ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0296.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; broad-spectrum antibiotics; antibacterial drug discovery; gram-negative bacteria; pyrrolobenzodiazepines
Online: 16 November 2022 (04:20:55 CET)
It is urgent to find new antibiotic classes to replenish the empty development pipeline of antibiotics. Recently, pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) with a C8-linked aliphatic-heterocycle have been identified as a new broad spectrum antibiotic class with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The active imine moiety of the reported lead pyrrolobenzodiazepine compounds was replaced with amide to obtain the non-DNA binding and non-cytotoxic dilactam analogues to further understand the structure activity relationship and improve the safety potential of this class. The synthesized compounds were tested against panels of multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including WHO priority pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for the dilactam analogues ranged from 4 – 32 mg/L for MDR Gram-positive bacteria, compared to 0.03 to 2 mg/L for the corresponding imine analogues while they were found to be inactive against MDR Gram-negative bacteria, with an MIC >32 mg/L, compared to an MIC of 0.5 to 32 mg/L. A molecular modelling study suggests the lack of imine functionality also affects the interaction of PBDs with DNA gyrase. This study suggests the presence of N10-C11 imine moiety is crucial for broad spectrum activity of pyrrolobenzodiazepines.