ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0124.v1
Online: 5 September 2020 (07:29:39 CEST)
Most commercial Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) genotypes are short-day plants and cultivators typically use a 12.0 h uninterrupted dark period to induce flowering; however, scientific information is lacking to prove this is the optimal dark period for all genotypes, and cultivar specific photoperiods may increase productivity. Tissue culture can be used for research requiring multiple treatments, proper replication, and in a controlled environment on a smaller scale compared to greenhouse and indoor facilities. To determine whether cannabis explants can flower under varied photoperiods in vitro, explants were grown under one of six photoperiod treatments: 12.0, 13.2, 13.8, 14.4, 15.0, and 16.0 h for four weeks. The percentage of flowering explants was highest under 12.0 and 13.2 h treatments. There were no treatment effects on the fresh weight, final height, or growth index of the explants. The results suggest an uninterrupted dark period of at least 10.8 h (i.e. 13.2 h photoperiod) is needed to induce the flowering of this genotype. In vitro flowering could provide a unique and high throughput approach to study floral/seed development and secondary metabolism in cannabis under highly controlled conditions. Further research should determine if this response is the same on a whole plant level.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Cannabis sativa; Germplasm preservation; Droplet vitrification; Conventional vitrification; Tissue culture
Online: 19 July 2021 (18:13:48 CEST)
Cannabis has developed into a multi-billion dollar industry that relies on clonal propagation of elite genetics with desirable agronomic and chemical phenotypes. While the goal of clonal propagation is to produce genetically uniform plants, somatic mutations can accumulate during growth and compromise long-term genetic fidelity. Cryopreservation is a process in which tissues are stored at cryogenic temperatures, halting cell division and metabolic processes to facilitate high fidelity germplasm preservation. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to optimize various stages of cryopreservation and develop a protocol for long-term germplasm storage of Cannabis sativa. The resulting protocol uses a standard vitrification procedure to cryopreserve nodal explants from in vitro shoots as follows: Nodes were cultured for 17 hours in a pre-culture solution (PCS), followed by a 20 minute treatment in a loading solution (LS), and a 60 minute incubation in plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2). The nodes were then flash frozen in liquid nitrogen, re-warmed in an unloading solution at 40°C, and cultured on basal MS culture medium in the dark for 5 days followed by transfer to standard culture conditions. This protocol was tested across 13 genotypes to assess the genotypic variability. The protocol was successful across all 13 genotypes, but significant variation was observed in tissue survival (43.3-80%) and regrowth of shoots (26.7-66.7%). Plants grown from cryopreserved samples were morphologically and chemically similar to control plants for most major traits, but some differences were observed in the minor cannabinoid and terpene profiles. While further improvements are likely possible, this study provides a functional cryopreservation system that works across multiple commercial genotypes for long-term germplasm preservation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0766.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Cannabis; marijuana; marihuana; tissue culture; review; regeneration; floral reversion; micropropagation; TDZ; DKW
Online: 30 December 2020 (17:24:27 CET)
The recent legalization of Cannabis sativa L. in many regions has revealed a need for effective propagation and biotechnologies for the species. Micropropagation affords researchers and producers methods to rapidly propagate insect/disease/virus free clonal plants, store germplasm, and forms the basis for other biotechnologies. Despite this need, research in the area is limited due to the long history or prohibitions and restrictions. Existing literature has multiple limitation: many publications use hemp as a proxy for drug-type Cannabis when it is well established that there is significant genotype specificity, studies using drug-type cultivars are predominantly op-timized using a single cultivar, most protocols have not been replicated by independent groups, and some attempts demonstrate a lack of reproducibility across genotypes. Due to culture decline and other problems the multiplication phase of micropropagation (stage 2) has not been fully developed in many reports. This review will provide a brief background on the history and botany of Cannabis as well as a comprehensive and critical summary of Cannabis tissue culture. Special attention will be paid to current challenges faced by researchers, the limitations of existing Cannabis micropropagation studies, and recent developments and future directions of Cannabis tissue culture technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: sepsis; endocannabinoid system; cannabinoids; cannabis sativa; THC; CBD
Online: 22 November 2019 (09:32:28 CET)
Critically ill patients with sepsis require a multidisciplinary approach, as this situation implies multiorgan distress, with most of the bodily biochemical and cellular systems being affected by the condition. Moreover, sepsis is characterized by a multitude of biochemical interactions and by dynamic changes of the immune system. At the moment, there is a gap in our understanding of the cellular, genetic, and molecular mechanisms involved in sepsis. One of the systems intensely studied in recent years is the endocannabinoid signaling pathway, as light was shed over a series of important interactions of cannabinoid receptors with biochemical pathways, specifically for sepsis. Furthermore, a series of important implications on inflammation and the immune system that are induced by the activity of cannabinoid receptors stimulated by the delta-9-tetrahidrocannabinol and cannabinol have been noticed. The aim of this review paper was to present, in detail, the important mechanisms modulated by the endocannabinoid signaling pathway, as well as of the molecular and cellular links it has with sepsis. At the same time, we wish to present the possible implications of cannabinoids in the most important biological pathways involved in sepsis, such as inflammation, redox activity, immune system, and epigenetic expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0532.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Cannabis Sativa L.; Aeroponics; Roots; Campesterol; Stigmasterol; β-Sitosterol; Epi-friedelanol; Friedelin
Online: 22 June 2021 (08:27:11 CEST)
Cannabis Sativa L. has been used for a long time to obtain food, fiber and as a medicinal and psychoactive plant. Today the nutraceutical potential of C. Sativa is being increasingly reappraised; however, C. Sativa roots remain poorly studied, despite citations in the scientific literature. In this direction, we identified and quantified the presence of valuable bioactives (namely β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, friedelin and epi-friedelanol) in the root extracts of C. Sativa, a finding which might pave the way to the exploitation of the therapeutic potential of C. Sativa in all its parts. To facilitate roots harvesting and processing, aeroponic (AP) and aeroponic elicited cultures (AEP), have been set up and compared to soil-cultivated plant (SP): interestingly a considerable overgrowth of the plants - particularly of roots - and a significant increase (up to 20 fold in the case of β-sitosterol) in the total content of the above roots’ bioactive molecules have been observed in AP and AEP. In conclusion aeroponics, an easy, standardised, free of contaminant cultivation tecchnique, allows an ease harvesting/processing of roots along with a greater production of their secondary bioactive metabolites which could be utilized in the formulation of health promoting and health care products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0315.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; ACE2 receptor; medical cannabis; CBD
Online: 19 April 2020 (02:45:50 CEST)
With the rapidly growing pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the new and challenging to treat zoonotic SARS-CoV2 coronavirus, there is an urgent need for new therapies and prevention strategies that can help curtail disease spread and reduce mortality. Inhibition of viral entry and thereby spread constitute plausible therapeutic avenues. Similar to other respiratory pathogens, SARS-CoV2 is transmitted through respiratory droplets, with potential for aerosol and contact spread. It uses receptor-mediated entry into the human host via angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) that is expressed in lung tissue, as well as oral and nasal mucosa, kidney, testes, and the gastrointestinal tract. Modulation of ACE2 levels in these gateway tissues may prove a plausible strategy for decreasing disease susceptibility. Cannabis sativa, especially one high in the anti-inflammatory cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), has been proposed to modulate gene expression and inflammation and harbour anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Working under the Health Canada research license, we have developed over 800 new Cannabis sativa lines and extracts and hypothesized that high-CBD C. sativa extracts may be used to modulate ACE2 expression in COVID-19 target tissues. Screening C. sativa extracts using artificial human 3D models of oral, airway, and intestinal tissues, we identified 13 high CBD C. sativa extracts that modulate ACE2 gene expression and ACE2 protein levels. Our initial data suggest that some C. sativa extract down-regulate serine protease TMPRSS2, another critical protein required for SARS-CoV2 entry into host cells. While our most effective extracts require further large-scale validation, our study is crucial for the future analysis of the effects of medical cannabis on COVID-19. The extracts of our most successful and novel high CBD C. sativa lines, pending further investigation, may become a useful and safe addition to the treatment of COVID-19 as an adjunct therapy. They can be used to develop easy-to-use preventative treatments in the form of mouthwash and throat gargle products for both clinical and at-home use. Such products ought to be tested for their potential to decrease viral entry via the oral mucosa. Given the current dire and rapidly evolving epidemiological situation, every possible therapeutic opportunity and avenue must be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0460.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Cannabis; cannabinoids; nutrients; nitrogen (N); phosphorus (P); potassium (K); yield; response surface methodology
Online: 24 August 2021 (08:40:44 CEST)
Following legalization, cannabis has quickly become an important horticultural crop in Canada and increasingly so in other parts of the world. However, due to previous legal restrictions on cannabis research there are limited scientific data on the relationship between nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) supply (collectively: NPK) and the crop yield and quality. This study examined the response of a high delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Cannabis sativa cultivar grown in deep-water culture with different nutrient solution treatments varying in their concentrations (mg L-1) of N (70, 120, 180, 250, 290), P (20, 40, 60, 80, 100) and K (60, 120, 200, 280, 340) according to a central composite design. Results demonstrated that inflorescence yield responded quadratically to N and P, with the optimal concentrations predicted to be 194 and 59 mg L-1, respectively. Inflorescence yield did not respond to K in the tested range. These results can provide guidance to cultivators when formulating nutrient solutions for soilless cannabis production and demonstrates the utility of surface response design for efficient multi-nutrient optimization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Medical Cannabis; history of cannabis; medicine; cannabinoids
Online: 7 April 2022 (04:14:19 CEST)
The cannabis plant has been known for millennia for its properties such as textile fiber, food, recreational and medicinal use. Since the origin of its domestication in Asia, cannabis has been transported to the rest of the continents by merchants, nomads, settlers, and slaves, who have also carried with them valuable knowledge about its uses. Its medical use was one of the major contributions of this plant in the various civilizations through which it passed. This article aims to understand its origins, dissemination, and medical use over the years to the present day.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0040.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Cannabis sativa L.; Humulus lupulus L.; Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc.; sex chromosomes; DNA repeats; transposons; genome sequencing
Online: 3 December 2021 (09:25:39 CET)
Heteromorphic sex chromosomes are rarely found in plants. They were observed only in 47 species from phylogenetically distant families, suggesting that the evolution of sex chromosomes was independent in these species. It was shown that DNA repeat sequences are one of the major factors driving sex chromosomes evolution, and an accumulation or elimination of the repetitive DNA elements are closely linked with the formation of differences in the sex chromosomes. The goal of this study was to characterize the transposon composition in male and female plants of Cannabis sativa L., Humulus lupulus L. and Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc. For the first time, the male and female genomes of H. japonicus as well as male genomes of H. lupulus and C. sativa have been sequenced (there were no open data about them). The analysis of genome-wide sequencing data with using Repeatexplorer2 and author’s scripts was carried out. It was shown that accumulation of Ty3-gypsy may be associated with speciation in Cannabaceae family which is the opposite of the theory of speciation throw whole-genome duplication. Moreover, the sex-specific DNA repeat clusters in C. sativa and H. japonicus were found. The analysis also revealed that the concentration of Tekay, Retand and Ikeros repeats in the Y chromosome of C. sativa is lower than in the X chromosome and the Angela concentration is higher in the Y chromosome.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0736.v1
Online: 29 December 2020 (15:48:00 CET)
Cannabis is one of the oldest cultivated crops in the history for food, fiber and drugs for thousands of years. Extension of cannabis genetic variation developed in a wide- ranging choice of varieties with various complementary phenotypes and secondary metabolites. Cannabis grow practices is very diverse, especially indoor cultivation factors, such as different lighting conditions, pot size, humidity, fertilizers. These growth factors influence a lot on the production of cannabinoids. For medical or pharmaceutical purposes, ratio of CBD or THC is very important. Plants traits and metabolic compounds are related to various conditions produced by microbes. Investigating this crosstalk between plants and microbes can play a vital role not only for stimulating the biosynthetic and signaling pathways of the host plants for the production of agronomically or pharmaceutically essential metabolic compounds but also against pathogens. This study emphasis on decoding the crosstalk between cannabis and associated microbes in the belowground environmental niches that would unravel the complexity of stabilizing cannabinoid production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: cannabis; cannabinoid; diabetes; insulin
Online: 16 July 2021 (09:24:11 CEST)
The purpose of the study was to describe and compare the pharmacokinetics of five commercial edible marijuana products, determine the influence of body composition on pharmacokinetics, and, in light of epidemiology suggesting marijuana may offer diabetes protection, explore the influence of edible marijuana on glucose tolerance. Seven regular users of marijuana self-administered five edible products in a randomized crossover design; each product contained 10mg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). 30-minutes following marijuana ingestion, participants imbibed a 75g glucose beverage. Time-to-peak plasma THC concentration ranged between 35 and 90 minutes; maximal plasma THC concentration (Cmax) ranged between 3.2 and 5.5 ng/mL. Differences between products in plasma THC concentration during the first 20-to-30 minutes were detected (P=0.019). Relations were identified between body composition and pharmacokinetic parameters for some products; however, none of these body composition characteristics were consistently related to pharmacokinetics across all five of the products. Edible marijuana had no effect on oral glucose tolerance compared with a marijuana-free control (Matsuda Index; P>0.395). Commercially available edible marijuana products evoke different plasma THC concentrations shortly after ingestion, but do not appear to influence acute glucose regulation. These data may allow marijuana users to make informed decisions pertaining to rates of edible marijuana ingestion and avoid overdose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0327.v1
Online: 11 March 2021 (16:18:09 CET)
Cannabis (Cannabis Sativa L.) is now legally produced in many regions worldwide. Cannabis flourishes under high light intensities (LI); making it an expensive commodity to grow in controlled environments, despite its exceptionally high market value. It is commonly believed that cannabis secondary metabolite levels may be enhanced both by increasing LI and by exposing crops to ultraviolet radiation (UV). However, there is sparse scientific evidence to guide cultivators. Therefore, the impact of LI and UV on yield and quality must be elucidated to enable cultivators to optimize their lighting protocols. We explored the effects of LI, ranging from 350 to 1400 μmol m-2 s-1 and supplemental UV spectra on cannabis yield and potency. There were no spectrum effects on inflorescence yield, but harvest index under UVA+UVB was reduced slightly (1.6%) vs. the control. Inflorescence yield increased linearly from 19.4 to 57.4 g/plant and harvest index increased from 0.565 to 0.627, as LI increased from 350 to 1400 μmol m-2 s-1. Although there were no UV spectrum effects on total equivalent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (T-THC) content in leaves, the neutral form, THC, was 30% higher in UVA+UVB vs. control. While there were no LI effects on inflorescence T-THC content, the content of the acid form (THCA) increased by 20% and total terpenes content decreased by 20% as LI increased from 350 to 1400 μmol m-2 s-1. High LI can substantially increase cannabis yield and quality, but we found no commercially-relevant benefits of adding supplemental UV radiation to indoor cannabis production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0159.v1
Online: 16 January 2020 (08:45:38 CET)
Recently we have seen a relaxation of the historic restrictions on the use and subsequent research on the Cannabis plants, generally classified as Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. What research has been performed to date has centered on chemical analysis of plant flower products, namely cannabinoids and various terpenes that directly contribute to phenotypic characteristics of the female flowers. In addition, we have seen many groups recently completing genetic profiles of various plants of commercial value. To date, no comprehensive attempt has been made to profile the proteomes of these plants. We report herein our progress on constructing a comprehensive draft map of the Cannabis proteome. To date we have identified over 17,000 potential protein sequences. Unfortunately, no annotated genome of Cannabis plants currently exists. We present a method by which “next generation” DNA sequencing output and shotgun proteomics data can be combined to produce annotated FASTA files, bypassing the need for annotated genetic information altogether in traditional proteomics workflows. The resulting material represents the first comprehensive annotated protein FASTA for any Cannabis plant. Using this annotated database as reference we can refine our protein identifications, resulting in the confident identification of 13,000 proteins with putative function. Furthermore, we demonstrate that post-translational modifications play an important role in the proteomes of Cannabis flower, particularly lysine acetylation and protein glycosylation. To facilitate the evolution of analytical investigations into these plant materials, we have created a portal to host resources we have developed from proteomic and metabolomic analysis of Cannabis plant material as well as our results integrating these resources. All data for this project is available to view or download at www.CannabisDraftMap.Org
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Cannabis; Metabolite; Principal Component Analysis; Random Forest
Online: 5 September 2020 (07:51:50 CEST)
The many strains of Cannabis spp. are associated with many effects on users and contain many different potentially psychoactive metabolites, but the links between metabolite profiles and user effects are unclear. Here we take a statistical approach to linking cause (i.e. metabolites) to effects in Cannabis spp. through the prism of strains, using quantitative data for metabolite composition and user effects. We find that species (indica vs. sativa) explains <2% of the variability in metabolite profiles, while strain explains 1/3 of variability, indicating species is nonindicative of metabolite composition, while strain is approximately indicative. Using random forests we generate a table of potential metabolite-effect links. We also find that effect-weighted metabolite composition can effectively be described in terms of four values representing the concentrations of pairs or triplets of particular compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0499.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: adolescents; cannabis; cognition; working memory; executive functions
Online: 22 July 2020 (05:42:03 CEST)
The developmental phase of adolescence is characterized by a multitude of neurocognitive and psychosocial changes and is therefore considered one of the most critical developmental periods of life. Experimentation on the use of substances often begins in adolescence and so does the addiction process. Most research in human subjects shows that chronic cannabis abuse is the cause of the impairment of some cognitive functions, affecting the performance on divided attention, verbal memory and working memory. In this study, we wanted to investigate how the abuse of cannabis (chronic, occasional and absence use) can influence global cognitive functioning, also through executive functions. From the statistical analyzes of our study, it emerges that the group of subjects who use chronic cannabis (group 1) has a significant drop in working memory tasks compared to the group that does not use it (group 3). In addition, the goal of future studies by our group is to verify the permanent alteration of cognitive processes affected through revaluations with calendar follow-up (controlled).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: therapeutic cannabis; cannabidiol; aromatherapy; NegEnt; Herbal Neurocare
Online: 9 June 2020 (13:44:33 CEST)
The article describes a research project that included the conception, development, testing and dissemination of a new drug, based on cannabidiol and called NegEnt (registered name and trademark).In this contribution, the author fully describes a new product for Aromatherapy that was developed and how it can be used for significant progress on various treatments for different conditions in psychiatry, neurology, and medicine. It also presents completed work for new herbal medicines at affordable costs worldwide.The clinical research program launched and the organizational and legal solutions identified are described to scientifically evaluate in accordance with a single case research study design. NegEnt's pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, pharmacodynamics, therapeutic efficacy, and tolerability is examined.In the last part of the article there is an outline of the project formulated for the development in Sicily in the province of Enna where NegEnt is produced in accordance with an innovative project of regional social promotion and based on the cultivation of cannabis Sativa Light, otherwise known as Progetto Demetra. This project established an operational module that is managed by a non-profit social enterprise called the Higher Institute for Cognitive Sciences, the ALETEIA LAB for Therapeutic cannabis, and as an ethical enterprise, which is called Herbal Neurocare (registered name and trademark). It contributes to improved health as well as promoting the economic and social development of this economically depressed area.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0117.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Gold nanoparticles; nanomaterials; self-assembled nanoparticles; Cannabis indica
Online: 10 June 2022 (03:27:31 CEST)
Gold nanoparticles have been increasingly used in several electronic, material fabrication, and biomedical applications. Several methods have been reported to prepare gold nanoparticles of various shapes and sizes with different photophysical properties. Although useful to prepare gold nanoparticles, most of the methods are not stable enough and undergo degradation, if stored at room temperatures (up to 30 °C) for a few days. In this paper, we report a novel environmentally friendly method to synthesize self-assembled gold nanoparticles in cruciform shapes by using leaf extract of Cannabis indica as a reducing agent without the aid of any polymers or additional chemicals. The nanoparticles are found to be stable for more than a month when stored at room temperature (30 °C). They were able to form stable conjugates with bovine α-lactalbumin protein that may possess anti-cancerous properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: cannabinoids; cannabis-derived phytocannabinoids; neuroprotection; resveratrol; Parkinson’s disease
Online: 2 November 2021 (12:15:49 CET)
Currently, there are no pharmacological treatments able to reverse nigral degeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD), hence the unmet need for the provision of neuroprotective agents. Cannabis-derived phytocannabinoids (CDCs) and resveratrol (RSV) may be useful neuroprotective agents for PD due to their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To evaluate this, we undertook a systematic review of the scientific literature to assess the neuroprotective effects of CDCs and RSV treatments in pre-clinical in vivo animal models of PD. The literature databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, PubMed and Web of Science core collection were systematically searched to cover relevant studies. A total of 1034 publications were analyzed, of which 18 met the eligibility criteria for this review. Collectively, the majority of neurotoxin-induced PD rodent studies demonstrated that treatment with CDCs or RSV produced a significant improvement in motor function and mitigated the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Biochemical analysis of rodent brain tissue suggested that neuroprotection was mediated by anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. This review highlights the neuroprotective potential of CDCs and RSV for in vivo models of PD, and therefore suggests their potential translation to human clinical trials to either ameliorate PD progression and/or be implemented as a prophylactic means to reduce the risk of development of PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0317.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Cannabis sativa; potency; ultraviolet; indoor; sole source; terpene
Online: 11 June 2021 (11:31:18 CEST)
It is commonly believed that exposing Cannabis sativa (cannabis) plants to ultraviolet (UV) radiation can enhance Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) concentrations in female inflorescences and associated foliar tissues. However, a lack of published scientific studies has left knowledge-gaps in the effects of UV on cannabis that must be elucidated before UV can be utilized as a horticultural management tool in commercial cannabis production. In this study we investigated the effects of UV exposure level on photosynthesis, growth, inflorescence yield, and secondary metabolite composition of two indoor-grown cannabis cultivars: ‘Low Tide’ (LT) and ‘Breaking Wave’ (BW). After growing vegetatively for 2 weeks under a canopy-level photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of ≈225 μmol·m–2·s–1 in an 18-h light/6-h dark photoperiod, plants were grown for 9 weeks in a 12-h light/12-h dark “flowering” photoperiod under a canopy-level PPFD of ≈400 µmol·m–2·s–1 and 3.5 h·d–1 of supplemental UV radiation with UV photon flux densities (UV-PFD) ranging from 0.01 to 0.8 μmol·m–2·s–1 provided by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a peak wavelength of 287 nm (i.e., biologically-effective UV doses of 0.16 to 13 kJ·m–2·d–1). The severity of UV-induced morphology (e.g., whole-plant size and leaf size reductions, leaf malformations, and stigma browning) and physiology (e.g., reduced leaf photosynthetic rate and reduced Fv/Fm) symptoms worsened as UV exposure level increased. While the proportion of dry inflorescence yield that was derived from apical tissues decreased in both cultivars with increasing UV exposure level, total dry inflorescence yield only decreased in LT. The equivalent Δ9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD) concentrations also decreased in LT inflorescences with increasing UV exposure level. While the total terpene content in inflorescences decreased with increasing UV exposure level in both cultivars, the relative concentrations of individual terpenes varied by cultivar. The potential for using UV to enhance cannabis quality must still be confirmed before it can be used as a production tool for modern, indoor-grown cannabis cultivars.
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:41:30 CEST)
Fibrosis is a condition characterized by thickening or/and scarring of various tissues. Fibrosis may develop in almost all tissues and organs, and it may be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. It provokes excessive scarring that excels the usual wound healing response to trauma in numerous organs. Currently, very little can be done to prevent tissue fibrosis, and it is almost impossible to reverse it. Therefore, fibrosis is frequently associated with premature aging. In turn, aging is associated with more frequent incidences of fibrosis. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs are among the few treatments that may be efficient in preventing fibrosis. Numerous publications suggest that cannabinoids and extracts of Cannabis sativa have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic properties. In this review, we describe the types and mechanisms of fibrosis in various tissues and discuss various strategies for prevention and dealing with tissue fibrosis. We further introduce cannabinoids and their potential for the prevention and treatment of fibrosis, and therefore for extending healthy lifespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0234.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: cannabis; THC; CBD; microwave assisted extraction; continuous flow
Online: 11 July 2020 (09:04:17 CEST)
Cannabis is a flowering plant that has long been used for medicinal, therapeutic, and recreational purposes. Cannabis contains more than 500 different compounds, including a unique class of terpeno-phenolic compounds known as cannabinoids; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most prevalent cannabinoids and have been associated with the therapeutic and medicinal properties of the cannabis plant. In this paper, continuous flow microwave assisted extraction (MAE) is presented and compared with other methods for commercial cannabis extraction. The practical issues of each extraction method are discussed. The main advantages of MAE are: continuous-flow method which allows for higher volumes of biomass to be processed in less time than existing extraction methods, improved extraction efficiency leading to increased final product yields, improved extract consistency and quality because the process does not require stopping and restarting material flows, and ease of scale-up to industrial scale without the use of pressurised batch vessels. Moreover, due to the flexibility of changing the operation conditions, MAE eliminates additional steps required in most extraction methods, such as biomass decarboxylation, winterisation, which typically adds at least a half day to the extraction process. Another factor that sets MAE apart is the ability to achieve high extraction efficiency even at the industrial scale. Whereas the typical recovery of active compounds using supercritical CO¬2 remains around 70-80%, via MAE up to 95% of the active compounds from cannabis biomass can be recovered at the industrial scale.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Asian elephant; Elephas maximus; cannabidiol; cannabis; CBD; endocannabinoid system
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:59:03 CEST)
The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) is one of the largest herbivore mammals in the world. A portion of the total elephant population is under human care, where health problems such as skin lesions and decreased appetite are reported. The objective of this study was to apply the therapeutic properties of cannabidiol (CBD) to aid treatment of palmar abscesses and a suboptimal food intake in a female Asian elephant in Mexico. A CBD-isolate compounded medication was administered orally at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg/day. CBD administration showed positive effects such as reduction in abscess size, decreased food selectivity, increased food intake, weight gain and increased mobility. More research in elephants is needed to understand their cannabinoid pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics and proposing a dosage range and therapeutic applications for this species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0466.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Marijuana, cannabis, opioid epidemic, medical marijuana, opioids, pain management
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:58:52 CEST)
The US opioid overdose epidemic has risen to an all-time high. Prescription opioids often serve as a gateway to illicit opioids which have appreciable overdose potential. Recent investigations have highlighted the efficacy and safety of marijuana-based products for pain management. Providing alternative pain treatment options may help mitigate the opioid epidemic. The distribution of codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, morphine, and oxycodone per 100K people and by 3-digit zip codes and overdose rates from 2014 to 2018 in California, which legalized recreational marijuana in 2016, were compared to Texas, where marijuana is functionally prohibited. Drug weights were obtained from the Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System and converted to oral morphine milligram equivalents. Overdose data was retrieved from the Centers for Disease Control’s WONDER database. California (-43.7%) and Texas (-27.3%) showed significant reductions in cumulative opioid distribution from 2014 to 2018. Opioid distribution per 100K people decreased -38.9% in California relative to -26.4% in Texas. Opioid and heroin overdoses increased between 1999 and 2019 by +11.6% in California but +272.7% in Texas. This evidence supports marijuana legalization as a mitigating factor to the opioid epidemic and opioid misuse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0179.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: ovarian cancer; cannabis; phytocannabinoids; apoptosis; cytotoxicity; cell cycle; MAPK4; PARP1
Online: 9 September 2021 (11:57:38 CEST)
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Cannabis sativa is being used to treat different medical conditions. We sought to examine the effectiveness of combinations of cannabis compounds against OC. Cytotoxic activity was determined by XTT assay on HTB75 and HTB161 cell lines. Apoptosis and cell cycle were determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Gene expression was determined by quantitative PCR. The two most active fractions, F5 and F7, from a high Δ9–tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) cannabis strain extract and their standard mix (SM) showed cytotoxic activity against OC cells. The most effective phytocannabinoid combination was THC+cannabichromene (CBC)+cannabigerol (CBG). F5, F7 and SM affected cell cycle, led to cell apoptosis and to a marked reduction in cell migration. Moreover, these fractions act in synergy with niraparib, and were ~50 fold more cytotoxic to OC cells than to normal keratenocytes. Niraparib+F7 treatment was effective on OC patient's cells. F7 and the niraparin+fraction (F5 and F7) treatments reduced Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 4 (MAPK4) gene expression; this reduction may act in synergy with the niraparib inhibition of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) activity. Combinations of cannabis compounds and niraparib should be examined for efficacy in pre-clinical studies and clinical trials.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: systematic review; cannabis; neuroimaging; age-of-onset psychosis; psychosis; schizophrenia
Online: 14 May 2021 (09:58:14 CEST)
Acute exposure to cannabis has been associated with an array of cognitive alterations, increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, and other neuropsychiatric sequelae including the emergence of acute psychotic symptoms. However, the brain alterations associating cannabis use and these behavioral and clinical phenotypes remains disputed. To this end, neuroimaging can be a powerful technique to non-invasively study the impact of cannabis exposure on brain structure and function in both humans and animal models. While chronic exposure studies provide insight into how use may be related to long-term outcomes, acute exposure may reveal interesting information regarding the immediate impact of use and abuse on brain circuits. Understanding these alterations could reveal the connection with symptom dimensions in neuropsychiatric disorders and, more specifically with psychosis. The purpose of the present review is to: 1) provide an update on the findings of pharmacological neuroimaging studies examining the effects of administered cannabinoids and 2) focus the discussion on studies that examine the sensitive window for the emergence of psychosis. Current literature indicates that cannabis exposure has varied effects on the brain, with the principal compounds in cannabis (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) altering activity across different brain regions. Importantly, we also discorvered critical gaps in the literature, particularly regarding sex-dependent responses and long-term effects of chronic exposure. Certain networks often characterized as dysregulated in psychosis, like the default mode network and limbic system, were also impacted by THC exposure, identifying areas of particular interest for future work investigating the potential relationship between the two.
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: cannabis; cannabinergic; drug; FDA-approved; medical conditions; pharmaceutical-grade; phytocannabinoid
Online: 31 August 2020 (10:38:32 CEST)
Despite the surge in the research of cannabis chemistry and its biological and medical activity, only a few cannabis-based pharmaceutical-grade drugs have been developed and marketed to date. Not many of these drugs are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and some are still going through regulation processes. Active compounds including cannabinergic compounds (i.e., molecules targeted to modulate the endocannabinoid system) or analogs of phytocannabinoids (cannabinoids produced by the plant) may be developed into single-molecule drugs. However, since in many cases treatment with whole plant extract is preferred over treatment with a single purified molecule, some more recently developed cannabis-derived drugs contain several molecules. Different combinations of active plant ingredients (API) from cannabis with proven synergy may be identified and developed as drugs to treat different medical conditions. However, possible negative effects between cannabis compounds should also be considered, as well as the effect of the cannabis treatment on the endocannabinoid system. FDA registration of single, few or multiple molecules as drugs is a challenging process and certain considerations that should be reviewed in this process, including issues of drug-drug interactions, are also discussed here.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0668.v1
Subject: Keywords: marijuana; medicinal cannabis (MC); chronic pain (CP); cannabidiol (CBD); tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Online: 26 November 2020 (11:22:28 CET)
Rationale:First discovered in 1990, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) was initially shown to have an intimate relationship with central areas of the nervous system associated with pain, reward, and motivation. Recently, however, the ECS has been extensively implicated in the cardiovascular system with contractility, heart rate, blood pressure, and vasodilation. Emerging data demonstrates modulation of the ECS plays an essential role in cardio metabolic risk, atherosclerosis, and can even limit damage to cardiomyocytes during ischemic events.Patient Concerns:This case describes a 63-year-old male who presented to a primary care physician for a medical cannabis (MC) consult due to unstable angina (UA) not relieved by morphine or cardiac medications; having failed all first- and second-line poly-pharmaceutical therapies. The patient reported frequent, unprovoked, angina and exertional dyspnea.Diagnosis:Having a complex cardiac history, the patient first presented 22 years ago after a suspected myocardial infarction (MI). He re-presented in 2010 and underwent stent placement at that time for inoperable triple-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) which was identified via percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. UA developed on follow up and, despite medical management over the past 6 years, his UA became progressively debilitating.Interventions and Outcomes:In conjunction with his standard cardiac care, patient had a gradual lessening of UA related pain, including frequency and character, after using an edible form of medical cannabis (MC) (1:1 CBD:THC). Following continued treatment, he ceased long term morphine treatment and describes the pain as no longer crippling. As demonstrated by his exercise tolerance tests, the patient experienced an improved functional capacity and reported an increase in his daily functioning, and overall activity.Lessons:This case uniquely highlights MC in possibly reducing the character, quality, and frequency of UA; while concordantly improving functional cardiac capacity in a patient with CAD. Additional case reports are necessary to verify this.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0003.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: Cannabis; hemp; pollen; retting; bacteria; molecular biomarkers; 16S rRNA genes; historical records
Online: 1 August 2022 (04:28:27 CEST)
Documenting prehistoric and historical hemp retting for fiber extraction is important in the study of human uses of this iconic plant and its cultural implications. In paleoecology, hemp retting is usually inferred from indirect proxies, notably anomalously high percentages of Cannabis pollen in lake sediments, but some recent studies have also used specific molecular biomarkers (cannabinol, Cannabis DNA) as a more straightforward evidence. Here we provide direct evidence of hemp retting by identifying phylogenetic signatures (16S rRNA genes) from pectinolytic bacteria actually responsible for the fermentation process that separates the fiber from the stalk, namely Bacillus, Clostridium, Escherichia, Massilia, Methylobacterium, Pseusomonas, Rhizobium and Rhodobacter. These analyses have been performed in the sediments from an Iberian lake previously considered as an important hemp retting site during the last five centuries, on the basis of Cannabis pollen abundances. The good match between biomarker and pollen evidence, in the context of the recent historical development of hemp industry in Spain, can be useful to interpret paleoecological records from other similar lakes in the way toward a more regional view on the introduction, spreading, uses and associated cultural connotations of Cannabis in the Iberian Peninsula within European and Mediterranean contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0163.v1
Subject: Keywords: Cannabis sativa; PPFD; light intensity; light response curve; indoor; sole source; cannabinoid; terpene
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:04:08 CET)
Since the recent legalization of medical and recreational use of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) in many regions worldwide, there has been high demand for research to improve yield and quality. With the paucity of scientific literature on the topic, this study investigated the relationships between light intensity (LI) and photosynthesis, inflorescence yield, and inflorescence quality of cannabis grown in an indoor environment. After growing vegetatively for 2 weeks under a canopy-level photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of ≈ 425 μmol·m-2·s-1 and an 18-h light/6-h dark photoperiod, plants were grown for 12 weeks in a 12-h light/12-h dark ‘flowering’ photoperiod under canopy-level PPFDs ranging from 120 to 1800 μmol·m-2·s-1 provided by light emitting diodes. Leaf light response curves varied both with localized (i.e., leaf-level) PPFD and temporally, throughout the flowering cycle. Therefore, it was concluded that the leaf light response is not a reliable predictor of whole- plant responses to LI, particularly crop yield. This may be especially evident given that dry inflorescence yield increased linearly with increasing canopy-level PPFD up to 1800 μmol·m-2·s-1, while leaf-level photosynthesis saturated well below 1800 μmol·m-2·s-1. The density of the apical inflorescence and harvest index also increased linearly with increasing LI, resulting in higher-quality marketable tissues and less superfluous tissue to dispose of. There were no LI treatment effects on cannabinoid potency, while there were minor LI treatment effects on terpene potency. Commercial cannabis growers can use these light response models to determine the optimum LI for their production environment to achieve the best economic return; balancing input costs with the commercial value of their cannabis products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0197.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Cannabis, obesity, body mass index, CB1R, AEA, 2-AG, meta-analysis, theory, causation
Online: 11 July 2018 (11:49:02 CEST)
Obesity is treatment-resistant, and is linked with a number of serious, chronic diseases. Adult obesity rates in the United States have tripled since the early 1960s. Recent reviews show that an increased ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids contributes to obesity rates by increasing levels of the endocannabinoid signals AEA and 2-AG, overstimulating CB1R and leading to increased caloric intake, reduced metabolic rates, and weight gain. Cannabis, or THC, also stimulates CB1R and increases caloric intake during acute exposures. The present meta-analysis reveals significantly reduced body mass index and rates of obesity in Cannabis users, in conjunction with increased caloric intake. We provide for the first time a causative explanation for this paradox, in which rapid and long-lasting downregulation of CB1R following acute Cannabis consumption reduces energy intake and storage and increases metabolic rates, thus reversing the impact on body mass index of elevated dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: cannabis; cannabinoids; THC; CBD, drug-drug interactions; pharmacokinetic; cytochrome P450; UDP- glucuronosyltransferases; glucoprotein-P
Online: 3 December 2018 (16:07:43 CET)
Endocannbinoids system (ECS) engrossed a considerable interest as potential therapeutic targets in various carcinomas and cancer related conditions alongside with neurodegenerative diseases. Cannabinoids are implemented in several physiological processes such as appetite stimulation, energy balance, pain modulation and the control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). However, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics interactions could be perceived in drug combinations, so in this short review we tried to shed the light over the potential drug interactions of medicinal cannabis. Hitherto, few data have been provided to the healthcare practitioners about the drug-drug interactions of cannabinoids with other prescription medications. In general, cannabinoids are usually well tolerated, but the bidirectional effects may be expected with concomitant administered agents via affected membrane transporters (glycoprotein p, breast cancer resistance proteins) and metabolizing enzymes (Cytochrome P450 and UDP- glucuronosyltransferases). The caveats should be undertaken to closely monitor the responses of cannabis users with certain drugs to guard their safety, especially for the elderly and people with chronic diseases or kidney and liver conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0232.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: food safety; risk assessment; Cannabis sativa; tetrahydrocannabinol; food supplements; cannabidiol; benchmark dose; reference dose; liver toxicity
Online: 5 September 2022 (04:34:49 CEST)
At present, foods containing cannabidiol (CBD) and other cannabinoids are internationally being widely advertised and sold in increasing quantities. In the European Union (EU), these products require pre-marketing authorisation under the novel food regulation, so that all available CBD oils and CBD-containing food supplements in the EU are currently placed on the market with an infringement of the food laws. Currently, 19 CBD applications are under assessment at the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). During the initial assessment of the application files, EFSA located several knowledge gaps that need to be addressed before the safety evaluation of CBD can be concluded. Namely, the effect of CBD on the liver, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine system, nervous system, psychological function, and reproductive system needs to be clarified. Nevertheless, the available literature allows a benchmark dose (BMD)-response modelling of several bioassays, resulting in a BMD lower confidence limit (BMDL) of 20 mg/kg bw/day for liver toxicity in rats. Human data in healthy volunteers found increases in the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in a study at 4.3 mg/kg bw/day, which was defined by EFSA as a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). The EFSA panel currently concluded that the safety of CBD as a novel food cannot be evaluated, leading to a so-called clock stop of the applications until the applicants provide the required data. Meanwhile, the authors suggest that CBD products still available on the EU market despite the lack of authorisation must be considered as “unsafe”. Products exceeding a reference dose of 10 mg/day must be considered as being “unfit for consumption” (Article 14(1) and (2) (b) of Regulation No 178/2002), while the ones in exceedance of the human LOAEL must be considered “injurious to health” (Article 14(1) and (2) (a) of Regulation No 178/2002).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: adolescence; substance use; cannabis use; ordered logistic regression; fuzzy set theory; fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis; Boolean functions.
Online: 18 February 2022 (11:49:13 CET)
The literature on substance use usually extracts conclusions from data with correlational methods. Our study shows the usefulness of complementing ordered logistic regression (OLR) and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to assess factors inducing cannabis consumption in a sample of 1,935 teenagers. OLR showed a significant influence of gender (odd ratio (OR) =0.383, p<0.0001), parental monitoring (OR=0.587, p=0.0201); religiousness (OR=0.476, p=0.006); parental tolerance to substance use (OR=42.01, p<0.0001) and having close peers that consume substances (OR=5.60, p<0.0001). FsQCA has allowed fitting linkages between factors from a complementary perspective. (1) Coverage (cov) and consistency (cons) attained by solutions explaining use (cons=0.808, cov=0.357) are clearly lower than by recipes of non-use (cons=0.952, cov=0.869) (2) The interaction of gender, a tolerant family to use and the attitude toward substances by peers is very consistent to explain cannabis use. (3) The most important recipe explaining resistance to cannabis is simply parental disagreement with substance consumption (cons=0.956, cov=0.861) (4) Factors as gender, religiosity, parental monitoring and age show also a relevant impact on attitude toward cannabis use. However, whereas some of them impact symmetrically on use and non-use this does not follow in factors such as parental monitoring or age.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: endocannabinoid system; anandamide; 2-AG; cannabis; cannabinoid receptor 1; cannabinoid receptor 2; PPARSa, b; Ht1a; TRPV1; GPR55; cannabidiol; CBD; THC; CBG; CBC; tetrahydrocannabinol
Online: 26 June 2019 (07:28:52 CEST)
The endocannabinoid system has been found to be pervasive in mammalian species. It has also been described in invertebrate species primitive as the Hydra. Insects apparently are devoid of this otherwise ubiquitous system that provides homeostatic balance to the nervous and immune systems, as well as many other organ systems. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been defined to consist of three parts: 1. Endogenous ligands, 2. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and 3. Enzymes to degrade and recycle the ligands. Two endogenous molecules have been identified as ligands in the ECS to date. These are the endocannabinoids: Anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonoyl glycerol). Two G-coupled protein receptors have been described as part of this system, with other putative GPC being considered. Coincidentally, the phytochemicals produced in large quantities by the Cannabis sativa L plant, and in lesser amounts by other plants, can interact with this system as ligands. These plant-based cannabinoids are termed, phytocannabinoids. The precise determination of the distribution of cannabinoid receptors in animal species is an ongoing project, with the canine cannabinoid receptor distribution currently receiving the most interest in non-human animals.