ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1338.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Discrete Mathematics And Combinatorics Keywords: clique partition; edge clique cover; vertex-clique incidence matrix; eigenvalues of graphs; graph energy; minimum number of distinct eigenvalues
Online: 19 July 2023 (11:47:31 CEST)
In this paper, we demonstrate a useful interaction between the theory of clique partitions, edge clique covers of a graph, and the spectra of graphs. Using a clique partition and an edge clique cover of a graph we introduce the notion of a vertex-clique incidence matrix for a graph and produce new lower bounds for the negative eigenvalues and negative inertia of a graph. Moreover, utilizing these vertex-clique incidence matrices, we generalize several notions such as the signless Laplacian matrix, and develop bounds on the incidence energy and the signless Laplacian energy of the graph. %The tight upper bounds for the energies of a graph and its line graph are given. More generally, we also consider the set $S(G)$ of all real-valued symmetric matrices whose off-diagonal entries are nonzero precisely when the corresponding vertices of the graph are adjacent. An important parameter in this setting is $q(G)$, and is defined to be the minimum number of distinct eigenvalues over all matrices in $S(G)$. For a given graph $G$ the concept of a vertex-clique incidence matrix associated with an edge clique cover is applied to establish several classes of graphs with $q(G)=2$.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0696.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Graph databases; Data Visualization; MITRE ATT&CK Tactics; Star Motif; Clique Motif; Reconnaissance Tactic
Online: 9 June 2023 (09:34:24 CEST)
There has been a great deal of research in the area of using graph engines and graph databases to model network traffic and network attacks, but the novelty of this research lies in visually or graphically representing the Reconnaissance Tactic (TA0043) of the MITRE ATT&CK framework. Using the newly created dataset, UWF-Zeekdata22, based on the MITRE ATT&CK framework, patterns involving network connectivity, connection duration, and data volume were found and loaded into a graph environment. Patterns were also found in the graphed data that match the Reconnaissance as well as other tactics captured by UWF-Zeekdata22. The Star motif was particularly useful in mapping the Reconnaissance tactic. The results of this paper show that graph databases/graph engines can be essential tools for understanding network traffic and trying to detect network intrusions before they happen. Finally, an analysis of the run-time performance of the reduced dataset used to create the graph databases showed that the reduced datasets performed better than the full dataset.