ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0197.v7
Online: 27 September 2023 (03:06:32 CEST)
The author introduces a novel theoretical framework that suggests matter and energy are both converted from curved space. In Space Theory, gravitation is generated by the flow of space, instead of being transmitted by the graviton as in String Theory. This theory also suggests that Newton's gravitational constant, denoted as G, may not be truly constant but could vary over time. The equivalent equation of space is S=Ec2=mc4, and the gravitation of hollow sphere space is Sμν=4πGm=(4/3)π((r+a)3-r3). The Space Theory also predicts that the surface gravitational acceleration of the neutron star Crab Pulsar (PSR B0531+21) is approximately 8.21924883×106 m/s2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0216.v6
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:31:10 CEST)
Recent studies revealing varied responses of infected cells to LRAs underscore the limited effectiveness of these agents and emphasize the wide array of determinants contributing to the heterogeneity of reservoirs, including virus genetic background, cell model, cell type, silencing mechanisms, tissue reservoirs, integration sites, patient, and gender specific factors. The enhancer region of the HIV-1 LTR contains two adjacent NF-κB binding sites that play a central role in mediating inducible HIV-1 gene expression. Beyond the involvement of various transcription factors, such as NF-κB, epigenetic constraints also play a pivotal role in suppressing the initiation of latent HIV transcription. Consequently, even latent viruses containing functional NF-κB sites remain unresponsive to drugs that activate NF-κB. Thus, it is evident that the activation of NF-κB alone does not suffice to trigger latent HIV, contradicting the central hypothesis of this study. The author used bioinformatics methods to analyze the viral proteins and their primer binding sites. The results show that the amino acid sequence ARG of Gag proteins of HTLV-1, HTLV-2, STLV-1 and STLV-2 match their primer binding site GGGGGCTCG in the 3'-to-5' direction and that the amino acid sequence SPR of Gag proteins of HIV-1, HIV-2, SIV and FIV match their primer binding site GGCGCCCGA in the 3'-to-5' direction. Related studies have shown that the genomic Gag/Gag-Pol complex recruits the LysRS/tRNA complex. The selective packaging of the tRNA primer requires HIV-1 Gag and Gag-Pol, and an interaction between LysRS and Gag is observed in vitro. In HIV-1, Gag/LysRS interaction depends on Gag sequences within the CTD of CA around amino acids 283-363 and motif 1 of LysRS around amino acids 208-259. It should be noted that the amino acid sequence SPR of the Gag protein is located at amino acids 148-150 within the NTD of CA, specifically at the NTD-NTD interface 1. Although this research is purely bioinformatics analysis, the relevant studies have demonstrated that Gag proteins match the HIV-1 primer binding site and possess the potential to directly activate dormant retroviruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0052.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: power plants; supervisory control; dynamic simulation; dynamic optimization
Online: 5 June 2018 (08:13:42 CEST)
The increasing variability in power plant load, in response to a wildly uncertain electricity market and the need to to mitigate CO2 emissions, lead power plant operators to explore advanced options for efficiency optimization. Model-based, system-scale dynamic simulation and optimization are useful tools in this effort, and the subject of the work presented here. In prior work, a dynamic model validated against steady-state data from a 605 MW subcritical power plant was presented. This power plant model is used as a test-bed for dynamic simulations, in which the coal load is regulated to satisfy a varying power demand. Plant-level control regulates plant load to match an anticipated trajectory of the power demand. The efficiency of the power plant operating at varying load is optimized through a supervisory control architecture that performs set point optimization on the regulatory controllers. Dynamic optimization problems are formulated to search for optimal time-varying input trajectories that satisfy operability and safety constraints during the transition between plant states. An improvement in time-averaged efficiency of up to 1.8% points is shown feasible with corresponding savings in coal consumption of 184.8 tons/day and carbon footprint decrease of 0.035 kg/kWh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0214.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: multi-spectral analysis; remote sensing images; sparse coding; generalized aggregation; scene recognition
Online: 30 May 2017 (08:54:08 CEST)
Satellite scene classification is challenging because of the high variability inherent in satellite data. Although rapid progress in remote sensing techniques has been witnessed in recent years, the resolution of the available satellite images remains limited compared with the general images acquired using a common camera. On the other hand, a satellite image usually has a greater number of spectral bands than a general image, thereby permitting the multi-spectral analysis of different land materials and promoting low-resolution satellite scene recognition. This study advocates multi-spectral analysis and explores the middle-level statistics of spectral information for satellite scene representation instead of using spatial analysis. This approach is widely utilized in general image and natural scene classification and achieved promising recognition performance for different applications. The proposed multi-spectral analysis firstly learns the multi-spectral prototypes (codebook) for representing any pixel-wise spectral data, and then based on the learned codebook, a sparse coded spectral vector can be obtained with machine learning techniques. Furthermore, in order to combine the set of coded spectral vectors in a satellite scene image, we propose a hybrid aggregation (pooling) approach, instead of conventional averaging and max pooling, which includes the benefits of the two existing methods but avoids extremely noisy coded values. Experiments on three satellite datasets validated that the performance of our proposed approach is much more accurate than even the deep learning framework for spatial analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0293.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Metal-Organic Framework; MOF-801; Modulators; Ethanol; Marangoni Flow Effect
Online: 10 March 2021 (16:22:10 CET)
We report that ethanol, used together with water, plays a crucial role in tuning the structures of a zirconium-based Metal-Organic Framework, the 12-connected MOF-801, and the possible mechanisms of this modulating effect. By employing the cosolvent system of ethanol and water just under room temperature without the presence of a monotopic carboxylic acid as the modulator, MOF-801 in various morphologies of different sizes can be synthesized. The linear correlation between the ethanol/water ratio and the crystal sizes is also demonstrated. The growth mechanism is mainly explained by ethanol’s binding with the metal ion clusters and the Marangoni Flow Effect. Ethanol competes with the linker molecules in coordinating with the Zr metal clusters, a role similar to that of the modulators. The Marangoni Flow Effect, which dominates at a certain solvent ratio, further promotes the 1-D alignment of the MOF-801 crystals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0699.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: wireless sensor networks; energy harvesting; neighbor discovery; data fusion
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:10:25 CEST)
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are widely used in various fields such as military, industrial and transportation for real-time monitoring, sensing and data collection of different environments or objects. However, the development of WSN is hindered by several limitations, including energy, storage space, computing power and data transmission rate. Among these, the availability of power energy plays a crucial role as it directly determines the lifespan of WSN. To extend the life cycle of WSN, two key approaches are power supply improvement and energy conservation. Therefor, we proposed an energy harvesting system and a low energy consumption mechanism for WSN. Firstly, we delved into the energy harvesting technology of WSN, explored the utilization of solar energy and mechanical vibration energy to ensure a continuous and dependable power supply to the sensor nodes, and analyzed the voltage output characteristics of bistable piezoelectric cantilever. Secondly, we proposed a neighbor discovery mechanism that utilizes a separation beacon, is based on reply to ACK, and can facilitate the identification of neighboring nodes. This mechanism operates at a certain duty cycle ratio, significantly reduces idle listening time and results in substantial energy savings. In comparison to the Disco and U-connect protocols, our proposed mechanism achieves a remarkable reduction of 66.67% and 75% in the worst discovery delay, respectively. Furthermore, we introduced a data fusion mechanism based on integer wavelet transform. This mechanism effectively eliminates data redundancy caused by spatio-temporal correlation, results in a data compression rate of 5.42. Additionally, it significantly reduces energy consumption associated with data transmission by the nodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1787.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: ship segmentation; radar image; lightweight convolution; adaptive attention mechanism; loss function
Online: 28 November 2023 (08:22:28 CET)
In high-traffic harbor waters, marine radar frequently encounters signal interference stemming from various obstructive elements, thereby presenting formidable obstacles in the precise identification of ships. To achieve precise pixel-level ship identification in the complex environments, a customized neural network-based ship segmentation algorithm named MrisNet is proposed. MrisNet employs a lightweight and efficient FasterYOLO network to extract features from radar images at different levels, capturing fine-grained edge information and deep semantic features of ship pixels. To address the limitation of deep features in the backbone network lacking detailed shape and structured information, an adaptive attention mechanism is introduced after the FasterYOLO network to enhance crucial ship features. To fully utilize the multi-dimensional feature outputs, MrisNet incorporates a Transformer structure to reconstruct the PANet feature fusion network, allowing for the fusion of contextual information and capturing more essential ship information and semantic correlations. In the prediction stage, MrisNet optimizes the target position loss using the EIoU function, enabling the algorithm to adapt to ship position deviations and size variations, thereby improving segmentation accuracy and convergence speed. Experimental results demonstrate that MrisNet achieves high recall and precision rates of 94.8% and 95.2%, respectively, in ship instance segmentation, outperforming various YOLO and other single-stage algorithms. Moreover, MrisNet has a model parameter size of 13.8M and real-time computational cost of 23.5G, demonstrating notable advantages in terms of convolutional efficiency. In conclusion, MrisNet accurately segments ships with different spot features and under diverse environmental conditions in marine radar images. It exhibits outstanding performance, particularly in extreme scenarios and challenging interference conditions, showcasing robustness and applicability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: second primary cancers (SPCs); endometrial cancer (EC); risk prediction.
Online: 2 July 2021 (15:54:58 CEST)
Due to the high effectiveness of cancer screening and therapies, the diagnosis of second primary cancers (SPCs) has increased in women with endometrial cancer (EC). However, there’s no previous literature mentioned about adequate evidence to support screening for SPCs in endometrial cancer. This study was aimed to develop effective risk prediction models of second primary endometrial cancer in women with obesity (Body-mass index; BMI > 25) and this study includes datasets of the incidence of SPCs and the other risks of SPCs in 4480 primary cancer survivors by a hospital-based cancer registry database. In our study, we found the obesity played a key role in SPCs. There’re 10 independent variables used as predicting variables, which corelated to obesity should be monitored for the early detection of SPCs in endometrial cancer. In conclusion, it is a promising SPCs prediction. The proposed scheme can support the important influence of obesity and clinical data representations in all cases after primary treatments. Our results suggested that obesity is still a crucial risk factor to SPCs in endometrial cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1634.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Mini-tuber potato; Dormancy; Sprouting; Carvone; Abscisic acid; Gibberellin; Variable temperature
Online: 26 October 2023 (03:21:38 CEST)
This study investigated the efficacy of carvone, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA3), and variable temperature in managing dormancy and sprouting in aeroponically grown mini-tuber potato seeds. Results showed that carvone treatment effectively reduced weight loss rate by 12.25% and decay rate by 3.33% at day 25, compared to control. ABA treatment significantly enhanced germination rate to 97.33%. GA3 treatment resulted in the longest sprouts of 14.24 mm and reduced MDA content by 23.08% at day 30, indicating its potential in shortening dormancy and maintaining membrane integrity. Variable temperature treatment showcased a balanced performance in reducing weight loss and maintaining a lower relative conductivity, indicating less cellular damage. Enzymatic activities of α-amylase, CAT, and SOD were modulated by the treatments, ensuring a balanced enzymatic environment for seed vitality. These findings provide a robust foundation for refining post-harvest management strategies to optimize germination uniformity and preserve the quality of aeroponic potato seeds during extended dormancy, promising enhanced yield and productivity in potato cultivation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1811.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: remote sensing mapping; image inpainting; residual attention mechanism; target hiding
Online: 27 July 2023 (03:29:10 CEST)
Remote sensing imagery is of great significance for policy decisions, especially for disaster assessment and disaster relief. To ensure the privacy and inviolability of personal buildings, the information containing these buildings must be anonymized during the remote sensing mapping process. Traditional processing methods for these targets in remote sensing mapping are mainly based on manual retrieval and image editing tools, which are inefficient. Deep learning provides a new direction for target hiding. Although the image inpainting method based on deep learning is faster than the manual method, the cost of training calculation is a disadvantage. And the element-wise product operation used in the model increases the risk of vanished or exploded gradients. We propose a Residual Attention Target Hiding (RATH) model for remote sensing target hiding based on deep learning. RATH uses residual attention modules to replace gated convolutions, reducing parameters and mitigating gradient issues. The residual attention module preserves gated convolution performance but provides an adjustable kernel size. RATH retains gated convolutions for dynamic feature selection and balances model depth and width. Furthermore, this paper modifies the contextual attention layer by adjusting the fusion process to enlarge the fusion patch size. Finally, we extend the edge-guided function to preserve the original target information and confound viewers. Ablation studies on an open dataset prove RATH’s efficiency for image inpainting and target hiding. RATH achieves state-of-the-art results with lower complexity. And it has the highest similarity for edge-guided target hiding. RATH enables robust, efficient target hiding for privacy protection in remote sensing imagery while balancing performance and complexity. Experiments show RATH's superiority over existing methods in hiding arbitrary-shaped targets.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: steady-state visual evoked potential; brain-computer interface; direction; eccentricity; canonical correlation analysis
Online: 15 October 2019 (12:21:12 CEST)
The feasibility of a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) brain-computer interface (BCI) with a single flicker stimulus for multiple-target decoding has been demonstrated in a number of recent studies. The single-flicker BCIs have mainly employed the direction information for encoding the targets, i.e. different targets are placed at different spatial directions relative to the flicker stimulus. The present study explored whether visual eccentricity information can also be used to encode target for the purpose of increasing the number of targets in the single-flicker BCIs. A total number of 16 targets were encoded, placed at eight spatial directions, and two eccentricities (2.5° and 5°) relative to a 12 Hz flicker stimulus. Whereas distinct SSVEP topographies were elicited when participants gazed at targets of different directions, targets of different eccentricities were mainly represented by different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Using a canonical correlation analysis-based classification algorithm, simultaneous decoding of both direction and eccentricity information was achieved, with an average offline 16-class accuracy of 66.8±16.4% averaged over 12 participants and a best individual accuracy of 90.0%. Our results demonstrate a single-flicker BCI with a substantially increased target number towards practical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2073.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: image registration; edge consistency features; multi-source remote sensing images
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:58:28 CEST)
Multi-source image registration often suffered from great radiation and geometric differences. Specifically, gray scale and texture from similar landforms in different source images often show significantly different visual features. And these differences disturb the corresponding point extraction in the following image registration process. Considering that edges between heterogeneous images can provide homogeneous information and more consistent features can be extracted based on image edges, an edge consistency radiation-change insensitive feature transform (EC-RIFT) method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the noise and texture interference are reduced by preprocessing according to the image characteristics. Secondly, image edges are extracted based on phase congruency, and an orthogonal Log-Gabor filter is performed to replace the global algorithm. Finally, the descriptors are built with logarithmic partition of the feature point neighborhood, which improves the robustness of descriptors. Comparative experiments on datasets containing multi-source remote sensing image pairs show that the proposed EC-RIFT method outperforms other registration methods in terms of precision and effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0138.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Akebia trifoliata; WUSCHEL-related homeobox; transcription factor; adventitious roots.
Online: 2 November 2023 (09:11:33 CET)
Akebia trifoliata is an economically important self-incompatible fruit tree in the family Lardiza-balaceae. Asexual propagation is the main strategy used to maintain excellent agronomic traits. However, the generation of adventitious roots during asexual propagation is very difficult. To study the important role of the WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) transcription factor in fruit and adventitious root growth and development, we characterized this transcription factor family in the whole genome of A. trifoliata. A total of 10 AktWOXs were identified, with the fol-lowing characteristics: length (657~11328 bp), exon number (2~5), isoelectric point (5.65~9.03), amino acid number (176~361 AA), and molecular weight (20.500~40.173 kDa). 10 AktWOXs were classified into modern (6), intermediate (2), and ancient clades (2) and that all AktWOXs had undergone strong purifying selection during evolution. The expression profile of AktWOXs dur-ing A. trifoliata fruit development and adventitious root formation indicated that AktWOXs are widely involved in the development of the three fruit tissues, flesh, seeds and rind, and play an important role in the regulation of adventitious root development. Overall, this is the first study to identify and characterize the WOX family in A. trifoliata and will be helpful for further re-search on A. trifoliata fruit development and adventitious root formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0482.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: cellulose; graphene oxide; polyaniline; aerogel electrode; supercapacitors
Online: 21 July 2020 (12:29:21 CEST)
The cellulose/GO networks as the scaffold of free-standing aerogel electrodes are developed by using lithium bromide aqueous solution as the solvent to ensure the complete dissolution of cotton linter pulp and well dispersion/reduction of GO nanosheets. PANI nanoclusters are then coated onto cellulose/GO networks via in-situ polymerization of aniline monomers. By optimized weight ratio of GO and PANI, the ternary cellulose/GO3.5/PANI aerogel film exhibits well-defined three-dimensional porous structures and high conductivity of 1.15 S/cm that contributes to its high areal specific capacitance of 1218 mF/cm2 at the current density of 1.0 mA/cm2. Utilizing this cellulose/GO3.5/PANI aerogel film as electrodes in a symmetric configuration supercapacitor can result in an outstanding energy density as high as 258.2 μWh/cm2 at a power density of 1201.4 μW/cm2. Moreover, the device can maintain nearly constant capacitance under different bending deformations, suggesting its promising applications in flexible electronics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: natural gas hydrate; reservoir stimulation technique; variance analysis; conversion efficiency; sensitivity analysis; numerical simulation
Online: 11 December 2017 (07:30:36 CET)
Based on the geologic conditions of natural gas hydrate (NGH) accumulations in the Shenhu area, northern slope of the South China Sea, this paper used a method of combining reservoir stimulation technique (RST) with depressurization to investigate the conversion efficiency of marine NGH reservoirs in different intrinsic permeability and initial NGH saturation conditions, and analyze the influence of variably-stimulation effect on marine NGH conversion efficiency in different accumulation conditions, provided a reference scheme for improving the NGH conversion efficiency in the Shenhu area. In this work, we performed calculations for the variations in CH4 production rate and cumulative volume of CH4 in different initial NGH saturation, intrinsic permeability and stimulation effect conditions, variance analysis and range analysis methods were used to analyze the significance of these key factors and their interaction, and investigated the sensitivity of stimulation effect on NGH conversion efficiency, respectively. The simulation results showed that stimulation effect have a significant influence on NGH conversion efficiency, and the influence of interaction between these three factors were not obvious. Possibly most important, we clarified an optimum stimulation effect for higher NGH conversion efficiency under different accumulation conditions, especially in low-permeability and high-saturation, which corresponding stimulation effect were different.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wheat; UAV image; color index; texture feature index; biomass
Online: 26 December 2019 (12:27:49 CET)
In order to realize rapid and nondestructive monitoring of wheat biomass in field, field experiments based on different densities, nitrogen fertilizer and variety treatments were studied. RGB images of wheat in the main growth stage were obtained by UAV, and wheat color and texture feature indices were obtained by image processing, and wheat biomass was obtained by field sampling in the same period. Then the relationship between different color and texture feature indices and wheat biomass was analyzed to select the color and texture feature index suitable for wheat biomass estimation. The results showed that there was a high correlation between image color index and wheat biomass in different stages, and most of them reached a very significant correlation level. However, the correlation between image texture feature index and wheat biomass was poor, only a few indexes reached significant or extremely significant correlation level. Based on the above results, the color indices with the highest correlation to wheat biomass or the combining indices of color and texture feature in different growth stage were used to construct estimation model of wheat biomass. The models were validated using independently measured biomass data, and the correlation between simulated and measured values reached the significant level, RMSE were smaller. This indicated that the estimated results by the models were reliable and accurate. It also showed that the estimation models of wheat biomass combined with color and texture feature indices of UAV image were better than the single color index models. The results would provide a new method for real-time monitoring of wheat field growth and biomass estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Sutherlandia frutescens, RNA sequencing, inflammation, TNF
Online: 20 September 2018 (10:16:04 CEST)
Sutherlandia frutescens (S. frutescens) has been traditionally used as an herbal medicine to ameliorate symptoms associated with cancer, infectious diseases, as well as inflammation. The objective of this investigation was to explore the impact of S. frutescens on the expression of genes in a murine macrophage cell line (i.e., RAW 264.7). We found that treatment with an ethanolic-extract of S. frutescens (SFE) 1 h prior to the stimulation with LPS and IFNγ for 24 h significantly affected the expression of 715 genes in RAW 264.7 cells. When the post-stimulation period was shortened to 8 h, the number of genes that were significantly impacted by SFE diminished to 50. Pathway analysis revealed that inflammatory signaling pathways, such as NF-κB, MAPK, and TNF, as well as signaling pathways associated with immune-related responses, were inhibited by SFE treatment. These findings are consistent with previously reported anti-inflammatory activity of SFE and enable better understanding of the immune-modulating properties of this botanical. To our knowledge, this represents the first report on the impact of S. frutescens on global gene expression in an immune cell population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1300.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: taurine; weaned piglets; antioxidant capacity; Intestine Healthy; microorganism; growth performance; Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:56:00 CEST)
Early weaning of piglets caused excessive concentration of free radicals, which would oxidize and damage the intestinal tract of piglets, resulting in dyspepsia, low growth, diarrhea, microbiota disorders and intestinal infections. This research studied on effect of different levels of taurine in diets on intestinal oxidative damage in early weaned piglets. A total of 48 weaned piglets (6.71 ± 0.73 kg) of 28-day-old crossbred "Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire" were assigned to 4 groups with 12 replicates per group and 1 pig per replicate: piglets were fed a basal diet with 0.0% (CON), 0.2% taurine (L-Tau), 0.3% taurine (M-Tau), or 0.4% taurine (H-Tau). The animal experiment lasted for 30 days. With the increase of dietary taurine dosage, the activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase（SOD）,glutathione peroxidase（GPX）,catalase（CAT） and peroxidase（POD） were up-regulated (Linear, P < 0.05), the mRNA abundance of antioxidant enzymes including SOD1, SOD2, GPX1 and heme oxygenase-1（HO-1）were up-regulated (P < 0.05), glutathione (GSH) concentrations was up-regulated (Linear, P < 0.05) , nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations were down-regulated (Linear, P < 0.05);The villus height (VH) and villus height/ crypt depth (VH/CD) of jejunum and ileum were increased (Linear, P < 0.05); The expression of tight junction proteins including zonula occludens protein 1(ZO-1), occludin (OCLN) and closure protein 1(CLDN-1) in the jejunum mucosa were up-regulated (Linear, P < 0.05), the mRNA abundance of ZO-1, OCLN and CLDN-1 were up-regulated (P < 0.05),and the D-lactose (D-LA) content in blood was down-regulated (Linear, P < 0.05); the colonization abundance of Firmicutes was increased (Linear, P < 0.05), while Proteobacteria and Spirochaetota was decreased (Linear, P < 0.05); The diarrhea index decreased (Linear, P < 0.05), while the feed conversion rate increased (Linear, P < 0.05). Collectively, supplementation of 0.3% and 0.4% taurine in feed can significantly alleviate intestinal oxidative damage by enhancing antioxidant capacity of piglets, and improve feed utilization of piglets after repairing intestinal damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0477.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Mitochondrial transplantation; Mitophagy; HUVEC; melanoma; EMT; malignancy
Online: 18 April 2023 (04:10:03 CEST)
The development of using mitochondrial transplantation in medical therapy are currently discussed. According to the endosymbiotic theory, the movement of mitochondria between different cells is possible. Therefore, an idea of transferring the mitochondria purified from the cells with a limited lifespan to shorten the lifespan of immortal cancer cells was generated. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) is a kind of primary cell with a limited lifespan. In the present study, the mitochondria purified from HUVEC were applied to alter the malignance of B16F10 melanoma cell. In the comparison of the basic function of mitochondria, HUVEC mitochondria exhibited a higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), while the lower levels in ATP, mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) and mitochondrial protein (mt-protein) as compared to melanoma B16F10. After transplanted the B16F10 with HUVEC mitochondria, the migration, invasion, and the proteins involved in cancer stemness were decreased, however, the proteins involved in cell proliferation, such as cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 were increased. In addition, the levels of ATP, mt-DNA and mt-protein of B16F10 were also reduced. As for the dynamics of mitochondria, the reduced expressions of DRP1 and LC3 II revealed that transferred mitochondria can attenuate the mitophagy of B16F10. In mice, inoculated the B16F10 carrying the transplanted HUVEC mitochondria resulted in the larger size of tumor, which is corresponded to the higher levels of cyclin D1 and E1. Interestingly, the lower expressions of N-cadherin, α-SMA and MMP-9 reveled the tumor were decreased in mesenchymal characteristics. Therefore, despite the HUVEC mitochondria did not inhibit the proliferation of B16F10, the metastatic characteristic was reduced.