ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0367.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Recommender Systems; Customer Loyalty; Complex Networks
Online: 25 February 2020 (11:04:46 CET)
A good recommender system can infer customers’ preferences based on their historical purchase records, and recommend products that the customers may be interested in, saving them a lot of time and energy. For enterprises, it is difficult to recommend accurately to each customer, and the bad recommendation may be counterproductive. Customer loyalty is an indicator that measures the preference relationship between customers and products in the field of marketing. A hypothesis is proposed in this study: if companies can divide customers into different groups based on customer loyalty, the recommendation effect on certain groups is better than that on overall customers. In this study, customer loyalty is measured by four features of the RFML model. All customers are viewed as points on a four-dimensional space, which are clustered by the k-means model. Two recommendation algorithms based on complex networks are tested: recommendation algorithm based on bipartite graph and PersonalRank (BGPR), and recommendation algorithm based on a single vertex set network and DeepWalk (SVDW). The experimental results show that customer loyalty has improved the effectiveness of the two algorithms over 14%, and the recommendation effect is the best on customer groups with a loyalty level of 4 (the highest level is 5). The recommendation algorithms with customer loyalty are better than using them alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0480.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: healthcare system; medical network; trust; mathematical modeling; complex network
Online: 23 October 2020 (10:33:20 CEST)
Medical Trust-Network is one of the most promising fields of study in network science. Establishment of trust within medical entities ensures better treatment and increases better medical facilities. The word ‘Trust’ signifies a very important behavioral aspect between any human entities, especially among doctors and patients. To represent such relationships Trust Network Models are built to express the interactions between human entities within such networks. Though the idea of a Trust-Network has traditionally been one of the major areas of research, yet the concept of a medical trust network model is relatively a new domain. In this paper, we introduce an overall multilayered Trust Network to represent the entire healthcare architecture. More specifically our model is based on an evolutionary graph system with a discrete relationship between the three most important entities of any healthcare system, namely – Doctors, Departments, and Hospitals. Observations indicate that based on our model, the medical healthcare system is a multilayered model unlike a feed-forward model as indicated by previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0808.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: complex networks; network models; link prediction; automata theory; network automata; Cannistraci-Hebb theory
Online: 11 May 2022 (14:51:01 CEST)
Many complex networks have a connectivity that might be only partially detected or that tends to grow over time, hence the prediction of non-observed links is a fundamental problem in network science. The aim of topological link prediction is to forecast these non-observed links by only exploiting features intrinsic to the network topology. It has a wide range of real applications, like suggesting friendships in social networks or predicting interactions in biological networks.The Cannistraci-Hebb theory is a recent achievement in network science that includes a theoretical framework to understand local-based link prediction on paths of length n. In this study we introduce two innovations: theory of modelling (science) and theory of realization (engineering). For the theory of modelling we first recall a definition of network automata as a general framework for modelling the growth of connectivity in complex networks. We then show that several deterministic models previously developed fall within this framework and we introduce novel network automata following the Cannistraci-Hebb rule. For the theory of realization, we present how to build adaptive network automata for link prediction, which incorporate multiple deterministic models of self-organization and automatically choose the rule that better explains the patterns of connectivity in the network under investigation. We compare Cannistraci-Hebb adaptive (CHA) network automaton against state-of-the-art link prediction methods such as structural perturbation method (SPM), stochastic block models (SBM) and artificial intelligence algorithms for graph embedding. CHA displays an overall higher link prediction performance across different evaluation frameworks on 1386 networks. Finally, we highlight that CHA offers the key advantage to explicitly explain the mechanistic rule of self-organization which leads to the link prediction performance, whereas SPM and graph embedding not. In comparison to CHA, SBM unfortunately shows irrelevant and unsatisfactory performance demonstrating that SBM modelling is not adequate for link prediction in real networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0761.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: Emergent spacetime; Discrete spacetime; Cosmological constant; Nonassociative geometry; Euler characteristic; Complex networks
Online: 10 May 2023 (14:28:45 CEST)
We propose a promising model of discrete spacetime based on nonassociative geometry and complex networks. Our approach treats space as a simplicial 3-complex (or complex network), built from "atoms" of spacetime and entangled states forming n-dimensional simplices (n=1,2,3). At large scales, a highly connected network is a coarse, discrete representation of a smooth spacetime. We show that for high temperatures, the network describes disconnected discrete space. At the Planck temperature, the system experiences the phase transition, and for low temperatures, the space becomes a triangulated discrete space. We show that the cosmological constant depends on the universe’s topology. The "foamy" structure, analogous to Wheeler’s "spacetime foam," significantly contributes to the effective cosmological constant, which is determined by the Euler characteristic of the universe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0443.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Complex network; flood safety patterns; Water Network; Built-up area of Bangkok
Online: 28 January 2022 (15:15:09 CET)
With the development of the city, a large number of water networks in the built-up areas of Bangkok have been filled and hardened, resulting in poor urban flooding and aggravating flooding, causing loss of life and property of citizens. In this paper, on the basis of combing the current water networks and open space potential flood storage points in the built-up areas of Bangkok, the complex network diagram of the water system in the built-up areas of Bangkok is constructed by combining the theory of complex networks and analyzing the attribute parameters of the network and the characteristic parameters of the open space storage nodes and water system paths, and finding that the water system network in the built-up area of Bangkok has complex network characteristics such as robustness, clustering and hierarchy. By exploring the key storage points and water system connection paths, the researchers initially constructed a flood safety pattern in the built-up area of Bangkok with 145 key nodes and 127 river paths as the backbone, and conceptualized the development study of the flood safety pattern in both horizontal and vertical directions. The urban flood safety pattern based on complex network theory proposed in this paper provides a case reference and methodological ideas to scientifically solve the game conflict between the demand for construction land for urban development and the construction area of urban open space storage points and water storage network under the increasingly severe flooding situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0076.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Complex Network Theory; Social Network Analysis; High-Tech Enterprises; Co-Competition Relationship; Innovation Ecological Niche
Online: 5 July 2021 (08:00:56 CEST)
The fusion of "innovation theory" and "ecology" gave birth to a large number of studies on "innovation ecology", which mainly studies how to build an industrial ecological chain at the regional level, focusing on self-evolution, achieving ecological balance, and enabling the regional economy to take the path of sustainable innovation. This type of research borrows a lot of concepts from ecology, and very vividly describes the competition and cooperation relationships formed by various agents in the innovation system, laying a good foundation for qualitative analysis of the inherent dynamics of innovation development. However, many studies focus on the analogous description of ecosystems and economic systems, lacking scientifically and rigorously quantitative empirical research as a support. This paper uses network-based indicators such as degree, cluster coefficient, and betweenness centrality to measure the function and position of high-tech enterprises in the Z-Park in a business environment, so as to clarify the socio-economic meaning of the topological structure of the regional innovation system. On this basis, it provides theoretical references for regional innovation development and sustainable development policy formulation.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0689.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: complex networks; network models; link prediction; automata theory; network automata; Cannistraci-Hebb; stacking modelling
Online: 28 May 2021 (10:13:43 CEST)
Link prediction is an iconic problem in complex networks because deals with the ability to predict nonobserved existing or future parts of the network structure. The impact of this prediction on real applications can be disruptive: from prediction of covert links between terrorists in their social networks to repositioning of drugs in molecular diseasome networks. Here we compare: (1) an ensemble meta-learning method (Ghasemian et al.), which uses an artificial intelligence (AI) stacking strategy to create a single meta-model from hundreds of other models; (2) a structural predictability method (SPM, Lü et al.), which relies on a theory derived from quantum mechanics and does not assume any model; (3) a modelling rule named Cannistraci-Hebb (CH, Muscoloni et al.), which relies on one brain-bioinspired model adapting to the intrinsic network structure.We conclude that brute-force stacking of algorithms by AI does not perform better than (and is often significantly outperformed by) SPM and one simple brain-bioinspired rule such as CH. This agrees with the Gödel incompleteness: stacking is optimal but incomplete, you cannot squeeze out more than what is already in your features. Hence, we should also pursue AI that resembles human-like physical ‘understanding’ of simple generalized rules associated to complexity. The future might be populated by AI that ‘steals for us the fire from Gods’, towards machine intelligence that creates new rules rather than stacking the ones already known.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0203.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: complex adaptive systems; systems dynamics; dynamical systems; signal processing; reservoir computing; machine learning; Boolean networks; biological modeling
Online: 8 November 2018 (10:40:23 CET)
Reservoir computers (RCs) are a biology inspired computational framework for signal processing typically implemented using recurrent neural networks. Recent work has shown that Boolean networks (BN) can also be used as reservoirs. We analyze the performance of BN RCs, measuring their flexibility and identifying factors that determine effective approximation of Boolean functions that are applied in a sliding-window fashion over a binary signal, either non-recursively or recursively. We train and test BN RCs of different sizes, signal connectivity, and in-degree to approximate 3-bit, 5-bit and 3-bit recursive binary functions. We analyze how BN RC parameters and function average sensitivity, a measure of function smoothness, affect approximation accuracy as well as the spread of accuracies for a single reservoir. We found that approximation accuracy and reservoir flexibility are highly dependent on RC parameters. Overall, our results indicate that not all reservoirs are equally flexible and RC instantiation and training can be more efficient if this is taken into account. The optimum range of RC parameters opens up an angle of exploration for understanding how biological systems might be tuned to balance system restraints with processing capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0206.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: crystal structure; ammine complex; structure determination; ammonia storage; vibrational spectroscopy
Online: 15 May 2018 (06:33:41 CEST)
Nickel nitrate diammine, Ni(NH3)2(NO3)2, can be synthesised from the thermal decomposition of the nickel nitrate hexammine, Ni[(NH3)6](NO3)2. The hexammine decomposes in 2 distinct steps; the first releases 4 equivalents of ammonia while the second involves the release of NOx, N2 and H2O to yield NiO. The intermediate diammine compound can be isolated following the first deammoniation step or synthesised as a single phase from the hexammine under vacuum. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) experiments have allowed the structure of Ni(NH3)2(NO3)2 to be solved for the first time. The compound crystallises in orthorhombic space group Pca21 (a = 11.0628 (5) Å, b = 6.0454 (3) Å, c = 9.3526 (4) Å; Z = 4) and contains 11 non-hydrogen atoms in the asymmetric unit. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrates that the bonding in the ammine is consistent with the structure determined by PXD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0500.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: complex multilayer networks; hypergraphs; complex systems
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:44:19 CET)
Many real complex systems present multilayer structure where high-order metadata on one layer refers to dyadic data on a lower layer. Significant progresses to analyse high-order metadata under the assumption of community organization have been done. However, there are no planted communities in real-world networks, and the necessity of new frameworks to analyze high-order metadata regardless of community organization has been raised.Here, we propose to adopt hyperedge organization. Predicting ‘entanglements’ between a hyperedge and nodes scattered in the rest of the network might suggest structural or functional liaisons, without assumption of any community organization. We introduce a novel concept: hyperedge entanglement (HE), which associates to each hyperedge an entangled hyperedge, by means of a network operator that predicts significant ‘interactions at distance’ between network nodes and existing hyperedges. We also introduce a new challenge termed hyperedge entanglement prediction (HEP), and an algorithm to perform this task. We evaluated HEP performance on social, biological and synthetic data where, given only topology and hyperedges (such as communities or functional modules), the goal is to predict whether nodes not connected to a certain hyperedge might be candidates for a significant entanglement. Finally, as real application in diseasome systems biomedicine, we perform HEP on the human protein interactome to predict unknown gene entanglements with the COPD disease gene hyperedge. HEP predictions are validated by biological experiments, enlarging our understanding of molecular mechanisms behind COPD/aneurysm comorbidity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0207.v5
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Complex number field; Complex exponentiation; Complex logarithm; Exponential and logarithm identities
Online: 14 September 2022 (03:53:54 CEST)
It is well established the complex exponential and logarithm are multivalued functions, both failing to maintain most identities originally valid over the positive integers domain. Moreover the general case of complex logarithm, with a complex base, is hardly mentionned in mathematic litterature. We study the exponentiation and logarithm as binary operations where all operands are complex. In a redefined complex number system using an extension of the C field, hereafter named E, we prove both operations always produce single value results and maintain the validity of identities such as logu (w v) = logu (w) + logu (v) where u, v, w in E. There is a cost as some algebraic properties of the addition and subtraction will be diminished, though remaining valid to a certain extent. In order to handle formulas in a C and E dual number system, we introduce the notion of set precision and set truncation. We show complex numbers as defined in C are insufficiently precise to grasp all subtleties of some complex operations, as a result multivaluation, identity failures and, in specific cases, wrong results are obtained when computing exclusively in C. A geometric representation of the new complex number system is proposed, in which the complex plane appears as an orthogonal projection, and where the complex logarithm and exponentiation can be simply represented. Finally we attempt an algebraic formalization of E.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0330.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: complex systems; DNB; phase transitions; plant-virus interaction; Potyvirus; protein-protein interaction networks; response to infection; systems biology; Tobacco etch virus
Online: 27 November 2019 (04:42:28 CET)
Complex systems exhibit critical thresholds at which they transition among alternative phases. Complex systems theory has been applied to analyze disease progression, distinguishing three stages along progression: (i) a normal non-infected state, (ii) a pre-disease state in which the host is infected and responds; therapeutic interventions could still be effective, (iii) an irreversible state, where the system is seriously threatened. The Dynamical Network Biomarker (DNB) theory sought for early-warnings of the transition from health to disease. Such DNBs might range from individual genes to complex structures in transcriptional regulatory or protein-protein interaction networks. Here we revisit transcriptomic data obtained during infection of tobacco plants with tobacco etch potyvirus to identify DNBs signaling the transition from mild/reversible to severe/irreversible disease. We identified genes showing a sudden transition in expression along disease. Some of these genes cluster in modules that show the properties of DNBs. These modules contain both genes known to be involved in response to pathogens (e.g., ADH2, CYP19, ERF1, KAB1, LAP1, MBF1C, PR1, or TPS5) and other genes not previously related to biotic stress responses (e.g., ABCI6, BBX21, NAP1, OSM34, or ZPN1).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0046.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Cancer; tumor homing peptide; in silico drug discovery; complex network; chemical space network; centrality measure; similarity searching, group fusion; motif discovery; starPep toolbox software
Online: 3 February 2022 (10:14:05 CET)
Peptide-based drugs are promising anticancer candidates due to their biocompatibility, and low toxicity. Particularly, tumor homing peptides (THPs) have the ability to bind specifically to can-cer cells receptors and tumor vasculature. Despite their potential to develop antitumor drugs, there are few available prediction tools to assist the discovery of new THPs. Two webservers based on machine learning models are currently active, the TumorHPD (https://webs.iiitd.edu.in/raghava/tumorhpd) and the THPep (http://codes.bio/thpep), and more recently the SCMTHP (SCMTHP (pmlabstack.pythonanywhere.com), based on scoring card method. Herein, a novel method based on network science and similarity searching implemented in the starPep toolbox (http://mobiosd-hub.com/starpep/) is presented for THPs discovery. The approach leverages from exploring the structural space of THPs with Chemical Space Networks (CSNs) and from applying centrality measures to identify the most relevant and non-redundant THPs sequences within the CSN. Such THPs were considered as queries (Qs) for multi-query similarity searches that applies a group fusion (MAX-SIM rule) model. The resulting multi-query similarity searching models (SSMs) were validated with three benchmarking datasets of THPs/non-THPs. Predictions achieved accuracies ranged from 92.64 to 99.18% and Matthews Correlation Coefficients between 0.894-0.98, outperforming state-of-the-art predictors. The best model was applied to repurpose AMPs from the starPep database as THPs, which were subse-quently optimized for the TH activity. Finally, 54 promising THP leads were discovered, and their sequences were analyzed to encounter novel motifs. These results demonstrate the potential of CSNs and multi-query similarity searching for a rapid and accurate identification of THPs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0294.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: RANBP9; RANBPM; RANBP10; Scorpins; DDR; GID complex; CTLH complex
Online: 22 May 2018 (09:40:57 CEST)
The DNA Damage Response (DDR) is a complex signaling network that comes into play when cells experience genotoxic stress. Upon DNA damage, cellular signaling pathways are rewired to slow down cell cycle progression and allow recovery. However, when the damage is beyond repair, cells activate complex and still not fully understood mechanisms, leading to a complete proliferative arrest or cell death. A number of conventional and novel anti-neoplastic treatments rely on causing DNA damage or on the inhibition of the DDR in cancer cells. However, the identification of molecular determinants directing cancer cells toward recovery or death upon DNA damage is still far from complete, and it is object of intense investigation. SPRY-COntaining RAN binding Proteins (Scorpins) RANBP9 and RANBP10 are evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed proteins whose biological functions are still debated. RANBP9 has been previously implicated in cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis and migration. Recent studies also showed that RANBP9 is involved in the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) signaling upon DNA damage. Accordingly, cells lacking RANBP9 show increased sensitivity to genotoxic treatment. Although there is no published evidence, extensive protein similarities suggest that RANBP10 might have partially overlapping functions with RANBP9. Like RANBP9, RANBP10 bears sites putative target of PIK-kinases and high throughput studies found RANBP10 to be phosphorylated following genotoxic stress. Therefore, this second Scorpin might be another overlooked player of the DDR alone or in combination with RANBP9. This review focuses on the relatively unknown role played by RANBP9 and RANBP10 in responding to genotoxic stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0733.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: complex stochastic differential equation; complex Fokker-Planck equation; quantum trajectory; complex probability; optimal quantum guidance law.
Online: 29 December 2020 (15:32:13 CET)
Probability is an open question in the ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics. It has been discussed in some trajectory interpretations such as Bohmian mechanics and stochastic mechanics. New questions arise when the domain of probability extends to the complex space, including the generation of complex trajectories, the definition of the complex probability, the relation of the complex probability to the real quantum probability, and so on. The complex treatment proposed here applies the optimal quantum guidance law to derive the stochastic differential (SD) equation governing the particle’s random motions in the complex plane. The ensemble of the complex quantum random trajectories (CQRTs) solved from the complex SD equation is used to construct the probability distribution ρc(t,x,y) of the particle’s position over the complex plane z=x+iy. The correctness of the obtained complex probability is confirmed by the solution of the complex Fokker-Planck equation. The significant contribution of the complex probability is that it can be used to reconstruct both quantum probability and classical probability, and to clarify their relationship. Although quantum probability and classical probability are both defined on the real axis, they are obtained by projecting complex probability onto the real axis in different ways. This difference explains why the quantum probability cannot exactly converge to the classical probability when the quantum number is large.
Online: 4 January 2021 (16:22:18 CET)
In this paper we explore how we can use catchment resilience as a unifying concept to manage and regulate catchments, using structured reviews to support our perspective. River catchments are physical boundaries which delineate where all surface water (e.g. precipitation, snow, meltwater) falling on a piece of land runs off or flows to a single point at a lower elevation, where the river meets a larger body of water (e.g. sea, lake). Catchments are complex systems with interrelated natural, social, and technical aspects. The exposure, vulnerability, and resilience of these aspects (separately and in combination) are the latent conditions which when triggered by a specific hazard, result in catchment impacts. In complex catchment systems, resilience is the ability to bounce-back, the ability to absorb, and the ability to transform. When all three abilities are accounted for, we are forced to consider the interactions of the catchment system. Six main complexity concepts can be used to frame how we approach evaluating catchment resilience. These concepts are: natural-social-technical aspects, interactions, spatial scales, time scales, multiple forms of evidence, and uncertainty. In analysing these complexity concepts we have found that there are several gaps in current practice. For example critical interactions which need further methodological study are the linkages between the natural-social-technical realms, as well as across spatial scales (e.g. households or communities) and time scales (e.g. days or years). Requirements for future methodological approaches are suggested. Central to these is (1) the study of interactions linking the short- to medium-term time scales (2) better integration of bottom-up and top-down approaches, to link local context with higher-level decision-making, and (3) developing ‘hazard-agnostic’ methods which can address the impacts of floods, droughts – even acknowledging dormant ‘socio-technical hazards’. There is no ‘one size fits all’ approach to catchment resilience. Mixed method approaches are required and their selection will depend on contextual issues identified early in the process for specific catchments. Central to any effective approach is the incorporation of a linking systems or interaction analysis, which draws together the natural-social-technical system in a meaningful way. If our approaches do not begin to acknowledge the interdependencies and interactions, we may miss substantial opportunities to enhance catchment resilience.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0160.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: complex loci; autoimmune diseases
Online: 10 May 2018 (08:18:44 CEST)
Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several hundred loci associated with autoimmune diseases, their mechanistic insights are still poorly understood. The human genome is more complex than common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are interrogated by GWAS arrays. Some structural variants such as insertions-deletions, copy number variations, and minisatellites that are not very well tagged by SNPs cannot be fully explored by GWAS. Therefore, it is possible that some of these loci may have large effects on autoimmune disease risk. In addition, other layers of regulations such as gene-gene interactions, epigenetic-determinants, gene and environmental interactions also contribute to the heritability of autoimmune diseases. This review focuses on discussing why studying these elements may allow us to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the aetiology of complex autoimmune traits.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Complex diseases; Nosology; Systems Medicine
Online: 17 January 2022 (13:01:03 CET)
Complex diseases are prevalent medical conditions which are characterized by strong inter-patient differences in symptom profiles, disease trajectory and treatment response. The challenges in understanding and managing these diseases are due to their complex pathophysiology, comprising of a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The traditional model of disease assumes a clear distinction between health and disease, as well as between different diagnoses, but recent findings with regards to diseasomes and network pleiotrophy suggest that this dogma is not useful in understanding complex diseases. This paper presents a novel model, in which the individual disease burden is determined as a function of molecular, physiological and pathological factors simultaneously: disease(symptoms(traits(genes AND environment))). From this a high-dimensional space is defined which includes all individual disease burdens, ranging from healthy (i.e. low disease burden) to multi-morbidity (i.e. high disease burden), termed the disease landscape. This model provides a novel way to conceptualize human physiology and pathophysiology in the context of complex diseases and may present a useful concept to simultaneously address the strong interindividual heterogeneity of diagnose cohorts as well as the lack of clear distinction between diagnoses and health and disease, thus facilitating the progression towards personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; veterinary; complex intervention
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:49:09 CET)
Antimicrobial use in agriculture has been identified as an area of focus for reducing overall antimicrobial use and improving stewardship. In this paper, we outline the design of a complex antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) intervention aimed at developing a national Veterinary Prescribing Champion programme for Welsh farm animal veterinary practices. We describe the process by which participants were encouraged to design and deliver bespoke individualised AMS activities at practice level by forging participant ‘champion’ identities and Communities of Practice through participatory and educational online activities. We describe the key phases identified as important when designing this complex intervention, namely (i) involving key collaborators in government and industry to stimulate project engagement; (ii) grounding the design in the literature, the results of stakeholder engagement, expert panel input and veterinary clinician feedback to promote contextual relevance and appropriateness; and (iii) taking a theoretical approach to implementing intervention design to foster critical psychological needs for participant motivation and scheme involvement. With recruitment of over 80% of all farm animal practices in Wales to the programme, we also describe demographic data of the participating Welsh Veterinary Prescribing Champions in order to inform recruitment and design of future AMS programmes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1726.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electronic, Optical And Magnetic Materials Keywords: Cu3-3OH complex; pyrazolato ligands; trinuclear complex; Spin Frustration; magnetic susceptibility; antisymmetric exchange; DFT calculations.
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:37:25 CEST)
The synthesis and structural characterization of a new triangular Cu3-3OH pyrazolato complex of formula, [Cu3(μ3-OH)(pz)3(Hpz)3][BF4]2 (1-Cu3), Hpz = pyrazole, is presented. The triangular unit forms a quasi-isosceles triangle with Cu-Cu distances of 3.3739(9), 3.3571(9), and 3.370(1) Å. This complex is isostructural to the hexanuclear complex [Cu3(μ3-OH)(pz)3(Hpz)3](ClO4)2]2 (QOPJIP). A comparative structural analysis with other reported triangular Cu3-3OH pyrazolato complexes has been done, showing that, depending on the pyrazolato derivative, auxiliary ligand or counter-anion can affect the nuclearity and/or the dimensionality of the system. The magnetic properties of 1-Cu3 are analyzed by experimental data and DFT calculation. A detailed analysis is done on the magnetic properties comparing experimental and theoretical data of other molecular triangular Cu3-3OH complexes, showing that the displacement of the μ3-OH- from the Cu3 plane, together with the type of organic ligands, influences the nature of the magnetic exchange interaction between the spin-carrier centers, since it affects the overlap of the magnetic orbitals involved in the exchange pathways. Finally, a detailed comparison of the magnetic properties of 1-Cu3 and QOPJIP was done, which allowed us to understand the differences in their magnetic properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0300.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: Complex wave mek complex frequency, medium, electric field, the medium wave function, friction, relaxation time
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:01:14 CET)
Maxwell equation for the electric field has been solved for any medium by suggesting the wavenumber and angular frequency be complex quantities. This accounts for the field decay by interaction with the medium.This expression for the time and special decay of the electric field in a medium is used to construct a new wave function sensitive to the medium physical properties. This new wave function, unlike the conventional one, differentiates between a beam of particles in a vacuum and that enters a medium which is an attenuated due to the scattering effect.Another expression for time decaying electric field was obtained using Newton’s laws for frictional medium. This expression shows that the electric field diminishes due to friction.Fortunately, this time decaying part of the electric field is typical to that derived from Maxwell’s equations. Finally, a new Schrodinger equation sensitive to the medium properties was derived. This equation, fortunately, describes some scattering processes for Protein scattering, scattering of x-rays, opto-acoustic phonons, and Raman scattering for some materials successfully .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0018.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Complex polynomials; counting zeros; monotone coefficients
Online: 1 September 2023 (09:07:04 CEST)
Motivated by results on the location of zeros of a complex polynomial with monotonicity conditions on the coefficients (such as the classical Eneström-Kakeya Theorem, and its recent generalizations), we impose similar conditions and give bounds on the number of zeros in certain regions. We do so by introducing a reversal in monotonicity conditions on the real and imaginary parts of the coefficients, and also on their moduli. The results presented naturally apply to certain classes of lacunary polynomials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1517.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: random; vibrations; tillage; tools; complex; cultivator
Online: 21 July 2023 (11:39:13 CEST)
The article continues the exposition of the results obtained in the research of an agricultural machine for processing soil, designed for research with applications including exploitation. The MCLS complex cultivator was designed for the research of the working processes of the instruments intended for soil processing. The MCLS cultivator is a modulated machine (it can work for three working widths: 1, 2, and 4 m, with tractors of different powers) that is designed to use a wide range of working bodies. The experimental data obtained with the structure with a working width of 1 m and the results of their processing within the framework of the theory of random vibrations are presented in this article. The experimental results are analysed as random vibrations of the supports of the active body. As a result, the main characteristics of random vibrations are exposed: the distribution function, the average value, the autocorrelation, and the frequency spectrum. These general results regarding random vibrations are used for several critical applications in the design, execution, and exploitation of some subassemblies and assemblies of agricultural machines of this type. The main applications are: estimating the probability of the occurrence of dangerous load peaks, counting and selecting the load peaks that produce fatigue accumulation in the material of the supports of the working bodies, identifying some design deficiencies or defects in the work regime, estimating the effects of vibrations on the quality of soil processing. All the outcomes are comprised of applications in MCLS research and exploitation. The applications pursue well-known objectives of modeling the working processes of agricultural machines: safety at work, increasing the quality of work, optimizing energy consumption, and increasing productivity, all in a broad context to obtain a compromise situation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0561.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: embryonic stem cells; pluripotency; HUSH complex
Online: 10 July 2023 (08:34:39 CEST)
Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) possess remarkable characteristics of unlimited self-renewal and pluripotency, which render them highly valuable for both fundamental research and clinical applications. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying mESC function is of utmost importance. The Human Silence Hub (HUSH) complex, comprising FAM208A, MPP8, and periphilin, constitutes an epigenetic silencing complex involved in suppressing retroviruses and transposons during early embryonic development. However, its precise role in regulating mESC pluripotency and differentiation remains elusive. In this study, we generated homogenous miniIAA7 tagged Mpp8 mouse ES cell lines. Upon induction of MPP8 protein degradation, we observed impaired proliferation and reduced colony formation ability of mESCs. Furthermore, this study unveils the involvement of MPP8 in regulating the activity of the LIF/STAT3 signaling pathway and Nanog expression in mESCs. Finally, we provide compelling evidence that degradation of the MPP8 protein impairs the differentiation of mESC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Human brain evolution; complex systems theory
Online: 1 June 2022 (03:37:03 CEST)
Scientific theories on the functioning and dysfunction of the human brain require a good understanding of both its development — before and after birth, and through maturation to adulthood — and its evolution from the ancestral primate brain. Adopting a complex-systems approach, here we propose that the apparent uniqueness of humans’ cognitive capacities might best be understood as emerging from multiple nested “virtuous cycles.” In particular, we propose that the intimate link that exists between oxygen metabolic loops, cortical expansion, and ultimately cognitive and social demands is a key driver of genetic developmental programs for the human brain. Overall, our proposed evolutionary model makes explicit mechanistic links between metabolism, molecular and cellular brain heterogeneity, and behaviour that may in time provide a clearer understanding of brain developmental trajectories and their disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0560.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Logic Keywords: satisfiability; SAT; fractal dimension; complex networks
Online: 27 October 2020 (16:12:41 CET)
In the last years, we have witnessed a remarkable progress of algorithms solving Boolean satisfiability (SAT). The success of these algorithms has been especially relevant in a large number of industrial or real-world applications, for which these SAT solvers are nowadays an essential core part of their solving processes. Interestingly enough, these applications include a very diverse and heterogeneous range of domains, such as hardware verification, planning, and cryptography, among others. Unfortunately, the reasons of the good performance of these solvers on this variety of industrial benchmarks are not completely understood yet. Since SAT solvers’ efficiency is fundamental in various domains, obtaining a better understanding of these algorithms and the reasons of their good performance is crucial. In order to shed light on this question, SAT solvers are often viewed as complex systems with many interconnected components (e.g., conflict analysis and learning mechanism, database management, search restarts) interacting in many unpredictable ways. There is the common belief that the resulting emergent behavior of these complex systems takes advantage of a certain underlying structure of the SAT formula, which is shared by the majority of these industrial problems regardless the domain they come from. Recently, there have been some attempts of characterizing this structure under the lens of complex networks, with the purpose of better understanding the success of the solvers, and potentially improving them. In this paper, we analyze the structure of industrial SAT instances under the lens of self-similarity, and study how the execution of SAT solvers affect that structure. Many real-world graphs exhibit self-similar structure (with small fractal dimension), which means that after rescaling (replacing groups of nodes by a single node), the same kind of structure can be observed. In our analysis, in which we represent SAT instances as graphs, we observe that many industrial SAT formulas exhibit the same kind of structure. Moreover, we analyze how this structure evolves by effects of learning new clauses during the search. In particular, we observe that learned clauses usually contain variables that are close in the graph representation of the formula. This is, the learning mechanism tends to work locally. On the contrary, this learning mechanism on random SAT formulas –which do not exhibit any structure at all– is unable to generate these local clauses. This difference contributes to explain the success of modern SAT solvers on industrial problems.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Complex systems; Emergence; Neuroimaging; Behaviour; Disorders
Online: 2 September 2020 (10:02:03 CEST)
The study of complex systems deals with emergent behaviour that arises as a result of nonlinear spatio-temporal interactions between a large number of components both within the system, as well as between the system and its environment. There is a strong case to be made that neural systems as well as their emergent behaviour and disorders, can be studied within the framework of complexity science. In particular, the field of neuroimaging has begun to apply both theoretical and experimental procedures originating in complexity science – usually in parallel with traditional methodologies. Here, we demonstrate that the use of such traditional models may distort the outcomes of neuroimaging experiments – hence affecting their interpretability and raising questions about their reliability.Therefore, we argue in favor of adopting a complex systems-based methodology in the study of neuroimaging, alongside appropriate experimental paradigms, and with minimal influences from non-complex systems approaches. Our exposition includes a review of the fundamental mathematical concepts, combined with practical examples and a compilation of results from the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0098.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: homomorphism; Grassmannian; generalized geometry; cathelineau's complex
Online: 15 March 2017 (08:04:30 CET)
In this article, a generalization of the geometry of Grassmannian chain complex of free abelian groups generated by the projective configuration of points and Cathelineau's infinitesimal complex of polylogarithmic groups is proposed. Firstly, homomorphisms for weight n =2 up to weight n=6 will be introduced to connect sub-complexes of Grassmannian and Cathelineau. Lately, generalization of these morphisms will be shown for weight n=N. The associated diagrams will also be proven to be commutative and bi-complex.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0402.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: nickel; electrolysis; catalysis; binuclear complex; hydrogen evolution
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:34:33 CEST)
The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) has garnered attention to access sustainable energy generation with a pollutant-free combustion product in the form of H2 gas. Despite the utility of this pathway in the context of growing climate concerns, stable HER electrocatalysts which avoid the use of rare-earth platinum while retaining high catalytic performance and efficiency remains a challenge. In this work, we present the application of a binuclear nickel (II/III) Schiff base complex [Ni]2[L]2 2 for HER electrocatalysis. The design of the electrocatalyst provides optimal HER activity as the presence of electronegative heteroatoms in proximity to the metal centers augments proton affinity. As a result, the catalyst displays excellent HER activity with 100% faradaic efficiency (FE) at an onset potential of 0.4 V vs. reverse hydrogen electrode (RHE), sustained catalytic activity during prolonged electrolysis for greater than 17 hours, and provided a turn over number (TON) of 0.0006 s-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1318.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: anti-thrombin aptamer; complex network; electrical response
Online: 18 August 2023 (08:30:24 CEST)
Food and drinks can be contaminated with pollutants such as lead and strontium and this poses a serious danger to human health. For this reason, a number of effective sensors have been developed for the rapid and highly selective detection of such contaminants. TBA, a well-known aptamer developed to selectively target and thereby inhibit the protein of clinical interest -thrombin, is receiving increasing attention for sensing applications, particularly for the sensing of different cations. Indeed, TBA, in the presence of these cations, folds into the stable G-quadruplex structure. Furthermore, different cations produce small but significant changes in this structure that result in changes in the electrical responses that TBA can produce. In this article we produce an overview of the expected data regarding the use of TBA in the detection of lead and strontium, calculating the expected electrical response using different measurement techniques. Finally, we conclude that the TBA should perform better as a detector of strontium rather than lead.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0735.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Discrete Mathematics And Combinatorics Keywords: orbit polynomial; complex networks; automorphism group; entropy
Online: 10 May 2023 (10:25:39 CEST)
Suppose G is a graph with vertex-orbits O1,1 O2, . . . ,Ot, and jOi j denotes the cardinallity of Oi. Then OG (x) = åt 2 i=1 xjOi j is called as orbit polynomial. It is well-known that this polynomial 3 has a unique positive zero d in the interval [0, 1]. The aim of this paper is to study the specific 4 properties of this polynomial and then we determine the location of this root for several classes of 5 complex networks to compare with other graphical measures. Besides, we compare the unique 6 positive zero measure with several well-known centrality graph measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0022.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Cyclodextrin; Ciprofloxacin; Dispersin B; Inclusion complex; Antibiofilm
Online: 1 May 2023 (10:22:03 CEST)
To face the high tolerance of biofilms to antibiotics, it is urgent to develop new strategies to fight against these bacterial consortia. We describe here an innova-tive antibiofilm nano vector, consisting of a Dispersin B-permethylated-β-cyclodextrin/ciprofloxacin adamantly (DspB-β-CD/CIP-Ad). For this purpose, complexation assays between CIP-Ad and (i) unmodified β-CD and (ii) different derivatives of β-CD, that are 2,3-O-dimethyl-β-CD, 2,6-O-dimethyl-β-CD, and 2,3,6-O-trimethyl-β-CD were tested. A stoichiometry of 1/1 was obtained for the β -CD/CIP-Ad complex by NMR analysis. ITC experiments were carried out to determine Ka, ΔH, ΔS thermodynamic parameters of the complex between β-CD or its different derivatives in the presence of CIP-Ad. A stoichiometry 1/1 of β-CD/CIP-Ad complexes was confirmed with variable affinity according to the type of methylation. A phase solubility study showed increased CIP-Ad solubili-ty with CDs concentration, pointing out complex formation. The evaluation of the antibacterial activity of CIP-Ad and the 2,3-O-dimethyl-β-CD/CIP-Ad or 2,3,6-O-trimethyl-β-CD/CIP-Ad complexes was performed on S.epidermidis strains. MIC studies showed that the complex of CIP-Ad and 2,3-O-dimethyl-β-CD exhibited similar antimicrobial activity to CIP-Ad alone, while the interaction with 2,3,6-O-trimethyl-β-CD increased MIC values. Antimicrobial assays on S. epidermidis biofilms demonstrated that the synergistic effect observed with the DspB/CIP association was partly maintained with the 2,3-O-dimethyl-β-CDs/CIP-Ad complex. To obtain this "all in one" nano vector, able to destroy the biofilm matrix and release the antibiotic simultaneously, we covalently grafted DspB on three carboxylic permethylated CD derivatives with different length spacer arms. The strategy was validated by demonstrating that a DspB-permethylated-β-CD/ciprofloxacin-Ad nanovector exhibited efficient antibiofilm activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0219.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: complex scenes; inspection robot; SLAM; path planning
Online: 11 April 2023 (10:12:35 CEST)
Factory safety inspections are crucial for ensuring safe production. However, manual inspections present issues such as low efficiency and high workload. Inspection robots provide an efficient and reliable solution for completing patrol tasks. The development of robot localization and path planning technologies provides guarantees for factory inspection robots to autonomously complete inspection tasks in complex environments. This paper studies mapping and localization, as well as path planning methods for robots in order to meet the application requirements of factory inspections. Two SLAM application systems based on multiple-line laser radar and vision are designed for different scenarios in consideration of the limitations of cameras and laser sensors in terms of their own characteristics and applicability in different environments. To address the issue of low efficiency in inspection tasks, a hybrid path planning algorithm that integrates the A-star algorithm and time elasticity band algorithm is proposed. This algorithm effectively solves the problem of path planning in complex environments that is prone to falling into local optimal solutions, thereby improving the inspection efficiency of robots. Experimental tests show that the designed SLAM and path planning methods can meet the needs of robot inspection in complex scenes and have good reliability and stability. The code used in this article is open source and can be accessed at https://github.com/Mxiii99/RSPP_CS.git.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0050.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: quorum sensing; resistance random network; complex networks
Online: 2 August 2022 (08:21:25 CEST)
We propose a model for bacterial Quorum Sensing based on an auxiliary electrostatic-like interaction originating from a fictitious electrical charge that represents bacteria activity. A cooperative mechanism for charge/activity exchange is introduced to implement chemotaxis and replication. The bacteria system is thus represented by means of a complex resistor network where link resistances take into account the allowed activity-flow among individuals. By explicit spatial stochastic simulations, we show that the model exhibits different quasi-realistic behaviors from colony formation to biofilm aggregation. The electrical signal associated with Quorum Sensing is analyzed in space and time and provides useful information about the colony dynamics. In particular, we analyze the transition between the planktonic and the colony phases as the intensity of Quorum Sensing is varied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0079.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Basic complex number theory; Euler’s identity; contradiction
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:02:06 CET)
In the paper it is demonstrated that a valid path to a contradiction in complex number theory exists. In the path use is made of Euler’s identity and simple trigonometry. Each step can be easily verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0519.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Generalized quaternion, generalized complex number, matrix representation.
Online: 19 April 2021 (22:00:00 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to bring together quaternions and generalized complex numbers. Generalized quaternions with generalized complex number components are expressed and their algebraic structures are examined. Several matrix representations and computational results are introduced. As a crucial part, alternative approach for generalized quaternion matrix with elliptic number entries are developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0186.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chronic pain; allodynia; trigeminocervical complex; glycine transporters
Online: 5 March 2021 (11:47:51 CET)
Craniofacial neuropathic pain affects millions of people worldwide and is often difficult to treat. Two key mechanisms underlying this condition are a loss of the negative control exerted by inhibitory interneurons and an early microglial reaction. Basic features of these mechanisms, however, are still poorly understood. Using the chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (CCI-IoN) model of neuropathic pain in mice, we have examined the changes in the expression of GAD, the synthetic enzyme of GABA, and GlyT2, the membrane transporter of glycine, as well as the microgliosis that occur at early (5 days) and late (21 days) stages post-CCI in the medullary and upper spinal dorsal horn. Our results show that CCI-IoN induces a down-regulation of GAD at both postinjury survival times, uniformly across the superficial laminae. The expression of GlyT2 showed a more discrete and heterogeneous reduction due to the basal presence in lamina III of ‘patches’ of higher expression, interspersed within a less immunoreactive ‘matrix’, which showed a more substantial reduction in the expression of GlyT2. These patches coincided with foci lacking any perceptible microglial reaction, which stood out against a more diffuse areas of strong microgliosis. These findings may provide clues to better understand the neural mechanisms underlying allodynia in neuropathic pain syndromes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0400.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: complex systems; emergence; complexity; chaos; fractals; networks
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:26:43 CEST)
What is a complex system? The definition of a complex system remains somewhat ambiguous. A complex system can be defined as a system consisting of many interacting parts exhibiting emergent behaviors. The emerging field of complexity science entails a change in the language of scientific research and thinking. As such, the general properties, tools and definitions pertaining to complex systems must be made accessible to multi-disciplinary systems scientists and thinkers. With this intention, this literary survey presents the development and glossary of essential concepts steering complex systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0179.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, disease resistance, fish
Online: 19 February 2019 (11:14:48 CET)
The basic pattern of MHC variation in fish, with MHC class I versus class II, and polymorphic classical versus nonpolymorphic nonclassical, is similar in fish and mammals. Nevertheless, in many or all teleost fishes, important differences with mammalian or human MHC were observed: (1) The allelic/haplotype diversification levels of classical MHC class I genes tend to be much higher than in mammals; (2) Teleost fish classical MHC class I and class II loci are not linked. The present article summarizes previous studies that performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for mapping differences in teleost fish disease resistance, and discusses them from MHC point of view. Overall, those studies suggest the possible importance of genomic regions including classical MHC class II and nonclassical MHC class I genes, whereas similar observations were not made for the genomic regions with the highly diversified classical MHC class I alleles. The present study is a review and discussion of the fish MHC situation.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: microbiome; complex networks; species diversity; criticality; RSA; information flow; transitions
Online: 28 March 2019 (09:10:18 CET)
The human microbiome is an extremely complex ecosystem considering the amount of bacterial species, their interactions, and its variability over time. Here we untangle the complexity of the human microbiome for the Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) that is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder in human populations. Based on a novel information theoretic network inference model we detect species interaction networks that are functionally and structurally different for healthy and unhealthy individuals. Healthy networks are characterized by a neutral symmetrical pattern of species interactions and scale-free topology versus random unhealthy networks. We detect an inverse scaling relationship between species total outgoing information flow, meaningful of node interactivity, and relative species abundance (RSA). The top ten interacting species are also the least relatively abundant for the healthy microbiome and the most detrimental. These findings support the idea about the diminishing role of network hubs and hubs should be defined considering the total outgoing information flow rather than the node degree. Macroecologically, the healthy microbiome is characterized by the highest total species diversity growth rate, the lowest species turnover, and the smallest variability of RSA for all species. This result challenges current views that posit a universal association between healthy states and the highest absolute species diversity in ecosystems. Additionally, we show how the transitory microbiome is unstable and microbiome criticality is not at the phase transition between healthy and unhealthy states. We stress out the importance of considering interacting pairs versus single node dynamics when characterizing the microbiome and of ranking these pairs in terms of their dynamics. Interactions (i.e. species collective behavior) shape transition from healthy to unhealthy states.\\ The macroecological characterization of the microbiome is useful for diagnostic purposes and disease etiognosis, while species-specific analyses can detect species that are more beneficial leading to personalized design of pre- and pro-biotic treatments and microbiome engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0557.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: emergence; complex adaptive systems; ecosystems; biosphere; Gaia
Online: 30 July 2018 (05:11:32 CEST)
A speculative argument is presented which suggests the possible existence of a global metasystem that would be characterized as an emerging from the interaction of the units that make up the planetary system. The metasystem´s units would be the different physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the subsystems that form the metasystem: magnetosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The revised global metasystem is broader than that considered in the Gaia theory or in Earth System Science, where the Earth's crust and upper atmosphere, i.e., the volume where the presence of life occurs, are considered as the limits of the system. The maintenance of the dynamic state of the global metasystem it is achieved by dissipating the free energy derived from the electromagnetic radiation of the Sun, the obtained from the Earth-Moon gravitational interaction and the energy resulting from the dynamics of the Earth core and mantle, which produces the magnetic field and much of tectonic activity. For the human species, the importance of a greater understanding of global metasystem is based on the fact that natural resources and the climate system are products of the subsystems of the global metasystem. It is possible therefore that human activities that modify the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, change the dynamics of global metasystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Complex terrain; Terrain-induced turbulence; CFD; LES
Online: 22 May 2018 (06:10:59 CEST)
We have developed an unsteady and non-linear wind synopsis simulator called RIAM-COMPACT (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, COMputational Prediction of Airflow over Complex Terrain) in order to simulate the airflow on a microscale, i.e., a few tens of km or less. In RIAM-COMPACT, the large-eddy simulation (LES) has been adopted for turbulence modeling. LES is a technique in which the structures of relatively large eddies are directly simulated and smaller eddies are modeled using a sub-grid scale model. In the present study, we have conducted the numerical wind diagnoses for Taikoyama Wind Farm nacelle separation accident in Japan. The simulation results suggest that all six wind turbines at the Taikoyama Wind Farm are subject to significant influence from separated flow (terrain-induced turbulence) which is generated due to the topographic irregularities in the vicinity of the wind turbines. A proposal has been also made on reconstruction of the wind farm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0250.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: improvement; illumination invariants; face recognition; complex illumination
Online: 26 January 2018 (06:35:56 CET)
Complex illumination condition is one of the most critical challenging problems for practical face recognition. In this paper, we propose a novel method to improve the illumination invariants for solving this challenge. Firstly, a new method based on the Lambert reflectance model is proposed to extract illumination invariant, which is less insensitive to complex illumination variations. Secondly, in order to repair the defects caused by process of illumination invariants extraction, Fast Mean Filter is utilized to smooth and remove noise. Lastly, for raising the richness of information in output image, a nonlinear normalization transformation is proposed. Compared with the state-of-the-arts, experimental results show that the proposed method can extract more robust illumination invariants. Apart from it, the richness of information in processed image is greater and superior performance in face recognition rate is superior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: silver; dissolution; thiosulfate; characterization; complex; temperature; arsenic
Online: 26 October 2016 (10:26:54 CEST)
Metallic elements of higher economic value occurring in the mineralogy of Zimapán are Pb, Zn, Cu and Fe, said elements are sold as concentrates, which, even after processing, generally include significant concentrations of Mo, Cd, Sb, Ag and As that could recover through different leaching methods. In this work the influence of temperature was studied in the complexation of silver in the S2O32--O2 system. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of concentrated Zn from the state of Hidalgo confirmed the presence of the silver contained in a sulfide of silver arsenic (AgAsS2) through the techniques of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The mineralogical species identified allowed the construction mineralogical species Pourbaix diagrams in the range of 298 K to 333 K, through which the Eh-pH conditions to obtain silver in solution were determined. The formation of Ag(S2O3)23- complex was confirmed by characterizing liquors leached using the technique Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier Transform (FTIR).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2130.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: cyclic voltammetry; electron paramagnetic resonance; DFT calculations; UV-VIS/NIR; phenoxyl radical; pincer complex; platinum complex; NHC ligand
Online: 1 August 2023 (03:38:51 CEST)
A Pt(II) complex featuring chelating tridentate bis-aryloxide tetrahydropyrimidinium based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) was synthesized and characterized by using different techniques. The electrochemical properties of the complex were investigated by cyclic voltammetry as well as differential pulse voltammetry, which revealed two reversible one-electron oxidation processes. The chemical generation and isolation of one-electron-oxidized species were performed oxidizing the initial complex by means of AgBF4. The combined UV-Vis/NIR- and EPR-spectroscopy studies supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest the formation of Pt(II)-phenoxyl radical complex. The latter open-shell derivative was structurally characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis. Finally, the neutral platinum complex was tested as a mediator in the process of electrocatalytic oxidation of 2-(methylamino)ethanol (MEA).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1026.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: common bean; pests complex; abundance; insecticides; spray regimes
Online: 15 September 2023 (10:57:51 CEST)
In Uganda, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is often infested by a complex of insect pests, but the bean stem maggots, aphids, bean leaf beetles, and flower thrips are the most important. Whereas yield losses due to these pests have been established, there is limited information on their population dynamics at different stages of crop growth and their effect on yield and yield components. In order to describe the population dynamics of selected common bean pests at various phases of bean crop growth, and their impact on yield and yield components, a study was carried out in Uganda during 2016 second rains and 2017 first rains in three agro-ecological zones. Bean fly, bean aphids, bean leaf beetles, whitefly, striped bean weevil, leaf hoppers, and caterpillars of Lepidopteran species were the main insects observed. Pesticide spray schedules were imposed to generate different populations of insect pests whose effects on yield and its components were determined. The findings indicate that spray regimes significantly influenced the abundance of bean fly, aphids, whitefly, striped bean weevil, and leaf hoppers but not bean leaf beetles and caterpillars. Additionally, except caterpillars, insect pests were significantly influenced by crop growth stages, but only aphids, whiteflies, bean flies and leaf hoppers exhibited a significant negative relationship with grain yield. Furthermore, yield and yield components varied significantly between spray regimes, agro-ecological zones, and seasons. Our study is important in informing growers on the stage of crop growth at which management tactics such as use of insecticides can be applied for different insect pests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0660.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Complex networks; measures of information; fractional order entropy
Online: 11 September 2023 (10:06:28 CEST)
This article introduces a new fractional approach to the concept of information dimension of complex networks, based on a (q,q′)-entropy proposed in the literature. The q parameter measures how far is the number of subsystems (for a given size ε) from the mean number of overall sizes. The q′ (interaction index) measures when the interactions between subsystems are greater (q′>1), lesser (q′<1) or equal to the interactions into these subsystems. The computations of the proposed information dimension are carried out on several real-world and synthetic complex networks. The results from the proposed information dimension are compared with those from the information dimension based on the Shannon entropy.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0357.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Holomorphic functions; Poincaré index; Zeros of complex functions
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:38:36 CEST)
This work introduces an approach to investigate the existence of zeros for holomorphic complex functions, defined on open and simply connected subdomains of C, in a systematic and direct way. This is achieved by means of the theory of dynamical systems (Poincar\'e index) and the perception that a zero of a specific complex function is an equilibtium for the associated dynamical system. The logical basis of proof is to find the mathematical expression for the Poincaré index of the vector field associated to the function under study, assuming the existence of a zero, and investigating the consequences. Depending on the value of the index, an inconsistency may occur, establishing a contradiction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2095.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: ESBL; pathogenic E. coli; Clonal complex; CTX-M
Online: 31 August 2023 (02:43:12 CEST)
ESBL-producing E. coli is a growing public problem in healthcare settings and the community. Between 2009 and 2018, a total of 187 ESBL-producing pathogenic E. coli isolates were confirmed, and clonal complex (CC) 10 was the predominant clone. This study aimed to characterize ESBL-producing pathogenic E. coli CC10 strains obtained from diarrheal patients to improve the understanding of CC10 distribution in the Republic of Korea. A total of 57 CC10 strains were selected for molecular characterizations, such as the identification of serotype, antibiotic resistance genes, genetic environments, plasmid profiles, and the genetic correlation between CC10 strains. In the CC10 isolates, the most prevalent serotype was O25:H16, followed by O6:H16. ESBL genes were identified as blaCTX-M, and the most dominant ESBL gene was blaCTX-M-15 (56%) and blaCTX-M-14 (30%). Most blaCTX-M genes were located on plasmids, and these plasmid profiles were confirmed as IncB/O/K/Z, IncF, IncI1 and IncX1. The mobile elements located up-and down-stream mainly included ISEcp1 (complete or incomplete) and IS903 or orf477 were found, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CC10 strains were genetically diverse and divided into several distinct lineages. In this study, we found that CC10 ESBL-producing pathogenic E. coli has been steadily isolated; particularly, CTX-M-15-producing E. coli O25:H16 isolates were the major type related with distribution in CC10 clones during the last decade. Identification of ESBL-producing pathogenic E. coli CC10 isolates highlights the possibility of the emergence of resistant isolates with epidemic potential within this CC. Therefore, continuous monitoring will be conducted to prevent further spread of resistant ESBL-producing E. coli CC10 strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1691.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: antibody-antigen complex; biotin; ELISA; immunoassays; interference; streptavidin
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:53:04 CEST)
The use of antibiotics grown promoter has been banned, due led problems with drug residues in animal products and increased bacterial resistance. For several reasons there is a growing interest in the scientific community in immunoglobulin Y as antibiotic alternative and their oral administration in the polyclonal antibody (pAb) format, to maintain animal health and performance, do not require IgY purification for large-scale production, resulting in protein impurities and high concentration of biotin in the samples. The signal amplification through non-covalent interaction of biotin with streptavidin has been extensionally used by many laboratories for several diagnosis diseases and scientific research in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the riches sources of biotin as egg yolk, leading to high biotin concentrations in samples, harming the accuracy of diagnostic and proteins concentrations tests. This study aimed to evaluate the biotin influence on measurement of Immunoglobulin Y in egg yolk freeze dried samples from immunized laying hens by immunoassays using biotin-avidin/streptavidin. The IgY concentration changed down in immunoassays using biotin-avidin/streptavidin. The detection of IgY in yolk samples by ELISA using streptavidin–biotin binding as part of the assay methodology requires some technology to neutralize high concentration of biotin on sample or more steps beyond delipidation to isolate the target protein. Otherwise, an ELISA without the use of streptavidin-biotin binding would be more advisable to avoid biotin and targets protein relationship and prevent biotin interference on results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: strong artificial; intelligence; swarm intelligence; emotion; complex system
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:54:27 CEST)
Current artificial intelligence (AI) technology is still considered weak AI. However, the progression towards strong AI unavoidably involves grappling with concerns surrounding consciousness, the mind, and creativity. This paper focuses on analyzing consciousness, creativity, and the generation of emotions to explore the possibility of machine-based consciousness, creativity, and emotion. We believe that the emergence of consciousness relies on the complex interplay at different layers within a complex system, rather than wholly relying on the underlying substrates of the system. Thus, it is plausible to consider the existence of machine-based consciousness, creativity, and emotion. Furthermore, swarm intelligence should be recognized as a distinct form of intelligence. Human individuals serve as the foundational substrate enabling the realization of swarm intelligence, with individual intelligence reflecting the projection of swarm intelligence at the individual level. The advanced state of human civilization is primarily attributable to the effect of swarm intelligence. Building upon basic emotions to adapt to environmental conditions, advanced human emotions are a product of the evolutionary process by swarm intelligence. Emotions serve as a pivotal impetus for the formation and development of societies grounded in swarm intelligence. In pursuit of super-AI that surpasses human civilization in the future, nurturing swarm intelligence represents an inevitable trajectory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0104.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: Photodeposition; hydroxyapatite; titania nanotubes; Ca(EDTA) complex decomposition
Online: 3 May 2023 (06:48:28 CEST)
A new photocatalytic hydroxyapatite (HA) synthesis method has been developed. This method is based on the unique ability of the TiO2 photocatalyst to decompose the Ca(EDTA) complex under UV illumination. As a result, released Ca2+ ions react with PO43- ions forming the HA particles. The photocatalytic formation of hydroxyapatite is found to have a fractional order, which may indicate the complex reaction mechanism and the presence of several limiting stages. The TNT-HA samples were studied by XRD, FTIR, SEM, GDOES, and biocompatibility study. High biocompatibility of the surfaces is proven by pre-osteoblast cell growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0066.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Entropy; Complex Fluid Dynamics; Boltzmann principle; Planck law
Online: 2 May 2023 (07:26:37 CEST)
We consider that the relationship between the entropy in statistical mechanics, which is the Boltzmann principle, and the complex velocity potential in complex fluid dynamics. We define the generalized complex entropy which extends the entropy from real space to complex space. We show that the change of entropy can be expressed by the composition of the source and the sink of the complex velocity potential. Therefore, the complex entropy is considered a special case of the complex fluid dynamics, that is, the complex velocity potential. Moreover, we show that a complex number is expressed by the complex entropy. Thus, we show that the complex velocity potential is expressed by the complex entropy.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1227.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Drosophila embryogenesis; SLC; cellularization; Blot; ELMO/DOCK complex
Online: 29 April 2023 (08:02:54 CEST)
Solute carrier (SLC) proteins transport a wide range of substrates across biological membranes and more than 400 proteins are considered as SLCs based on its sequence. Despite it has important potential applications in drug development, the SLC superfamily is still understudied. Drosophila blot, an orphan SLC protein, regulates F-actin organization in the syncytial blastoderm and the Malpighian tubules. However, the molecular mechanism was unknown. In this study, we found Blot was localized at the furrow canal, the front of the invaginating membrane during cellularization process. Blot is required for maintaining proper morphology of furrow canal and cellularization process. By affinity purification and mass spectrometry we identified RhoGEF ELMO/DOCK complex was required for Blot-mediated F-actin organization and cellularization. Further analysis revealed that ELMO localization depends on Blot. Taken together, we propose Blot plays a role in F-actin organization as an upstream factor of ELMO by recruiting ELMO to the target membrane compartments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1151.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: emergency evacuation; complex building; theoretical model; numerical simulation
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:46:09 CEST)
High density of buildings and the large traffic volume of cities give rise to narrow spaces and high passenger flows in most subway stations. When evacuation is required during an emergency, these problems may trigger issues in operational safety. Therefore, it is imperative to comprehensively assess subway station emergency evacuation times and capacities during the operating process to ensure the design is safe, science-based, and rational. To further enhance safe evacuation capacity, this paper proposes an overall evacuation time model that considers the multielement charac-teristics of subway stations in multiple segments. The evacuation route is decomposed into five stages according to the critical nodes in the evacuation process. An overall emergency evacuation time model is established based on the diversity of bottlenecks in the five stages, integrating elements such as the horizontal movement velocity of passengers, subway equipment parameters, and human density. Taking Xi’an Wulukou Subway Station as an example, this paper verifies the outcomes of the theoretical model against the Pathfinder software and conducts additional anal-yses of the evacuation conditions of stairs and exits. The results show that the error between the theoretical emergency evacuation time and simulation evacuation time was 5.4%, The emergency evacuation model established in this study boasts strong robustness and stability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0953.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Antibacterial Agents; Antibiotics; Cyclodextrins; Inclusion Complex; Technology; Treatments
Online: 26 April 2023 (04:09:37 CEST)
Antibiotics have become a widely used drug classes worldwide. Its indiscriminate use in the clini-cal-hospital environment ended up causing antibiotic-resistance genes. Pharmaceutical technology is an essential ally for new formulation development in the antibacterial field. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are ap-proaches that can potentially improve the effectiveness of antibacterial drugs. Thus, this study aimed to review experimental models using CDs as inclusion complexes to improve antibacterial drugs’ physi-cochemical characteristics and biological activities. The review was carried out using the three online journals database PubMed, Scopus, and Embase, limited to Medical Subjects Headings Index. The search protocol was registered in the Open Science Framework database. The following terms and their com-binations were used: cyclodextrins and antibacterial agents in title or abstract, and a total of 1580 studies were identified in a period up to October 2022. Finally, 27 articles were selected for discussion in this review. The biological results reveal that the antibacterial effect of the compounds, complexed with CDs, was extensively improved when compared to the free drugs. CDs can improve the therapeutic effects of antibiotics, already existing on the market, natural products, and synthetic molecules. Therefore, these inclusion complexes using CDs increase the new pharmaceutical products development for clinical ap-plication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0385.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Geometry And Topology Keywords: Complex Network; Weighted Network; Node Importance; Dynamic Programming
Online: 23 January 2023 (01:45:54 CET)
The heterogeneous structure implies that a few nodes may be crucial in maintaining network structural and functional properties. Identifying these crucial nodes correctly and quickly is a primary issue as contemporarily may face the mushrooming of large-scale datasets. Besides, the ‘weight issue’ is always ignored in this field which edge weight may play a positive/negative role in contributing to the node importance in different weighted networks. This paper provides a novel algorithm, Weighted Expectation Algorithm (WEA), which aims to ensure accuracy and speed of computation by taking advantage of dynamic programming to better handle the task of large-scale networks. Additionally, the weight issue that edge weights may contribute differently is addressed by a simply quantitative definition. Two standard experiments show WEA can maintain the network structure in connectivity well (by the lowest average robustness 0.192) and identify the node importance better in the spreading function test of spreading dynamics (by the highest average Kendall’s tau-b 0.678). In addition, the time complexities of different algo-rithms are evaluated, and their time-consuming are tested, proving that WEA consumes a rela-tively short time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0146.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: menstrual cycle; mechanical properties; stiffness; estradiol; musculotendon complex
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:50:28 CET)
The purpose of this study was to determine changes in the mechanical properties of the thigh and lower leg musculature during the early follicular and ovulatory phases. Subjects were 15 female university students with normal menstrual cycles. The early follicular and ovulatory phases were estimated by the basal body temperature method, ovulation kits, and salivary estradiol concentration measurement. The MyotonPRO digital palpation device (Myoton AS, Tallinn, Estonia) was used to measure muscle and tendon stiffness in the early follicular and ovulatory phases. Measurement sites were the rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), patellar tendon (PT), medial head of gastrocnemius, soleus, and Achilles tendon. No significant differences in stiffness of all muscle tendons were identified between the early follicular and ovulatory phases. In the ovulatory phase, a significant positive correlation was seen between stiffness of RF and PT, and between stiffness of VM and PT. These results suggest that the stiffness of muscles and tendons of anterior sites of the thigh and posterior sites of the lower leg may not change between the early follicular and ovulatory phases. During the ovulatory phase, tendons may also be stiffer in individuals with stiffer anterior thigh muscles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0187.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Sorex araneus complex; karyotype; introgression; phylogenetics; hybridization; Iberia
Online: 13 October 2022 (07:10:47 CEST)
Mitochondrial introgression raises questions of biogeography, and extent of reproductive isolation and natural selection. Previous phylogenetic work on the Sorex araneus complex revealed apparent mitonuclear discordance in Iberian shrews indicating past hybridization of S. granarius and the Carlit chromosomal race of S. araneus, enabling introgression of the S. araneus mitochondrial genome into S. granarius. To further study this, we genetically typed 61 S. araneus/coronatus/granarius from localities in Portugal, Spain, France and Andorra at mitochondrial, autosomal and sex-linked loci, and combined our data with the previously published sequences. Our data are consistent with the earlier data that S. coronatus and S. granarius are the most closely related of the three species and confirm that S. granarius from the Central System mountain range in Spain captured the mitochondrial genome from a population of S. araneus. The mitochondrial capture event can be explained by invoking a biogeographical scenario whereby S. araneus was in contact with S. granarius during the Younger Dryas in central Iberia despite the two species currently having disjunct distributions. We discuss whether selection favoured S. granarius with an introgressed mitochondrial genome. Our data also suggest recent hybridization and introgression between S. coronatus and S. granarius and between S. araneus and S. coronatus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0404.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: complex error function; Faddeeva function; Voigt function; interpolation
Online: 24 August 2022 (03:31:12 CEST)
In this work we develop a new algorithm for efficient computation of the Voigt/complex error function. In particular, in this approach we propose a two-domain scheme where number of the grid-points is dependent on the input parameter $y$. The error analysis we performed shows that the MATLAB implementation meets the requirements for radiative transfer applications involving the HITRAN spectroscopic database. The run-time test shows that this MATLAB implementation provides rapid computation especially at smaller range of the parameter x.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0156.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: diffuse interstitial lung disease; complex networks; model; HRCT
Online: 11 July 2022 (09:12:00 CEST)
The High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) detection and diagnosis of diffuse lung disease is primarily based on the recognition of a limited number of specific abnormal findings, pattern combinations or their distributions, as well as anamnesis and clinical information. Since texture recognition has a very high accuracy percentage if a complex network approach is used, this paper aims to implement such a technique customized for diffuse interstitial lung diseases (DILD). The proposed procedure translates HRCT lung imaging into complex networks by taking samples containing a secondary lobule, converting them into complex networks and analyzing them in 3 dimensions: emphysema, ground glass opacity and consolidation. This method was evaluated on a 60 patient lot and the results show a clear quantifiable difference between healthy and affected lungs. By deconstructing the image on three pathological axes, the method offers an objective way to quantify DILD details which, so far, have only been analyzed subjectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0262.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Ruthenium complex; Carbon monoxide releasing molecule; Hydrophilicity, PEGylation
Online: 22 February 2022 (03:38:19 CET)
The poor water-solubility and instability of Ru(II) carbonyl complex hamper the therapeutic application as CO releasing materials (CO-RMs). To enhance the hydrophilicity and bio-utility of CO, a robust Ru(I) carbonyl sawhorse skeleton were grafted with water-soluble PEGlyated sidearms. Twelve PEGlyted sawhorse Ru2(CO)4 complexes were prepared with satisfactory yields and characterized by IR and 1H- and 13C- NMR. X-ray diffraction analysis of CO-RM 8, 13 and 14 revealed the featured diruthenium sawhorse skeleton and PEGylated axial ligands. The ﬂask-shaking method measures the hydrophilicity of CO-RMs, indicating that both bridging carboxylate ligand and PEGlyated axial ligands regulate the hydrophilicity of these CO-RMs. Under photolysis conditions, CO-RM 4-13 sustainable released therapeutic amounts of CO in myoglobin assay. The correlation of the CO release kinetics and hydrophilicity of CO-RMs demonstrated that the more hydrophilic CO-RM released CO faster. The biological test found the low cytotoxic CO-RM 4 showed a specific anticancer activity toward HT-29 tumour cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: oats; fusarium sambucinum species complex; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; mycotoxin
Online: 11 November 2021 (13:05:00 CET)
Oats are a nutrient rich cereal used for animal feed and growing in human consumption. This cereal can be affected by Fusarium spp., causing the disease Fusarium Head Blight. This disease is caused mainly by species within the Fusarium graminearum species complex, and are also responsible for producing mycotoxins that are harmful to humans and animals. This study aimed to investigate fungal diversity in Brazilian oat samples, focusing on the Fusarium sambucinum species complex and the presence of type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and its derivatives, and nivalenol) from two different regions; Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The isolated fungi from oat grains were identified as species from the genera: Fusarium, Phoma and Alternaria. The majority of Fusarium isolates belonged to the Fusarium sambucinum species complex; identified as F. graminearum s.s., F. meridionale and F. poae. In the RS region, F. poae was the most frequent fungus, while FGSC was the most frequent in the PR region. The majority of F. graminearum s.s. isolates were of the 15-ADON genotype, while some 3-ADON genotypes were identified; however, F. meridionale and F. poae were all of the NIV genotype. Mycotoxin analysis revealed that 92% and 100% of the samples from PR and RS were contaminated with type B trichothecenes, respectively. The oats from PR were predominantly contaminated with DON, whereas NIV was predominant in oats from RS. Analysis showed that 24% of the samples were contaminated with DON at levels higher than Brazilian regulations. Co-contamination of DON, its derivatives and NIV was observed in 84% and 57.7% of the samples from PR and RS, respectively. The results provide new information on Fusarium contamination in Brazilian oats, highlighting the importance for further studies on mycotoxins.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0349.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: microRNA; SNP’s; breast cancer; RNA induced silencing complex
Online: 25 October 2021 (12:50:03 CEST)
MiRNAs are 20-22 nucleotide long single-stranded non-coding RNA sequences, which can regulate post transcriptional activity of mRNA by binding with it at 3’UTR region (untranslated region). Thus deregulation of miRNA expression is responsible for dysregulating mRNA function which contributes in developing various diseases as well as cancerous phenotypes. Alteration of single nucleotide in miRNA sequence is one of the reasons behind deregulation of miRNA expression. The most frequent carcinoma in current day is breast cancer which causes a high mortality among women around the world as well as India. Despite of the advancement of diagnostic tools, strategies and treatment, the cases of breast cancer is increasing every year. There are plenty of biomarkers like ER, PR, Her2, Ki-67, etc available which are frequently used in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. After the discovery of MiRNA in 1993 in Caenorhabiditis elegans, it is attracting all the limelight in diagnosis and treatment of different carcinomas as well as breast cancer. In this review we will discuss on involvement of different types of MiRNAs and miR SNPs in breast cancer occurrence and susceptibility in a detailed manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0112.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: digital quantum simulation; quantum algorithms; quantum complex systems
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:14:24 CEST)
Quantum computers are invaluable tools to explore the properties of complex quantum systems. We show that dynamical localization of the quantum sawtooth map, a highly sensitive quantum coherent phenomenon, can be simulated on actual, small-scale quantum processors. Our results demonstrate that quantum computing of dynamical localization may become a convenient tool for evaluating advances in quantum hardware performances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0387.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: β-cyclodextrin; binary complex; antipsychotic drug; dissolution studies
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:44:03 CET)
Iloperidone (ILO) is a second-generation antipsychotic drug and a first-line treatment approved by USFDA in May 2009. Iloperidone belongs to Biopharmaceutical Classification Systems (BCS) class II; thus, it is poorly water-soluble, highly permeable, and has pH-dependent solubility. Cyclodextrins and their derivatives have a wide range of applications in different formulations due to their complexation ability, which improves the solubility, stability, safety, and bioavailability of a drug. We have tried the complexation of iloperidone with sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SEβCD) to improve its solubility and dissolution. Complexation was done by the kneading method. The characterization of the SEβCD complexes with Iloperidone was done by FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), saturation solubility, etc. A multimedia dissolution of the complex was carried out and compared with the plain drug. A significant improvement in drug release was found from SEβCD complexes in all media when compared with the drug alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: obesity; bariatric surgery; adaptive complex system; network analysis.
Online: 4 February 2021 (11:59:54 CET)
Weight gain affects about 10-20% of patients after bariatric surgery. It is a phenomenon that is difficult to understand and to intervene due to its complexity and etiological heterogeneity. In the present study, we investigated, from a network analysis perspective, the associations between weight regain, psychological, sociodemographic factors and physical activity in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The sample consisted of 124 patients, of both sexes, aged 39 ± 9.1 years, who had undergone surgical intervention for more than 18 months. After voluntary consent, respondents answered questionnaires and instruments directly on the Google Forms platform. The results indicated that weight gain was negatively associated with the items of depression, anxiety and stress, binge eating and with the dimensions of the personality questionnaire (negative affectivity -0.182; detachment -0.078; antagonism -0.107; disinterest - 0.198 and psychoticism -0.158). The centrality indicators revealed that the characteristics of disinterest and negative affectivity and most of the items on the depression, anxiety and stress scale had a greater expected influence (values from 1,043 to 1,502), indicating that these are the most sensitive variables to intervention and who need more attention from health professionals.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: cybernetics; complex systems; new drug development; human system
Online: 5 January 2020 (15:38:27 CET)
Specialized, reductionist, and linear approaches are applied in clinical research; they are based on linear logic and used towards therapeutic molecule-based targets. However, those approaches do not consider a systemic vision that describes the remote cause of the pathogenic activation. We propose new theoretical and practical methods for the next drug generation development. Self-organization, network structure, hierarchical organization, non-linearity, feedback circuits, reactions to information, and the view of drugs as information clarify the existing pharmacological methods. We suggest a perspective and hierarchical vision of the human organism based on six levels (mechanic and structural; metabolic; bodily dynamic; emotional, cognitive, spiritual). The therapy should restore the self-organization of every level using the “intelligent” modulation of the network responses. Multi-targeted drugs should act on the remote cause of the pathogenic cascade and be administered based on personal variability and networks. This approach may help the development of individualized, precise, and integrated medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0299.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: complex systems; self-diagnosis; intermittent fault; diagnosis procedure
Online: 13 November 2018 (05:27:55 CET)
System level diagnosis is an abstraction of high level and, thus, its practical implementation to particular cases of complex systems is the task which requires additional investigations, both theoretical and modeling. Mostly, diagnosis at system level intends to identify only permanently faulty units. In the paper, we consider the case when both permanently and intermittently faulty units can occur in the system. Identification of intermittently faulty units has some specifics which we have considered in this paper. We also suggest the method which allows distinguishing among different types of intermittent faults. Diagnosis procedure was suggested for each type of intermittent faults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0010.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: forecasting; complex dynamics; fiber laser; chaos; ordinal patterns
Online: 2 November 2018 (04:21:25 CET)
Being able to forecast events is of great importance in many fields, from brain behavior to earthquakes or stock markets. Because each dynamical system has intrinsic features, different statistical tools have to be used for each system. Here we study the time series of the output intensity of a fiber laser with an ordinal patterns analysis, and we look for temporal correlations in order to statistically forecast the most intense events. We set two thresholds, a low one and a high one, to distinguish between low intensity versus high intensity events. We find that when the time series is performing events below the low threshold it shows some preferred temporal patterns before performing events above a high threshold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0329.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: polymer degradation; drag reduction; turbulent flows; complex polysaccharides
Online: 18 August 2018 (08:06:52 CEST)
Polymeric drag reducers have been developed over many years due to the great number of practical applications. In all of them, the molecular stability is an essential requirement. Usually, polymers break down under turbulent flows, which causes a decrease in their efficiency as drag reducers. Besides that, some specific applications, in agro and biomedical fields, impose a specific requirement that must be fulfilled, which is the use of non-toxic materials. A suitable stable material that is elected to accomplish this necessity is the mucilage of aloe vera, which is a bio-polymer that can be used as an alternative to the synthetic ones. Here, we investigate the role played by the aging of aloe vera on its capacity to reduce drag. The results obtained by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance indicate that the compositions of young and mature leaves of aloe vera are different and such a difference plays an important role on their efficiency as drag reducers. Tests were performed to analyse the drag reduction in a rotating apparatus and in a pipeline system and the efficiencies of leaves of different ages were compared to their composition. The main conclusion of these experiments is that the young mucilage samples, which are richer in complex polysaccharides and exhibit lower acid contents, are more efficient drag reducers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: complex terrain; terrain-induced turbulence, LES, spectral analysis
Online: 4 July 2018 (15:49:06 CEST)
In the present study, field observation wind data from the time of the wind turbine blade damage accident on Shiratakiyama Wind Farm were analyzed in detail. In parallel, high-resolution LES turbulence simulations were performed in order to examine the model’s ability to numerically reproduce terrain-induced turbulence. The comparison of the observed and simulated time series (1 second average values) from a 10 minute period from the time of the accident led to the conclusion that the settings of the horizontal grid resolution and time increment are important to numerically reproduce the terrain-induced turbulence that caused the wind turbine blade damage accident on Shiratakiyama Wind Farm. A spectral analysis of the same set of observed and simulated data revealed that the simulated data reproduced the energy cascade of the actual terrain-induced turbulence well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0362.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: complex terrain; CFD; terrain-induced turbulence; economic effects
Online: 25 May 2018 (11:02:46 CEST)
At the Atsumi Wind Farm in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, damage to wind turbines occurred frequently due to terrain-induced turbulence. In the present study, numerical analyses of terrain-induced turbulence were conducted by reproducing the topography in the vicinity of the wind turbine sites in high resolution and using RIAM-COMPACT natural terrain version, which is based on large eddy simulation (LES). The results of the diagnoses indicated that, in the case of south-easterly wind, terrain-induced turbulence is generated at a small terrain feature located upstream of Wind Turbine (WT) #2, which serves as the origin of the turbulence. At the Atsumi Wind Farm, a combination of the series of wind diagnoses and on-site operation experience led to a decision to adopt an "automatic shutdown program" for WTs #1 and #2. Here, "automatic shutdown program" refers to the automatic suspension of wind turbine operation upon the wind speed and direction meeting the conditions associated with significant effects of terrain-induced turbulence at a wind turbine site. The adoption of the "automatic shutdown program" has successfully resulted in a large reduction in the number of occurrences of wind turbine damage, thus, creating major positive economic effects. 1) a reduction in the repair costs by 9.322 million yen per year per wind turbine, 2) an increase in the availability factor by 8.05%, and 3) an increase in the capacity factor by 1.7%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0012.v3
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chitosan; self-assembled; polyelectrolyte complex; nanoparticle; drug delivery
Online: 21 February 2018 (16:00:38 CET)
Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide usually obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin poly(N-acetylglucosamine). It is biocompatible, biodegradable, mucoadhesive and non-toxic. These excellent biological properties make chitosan a good candidate for a platform in developing drug delivery systems having improved biodistribution, increased specificity and sensitivity, and reduced pharmacological toxicity. In particular, chitosan nanoparticles are found to be appropriate for non-invasive routes of drug administration: oral, nasal, pulmonary and ocular routes. These applications are facilitated by the absorption-enhancing effect of chitosan. Many procedures for obtaining chitosan nanoparticles have been proposed. Particularly, the introduction of hydrophobic moieties into chitosan molecules by grafting to generate a hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance promoting self-assembly is a current and appealing approach. The grafting agent can be a hydrophobic moiety forming micelles that can entrap lipophilic drugs or it can be the drug itself. Another suitable way to generate self-assembled chitosan nanoparticles is through the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with polyanions. This paper reviews the main approaches for preparing chitosan nanoparticles by self-assembly through both procedures and illustrates the state of the art of their application in drug delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1801.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: 2MgFe; complex hydride; oxidation; accumulative roll bonding (ARB); texture
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:36:47 CEST)
In this study, we successfully obtained a 2Mg-Fe mixture through mechanical alloying (MA) and processed it via accumulative roll bonding (ARB) (MA+ARB). Our primary focus was to analyze the impact of ambient air exposure while also evaluating the processing route. Some powder samples were exposed to air for 12 months before undergoing ARB processing. The Mg samples obtained after ARB processing exhibited a (002)-type texture. Our results demonstrate that all samples, including those processed via ARB, could rapidly absorb hydrogen within a matter of minutes, despite considerable differences in surface area between powders and rolled samples. ARB-processed samples reached approximately 60% of their maximum acquired capacity within just 24 minutes, compared to powders stored for a year which took 36 minutes. Also, the desorption temperatures were lower than those of MgH2. The absorption and desorption kinetics remained fast even after prolonged exposure to air. Although there were minor variations in capacities, our overall findings are promising since scalable techniques such as ARB have the potential to produce hydrogen storage materials that are both safe and cost-effective in a highly competitive market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0987.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Azocalixarene; Fluoride complex salt; Carbon dioxide capture
Online: 14 July 2023 (10:06:44 CEST)
A newly synthesized upper rim azocalixarene, namely, 5,11,17,23-tetra[(4-ethylacetoxyphenyl) (azo)]calixarene, CA-AZ was fully characterized and its chromogenic and selective properties for anions are reported. The receptor is selective for the fluoride anion and its mode of interaction in solution is discussed. The kinetics of the complexation process was found to be very fast as reflected in the immediate color change observed with a naked eye resulting from the receptor-anion interaction. Emphasis is made about the relevance in selecting a solvent in which the formulation of the process is representative of the events taking place in the solution. The composition of the fluoride complex investigated by UV/VIS spectrophotometry, conductance measurements and titration calorimetry was 1:1 and the thermodynamics of complexation was determined. The fluoride complex salt was isolated, and a detailed investigation was carried out to assess its ability to remove CO2 from the air. Recycling of the complex was easily achieved. Final conclusions are given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0636.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: Wind farm; complex-terrain; large eddy simulation; dispersive stress
Online: 11 July 2023 (03:09:53 CEST)
Wind energy is a rapidly expanding renewable energy technique. Wind farm developers need to understand the interaction between wind farms and the atmospheric flow over complex terrain. Large-eddy simulations provide valuable data for gaining further insight into the impact of rough topography on wind-farm performance. In this research, we investigate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on wind turbine performance. We conducted numerical simulations of a 12×5 wind-turbine array on various rough topographies. First, we evaluated our LES method through mesh convergence analysis, using mean vertical profiles, vertical friction velocity, and resolved and subgrid-scale kinetic energy. Next, we analyze the effects of surface roughness and dispersive stresses on the performance of fully developed large wind farms. Our results demonstrate that the ground roughness element’s flow resistance boosts large wind-farm power production by almost 68% in fully aerodynamic rough surface compared to flat terrain. Dispersive stress analysis revealed that the primary degree of spatial heterogeneity in the wind farm is in the streamwise direction, which is the “wake-occupied” region, and the relative contribution of dispersive shear stress is almost 45% to the overall drag. We also observed that the power performance of the wind farm in complex terrain outperforms the drag. Our study has implications for improving the design of wind turbines and wind farms in complex terrain to increase their efficiency and energy output.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0305.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Fluoroquinolones; Lomefloxacin; Pefloxacin Metal-based complex; Spectroscopies; Biological activities
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:22:12 CEST)
Lomefloxacin (F1) and pefloxacin (F2) have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we investigated the complexation mode, morphological and biological properties of four metal-based complexes of F1 and F2 molecules with Mg(II), Ca(II), Zn(II), and Fe(III) metal ions. These complexes were prepared at ~60–70°C in a neutral medium using a 5% NH3 solution at pH ~7-8 with a 1:1 ratio. Multiple physicochemical methods were employed to characterize the binding mode between F1 and F2 with the metal ions under investigation. The results of these methods suggested that the gross formula of the complexes obtained with the metal ions were [MgF1(H2O)Cl]2H2O, [CaF1(H2O)Cl]3H2O, [ZnF1(H2O)Cl], [FeF1(H2O)2Cl2]Cl2H2O, [MgF2(H2O)Cl]2H2O, [CaF2(H2O)Cl]3H2O, [ZnF2(H2O)Cl], and [FeF2(H2O)2Cl2]Cl2H2O. The microscopic characterizations indicated that the Ca(II)-F1 complex had an interesting surface topography. Its particles had a homogenous, short, rod-like shaped structure that clustered together to form a tree shape. Using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion protocol, the synthesized metal-based complexes were screened in vitro against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial and fungal species. The antimicrobial profile of the Fe(III)-F1 complex indicated that it had remarkable inhibitory activity against all the tested bacterial and fungal species with potency equal to that of the standard drugs (streptomycin and ketoconazole).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1573.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Complex; Degradation; food dye; mineralization; Box Benhken surface design.
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:52:29 CEST)
A Invasive emerging pollutants from wastewater effluent discharge, such as dyes, pesticides, etc., pose a serious threat to the ecosystem. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) under visible light irradiation have emerged as a promising technology to overcome toxic and recalcitrant organic compounds. In this work, the impact of operational factors, including the concentration of Fe3+ or Fe2+, [H2O2], the molar ratio (Oxalate/ Fe3+ or Fe2+), and the initial pH, was studied to obtain high efficiency in the degradation and mineralization of such a food dye to reduce their pollution. The study deals with the comparison of the efficiency of UV, LED, and sunlight irradiation on the photocatalytic degradation of the dye using Fe3+/Lig and Fe2+/Lig complexes. The results showed that sunlight irradiation gave a very rapid kinetic and higher degradation efficiency of over 70%. The optimized conditions for the maximum elimination of the dye with a photocatalytic degradation efficiency (98%) and a mineralization rate of 96% were obtained with the Fe3+/Lig complex, based on the Box Benhken surface design analysis. In the presence of H2O2, the degradation reached an equilibrium stage after 15 min (97.57%) for the Fe(III)/Lig system. Moreover, the inhibition effect of inorganic ions on the photo-Fenton performance of Fe3+/Lig and Fe2+/Lig was studied. The study suggests that the use of nanocrystals of hematite as a Fenton reagent for treating textile effluents needs further investigation. The results showed that the proposed models were well-suited to batch treatment under sunlight. This study not only proposes a Fe3+/Lig and Fe2+/Lig system for the elimination of a food dye without adjusting the pH of the medium, but it also provides insight into the best source of light irradiation for the photocatalytic degradation process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Egg white protein; chitosan; complex coacervates; turbidity; phase diagram
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:46:34 CEST)
The influence of pH, temperature, biopolymer ratio, total concentration, and ionic concentration on the interaction between egg white protein (EWP) and chitosan (CS) was investigated through turbidity, zeta potential, and state diagram in our research. In addition, phase behavior was observed under various conditions. The turbidity of EWP remained low (turbidity<0.03) and basically unchanged at a wide range of pH (4.0-8.0), while the turbidity of CS was slightly higher (turbidity<0.2) after pH 7.0 than before. Moreover, under the same conditions, a sharply rising peak pattern was observed for the complex between EWP and CS. The maximum turbidity value was observed at 55°C, and the temperature had a mild effect on turbidity. The optimum EWP to CS ratio was found to be 12:1 based on the experiment of the turbidity curves and state diagrams influenced by different biopolymer mixing ratios. With the enhanced concentrations of total biopolymer, the maximum turbidity rose insignificantly above 0.1%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0153.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Burkholderia cepacia complex; bacteriophage; PRD1-like phage; conjugative plasmid
Online: 10 April 2023 (05:46:13 CEST)
The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are a group of increasingly multi-drug resistant opportunistic bacteria that can cause severe pulmonary infections. This resistance is driven through a combination of intrinsic factors and the carriage of a broad range of conjugative plasmids harbouring virulence determinants. Therefore, novel treatments are required to not only treat Bcc infection but also to prevent further spread of these virulence determinants. In the search for phages infective for two clinical Bcc isolates, CSP1 phage, a PRD1-like phage was isolated. CSP1 phage was found to require pilus machinery commonly encoded on conjugative plasmids to facilitate infection of multiple Gram-negative bacteria genera including Escherichia and Pseudomonas. Whole genome sequencing and characterisation of one of the clinical Burkholderia isolates revealed it to be Burkholderia contaminans. B. contaminans 5080 was found to contain a genome of over 8 Mbp encoding multiple intrinsic resistance factors, such as efflux pump systems, but more interestingly, carried three novel plasmids encoding multiple putative virulence factors for increased host fitness, including antimicrobial resistance. Even though PRD1-like phages are broad host range, their use in novel antimicrobial treatments shouldn’t be dismissed, as the dissemination potential of conjugative plasmids is extensive. Continued survey of clinical bacterial strains is
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0157.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Aedes; Mosquitoes; Yellow Fever; Simpsoni complex; Behavior; Soutwestern Ethiopia
Online: 9 February 2023 (07:02:03 CET)
Yellow fever is an emerging and re-emerging viral disease transmitted through the bites of infective Aedes mosquitoes. Several outbreaks of yellow fever have been documented in southern Ethiopia.Understanding the transmission cycle is pivotal to manage arboviral disease outbreaks. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate which species of Aedes mosquitoes contribute to the YF virus transmission and the outbreaks that have occurred, and their behaviors (biting and resting) in the region. Two districts were selected based on previous Yellow Fever (YF) outbreak history. A longitudinal entomological sampling was carried out to collect adult Aedes mosquitoes using human landing catches, mechanical mouth aspirators and pyrethrum spreadsheet collection. Adult mosquito collections were conducted twice a month for six months from February 2019 to July 2020. Identification of mosquito species at the genus level was done using morphological keys and speciation using molecular techniques on 406 Aedes due to limited laboratory resources (primers and probe, reagents shortage) and budget limits. Aedes mosquitoes were pooled and tested for YFV, dengue virus (DENV, serotype 1-4) and chikungunya virus (CHKV) by qPCR. A total of 1689 mosquitoes 93.7% (1582/1689) of Aedes and 6.3% (107/1689) of Culex were collected. Of the total collected mosquitoes, 58.7% (991/1689) were from Ofa study sites whereas the left 41.3% (698/1689) were from Boko Dawula. 93.5% (1579/1689) of Aedes complex were collected during wet season. Most of the mosquitoes were collected during the wet season 97.9% (1653/1689). Of the 1582 Aedes simpsoni complex, 57.7% (913/1582) were from Ofa district and the remaining 42.3% (669/1582) were from Boko Dawula district. Of the 406 Aedes mosquitoes molecularly characterized to the species level, the Aedes simpsoni complex accounted for 99.5% (404/406), while Aedes aegypti found in the Ofa district accounted for only 0.5% (2/ 406). From the 934 Aedes simpsoni tested for viruses and none were positive. The human biting activities of Aedes (Ae.) simpsoni peaked at 8:00 – 9:00 hour and 16:00 – 17:00 hour, mostly outdoors, both within the villages and forests. The leaves of Ensete (E.) ventricosum appear to be ideal resting places for Aedes (Ae.) simpsoni complex. Although the tested Ae. simpsoni complex was negative for arboviruses; morning and afternoon activities of the species coincide with human outdoor activities and may therefore pose the risk of viral infection. The lower dominance of Aedes aegypti indicated that the major responsible vector for the occurrences of previous and current arboviral diseases was due to other mentioned Aedes species. It is of great importance to improve surveillance activities of arboviruses in reservoir hosts and vectors to establish control measures. Furthermore, the origin of bloodmeal and the mosquito’s role in the transmission of arboviral diseases need further study to improve the understanding of this species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Ankaful Prison Complex; depression; inmates; management strategies; stress levels
Online: 20 January 2023 (04:21:00 CET)
Background: Stress among prison inmates is a neglected psychological health issues, but this phenomenon seems worse in Ghana’s prisons. This study examined the stress levels, predictors and management strategies utilized among inmates at Ankaful Prison Complex. Method: This survey sampled 1,160 inmates using the census approach at the Ankaful Prison Complex with a self-developed questionnaire for the data collection. Frequency counts, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were applied to the data. Results: The findings indicate that more than half of the inmates were moderately or highly stressed. Specifically, inmates at the Maximum-Security Prison were the most stressed, followed by Annex Prison, Communicable Disease Prison, and the least, Main Camp Prison inmates. Inmate engagement in exercises, sporting activities, visit and chat with colleagues, and family connectedness outside the prison were stress management strategies. Inmates’ self-reported stress levels were influenced by the prison of custody and state of depression. Conclusion: The moderate to high stress levels identified among inmates of Ankaful Prison Complex are influenced by person-environment factors. Management of Ankaful Prisons Complex is encouraged to initiate health screening services for inmates on common mental health challenges like stress and promote functional stress reduction interventions to improve prisoners’ mental health and overall wellbeing
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0092.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: complex network; neural network architecture; isotropic architecture; image classification
Online: 8 October 2022 (04:04:47 CEST)
Although neural network architectures are critical for their performance, how the structural characteristics of a neural network affect its performance has still not been fully explored. We here map architectures of neural network to directed acyclic graphs, and find that incoherence, a structural characteristic to measure the order of directed acyclic graphs, is a good indicator for the performance of corresponding neural networks. Therefore we propose a deep isotropic neural network architecture by folding a chain of same blocks then connecting the blocks with skip connections at different distances. Our models, named FoldNet, have two distinguishing features compared with traditional residual neural netowrks. First, the distances between block pairs connected by skip connections increase from always equal to one to specially selected different values, which lead to more incoherent graphs and let the neural network explore larger receptive fields and thus enhance its multi-scale representation ability. Second, the number of direct paths increases from one to multiple, which leads to a larger proportion of shorter paths and thus improve the direct propagation of information throughout the entire network. Image classification results on CIFAR-10 and Tiny ImageNet benchmarks suggested that our new network architecture performs better than traditional residual neural networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0319.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: annual cyckle; complex EOFs; statistical analysis; South China Sea
Online: 17 August 2022 (10:11:52 CEST)
We present a method to study the interannual variability of the annual cycle. The method consists of first determining the amplitude and phase of segments of 12 monthly means at all spatial points, resulting in one complex number per grid point and per year. The complex fields, once per year, are then subject to a complex EOF (CEOF) analysis. We consider as an example the barotropic stream function in the South China Sea as simulated with an ocean general circulation model across 6 decades of years, driven my realistic (NCEP) weather forcing. We find 3 to 4 to “significant” CEOFs, which account for about 53 to 62% of variance. These CEOFs go with large-scale patterns. Their time coefficients are mostly stationary, but point to some inhomogeneities related to instationarities in the forcing. In particular, the simulation since 1950-1958 deviates from the remainder of the simulation. The first CEOF describes variations in the center of the South China Sea. Its principal component describes a systematic, albeit noisy shift by almost 180o from 1960 to about the year 2000. When overlaid the long-term mean annual mean, the overall change consists of an amplification of the annual cycle in the 1960s and 1990s, whereas In the 1970s, the amplitude was reduced. Phase shifts in the anomaly (given by the CEOFs) have a small effect, because of the dominance of the mean annual cycle. These variations are not related to ENSO variability but may origin in variations of the Southeast monsoon. The second EOF represents strong changes, both in terms of intensity and phase, in the Luzon strait.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0065.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Complex networks; Minimum Dominating Set; Banking supervision; monitoring optimization
Online: 6 May 2022 (09:08:42 CEST)
The global financial crisis of 2008, triggered by the collapse of Lehman Brothers, highlighted a banking system that was widely exposed to systemic risk. The minimization of the systemic risk via a close and detailed monitoring of the entire banking network became a priority. This is a complex and demanding task considering the size of the banking systems: in the US and the EU they include more than 10000 institutions. In this paper, we introduce a methodology which identifies a subset of banks that can: a) efficiently represent the behavior of the whole banking system and b) provide, in the case of a failure, a plausible range of the crisis dispersion. The proposed methodology can be used by the regulators as an auxiliary monitoring tool, to identify groups of banks that are potentially in distress and try to swiftly remedy their problems and minimize the propagation of the crisis by restricting contagion. This methodology is based on Graph Theory and more specifically Complex Networks. We termed this setting a “multivariate Threshold – Minimum Dominating Set” (mT–MDS) and it is an extension of the Threshold – Minimum Dominating Set methodology (Gogas e.a., 2016). The method was tested on a dataset of 570 U.S. banks: 429 solvent and 141 failed ones. The variables used to create the networks are: the total interest expense, the total interest income, the tier 1 (core) risk-based capital and the total assets. The empirical results reveal that the proposed methodology can be successfully employed as an auxiliary tool for the efficient supervision of a large banking network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0622.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Complex Regression, Least-Squares Techniques, Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)
Online: 23 April 2021 (09:46:32 CEST)
This paper uses the complex regression analysis method to establish the customer’s load regression models, which consider economic indicators, temperature and rainfall. Furthermore, the proposed models are used to study the forecasting feasibility of the future energy sales and summer peak load demand. At first, this paper used least-squares techniques to derive regression models for considering economic indicators and temperature of 34 customer energy sales and total energy sales. Besides, the AMI high voltage customer demand data and system generating capacity for 24 hours were adopted to forecast summer peak load. The above-mentioned data analysis tool is used by EViews software to achieve, in order to verify the feasibility of the research framework. The study found that although its forecasting model accuracy is low only when mixed with temperature and high voltage demands. So, when mixed with high voltage demand data and system generating capacity for 24 hours to forecast peak load, the average error is ± 0.87% and in the majority of its energy sales forecasting model of average error is ±3%. This result can provide power company as future reference.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0444.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: GRACE; Ocean Bottom Pressure; Earthquakes; Mediterranean Ridge accretionary complex.
Online: 22 January 2021 (12:15:52 CET)
Mediterranean Ridge accretionary complex (MAC) is one of the most critical subduction zones in the world. It is known that the region exhibits a continuous mass change (horizontal/vertical movements). This process is associated with the devastating and tragic earthquakes shaking the MAC for centuries. Here, we investigate the ocean bottom pressure (OBP) anomalies in the MAC derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and GRACE Follow On (GRACE-FO) satellite missions. The OBP time series for the MAC comprises a decreasing trend in addition to 1-, 1.53-, 2.36-, 3.67-, and 9.17-year periodic components partially explained by the atmosphere, oceans, and hydrosphere (AOH) processes, and Earth's pole movement. We noticed that the OBP anomalies appear to link to a rising trend and periods in earthquakes' power time series. This finding sheds new light on the mechanisms controlling the most destructive natural hazard.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: multi-level convergence; evolution; bioluminescence; biological organization; complex trait
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:20:12 CET)
Evolutionary convergence provides natural opportunities to investigate how, when, and why novel traits evolve. Many convergent traits are complex, highlighting the importance of explicitly considering convergence at different levels of biological organization, or ‘multi‐level convergent evolution’. To investigate multi‐level convergent evolution, we propose a holistic and hierarchical framework that emphasizes breaking down traits into several functional modules. We begin by identifying long‐standing questions on the origins of complexity and the diverse evolutionary processes underlying phenotypic convergence to discuss how they can be addressed by examining convergent systems. We argue that bioluminescence, a complex trait that evolved dozens of times through either novel mechanisms or conserved toolkits, is particularly well suited for these studies. We present an updated estimate of at least 94 independent origins of bioluminescence across the tree of life, which we calculated by reviewing and summarizing all estimates of independent origins. Then, we use our framework to review the biology, chemistry, and evolution of bioluminescence, and for each biological level identify questions that arise from our systematic review. We focus on luminous organisms that use the shared luciferin substrates coelenterazine or vargulin to produce light because these organisms convergently evolved bioluminescent proteins that use the same luciferins to produce bioluminescence. Evolutionary convergence does not necessarily extend across biological levels, as exemplified by cases of conservation and disparity in biological functions, organs, cells, and molecules associated with bioluminescence systems. Investigating differences across bioluminescent organisms will address fundamental questions on predictability and contingency in convergent evolution. Lastly, we highlight unexplored areas of bioluminescence research and advances in sequencing and chemical techniques useful for developing bioluminescence as a model system for studying multi‐level convergent evolution.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: filtering; information; degeneracy; entropy; relevance; resolution; complexity; complex networks
Online: 2 August 2020 (16:44:25 CEST)
We explored the statistics of filtering of simple patterns on a number of deterministic and random graphs as a tractable simple example of information processing in complex systems. In this problem, multiple inputs map to the same output, and the statistics of filtering is represented by the distribution of this degeneracy. For a few simple filter patterns on a ring we obtained an exact solution of the problem and described numerically more difficult filter setups. For each of the filter patterns and networks we found a few numbers essentially describing the statistics of filtering and compared them for different networks. Our results for networks with diverse architectures appear to be essentially determined by two factors: whether the graphs structure is deterministic or random, and the vertex degree. We find that filtering in random graphs produces a much richer statistics than in deterministic graphs. This statistical richness is reduced by increasing the graph’s degree.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0256.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: hierarchical agglomeration; complex vibration spectra; bedload monitoring; underwater acoustics
Online: 12 July 2020 (12:27:37 CEST)
This paper proposes a novel data processing framework dedicated to bedload monitoring in underwater environments. After calibration, by integration the total energy in the nominal bandwidth, the proposed experimental setup is able to accurately measure the mass of individual sediments hitting the aluminum plate. This require a priori knowledge of the vibration trasients in order to match a predefined dictionary. Based on unsupervised hierarchical agglomeration of complex vibration spectra, the proposed algorithms allow to accurately localize the transients corresponding to the shocks created by sediment impacts on a steel plate.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0401.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: SNAP25; linker; protein lipid interaction; acceptor complex; exocytosis; fusion
Online: 27 March 2020 (02:56:59 CET)
A recent paper demonstrates the importance of the linker region joining the two SNARE motifs of the neuronal t-SNARE SNAP25 for maintaining rates of secretion with roles for distinct segments in speeding fusion pore expansion (Shaaban et al., 2019, Elife. 8). Remarkably, lipid perturbing agents rescue a palmitoylation-deficient phenotype that includes slow fusion pore expansion, suggesting that protein-protein interactions have a role not only in bringing together the granule or vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane but also in orchestrating protein-lipid interactions leading to the fusion reaction. Furthermore, biochemical investigations demonstrate the importance of the C-terminal domain of the linker in the formation of the plasma membrane t-SNARE acceptor complex for synaptobrevin2 (Jiang, et al., 2019, FASEB J. 33:7985-7994;Shaaban et al., 2019, Elife. 8). This insight, together with biophysical and optical studies from other laboratories (Wang, et al., 2008, Molecular Biology of the Cell. 19:3944-3955; Zhao, et al., 2013, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110:14249-14254) suggests that the plasma membrane SNARE acceptor complex between SNAP25 and syntaxin and the resulting trans SNARE complex with the v-SNARE synaptobrevin form just milliseconds before fusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0315.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: microscale wind modeling; rans modeling; complex terrain; wildland fire
Online: 28 September 2019 (00:32:30 CEST)
An open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver has been incorporated into the WindNinja modeling framework widely used by wildland fire managers as well as researchers and practitioners in other fields, such as wind energy, wind erosion, and search and rescue. Here we describe incorporation of the CFD solver and evaluate its performance compared to the conservation of mass (COM) solver in WindNinja and previously published large-eddy simulations (LES) for three field campaigns conducted over isolated terrain obstacles of varying terrain complexity: Askervein Hill, Bolund Hill, and Big Southern Butte. We also compare the effects of two important model settings in the CFD solver and provide guidance on model sensitivity to these settings. Additionally, we investigate the computational mesh and difficulties regarding terrain representation. Two important findings from this work are: (1) the choice of discretization scheme for advection has a significantly larger effect on the simulated winds than the choice of turbulence model and (2) CFD solver predictions are significantly better than the COM solver predictions at windward and lee side observation locations, but no difference was found in predicted speed-up at ridgetop locations between the two solvers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0338.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: prediction; futures studies; complex environment; machine learning data mining
Online: 30 July 2019 (03:48:37 CEST)
Decision-makers are concerned with the inherent complexity of the modern world's markets. However, price fluctuations, environmental concerns, technological development, emerging markets, political challenges, and social expectations made the 21st century's more dynamic and complex. From a policy-making perspective, it is vital to uncover future trends. This paper proposed that artificial intelligence can improve interpretations in complex markets, such as financial and energy markets. In a complex environment, it is critical to investigate maximum available input features to ensure no valuable informative feature is neglected. Some AI-based models are investigated and presented that AI-based models can successfully uncover future trends. From a scenario development perspective purified input features subset refer to driving forces which shape alternative futures. Results showed that using AI can improve our understanding of how input features influence future behaviors and simultaneously improves prediction accuracy and reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0134.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: biothermodynamics; complex systems; thermodynamics of biological systems; biophysical resonance
Online: 11 December 2018 (08:59:47 CET)
From a thermodynamic point of view, living cell life is no more than a cyclic process. It starts with the newly separated daughter cells and restarts when the next generations grow as free entities. In this cycle the cell changes its entropy. In cancer the growth control is damaged. In this paper we analyze the role of the volume-area ratio in cell in relation to the heat exchange between cell and its environment in order to point out the effect on the cancer growth. The result holds to a possible control of the cancer growth based on the heat exchanged by the cancer towards its environment, and the membrane potential variation, with the consequence of controlling the ions fluxes and the related biochemical reactions. This second law approach could represent a starting point for a possible future support for the anticancer therapies, in order to improve their effectiveness for the untreatable cancers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0473.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Rnf complex; energy conservation; ferredoxin NAD+ reductase; anaerobic metabolism
Online: 25 July 2018 (09:39:35 CEST)
In the context of the development of bioprocesses for the production of biofuels and bulk chemicals, microbial cells are rationally engineered to produce such molecules at high yield and titres in order to develop new biological methods that satisfy economic constraints. The redox and energetic balances of such strains play crucial roles in performance. Processes performed in strict anaerobes have a limited amount of energy available compared to that in aerobic organisms. This energy is obtained through fermentation and/or ion gradient-driven phosphorylation. Such anaerobic organisms have developed energy conservation mechanisms to increase ATP yields. This paper presents the properties of one of these mechanisms catalysed by the Rnf complex, an ion-translocating membrane complex with a ferredoxin NAD+ oxidoreductase activity. The Rnf complex performs the transfer of electrons from reduced ferredoxin to NAD+ coupled with an ion-motive transport. Ferredoxin is a common electron carrier for anaerobic bacteria and, with NAD+, is involved in several pathways of interest for the production of biofuels. This complex was first identified in Rhodobacter capsulatus and found to be involved in nitrogen fixation. It was then found to be involved in energy conservation in multiple anaerobic organisms, from acetobacteria such as Acetobacterium woodii to sulfate-reducing bacteria such as Desulfovibrio alaskensis and autotrophic bacteria such as Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium aceticum. The Rnf complex triggers two types of ion transports: it can be either a sodium or a proton transporter. Both of these transports create a gradient of ions, generating a membrane potential that is then used by ATPase to produce ATP and thus serving as an energy conservation mechanism. In this review, the available information on the Rnf complex from genetic organization up to its in vivo and in vitro activities in several microorganisms is summarized, with a special focus on the proton-motive Rnf complex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: ethnoecology; ethnomycology; San Francisco Cherán; Michoacán; Purépecha; KCP complex
Online: 11 July 2018 (05:05:31 CEST)
Mexico is an exceptional setting for ethnomycology since human cultures have interacted with fungi for thousands of years; the state of Michoacán is particularly important since nearly 11% of the fungi species recorded in Mexico occur there, 139 species being edible. This study aimed to analyze the taxonomic diversity and use forms of fungi, their position in worldview of people, and the management forms practiced on edible fungi in the Purépecha communities of Cherán and Pichátaro and the environmental problems in relationship with fungi management. We conducted semi-structured interviews during visits to regional markets, participant observations in harvesting areas, workshops, and presentation of results to the communities and communal authorities. We recorded ethnoecological information for 21 edible fungi species. The words jongo and terekua correspond to useful fungi in Purépecha, while jeramba refers to not edible fungi. In Cherán people identify different vegetation types where mushrooms occur; they recognize the “pinadas forest” dominated by Pinus leiophylla, “encineras” (dominated by Quercus crassipes), “tepamu forest” (dominated by Alnus acuminata), “sharhari forest” (Quercus aff. laeta), and grasslands, all of them sites where mushrooms grow. Fungi handlers identified environmental problems like land use changes, illegal extraction of forest resources, deforestation, unplanned urban growth, uncontrolled fires, livestock raising, and agricultural intensification, which affect fungi communities. In turn, these factors have secondary consequences like soil erosion, reduction of native vegetation and reduction of rainwater retention that directly disturb diversity, distribution, and abundance of fungi. Information from this study and workshops conducted with the community helped to design strategies for conservation of both forests and fungi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0021.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: architecture; complex buildings; cellular automaton; uses incubators; public space
Online: 4 June 2018 (07:48:34 CEST)
We explores the relational, dynamic elements of Complex Buildings, a type of architecture designed to incubate uses, located in urban areas with high housing density. The uses of Complex Buildings concern different elements, including the network of agents using or managing them, the environment, and the activities and functions that take place occasionally, temporarily or permanently. Data was gathered through ethnographic research lasting 6 months and a chronotopian approach was used to describe time and space. We analyzed and discussed the interaction of the elements of Complex Buildings through a cellular automaton model, a computational method that simulates the growth of complex systems. It was used here to generate patterns that suggest configurations of uses that can optimize management and therefore increase economic and social capital. The cellular automaton model was also used to develop an abstraction of the Centquatre, a public cultural center in Paris. This center is a good example of a Complex Building, being based on a public-private partnership and having an architectural configuration designed to host a wide range of art, social and productive activities. The building includes a large central space used as an urban public area open to different types of people. The importance of this case study lies in its capacity to produce economic value by combining different uses, and also by welcoming different people to the public space. Regarding the building as a living organism, the cellular automaton model reveals the determinant nature of the concepts of configuration, compatibility of uses and economic value generated by the presence of people. We argue that this approach makes it possible to show that the space-time design and public space dimensions are determinant factors in Complex Buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0328.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: CFD; LES; Complex terrai; actual wind speed; wind energy
Online: 24 May 2018 (05:14:27 CEST)
This paper proposes a procedure for predicting the actual wind speed for flow over complex terrain with CFD. It converts a time-series of wind speed data acquired from field observations into a time-series of actual scalar wind speed by using non-dimensional wind speed parameters which are determined beforehand with the use of CFD output. The accuracy and reproducibility of the prediction procedure were examined by simulating the flow with CFD with the use of high resolution (5 m) surface elevation data for the Noma Wind Park in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The errors of the predicted average monthly wind speeds relative to the observed values were less than approximately 20%.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Zymocin; ribotoxin; tRNase; Kti12; Elongator complex; tRNA anticodon modification
Online: 2 August 2017 (11:45:15 CEST)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are killed by zymocin, a tRNase ribotoxin complex from Kluyveromyces lactis, which cleaves anticodons and inhibits protein synthesis. Zymocin’s action requires specific chemical modification of uridine bases in the anticodon wobble position (U34) by the Elongator complex (Elp1-Elp6). Hence, loss of anticodon modification in mutants lacking Elongator or related KTI (K. lactis Toxin Insensitive) genes protects against tRNA cleavage and confers resistance to the toxin. Here, we show that zymocin can be used as a tool to genetically analyse KTI12, a gene previously shown to code for an Elongator partner protein. From a kti12 mutant pool of zymocin survivors, we identify motifs in Kti12 that are functionally directly coupled to Elongator activity. In addition, shared requirement of U34 modifications for nonsense and missense tRNA suppression (SUP4; SOE1) strongly suggests that Kti12 and Elongator cooperate to assure proper tRNA functioning. We show that the Kti12 motifs are conserved in plant ortholog DRL1/ELO4 from Arabidopsis thaliana and seem to be involved in binding of cofactors (e.g. nucleotides, calmodulin). Elongator interaction defects triggered by mutations in these motifs correlate with phenotypes typical for loss of U34 modification. Thus, tRNA modification by Elongator appears to require physical contact with Kti12, and our preliminary data suggest that metabolic signals may affect proper communication between them.