grained and ultrafine-grained (UFG) specimens of titanium near-α alloy Ti-5Al-2V used in nuclear power engineering was made by Spark Plasma Sintering. The failure of the welded specimens in the conditions of hot salt corrosion and of electrochemical corrosion were shown to have preferentially intercrystalline character. In the case of presence of macrodefects, crevice corrosion of the welded joints was observed. The resistance of the alloys against the intercrystalline corrosion was found to be determined by the concentration of vanadium at the titanium grain boundaries, by the size and volume fraction of the β-phase particles and by the presence of micro- and macropores in the welded joints. The specimens of the welded joints of the UFG alloy have higher hardness, hot salt corrosion resistance and the electrochemical corrosion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0076.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: mechanical alloying; titanium carbide; spark plasma sintering; cermets; corrosion
Online: 5 December 2022 (11:30:50 CET)
In order to produce nanostructured Ti0.9Cr0.1C powders, an elemental powder mixture of titanium, chromium, and graphite is milled in this work using a high-energy ball mill for various milling times. Microstructural characteristics such as crystallite size, microstrain, lattice parameter, and dislocation density are determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Mechanical alloying successfully produced nanocrystalline (Ti,Cr)C with an average crystallite size of 11 nm. This size of the crystallites is also directly verified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the morphology of the samples. The novelty of this work is advancing the scientific understanding of the effect of milling time on the particle size distribution and crystalline structure, and also understanding the effect of the spark plasma sintering on the different properties of the bulks. Densified cermet samples were produced from the nanocrystalline powders, milled for 5, 10 and 20 hours by SPS process at 1800 degrees for 5 min under a pressure of 80 MPa. Phase changes of the produced cermets were examined according to XRD, SEM/EDX analyses. Significant amounts of Cr and Fe elements were detected, especially in the 20 h milled cermet. The bulk forms of the milled powders for 5 and 20 h had a relative density of 98.43 and 98.51 %, respectively. However, 5 h milled cermet had 93.3 HRA because of the more homogeneous distribution of the (Ti,Cr)C phase, the low iron content and high relative density. According to the 0.0011 mm/year corrosion rate, and 371.68 kΩ*cm2 charge transfer resistance obtained from the potentiodynamic polarization and EIS tests, the 20 h cermet was the specimen with the highest corrosion resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0532.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Fe-based amorphous coating; AT13; Plasma spraying; Corrosion resistance
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:32:17 CET)
In the present study, the corrosion resistance of amorphous coating and composite coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl, 0.5 M H2SO4 and 10 wt.% NaOH solution were studied. The composite coatings exhibit superior corrosion resistance. When the content of AT13 （Al2O3–13 wt.% TiO2）was 15 wt.%, the composite coating has the lowest corrosion current density (1.75×10-6 A cm-2), which is 5.14×10-5 A cm-2 for Fe-based metallic glassy coating, and the highest corrosion potential (-411 mV), which is -580 mV for Fe-based metallic glassy coating. The breakdown potential of the passivation film in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was much higher than that of 316L.The long-time immersion corrosion tests carried out on different coatings showed that the corrosion protection effect of coating was enhanced with the increase of the amount of AT13 added.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0365.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: corrosion; amino acids; inhibitors; steel; iron; Monte Carlo simulation
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:09:29 CET)
This research evaluates the inhibitory effect of L-amino acids (AAs) with different side chain lengths on Fe surface implementing Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. A quantitative and qualitative description of the adsorption behavior of AAs on the iron surface has been carried out. Calculations have shown that the absolute values of the adsorption energy of L-amino acids increase with side chain prolongation; they are also determined by the presence of heteroatoms. AAs from nonpolar and basic groups have the best adsorption ability to the iron surface, which indicates their highest inhibitory efficiency according to the results of MC simulation.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: plasma electrolytic oxidation; PEO; coatings; steel; corrosion; zinc-aluminized
Online: 29 March 2020 (01:35:10 CET)
Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is a surface treatment, similar to anodizing, that produces thick oxide films on the surface of metals. In the present work, PEO coatings were obtained on zinc-aluminized (ZA) carbon steel using as electrolyte a solution containing sodium silicate and potassium hydroxide, and working with high current densities and short treatment times in DC mode. The surface morphology resulted the typical one of PEO layers, with the presence of a lot of pores and micro-cracks. Considering the cross section, the thickness of the coating was strongly influenced by the process parameters, with different dissolution grades of the ZA layer depending on the current density and treatment time. The PEO layer resulted mainly composed by aluminum and zinc oxides and silicates. The corrosion resistance was remarkable increased in the samples with the PEO coating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0020.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: magnesium; Covalent bonds; anti-corrosion; biocompatibility; bovin serum albumin
Online: 3 November 2019 (16:01:41 CET)
Herein, we describe precisely on covalent modification of pure magnesium (Mg) surface and applied to induce in vitro osteogenic differentiation. A new concept, chemical bonding method is proposed for developing stable chemical bonds on Mg surface through serial assembly of bioactive additives including ascorbic acid (AA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The coating with such potential materials shows strong integrity to the Mg and could suitable for cell-interface interaction with the host tissue during implantation in bone tissue repair. The physicochemical and electrochemical properties of surface modified Mg assess how these nanoscales layered of biomolecules could demonstrate the significance improvement in chemical stability of coating. The modified Mg-OH-AA-BSA exhibits better anti-corrosion behavior with high corrosion potential (Ecorr ~ ‒ 0.96 V) and low corrosion current density (Icorr ~ 0.2 µA cm-2) as compared to pure Mg (Ecorr ~ ‒1.46 V, Icorr ~ 10.42 µA cm-2). Outer layer of BSA on Mg protects fast degradation rate of Mg which is the consequence of strong chemicals bonds between amine groups on BSA with carboxylic groups on AA. Collectively, the results suggest that surface modified Mg provides strong bio-interface and enhances the proliferation and differentiation of pre-osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cells through protein-lipid interaction. Owing to this fact, the cost-effective and scalable covalent functionalization of Mg surface inherits biological advantage in orthopedic and dental implants with long term stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0131.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: carbon steel; pitting corrosion; acoustic emission; wavelets; pattern recognition
Online: 6 November 2018 (08:06:19 CET)
The acoustic emission (AE) technique was applied to monitor the pitting corrosion of carbon steel in NaHCO3 + NaCl solutions. The open circuit potential (OCP) measurement and the corrosion morphology in-situ capturing using optical microscope were conducted during AE monitoring. The corrosion micromorphology was characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The propagation behavior and AE features of natural pitting on carbon steel were investigated. After the performing of signal processing including pre-treatment, shape preserving interpolation and denoising for raw AE waveforms, three types of AE signals can be classified in the correlation diagrams of new waveform parameters. Finally, a 2D pattern recognition method was established to calculate the similarity of different continuous AE graphics, which is quite effective to distinguish the localized corrosion from uniform corrosion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0053.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: 1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-diamine; corrosion inhibitor; weight loss method
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:08:46 CET)
The inhibition impacts of 1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-diamine (PTDA) on mild steel in 1 M HCl solution were investigated through weight loss method. The inhibition efficiencies of PTDA increase with increase in PTDA concentration at the temperature 303. Weight loss method indicate that PTDA is an excellent inhibitor the inhibition efficiency of 81.5% at the maximum PTDA concentration of 0.5 g/L at the temperature 303K.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0212.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Corrosion; Solidification; Dendritic growth; Al-Si-Fe alloys; Modification; Intermetallics
Online: 15 March 2022 (11:37:13 CET)
The corrosion behavior of Fe-containing directionally solidified (DS) and centrifugally cast (CC) Al-Si-Cu-Zn alloys with either Co or Ni additions has been investigated. Electrochemical and immersion corrosion methods were used to investigate the corrosion behavior in 0.6 M NaCl after short (1-hour) and long (30-day) exposure periods. The employed solidification methods allowed the production of samples with a wide range of secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) while preserving Si and Fe-containing phases. The 0.5 wt.% Ni and Co additions led to the growth of the AlFeSi(Ni) and AlFeSi(Co) phases, but no binary AlNi nor AlCo intermetallic par-ticles have been generated. Potentiodynamic polarization studies at early exposure revealed an increase in the corrosion potential as the Ni was added for either fast or slow solidified samples. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at early exposure demonstrated that the Ni-modified alloy, on the other hand, was associated to smaller charge transfer resistances, in-dicating a reduction in corrosion resistance after short elapsed time into the electrolyte. Howev-er, 30-day immersion tests revealed much lower corrosion rate of the Ni-modified alloy than the other alloys, while the corrosion rates of the Co-modified and non-modified alloys were simi-lar. In the Ni-containing alloy, decreased corrosion rate under long-term corrosion process was attributed to the formation of a thick and dense alumina layer, effectively protecting the surface under such conditions. This work contributes to a better knowledge of the corrosion behavior of Ni- and Co-corrected Al industrial scrap compositions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0173.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: Al-Zn-Mg alloy; Retrogression re-aging treatment; Corrosion; Electrochemistry
Online: 9 July 2020 (07:34:27 CEST)
The effect of retrogression re-aging treatment (RRA) on corrosion behavior of 7055 Al-Zn-Mg alloy were studied. Results provides the corrosion resistance could be greatly improved by RRA. After the RRA treatment, the isolated precipitates occurred on grain boundaries (GBs) and the low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) presented a larger fraction compared to the single-stage peaking aging. The samples after RRA treatment also show better corrosion resistance than the single-stage peak aging. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) show that impedance spectrum is consisted of semi-infinite layer diffusion impedance and stagnant Weber impedance. The semi-infinite layer diffusion impedance corresponded a limited retention layer on the electrode surface. In corrosion process, Weber impedance corresponded to stagnant layer of corrosion products generated by the anode branches. The RRA sample has the high Rf and low Cf, Cp values, and the corrosion current density of the RRA samples is ten times less than the single-stage peak aging samples with the 10% hardness losing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: corrosion; prestressed concrete bridge; prestressing steel; section loss; strength; ductility
Online: 20 May 2020 (10:00:30 CEST)
The corrosion of prestressing steel in prestressed concrete bridges is a critical issue for bridge maintenance. To assess structures with corroded strands, it is necessary to define the mechanical properties of the strands and their influence on the structural behavior. In this study, corroded strands are taken from external tendons in existing bridges and tested to define the effects of corrosion on the tensile properties of the strand. Empirical equations for the tensile strength and ductility of the corroded strand are proposed using test results. The most corroded wire governs the mechanical properties of the strand. Experiments on prestressed concrete beams with a single corroded strand are conducted to investigate the structural behavior. A reduction in the flexural strength and maximum deformation is observed from the experiment. According to the section loss of a wire in a strand and its location in a beam, the flexural capacity can be evaluated using the proposed equation. The reduced ultimate strain of the corroded strand can be the governing factor of the flexural strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0320.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: diffusion bonding; Hastelloy B; corrosion; sulfuric acid; micro process device
Online: 23 February 2020 (12:00:15 CET)
Sulphuric acid is a widely used raw material in the chemical industry. Its corrosive effect on materials varies considerably, depending on impurities, temperature and water content. Accordingly, good corrosion resistance under all conditions is very difficult to achieve. This is especially an issue for micro process apparatus with very thin walls. Furthermore, such devices are often joint by diffusion bonding what may alter materials properties due to high temperatures and long dwell times. In fact, for each new material, the diffusion bonding parameters must be optimized and the impact on mechanical as well as corrosion properties must be investigated. In this paper, two high molybdenum alloys, namely Hastelloy B3 and BC-1, were evaluated. Diffusion bonding tests were performed using ten layers of sheet material in between round stock. Corrosion tests were performed in 70 % sulphuric acid at 100°C for 1000 h. Tensile tests on both alloys were carried out for different material conditions, to determine the change in mechanical strength and elongation at fracture values. In general, independent of the condition of the materials, the fracture behavior of both alloys was found to be ductile and the specimens show the typical dimple structure, in the case of diffusion bonded samples, interrupted by weak spots or rather non-bonded areas. These areas are obviously causing the onset of material failure and thus, a degradation of mechanical properties. Tensile samples, that were aged in 70% sulphuric acid at 100°C for 1000 hours showed local corrosion attacks at the grain boundaries at the circumferential surfaces and especially at the joining planes – for Hastelloy B3 much more pronounced than for Hastelloy BC-1. Accordingly, a further decrease of both, the stress- and elongation at fracture values is observed. However, the typical material parameters like 0.2 % yield strength used for dimensioning components are found to be sufficient high, even when operating the materials under such harsh conditions. When concluding the results, at least Hastelloy BC-1 reveals both sufficient good mechanical properties and an excellent corrosion resistance, regardless of the heat treatment, and could be considered for manufacturing micro-process engineering apparatuses operated in a sulphuric acid environment. This is a significant advance compared to the results obtained within a AiF project, previously carried out on four different materials to investigate the corrosion resistance in sulphuric acid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0297.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: light alloys; magnesium; corrosion; vanadate; phosphate; fluoride; inhibition; conversion coating
Online: 21 February 2020 (02:21:19 CET)
The anodic polarization response of magnesium alloy AZ31 was characterized during exposure to aerated 0.1M NaCl solutions with millimolar additions of NaVO3, Na3PO4, Na2HPO4, NaF and various pairings to assess their ability to inhibit corrosion kinetics and retard localized corrosion. Each of the candidate inhibitors reduced the corrosion rate of the alloy to some degree. A Na3PO4 - NaVO3 pair produced a powerful inhibiting response decreasing the corrosion rate to about 10-7 A/cm2, which was two orders of magnitude lower than the uninhibited control case. A Bliss Independence assessment indicated that this inhibitor pair acted synergistically. A Na2HPO4 - NaVO3 pair reduced the corrosion rate to 10-6 A/cm2 but was not assessed to be acting synergistically. The NaVO3 - NaF pair did not reduce the corrosion rate significantly compared to the control case and was an antagonistic pairing. SEM imaging showed film formation due to exposure, which appears to be the origins of the observed inhibition. The resistance to localized corrosion was assessed as the difference in the breakdown potential and the corrosion potential with larger values indicating a lower probability of localized corrosion during free corrosion exposures. Effects of the inhibitors on this characteristic were mixed, but each of the inhibitor pairs yielded potential differences in excess of 100mV. A conceptual conversion coating process based on a mixture of vanadate and phosphate compounds were demonstrated. A fluoride-bearing formulation produced coatings whose total impedance was increased by a factor or 2 compared to an uncoated control. A fluoride-free formulation produced coatings whose corrosion resistance was increased by more than a factor of 3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: phase change materials (pcms); metals; container; latent heat storage; corrosion
Online: 3 November 2019 (15:06:53 CET)
Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are latent heat storage media with high potential of integration in building structures and technical systems. Their solid-liquid transition is commonly utilized for thermal energy storage in building applications. It also means that some kind of encapsulation is necessary. This is often solved with metal containers that also have high thermal conductivity and resistance to mechanical damage enhancing the performance these so called latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. However selection of suitable metal is rather challenging. It depends, among other things, on the elimination of undesirable interaction between storage medium and surrounding metal. Heat storage medium must be reliably sealed in metal container especially when the storage system is integrated in systems like domestic hot water storage tanks, where PCM leaks can negatively affect human health. The aim of this study was evaluation of interaction between selected commercially available organic and inorganic PCMs and metals. The evaluation is based on the calculation of corrosion rate and use gravimetric method for determination of the weigh variations of the metal samples. Results show that aluminium is the most suitable container material with lowest mass loss and suffered only minimal visual changes on the surface after prolonged exposure to PCMs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: aluminium alloy; corrosion inhibitor; alkaline environment; impedance analysis; adsorption; dihydroxybenzene
Online: 12 August 2019 (03:58:57 CEST)
Selection of efficient corrosion inhibitors requires detailed knowledge regarding interaction mechanism, which depends on the type and amount of functional groups within the inhibitor molecule. Position of functional groups between different isomers is often overlooked but not less important since factors like steric hinderance may significantly affect the adsorption mechanism. In this study we have presented how different dihydroxybenzene isomers interact with aluminium alloy 5754 surface, reducing its corrosion rate in bicarbonate buffer (pH = 11). We have shown the highest inhibition efficiency among tested compounds belongs to catechol at 10 mM concentration, although differences were moderate. Utilization of novel impedance approach to adsorption isotherm determination allowed to confirm that while resorcinol chemisorbs on aluminium surface, catechol and quinol follows ligand exchange model of adsorption. Unlike catechol and quinol, the protection mechanism of resorcinol is bound to interaction with insoluble aluminium corrosion products layer and was only found efficient at concentration of 100 mM (98.7%). The aforementioned studies were confirmed with scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. There is a significant increase of the corrosion resistance offered by catechol at 10 mM after 24 h exposure in electrolyte: from 63 to 98%, with only negligible changes in inhibitor efficiency observed for resorcinol at the same time. However, in the case of resorcinol a change in electrolyte color was observed. We have revealed that the differentiating factor is the keto-enol tautomerism. The NMR studies of resorcinol indicate the keto form in structure in presence of NaOH, while the chemical structure of catechol does not change significantly in alkaline environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: corrosion; ductility; mechanical properties; reinforced concrete; tensile strength; equivalent steel
Online: 28 January 2019 (12:15:09 CET)
In this work 144 reinforcing bars of high-ductility steel named B500SD were subjected to an accelerated corrosion treatment and then tested under tension at different loading speeds in order to assess the effect of corrosion on the ductility properties of the rebars. Results showed that the bars with a corrosion level as low as the one reducing the steel mass by 1% gave rise to a significant degradation on the ductility properties with strain-stress curves losing the yield plateau and behaving practically as cold deformed steel bars. This effect took place at every tested loading speed. Thus, the research significance relies on the assessment of the influence of the loading speed at which the tensile test is performed given that it affects the ductility properties of the reinforcement bars.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0016.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: bioresorbable implants; corrosion layer; vascular stents; orthopedic implants; microbial infections
Online: 11 July 2018 (13:54:04 CEST)
Medical implants made of biodegradable materials could be of advantage for temporary applications such mechanical support during bone-healing or as vascular stents to keep blood vessels open. After completion of the healing process the implant would disappear, avoiding long-term side effects or the need for surgical removal. Various corrodible metal alloys based on magnesium, iron or zinc have been proposed as sturdier and potentially less inflammatory alternative to degradable organic polymers, in particular for load-bearing applications. Despite the recent introduction of magnesium-based screws the remaining hurdles to routine clinical applications are still challenging, such as limiting mechanical material characteristics or unsuitable corrosion characteristics. Here, salient features and clinical prospects of currently investigated biodegradable implant materials are summarized with a main focus on magnesium alloys. A mechanism of action for the stimulation of bone growth due to the exertion of mechanical force by magnesium corrosion products is discussed. To explain divergent in vitro and in vivo effects of magnesium a novel model for bacterial biofilm infections is proposed which predicts crucial consequences antibacterial implant strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0061.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: expired drug; corrosion inhibitor; potentiodynamic polarization; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; AFM
Online: 17 October 2017 (04:18:30 CEST)
Our study aims to implement a strategy to reduce the carbon steel corrosion rate in sulfuric acid solution, using an expired drug with adsorption affinity on the metal surface. To investigate the corrosion protection efficiency of an environmental friendly inhibitor, namely neomycin sulfate (NMS), the electrochemical measurements were applied on carbon steel immersed in 1.0 M H2SO4 solution with and without NMS. The protective layer formed on the steel surface was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the presence of the neomycin sulfate in acid solution leads to the decrease in corrosion current density (icorr) and the increase of polarization resistance (Rp). The mixed mechanism between physical and chemical adsorption of NMS molecules on the steel surface was proposed according to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) indicated that the NMS molecules contributed to a protective layer formation by their adsorption on the steel surface. The AFM parameters such as: root-mean-square roughness (Rq); average roughness (Ra) and maximum peak to valley height (Rp-v) revealed that in the presence of NMS a smoother surface of carbon steel was obtained, compared to the steel surface corroded in sulfuric acid blank solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0149.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Alloy 625; aging sensitization treatment; intergranular corrosion; ASTM G28A methods
Online: 29 September 2017 (04:13:44 CEST)
This paper investigates the evolution of microstructures and precipitations of an ultra-low iron alloy 625 subjected to long term aging treatment by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD). Use ASTM G28A acid Fe3(SO4)2 erosion to represent intergranular corrosion weightlessness and corrosive morphology. The result shows that alloy at 750C by aging treatment for 40h, precipitated γ'' phase in the grain boundary. In high density area of γ'' phase, occurs γ'' phase to δ phase degeneration transformation by aging treatment for 200h and the needle-like δ phase becomes more with time prolonged. And γ'' phase degenerated to δ phase completely until treated for 1000h. The sample which has aging treatment tends to have intergranular corrosion and mainly because alloy element spreading leads to dilution area and grain boundary precipitated phase, plus interlaced δ phase’s dissolving, which makes sample grain particle fall off and this results in apparent weightlessness. The weightlessness rate(WLR) is related with precipitated volume score. With aging sensitization time change, can be described by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation, i.e.:
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0065.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: Duplex stainless steel; Pitting corrosion; selective dissolution; Lacy cover pit; wire
Online: 2 June 2021 (10:10:57 CEST)
The corrosion morphology in grade 2205 duplex stainless steel wire has been studied to understand the nature of pitting and the causes of the ferrite phase's selective corrosion in acidic NaCl solution. It is shown that the corrosion mechanism is always pitting, which either manifests lacy cover perforation or densely-arrayed selective cavities developing on the ferrite phase. Pits with a lacy metal cover form in concentrated chloride solutions, whereas the ferrite phase's selective corrosion develops in diluted electrolytes, showing dependency on the chloride-ion concentration. The pit perforation is probabilistic and occurs on both austenite and ferrite grains. The lacy metal covers collapse in concentrated solutions but remain intact in diluted electrolytes. The collapse of the lacy metal cover happens due to hydrogen embrittlement. Pit evolution is deterministic and occurs selectively in the ferrite phase in light chloride solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: environmental corrosivity; air quality; IOT; autonomous sensor; RFID; corrosion; archeological wood
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:07:39 CEST)
The control of air quality in museums or storages is of fundamental interest for the conservation of historic artifacts. The present work reports an example of application of RFID sensors developed in the European project SensMat and dedicated to this issue. The sensors are based on the varia-tion of property of an RFID tag coupled to a sensitive silver thin film exposed to the environment. As it will be described in the paper, such low cost sensors are interrogated by a commercial reader and provide the environmental corrosivity index and thus the presence of pollutants. The selected case study concerns the monitoring of pollution by H2S in a building dedicated to conservation and restoration of archeological and historical woods. The ability of sensors to map spatially the corrosivity within buildings is highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0396.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: titanium; D3 vitamin; self-assembly; surface coating; calcium phosphates; corrosion properties
Online: 22 April 2020 (08:41:36 CEST)
Background: Nowadays investigations in the field of dental implants engineering are focused on bioactivity and osseointegration properties.Objective: In this study, the oxide-covered titanium was functionalized by vitamin D3 molecules via a simple self-assembly method with the aim to design more corrosion resistant and at the same time more bioactive surface.Methods: Surface properties of the D3-coated titanium were examined by scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements, while a long-term corrosion stability during immersion in an artificial saliva solution was investigated in situ by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.Results: Results of all techniques confirmed a successful formation of the D3 vitamin layer on the oxide-covered titanium. Besides very good corrosion resistivity (~5 MΩcm2 ) the D3-modified titanium surface induced spontaneous formation of biocompatible bone-like calcium phosphates (CaP).Conclusion: Observed in vitro CaP-forming ability as a result of D3-modified titanium/artificial saliva interactions could serve as a promising predictor of in vivo bioactivity of implant materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0485.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: corrosion resistance index; anodic dissolution; crystallographic texture; pipeline steels; material selection
Online: 29 June 2018 (12:30:28 CEST)
The present work shows a novel physical-mathematical model to estimate the average corrosion resistance index from the crystallographic texture in API 5L steels. The crystallographic texture of the studied steels was measured by means of the X-ray diffraction technique. The model, based on the symmetric spherical surface harmonics for a BCC structure, is capable of describing the anisotropy surface of anodic dissolution resistance of the crystal and establishing a straightforward relationship between crystallographic texture, surface roughness, and metal corrosion behavior. The predictions of the average corrosion resistance index made from the crystallographic texture were in good agreement with those obtained from potentiodynamic polarization curves for the investigated steels. This agreement validates the capacity of this model and opens the possibility of applying it as a novel criterion for the material selection and design stages in order to combat metal corrosion problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: corrosion fatigue; characteristic life prediction; 25CrMo steel; microscopic analysis; Weibull distribution
Online: 17 March 2017 (05:11:02 CET)
The effects of environmental media on the corrosion fatigue fracture behavior of 25CrMo steel were investigated. The media include air, and a 3.5 wt.% and a 5.0 wt.% NaCl solutions. Experimental results indicate that the media induces the initiation of corrosion fatigue cracks at multiple sites. The multi-cracking sites cause the changes in the crack growth directions, the crack growth rate during the coupling action of the media and the stress amplitude. The coupling effects are important for engineering applications and research. The probability and predictions of the corrosion fatigue characteristic life can be estimated using the 3-parameter Weibull distribution function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reinforced concrete bridge (RCB); chloride corrosion; seismic performance; plastic hinge; overload analysis
Online: 28 October 2022 (03:48:18 CEST)
One of the influential factors in estimating the service life of reinforced concrete bridges (RCB) is determining the long-term seismic performance of these structures. Corrosion due to chloride ion diffusion leads to the destruction of critical members of the RCB during the useful life of the structure. So, the long-term seismic performance of the bridge deteriorates as a result. It is essential to study the effect of corrosion deterioration on the long-term seismic performance of bridges in the southern regions of Iran, near the coasts of the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea, because of the seismicity of the region and high corrosion rate of reinforced concrete (RC) members is the result of environmental conditions. In order to investigate this issue, considering studies about environmental conditions of southern Iran, the onset time of corrosion in the columns, as seismic critical members of the bridge, was determined. Based on that, the corrosion's effect on characteristics of RC at specific time points during the bridge's useful life (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 years) have been calculated. The effects of corrosion include deterioration of the core and cover concrete properties, steel bar and the connection between concrete and steel bar. In the next step, at each time point, according to the modified stress-strain relationships, the moment-curvature analysis of the bridge pier was done, and the properties of the plastic hinge were determined. Finally, based on the obtained data about plastic hinge characteristics at each time point, overload analysis of the bridge was performed in both longitudinal and transverse directions. Then the capacity curves of RCB were compared at the mentioned time-points. The results show that the capacity of the bridge deteriorates over time due to corrosion. Therefore, a proposal to increase the value of base shear design has been made to ensure the long-term seismic performance of RCB in corrosive environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0223.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Corrosion; Sulfate; Galvanized Steel; Alkaline solutions; Linear Polarization Resistance; Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Online: 25 April 2022 (10:27:01 CEST)
Zinc protection of galvanized steel is initially dissolved in alkaline solutions. However, passive layer is formed over time which protects the steel from corrosion. The behavior of galvanized steel exposed to strong alkaline solutions (pH values of 12.7) with a fixed concentration of sulfate ion of 0.04M is studied. Electrochemical measurement techniques such as corrosion potential, linear polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used. Synergistic effect of sulfate ion is also studied together with other anions such as chloride Cl- or bicarbonate ion HCO3- and with other cations such as calcium Ca2+, ammonium NH4+ and magnesium Mg2+. Presence of sulfate ions can depassivate the steel, leading to corrosion density of 0.3 µA/cm2 at the end of the test. The presence of other ions in the solution increases this effect. The increase in corrosion density caused by cations and anions responds to the following order (greater to lesser influence): NH4+>Ca2+>Mg2+ and HCO3- >Cl- >SO42-.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0008.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: speleothem corrosion; undersaturated drip spots; carbon dioxide; cave microclimate; karst water geochemistry
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:35:01 CEST)
Speleothems have proven to be one of the most reliable terrestrial archives for palaeoclimate research. However, due to the complexity of karst systems, long-term monitoring and high-resolution analyses of the cave atmosphere and water geochemistry have become essential to better constrain the factors that control calcite growth and how geochemical palaeoclimate proxies are encoded into speleothems. While calcite precipitation incorporates the palaeoclimate signals into the speleothem fabric, certain conditions in caves can favour dissolution, which may form hiatuses or even destroy these signals. In extreme cases, in-cave dissolution by dripwater can form cup-shaped features (i.e., corrosion cups), which were the main focus of this study. The study site in Postojna Cave, Slovenia, was investigated through cave climate monitoring and drip and cup water sampling, which took place during 2017–2021. We found that the cups are fed by low calcium drips as the consequence of the thin vadose zone above the cave. Due to the specific configuration of airflow pathways, the study site accumulates high levels of CO2 (>10,000 ppm), which shifts low calcium dripwater into undersaturation. This causes dissolution on rock surfaces and speleothems on the cave floor. The results of this study have broader significance in addressing the suitability of cave environments and speleothems used in paleoclimate research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Field Robotics; Concrete Corrosion; Infrastructure Maintenance; Condition Assessment; Remote Sensing; Sewer Infrastructure
Online: 5 March 2021 (08:57:33 CET)
Worldwide, millions of kilometres of sewers are constructed from concrete pipes. Unfortunately, concrete sewers are susceptible to corrosion from biogenic hydrogen sulphide, and though they may pass visual inspection, their ability to hold together under load may be degraded. This paper presents the design of a teleoperated robot with a protractible probe, that allows an operator to apply a localised load to selected points within a concrete sewer pipe. We report findings from laboratory and field trials of our prototype, with initial results suggesting that this approach has the potential to contribute useful information to sewer maintenance planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fatigue; design fatigue factor; offshore wind turbine foundation; corrosion fatigue; target reliability
Online: 4 September 2020 (11:00:22 CEST)
The concept of Design Fatigue Factors (DFFs) was introduced for providing desired level of safety in structural fatigue design, often associated with damage calculated from S-N curves. Calculation of fatigue damage from S-N curves can be affected by multiple factors, e.g. types of weld class, corrosion condition, loading conditions, stress concentration on different geometries etc. Each of them can be subject to different level of uncertainties. This study intends to recalibrate the DFFs from a detailed reliability analysis by investigating the probabilistic models derived from the database of S-N curves that has been most frequently used in offshore wind industry. The results of such study indicate that the DFFs can be reduced substantially for the corrosive environmental fatigue models from current standards to the same level of target reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0039.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: friction stir-welding; aluminum-copper; SKP; corrosion test; electrochemical; tool travel speed
Online: 4 December 2018 (02:57:09 CET)
The aim of this work is to assess the influence of Friction Stir Welding (FSW), process parameters, optimized tool traveling speed, and corrosion resistance of the 0.95 Mg-Al-alloy and pure copper weldment. Samples of aluminum-copper with and without deformation were characterized to investigate the metallurgical effects created during the welding deformation process. Effect of process parameters on microstructure and corrosion rate have been investigated for all the samples. All the electrochemical and polarization tests were done in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) was done to detect the localized corrosion on the surface. Optical micrography observation indicated that the primary α-Al phase, which was formed during solidification can effectively limit the growth of Cu9Al4 phase. Finer acicular α-Al precipitates were observed in CuAl matrix during joining process that tends to coarser with the increase in tools travel speed. The electrochemical and polarization results showed that among all the tool travelling speed the specimen joined at tool travelling speed of 40 mm/min shows the best non-corrosive property.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0005.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: 19-century metal sculpture; art foundries; elemental characterisation; corrosion; outdoor sculpture; Afonso Henriques.
Online: 1 September 2021 (10:44:59 CEST)
The outdoor sculpture of the first Portuguese king, D. Afonso Henriques (~1109 – 1185 AD), placed in Guimarães (North Portugal) is one of the most emblematic national sculptures. Created in 1887 by António Soares dos Reis, it possesses a remarkable symbolic value in the presumed birthplace of the king. In addition to the artistic and heritage importance of the monument, it is one of the few sculptures cast by a Portuguese industrial foundry in the 19th-century. This study obtained data on the sculpture's elemental composition and corrosion products, gathering important historical and technical information. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach consisting of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) was carried out to characterise the bulk metal and corrosion layers. The data revealed a ternary alloy of Cu, Sn, Zn with Pb, Fe, As, Bi and Mn as minor elements. The alloy matches that of other sculptures cast in that period. In terms of corrosion, it is characterised by the presence of oxides. These results represent the first step for applying an appropriate conservation strategy for bronze sculptures with similar characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0428.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: nickel based alloys; corrosion; inclusions; oil and gas industry; electrolytic extraction; alloy 718
Online: 19 July 2020 (19:39:43 CEST)
Inclusions in steels and alloys are known as factors that could lower deformation, mechanical, corrosion and other properties. Study of inclusions in nickel based alloys is important since these materials could suffer from corrosion degradation in harsh operational conditions, where inclusions could lead to a pitting initiation. For estimation of a harmful effect of different inclusions on corrosion resistance of Ni-based alloys, inclusion characteristics (such as composition, morphology, size, number and location) on film filter and dissolution of metal matrix around different inclusions on surfaces of metal samples after electrolytic extraction (EE) were investigated in two samples of industrial Ni-based alloys (alloy 718 and EP718). It was found that both Ni-based alloys have various inclusions: carbides (large size NbTi-C and small multicomponent carbides), nitrides TiNb-N and sulfides (TiNb-S in EP718 alloy). The higher harmful effect on corrosion resistance of metal was detected around sulfides and small carbides containing Mo, W, Cr. Dissolution effect was also observed around large carbides and nitrides, especially around inclusions having size more than 10 µm. Moreover, the dissolution of metal matrix around inclusions and clusters located on the grain boundaries is 2.1-2.7 times larger compared to that for those inclusions inside of grains of the given alloy samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: residual compressive strength; steel; finite element analysis; short tubular steel column; local corrosion
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:17:19 CET)
Corrosion is considered as one of the main factors in the structural performance deterioration of steel members. In this study, experimental and numerical methods were used to assess the reduction in compressive strength of short tubular steel columns with local corrosion damage. The corrosion damage was varied with different depths (0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 4.5, and 6 mm), height (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, and 180 mm), circumference (0, 90, 180, 270, and 360°), and location along the column. A parametric numerical study was performed to establish a correlation between the residual compressive strength and the severity of corrosion damage. The results showed that as the corrosion depth, height and circumference increased, the compressive strength decreased linearly. As for the corrosion height, the residual compressive strength became constant after decreasing linearly when the corrosion height was greater than the half-wavelength of buckling of the short columns. An equation is presented to evaluate the residual compressive strength of short columns with local corrosion wherein the volume of the corrosion damage was used as a reduction factor in calculating the compressive strength. The percentage error using the presented equation was found to be within 11.4%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0077.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: aqueous electrolyte; corrosion; iron-air; metal-air batteries; silicon-air; stationary energy storage
Online: 10 June 2019 (11:24:23 CEST)
Abstract: Metal-air batteries provide a most promising battery technology given their outstanding potential energy densities, which are desirable for both stationary and mobile applications in a ‘beyond lithium-ion’ battery market. Silicon- and iron-air batteries underwent less research and development compared to lithium- and zinc-air batteries. Nevertheless, in the recent past, the two also-ran battery systems made considerable progress and attracted rising research interest due to the excellent resource-efficiency of silicon and iron. Silicon and iron are among the top five of the most abundant elements in the earth’s crust, which ensures almost infinite material supply of the anode materials, even for large scale applications. Furthermore, primary silicon-air batteries are set to provide one of the highest energy densities among all batteries, while iron-air batteries are frequently considered as a highly rechargeable system with decent performance characteristics. Considering fundamental aspects for the anode materials, i.e., the metal electrodes, in this review, we will first outline the challenges, which explicitly apply to silicon- and iron-air batteries and prevented them from a broad implementation so far. Afterwards, we provide an extensive literature survey regarding state-of-the-art experimental approaches, which are set to resolve the aforementioned challenges and might enable the introduction of silicon- and iron-air batteries into the battery market in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0381.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: corrosion; concrete cover; cracking; SEM image analysis; rust layer; strain gauge; pore size
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:46:01 CEST)
Research on early stages of corrosion of steel bars, together with the formation and development of cracks induced in the surrounding concrete and caused by chloride penetration, is relevant in improving the durability of reinforced concrete structures. This paper uses integration of the analytical models examined in the published literature, combined with experimental research in corrosion induced at the concrete/steel interface, in estimating the time-to-crack initiation of reinforced concrete subjected to corrosion. This work studies the influence of the porous network and electric current density on the cracking process at early ages. The experimental campaign was performed by using an accelerated corrosion test on a conventional concrete (CC) and a concrete with silica fume (SFC) by submitting them to a current density of 50μA/cm2 and 100μA/cm2. Examination performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) provided both qualitative and quantitative information on the penetration of the rust layer in the surrounding concrete porous network. Strain gauges were used to measure corrosion-induced deformations between steel and concrete matrices, as well as the formation of corrosion-induced cracks. A good correlation between the rate of penetration of the rust products in the surrounding pores and the delay of the cracking pressure in concrete was observed from the experimental results. This phenomenon is incorporated into the analytical model by using a reduction factor, which mainly depends on the pore size of the concrete. The crack width obtained exhibited a significant dependency on electric current density at the beginning of the test, depending mainly on the pore size of the concrete later.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0162.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: Zn–Ni plating; Zn–Fe plating; anti-corrosion performance; Mo addition; alloy formation
Online: 24 November 2017 (16:30:38 CET)
Zn–Ni plating is indispensable in various industries because of its high corrosion resistance. However, Ni has been reported to trigger allergies; thus, an alternative Ni-free plating is desired. Zn–Fe plating is considered to be a promising candidate, albeit its corrosion resistance still needs to be improved. The corrosion resistance of Zn–Fe plating is expected to increase by the addition of Mo as the third alloying element as it is more noble than Zn and Fe. In this study, Zn–Fe–Mo plating with a corrosion resistance nearly equivalent to that of the Zn–Ni plating was fabricated. Zn–Fe–Mo plating was electrically deposited from continuously agitated plating baths prepared by mixing ZnSO4, FeSO4, Na2MoO4, Na3C6H5O7, and Na2SO4 using Fe or Ni plates as the substrate. The surface morphology, composition, crystal phase, and electronic state of Mo of the platings were investigated by SEM-EDS, XRD, and XPS. The anti-corrosion performance was evaluated by Tafel extrapolation method. Formation of plating comprising a Mo containing alloy phase was found to be crucial for improving corrosion resistance. The Zn–Fe–Mo plating demonstrates promise for replacing anti-corrosion Zn–Ni platings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0259.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: VAR alloy obtaining; Biomedical applications; Apatite films; Corrosion, X-ray method, Electron microscopy; Hardness
Online: 9 April 2021 (13:24:09 CEST)
In this paper, a novel biocompatible alloy defined as FeMoTaTiZr was obtained and functionalized by hydroxyapatite-based coatings (HAP) in order to increase their biocompatibility, bioactivity, and resistance to corrosion for to be used as bone implants. To obtain the surface with antibacterial properties, the HAP coatings were doped with small amount of Zn. The alloy was prepared using the VAR (Vacuum Arc Remelting) equipment, while the coatings by RF magnetron sputtering method. The EDS analysis confirmed the presence of Ca and P in the case of all developed coatings, having Ca/P or Ca/(P+Zn) ratio of about 1.70 and 1.66, respectively. The XRD and ATR-FTIR investigations confirmed the presence of calcium phosphate phases. The roughness of uncoated substrates increased after coating with HAP, and it was considerably increased by the Zn addition. The electrochemical tests showed that the un-doped HAP exhibited good corrosion behavior, while Zn doped HAP coatings have a high dissolution rate in fetal bovine serum, being more proper as a biodegradable material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0128.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Ti6Al4V; SS316L; AlSi10Mg; mechanical properties; Stress corrosion; Surface post- processing; space environment
Online: 4 February 2021 (09:08:01 CET)
The potential of the Additive Manufacturing technologies is impeded by the surface finish obtained on the as-manufactured material. Therefore, the influence of various surface treatments, commonly applied to space hardware, on the mechanical properties of three selected metallic alloys (SS316L, AlSi10Mg, Ti6Al4V) prepared by using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) additive manufacturing processes have been investigated. Within this study, SLM using EOS M400 and EOS M280 equipment and in addition EBM using an ARCAM Q20 machine have been applied for sample manufacturing. A half-automated shot-peening process followed by a chemical and/or electrochemical polishing or Hirtisation® process has been applied in order to obtain lower surface roughness compared to their as-received states. Special emphasize has been taken on their tensile, fatigue, and fracture toughness properties. In addition, their stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour including microstructural analysis using HR-SEM have been investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0298.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: Carbon nanotube; Functionalization; Heteroatoms; Electrochemically active surface; Oxygen reduction reaction; Corrosion stability; Alkaline media
Online: 14 July 2020 (11:16:31 CEST)
The influence of the type and amount of oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), and/or phosphorus (P) heteroatoms on the surface of carbon nanotube (CNT) on stability and catalytic activity in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was investigated in alkaline media. It is shown that the functionalization of CNT leads to the growth of the electrochemically active surface and to an increase in the activity in ORR. At the same time, a decrease in stability is observed after the functionalization of CNT under accelerated corrosion testing in an alkaline media. These results are most significant on CNT after functionalization in HNO3 due to the formation of a large number of structural defects. However, the subsequent doping by N and / or P atoms provides a further activity increase and enhances the corrosion stability of CNT. Thus, as shown by the studies of characteristic parameters (SEAS, E1/2, corrosion stability), CNT doped with N and NP are a promising catalytic system that can be recommended for use as fuel cell cathodes. An important condition for effective doping is the synthesis of carboxyl and carbonyl oxygen containing group on the surface of CNT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0147.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Zn-Al-Mg-TiO2 coating; Zn-Al coating; marine anticorrosion; corrosion; friction and wear
Online: 12 April 2019 (10:50:38 CEST)
According to research, we have learned that Mg and TiO2 are new types material of marine protective coatings. We found that the addition of Mg can improve the performance of Zn-Al coating passivation film, and TiO2 has excellent photocatalytic self-cleaning performance. In this paper Zn-Al pseudo alloy coating was prepared by cold spray technique, and Zn-Al-Mg-TiO2 pseudo alloy composite coating was prepared by adding Mg and nano-TiO2. The effects of Mg and TiO2 to the marine protective properties of Zn-Al coatings were studied by friction and wear test, dynamic salt water corrosion test, electrochemical test, scanning electron microscope(SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS) and super deep scene 3D microscope. The results show that the addition of Mg and nano-TiO2 not only fills the gap of the coating and improves the density of the coating, but also generates grid-like flocculent corrosion products on the surface of the coating which can gather other corrosion products to improve the density of corrosion products, reduce the friction coefficient and corrosion rate of the coating surface, effectively prevent the invasion of Cl- in solution, and improve the wear and corrosion resistance of the coating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0228.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: Ti-V-Cr-Fe alloy; hydrogen storage characteristics; metal corrosion; heat treatment; crystal structure
Online: 31 March 2017 (09:19:32 CEST)
In this work, we investigated the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure, hydrogen storage characteristics and corrosion rate of a Ti34V40Cr24Fe2 alloy. The arc melted alloy was divided into three samples, two of which were separately quartz-sealed under vacuum and heated to 1000 °C for 1 h; one of these samples was quenched and the other furnace cooled to ambient temperature. The crystal structures of the samples were studied via X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Absorption/desorption characteristics were investigated using a Sievert apparatus. Potentiostat corrosion tests on the alloys were performed using an AutoLab® corrosion test apparatus and electrochemical cell. All samples exhibited a mixture of body-center-cubic (BCC) and Laves phase structures. The corrosion rate, maximum absorption, and useful capacities increased after both heat treatments. The annealed sample had the highest absorption and reversible capacity. The plateau pressure of the as-cast alloy increased after quenching. The corrosion rate increased from 0.0004 mm/y in as-cast sample to 0.0009 mm/y after annealing and 0.0017 mm/y after quenching, due to a decrease in the Cr-content of the C14 phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0118.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: corrosion barrier; titanium dioxide; aluminum oxide; atomic layer deposition; linear sweep voltammetry; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
Online: 13 February 2019 (15:28:24 CET)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) coatings have been investigated in a wide range of bio-applications due to their biodegradation and biocompatibility properties, that are key parameters for their use in the food packaging and biomedical devices fields. The present study evaluates and compares the electrochemical behavior of the non-coated, commercial resin-coated, TiO2-coated and Al2O3-coated aluminum in commercial beer electrolyte. For this, TiO2 and Al2O3 thin films were deposited on aluminum (Al) substrates using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The evaluation of the corrosion barrier layer properties was performed by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In addition, profilometry, grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyses were performed to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the pristine and / or corroded samples. TiO2 and Al2O3 films presented an amorphous structure, a morphology that follows Al substrate surface, and a thickness of around 100 nm. Analysis of LSV data showed that ALD coatings promoted a considerable increase in corrosion barrier efficiency being 86.3% for TiO2-coated Al and 80% for Al2O3-coated Al in comparison with 7.1% of commercial resin-coated Al. This is mainly due to the lower electrochemical porosity, 11.4% for TiO2-coated Al and 20.4% for Al2O3-coated Al in comparison with 96% of the resin-coated Al, i.e. an increase of up to twofold in the protection of Al when coated with TiO2 compared to Al2O3 coated. The EIS results allow us to complement the discussions about the reduced corrosion barrier efficiency of the Al2O3 film for beer electrolyte once SEM and FT-IR analyzes did not show drastic changes in both investigated ALD films after the corrosion assays. The above results indicate that ALD TiO2 and Al2O3 films may be a viable alternative to replace the synthetic resin coatings frequently used in aluminum cans of use in the food industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0267.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: adsorption; coatings; poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate); corrosion tests; atomic force microscopy
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:00:55 CET)
Poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) named further PVBA was investigated as protective coating for copper corrosion in 0.9 % NaCl solution using electrochemical measurements such as, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization associated with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The PVBA coating on the copper surface (Cu-PVBA) was modeled in methanol containing PVBA. Its inhibitory properties against corrosion was comparatively discussed with those of the copper sample treated in methanol without polymer (Cu-Me) and of untreated sample (standard copper). A protective performance of PVBA coating of 80 % was computed from electrochemical measurements, for copper corrosion in NaCl solution. Also, AFM images designed a specific surface morphology of coated surface with PVBA, clearly highlighting a polymer film adsorbed on the copper surface, which presents certain deterioration after corrosion, but metal surface was not significantly affected compared to those of untreated samples or treated in methanol, in the absence of PVBA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0070.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: nondestructive testing; thermographic surveys; monitoring of structures; reinforced concrete chimney; corrosion processes; service life of structure
Online: 10 June 2019 (08:15:14 CEST)
The nondestructive testing of reinforced concrete chimneys, especially the high ones, is an important element of the assessment of their condition, making it possible to forecast their safe service lifespan. Industrial chimneys are often exposed to the strong action of acidic substances – they are adversely affected by the flue gas condensate on the inside and by acid precipitation on the outside. Initially, this results in the corrosion of the shell concrete and then in the corrosion of the reinforcing steel. During the service life of such chimneys their condition should monitored in order to prevent structural failures and indicate the most endangered parts of the structure. Owing to thermographic surveys one can monitor the hazards leading to the degradation of the chimney structure, which is particularly vital when due to the character of the production process the chimney cannot be put out of operation. The methods for the interpretation of results from thermovision studies to determine the safety and durability of industrial chimneys are shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0129.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: Alkaline copper quat (ACQ); Boric acid (BA); Micronized copper quat (MCQ); Nano boron (NB); Corrosion test
Online: 10 May 2019 (14:36:07 CEST)
In this study, the corrosion performances of ammonium copper quat (ACQ) and boric acid (BA) wood preservatives were investigated, with micronized copper quat (MCQ) and nano boron (NB) used as reference materials. In the study, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood samples were impregnated according to the full-cell process method with ACQ at 2.4% concentration, BA at 4% and MCQ and NB at 1%. The ACQ- and BA-impregnated samples were then impregnated for a second time using five different water-repellent materials: tall oil, linseed oil, sodium silicate, methyl hydrogen silicone and N'-N- (1, 8-Naphthalyl) hydroxylamine. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 600 and aluminum sulfate were introduced as single impregnations in the form of homogeneous mixtures with the ACQ and BA. The corrosion properties of the impregnated and control samples, including metal weight loss (MWL) and corrosion depth, were examined. As a result, the MWL values of the ACQ-impregnated samples showed an increase compared to the control group. The MWL values of the MCQ-impregnated samples were lower than those of the samples impregnated with ACQ, whilst the MWL values of the BA-impregnated samples were higher than those of the samples impregnated with NB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Stainless Steel ASTM A312 Grade 304L, Under Salt Vapor; Corrosion Rate, Welding Procedure Specification, CFD Modeling
Online: 12 December 2018 (12:17:36 CET)
This work studied the corrosion of welded pipes and how welding destroyed surface film of pipes. Surface reaction of a welded pipe is key to understanding phenomena and important factors during the corrosion. This paper presents experiment and CFD modeling approaches of a welded pipe corrosion under salt vapor condition. The pipes were welded at currents of 60 A,70 A and 80 A to observe the effect of welding current on corrosion. A welded pipe is a stainless-steel ASTM A312 grade 304L and period of experiment about 0-600 hours that they are tested in vertical and horizontal alignments. In CFD software, there is not direct model of corrosion but it can use surface reaction and create add-on species and chemical reaction technique for imitating the corrosion mechanism. The modeling approaches of corrosion have presented in 3-dimensional transient times in CFD simulation. Surface reactions were performed by Species Model which involve site species. Site species in Species Model took place at gas-solid interfaces and in this case are salt vapor and surface pipe. Chemical reaction rate on the surface controls lost weight of a welded pipe and the model can be validated with experiment. In conclusion, in period 0-600 hours error between CFD modeling and experiment have error trend decreased. The error at 600 hours is 6% both of vertical pipe and horizontal pipe test. The modeling approaches closely with the performed experiment and can be accepted. Moreover, the model is able to predict corrosion of a welded pipe of different sizes and their lost weight after 600 hours without experiment. Also the model can predict lifetime of pipe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0286.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: water jet peening; multifunction cavitation; Hot corrosion; Thermal stress cycle; Cr-Mo steel; embedding test; coating test
Online: 17 September 2018 (08:02:10 CEST)
This research investigated high-temperature corrosion (500 °C) of Cr-Mo steel processed using water jet peening or multifunction cavitation (MFC), and the suitability of such steel for high-temperature boilers and reaction vessels. High-temperature corrosion was induced using an embedment test and a coating test using sulfide-type K2SO4-Na2SO4 powder. To measure the relaxation of the residual stress due to the decrease in work hardening caused by an increase in specimen temperature and the difference in thermal shrinkage between the surface and interior of the specimen, a thermal cycling test was conducted. For the MFC-processed specimen, the oxide film that formed on the surface suppressed mass loss, prevented crack formation, and reduced the compressive residual stress caused by high-temperature corrosion. MFC-processed Cr-Mo steel is thus suitable for a high-temperature corrosion environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0070.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: microbial sulphide oxidation, corrosion, mine waste and water remediation, biofilm development, inhibition of Acid mine and rock draiange
Online: 8 February 2018 (15:35:56 CET)
Abstract: Measures to counteract AMD generation need to start at the mineral surface, inhibiting mineral-oxidizing, acidophilic microbes. Laboratory and long-term field tests with pyrite-containing mining wastes, where Carbonaceous Phosphate Mining Waste (CPMW) was added, resulted in low acidity, and near neutral drainage. The effect was reproducible, nd confirmed by several independent research groups. This was shown to involve an organic coating, likely a biofilm. The biofilm formation was confirmed when CPMW was added to lignite coal waste with an initial pH of 1. Forty five days after the addition, the coal waste was dominated by heterotrophic microorganisms in biofilms. A review of the scientific literature supports that CPMW has physical and chemical characteristics which are capable of inducing a strong inhibitory effect on sulphide oxidation by forming an organic coating over the mineral surface. CPMW characteristics appear to provide the cornerstone of a new technology for the reduction of sulphide oxidation in mine wastes. An hypothesis for testing this technology is presented which could result in an economical and sustainable approach to mine waste and water management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0119.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Keywords: electrochemical corrosion, metallic coatings, electrolysis, diffusion, intermetallic compounds, phases formation kinetics, copper, aluminium, iron, Kirkendall-Frenkel porosity, Kirkendall sh
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:24:31 CEST)
Our investigations show that electrochemical corrosion of copper is faster than electrochemical corrosion of aluminium at temperatures below 100oC. Literature data analysis shows that the Al atoms diffuse faster than the Cu atoms at temperatures higher than 475oC, Al rich intermetallic compounds (IMCs) are formed faster in the Cu-Al system, and the Kirkendall plane shifts toward Al side. Electrochemical corrosion occurs due to electric current and due to diffusion. An electronic devise working time, for example, depends on initial copper cover thickness on aluminium wire, connected to the electronic devise, temperature, and volume and dislocation pipe diffusion coefficients, so copper, iron, and aluminium electrochemical corrosion rates are investigated experimentally at room temperature and at temperature 100oC. Intrinsic diffusivities ratios of copper and aluminium at different temperatures and diffusion activation energies in the Cu-Al system are calculated by proposed here methods using literature experimental data. Dislocation pipe and volume diffusion activation energies of pure iron are calculated separately by earlier proposed method using literature experimental data. Aluminium dissolved into NaCl solution as the Al3+ ions at room temperature and at temperature 100oC, iron dissolved into NaCl solution as the Fe2+ (not Fe3+) ions at room temperature and at temperature 100oC, copper dissolved into NaCl solution as the Cu+ ions at room temperature and as the Cu+ and the Cu2+ ions at temperature 100oC. It is founded experimentally that copper corrosion is higher than aluminium corrosion, and ratio of electrochemical corrosion rates, kCu/kAl>1, decreases with temperature increasing, although iron electrochemical corrosion rate doesn’t depend on temperature below 100oC. It is obvious, because melting point of iron is more higher then melting point of copper or aluminium. It is calculated that copper electrochemical corrosion rate is approximately equal to aluminium electrochemical corrosion at temperature about 300oC, so copper can dissolve into NaCl solution mostly as the Cu2+ ions at temperature about 300oC. Ratio of intrinsic diffusivities, DCu/DAl <1, increases with temperature increasing, and intrinsic diffusivity of aluminium could be approximately equal to intrinsic diffusivity of copper at temperature about 460oC.