ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0654.v1
Online: 29 July 2021 (12:23:23 CEST)
The aim of this study was the reconstruction of SARS-CoV-2 evolutionary dynamics in time and space in Italy and Europe between February and June 2020. The cluster analysis showed that pure Italian clusters were observed mainly after the lockdown and distancing measures were adopted. Lineage B and B.1 spread between late January and early February 2020, from China to Veneto and Lombardy, respectively. Lineage B.1.1 most probably evolved within Italy and spread from central to south Italian regions, and to European countries. The lineage B.1.1.1 entered Italy only in the second half of March and remained localized in Piedmont until June 2020. In conclusion, the reconstructed ancestral scenario suggests a central role of China and Italy in the widespread diffusion of the D614G variant in Europe in the early phase of the pandemic and more dispersed exchanges involving several European countries from the second half of March 2020.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: physical activity; kidney transplantation; elder age; vascular anomalies; marginal kidneys
Online: 29 December 2019 (11:06:25 CET)
Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage disease. To expand the donor reserve, it is necessary to use marginal/sub optimal donors that provide marginal organs. We retrospectively evaluated the short and long-term outcome of elderly kidney transplantation using allografts with vascular abnormalities. Between January 1999 and December 2018, 740 transplants from cadaveric donors were performed. Thirty-four elderly patients received a kidney transplantation with vascular anatomical variants (Group 1) were compared with 34 patients who received a kidney transplantation with single renal artery (SRA) (Grroup2) pair-matched by age, dialysis age, donor age, comorbidity. All participants completed the Long Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks after transplantation. The overall rate of surgical complications was 17.6% in Group 1 and 20.6% in Group 2, indicating that kidney with vascular anatomical variant might be successfully transplanted. Our data also emphasizes the importance of individualized physical activity in kidney transplantation with multiple arteries. Physical activity should be considered as an essential part of the medical care for renal-transplanted recipients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder; FDG-PET/CT; elder age; physical activity
Online: 29 December 2019 (10:37:20 CET)
The incidence of cancer in organ transplant patients is higher than in the non-transplanted population. The incidence increases with increasing age. The use of Fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) is sensitive and specific to detect PTLD LD compared with conventional CT imaging. We analyzed the medical data of 127 patients aged over 60 years, who underwent heart transplantation in the above period, who have been practicing early CT-PET for diagnostic purposes between February 2007 and October 2018. Of 127 consecutive patients who underwent CT-PET, SUVs up than 4, were found in 84 patients of which 20 were affected by PTLDs, seven patients were affected by chronic non neoplastic inflammatory diseases, the remainder were affected by other neoplasms. The favorable effect of physical activity programs on cardiorespiratory and psychomotor function occur in all patients. In conclusion, CT-PET at the first doubts about the possibility of the development of neoplasms has allowed a diagnosis and then a treatment more quickly. Education in behavioral norms that improve the patient's quality of life is necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: physical activity; elderly population; mediastinal lymphomas; cardiac transplantation
Online: 30 December 2019 (09:35:38 CET)
The incidence of post transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) and other neoplasms in organ transplant patients is higher than in the non-transplanted population. This event is more frequent in older subjects, due, at least in part, to the immune dysfunction induced by immunosuppressants administered to prevent rejection. Alterations of the immune system mechanisms of protection against carcinogenesis appear to be the key role in the in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. The data of our study on the incidence of neoplasms occurred during a long-term follow-up in an elderly population after they underwent cardiac transplantation. This study gives, also evidence of the favorable effect of physical activity programs on cardiorespiratory and psychomotor function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: physical activity; elderly population; chronic pain; mediastinal lymphomas
Online: 30 December 2019 (09:44:54 CET)
Thoracotomy is one of the most painful types of incision a patient can experience. Pain is a very complex pathophysiological entity. Neuronal pathophysiological mechanisms are integrated with the immunological response, which amplify inflammation and pain. Prolonged inflammation induces a pathological response of the immune-system and constantly stimulate the nociceptive pathways generating chronic pain. The mechanisms are particularly altered in lymphomas, where pain following chest surgery often becomes chronic and reduces the quality of life. In this study 51 elderly patients who had undergone a transthoracic biopsy to verify the suspect of mediastinal lymphoma were examined for pain reduction with oral opioids, effect of epidural analgesia and paravertebral block. Subsequently, patients underwent tensed torsion exercises, progressively intensified. After the first few days, patients walked progressively for 20 minutes a day. Once discharged a program of patients started aerobic exercises to increase muscle endurance and to strengthen the extensor muscles of the legs and of the upper limbs. The systemic administration of opioids is the simplest and most common method of providing analgesia for postoperative pain, but early mobilization, respiratory rehabilitation, and muscle toning exercises are excellent support devices both for physical and psychological recovery.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0249.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Crizotinib; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas ALK+; bridge therapy in NHL ALK+; ALK+ patients; anticancer therapy
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:58:38 CET)
Background: The t (2; 5) chromosomal rearrangement and resulting nucleophosmin (NPM1) -ALK fusion was first observed in 1994 in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), a T-cell lymphoma responsive to cyclophosphamide, abriblastine, vincristine and prednisone in approximately 80% of cases; refractory cases usually respond favorably to brentuximab-vedotin. These treatments are regarded as a bridge to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Nowadays, transplant procedures and monitoring of chemotherapy patients proceed very slowly because the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has heavily clogged the hospitals in all countries. Results: A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was first seen at our clinical center in June 2020. She had ALCL ALK +, a history of failure to two previous therapeutic lines and was in complete remission after 12 courses of Brentuximab, still pending allo-SCT after two failed donor selection. Facing of a new therapeutic failure, we requested the Italian drug regulatory agency, and obtained the authorization, to administer 250 mg twice a day of Crizotinib, a drug incomprehensibly not registered for ALCL ALK +. Conclusions: The response to Crizotinib was optimal, since no adverse event occurred, and CT-PET persisted negative; this drug has proved to be a valid bridge to allo-SCT
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cutaneous lymphoma in elderly; skin tumors; T-cell lymphomas; sport activity training
Online: 30 December 2019 (05:43:39 CET)
PcALCL mainly concerns elderly patients. It is a large CD30+ T-cell neoplasm composed of large cells with anaplastic, pleomorphic or immunoblastic morphology, with exclusively cutaneous onset and localization. The clinical course of pcALCL is predominantly indolent. Most elderly patients with lymphoma tend to have a sedentary lifestyle, which has a negative effect on their quality of life (QoL) and on their survival. Several studies indicate that exercise has a positive impact on QoL because it reduces peak oxygen consumption, improves physical capacity, increases self-esteem, reduces accumulated stress and promotes relaxation. Therefore, particularly in indolent lymphomas, it is necessary to indicate a program of physical activity to be practiced systematically. The complete surgical excision and local radiotherapy are the first line gold standard in pcALCL with solitary lesion.