ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1432.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Taekwondo poomsae; action recognition; skeletal data; camera viewpoint; martial arts
Online: 21 August 2023 (07:48:57 CEST)
Issues of fairness and consistency in Taekwondo poomsae evaluation have emerged owing to the lack of an objective evaluation method. This study proposes a three-dimensional (3D) convolutional neural network (CNN)-based action recognition model for the objective evaluation of Taekwondo poomsae. The model exhibits robust recognition performance regardless of variation in perspective by reducing the discrepancies between training and test images. The model uses 3D skeletons of the poomsae unit action collected using a full-body motion-capture suit to generate synthesized two-dimensional (2D) skeletons from the desired perspective. This approach aids in obtaining 2D skeletons from diverse perspectives as part of the training dataset and ensures consistent recognition performance regardless of the viewpoint. The model was trained using 2D skeletons projected from diverse viewpoints, and its performance was evaluated using various test datasets, including projected 2D skeletons and RGB images captured from various viewpoints. Comparison of the performance of the proposed model with that of previously reported action recognition models demonstrated the superiority of the model, underscoring its effectiveness in recognizing and classifying Taekwondo poomsae actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1353.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: pIgR; polymorphism; disease-resistant; growth; chicken.
Online: 21 August 2023 (03:11:16 CEST)
Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) plays an important role in mediating mucosal defenses, but the association between its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and traits (such as growth and disease-resistant) in birds is scarcely known. In this research, we aimed to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the pIgR gene in the chicken F2 resource population and discern the possible associations between pIgR SNPs and chicken growth, disease-resistant, respectively. Six-SNPs (3, 9, 15, 16, 19, and 21) in chicken (Gallus gallus) were significantly associated with disease-resistant in the pIgR gene (P < 0.05). The major allele genotype with SNP 9 and SNP 19 occurred more frequently with high Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) antibody rates; the major allele genotype with the SNP 3 was predominant in those with significantly lower NDV antibody rates (P < 0.05); heterozygous with the SNP 15 and SNP 21 occurred more frequently with high avian leukemia virus (ALV) antibody rates; the TT genotypes with the SNP 16 was predominant in those with low infectious bursal disease (IBD) antibody rates (P < 0.05). Besides, SNP 12 showed significant associations with body weights (BW) and shank lengths (SL) (P < 0.05). Genotyping revealed that the C allele occurred more frequently in breeds with high growth rates and the T allele was predominant in those with low growth rates at 8, 10, and 12w of age (P < 0.05). This polymorphic site may serve as a useful target for the marker assisted selection of growth and disease-resistant traits in chicken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Toll-like receptor 4; transgenic animal model; autophagy; apoptosis; inflammation; oxidative stress
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:44:37 CEST)
Gram-negative bacterial infections pose a significant threat to public health. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and induces innate immune responses, autophagy and cell death, which have major impacts on the body physiological homeostasis. However, the role of TLR4 in bacterial LPS-induced autophagy and apoptosis in large mammals remains unknown, which are closer to humans than rodents in many physiological characteristics. So far, few reports focus on the relationship between TLR, autophagy and apoptosis in large mammal levels. We urgently need more tools to further explore their crosstalk. Here, we generated a TLR4-enriched mammal model (sheep) and found that a high-dose LPS treatment blocked autophagic degradation and caused strong innate immune responses and severe apoptosis in PBMCs of transgenic offspring. Excessive accumulation of autophagosomes/autolysosomes might contribute to LPS-induced apoptosis in PBMCs of transgenic animals. Further study demonstrated that inhibiting TLR4 downstream NF-κB or p38 MAPK signaling pathways reversed the LPS-induced autophagy activity and apoptosis. These results indicate that the elevated TLR4 aggravates LPS-induced PBMCs apoptosis by leading to lysosomal dysfunction and impaired autophagic flux, which is associated with TLR4 downstream NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. This study provides a novel TLR4-enriched mammal model to study its potential effects on autophagy activity, inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death. These findings also enriched the biological functions of TLR4 and provided powerful evidence for bacterial infection.