BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19; immunogenicity; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; neutralizing antibodies; durability; booster
Online: 14 April 2023 (10:20:45 CEST)
Vaccines are crucial for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, and booster doses are becoming increasingly important. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine from AstraZeneca as a third dose in healthcare workers at different time intervals (one, three, and six months). Two methods to measure immune response—ELISA (EUROIMMUN Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG, Luebeck, Germany) and ELISpot (Mabtech AB, Macka Strand, Sweden)—were used. A total of 170 participants were included in the study. The results showed that while IgG levels decreased at six months compared to levels at one and three months, they were still significantly higher than the baseline. Furthermore, neutralizing levels at three and six months after the third dose were not significantly different. These findings suggest that the immune response induced by the vaccine is robust and effective for several months. These results have significant implications for public health policymakers, as they provide strong support for booster vaccinations. The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine appears to be a reliable option for preventing the spread of COVID-19, and this study provides valuable information for healthcare workers and policymakers in managing the pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1643.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; vaccine efficacy; vaccine effectiveness, vaccine booster; BNT162b2; mRNA1273; Ad26.COV2.S; ChAdOx1-S; SARS-CoV-2 variants
Online: 28 November 2023 (01:41:16 CET)
We study here what can be learned from our experience with COVID-19 vaccination for an initially naïve population, that can inform planning for vaccination against the next novel, highly transmissible pathogen. We focus on the first two pandemic years (wild strain through Delta), because after the Omicron wave in early 2022, few people were still SARS-CoV-2-naïve. Almost all were vaccinated, infected, or often both. We review the evidence on COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE), waning effectiveness over time, and what we should expect about VE and waning from a future pathogen. As a basis for our analysis, we conducted a PRISMA-compliant review of all studies on PubMed through August 15, 2022 reporting VE against four endpoints: any infection, symptomatic infection, hospitalization, and death, for the four principal vaccines used in developed Western countries (BNT162b2, mRNA1273, Ad26.CoV2.S, and ChAdOx1-S). The mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2, mRNA1273) had high initial VE against all endpoints but protection waned after approximately six months, with BNT162b2 declining faster than mRNA1273. Both mRNA vaccines initially outperformed the viral vector vaccines. A third “booster” dose, roughly six months after the primary doses, substantially reduced symptomatic infection, severe disease, and mortality, and in hindsight should be seen as part of the normal vaccination schedule.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; vaccine effectiveness; BNT162b2 vaccine; mRNA-1273 vaccine; ChAdOx1 vaccine; 19 Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay; reactogenicity; vaccine-associated symptoms
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:14:39 CEST)
This prospective study provides data on long-term humoral immunogenicity of a heterologous off-label vaccine regimen combining the adenoviral vectored ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 from Astra-Zeneca (ChAd) with the mRNA-1273 vaccine from Moderna (m1273) in comparison to two different homologous mRNA vaccine schedules. Of the 316 COVID-19 naïve adult health care workers (HCW) included to complete a survey on vaccine-associated symptoms (VAS), 197 had received the homologous BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT/BNT), 76 the homologous m1273/m1273, and 43 the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen. Concentration of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in plasma 5-7 months after the second vaccine dose was higher in the m1273/m1273 and ChAd/m1273 than the BNT/BNT vaccine group. The frequency of systemic VAS after first vaccine dose was 86% after ChAd compared to 35% and 39% after BNT and m1273, respectively (p < 0.0001), and after second vaccine dose highest (89%) in the m1273/m1273 group (p < 0.001). Individuals with systemic VAS achieved higher levels of antibodies irrespective of vaccine regimen. In conclusion, VAS serve as a strong predictor of long-term humoral immune response, and the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen provides an at least equal long-term humoral immune response compared with the standard vaccine regimens used in Denmark.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0440.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccines; BNT162 Vaccine; ChAdOx1 nCoV-19; Side Effects and Adverse Reactions; Booster Immunizations; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 25 January 2023 (03:50:52 CET)
More than 600 Healthcare workers died due to COVID-19 infection until January 2022 in Ecuador. Even though the COVID-19 vaccines are safe, local, and systemic reactions were reported among physicians. This study aims to analyze the Adverse events (AEs) of COVID-19 vaccines with an emphasis on homologous and heterologous booster doses. An electronic survey was performed in Quito- Ecuador, directed to physicians who were vaccinated with the three doses of COVID-19 vaccines. 210 participants were analyzed after administering any doses of the vaccines. At least one AE was identified in 60.0% (126/210) of the sample after the first dose, 52.40% (110/210) after the second dose, and 75.2% (158/210) after the booster dose. The most frequent AEs were localized pain, myalgia, headache, and fever. At least one drug was used in 44.3% of the population after the first dose, 37.1% after the second dose, and 63.8% in the booster dose. Heterol-ogous booster produces more AEs compared with homologous booster (80.1% vs. 53.8%), and 77.3% of participants reported that interfered with daily activities. Similar studies agree that reactogenicity occurs mainly with heterologous vaccination compared to ho-mologous vaccination. This situation affected physicians’ performance in daily activities and led them to use medication for the symptoms
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Vaccines; anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike total antibodies; Surrogate viral neutralizing antibody; T-cell immune response; CoronaVac; ChAdOx1; BNT162b2; booster
Online: 31 March 2022 (14:28:11 CEST)
Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac) is commonly used in national immunization programs. However, the immune response significantly declined within a few months. Our study assessed the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 after receiving booster shots of BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 among health care workers who previously received CoronaVac as their primary immunization. Fifty-six participants received ChAdOx1 and forty-two participants received BNT162b2 were enrolled into this study which evaluated the immune responses including anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike total antibodies (Elecsys®), surrogated viral neutralization test (sVNT) to ancestral strain (cPass™; GenScript) and five variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron) (Luminex; multiplex sVNT) and the ELISpot with spike (S1 and S2) peptide pool against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain. The samples were analyzed at baseline, 4, and 12 weeks after primary immunization as well as 4 and 12 weeks after receiving the booster. This study showed a significantly higher B-cell response among the BNT162b2 than the ChAdOx1 booster group, particularly against the Omicron variant, as well as a trend of good T-cell immune response in the BNT162b2 group. Moreover, the immune response rapidly declined at 12 weeks after the booster. A fourth dose or a second booster should be recommended, especially for reducing Omicron severity.