ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0578.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: ecological footprint calculator; ecological footprint; environmental knowledge; environmental education; environmental values; carbon footprint calculator; carbon footprint; ecological behaviour; pro-environmental behaviour
Online: 25 February 2021 (12:00:10 CET)
Ecological footprint calculators are digital tools that help individuals calculate their environmental or climate impact, with the aim of stimulating pro-environmental behaviour change. These footprint calculators typically take an information-provision approach, but this strategy assumes that increased levels of knowledge result in increased levels of pro-environmental behaviour (i.e., a reduced footprint). This is not a given – existing literature on the relationship between environmental knowledge and pro-environmental behaviour is inconclusive, and this relationship may be different from that of environmental knowledge and ecological footprint. As such, we investigated the relationship between environmental knowledge and ecological footprint as estimated by a footprint calculator. 448 Dutch participants completed an online survey, including an ecological footprint calculator. We found no evidence for a relationship between environmental knowledge and ecological footprint calculator outcome. Rather, an exploratory analysis of our data showed that environmental values were more important predictors of ecological footprint. The finding that increased levels of knowledge are not related to a reduced ecological footprint suggests that calculators would do well to move beyond information provision, and employ additional behaviour change strategies. Based on our exploratory analysis, we provide several concrete examples of potential strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0007.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Semi-structured complex numbers; Division by zero; computer science; Calculator; Exception handling
Online: 3 April 2023 (04:26:06 CEST)
Semi-structured complex numbers H was a number set developed to enable division by zero in ordinary algebraic equations. Its utility has been shown in mathematics and engineering. However, very little has been done to show its usefulness in computer science. Consequently, the aim of this paper was to show the utility of semi-structured complex numbers in computer science by developing a division by zero calculator. First two computer programs were written, one for a standard (STD) calculator and the other for a division by zero (DBZ) calculator. The programs were fed 20000 randomly generated arithmetic equations of varying lengths and the space and time complexity associated with processing these equations were measured and compared to determine the efficiency of each calculator. In the process, three major contributions were made: (1) A representation for semi-structured complex numbers that enables it to be easily used by a computer was developed; (2) It was demonstrated that the DBZ calculator outperforms the STD calculator in terms of efficiency; and, (3) It was shown that the number set H reduced the amount of error handling required to run a computer program. These results provide a firm foundation to advance the number set as a useful tool in computer science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0094.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-COV-2; False-Positive; False-Negative; Likelihood Ratio; Probability; Calculator; Interpretation
Online: 3 March 2021 (10:08:27 CET)
Identifying the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been a unique challenge for the scientific community. In this paper, we discuss a practical solution to help guide clinicians with interpretation of the probability that a positive, or negative, COVID-19 test result indicates an infected person, based on their clinical estimate of pre-test probability of infection.The authors conducted a small survey on LinkedIn to confirm that hypothesis that that the clinical pre-test probability of COVID-19 increases relative to local prevalence of disease plus patient age, known contact, and severity of symptoms. We examined results of PPA (Positive Percent Agreement, sensitivity) and NPA (Negative Percent Agreement, specificity) from 73 individual laboratory experiments for molecular tests for SARS-CoV-2 as reported to the FIND database 1, and for selected methods in FDA EUA submissions2,3. Authors calculated likelihood ratios to convert pre-test to post-test probability of disease and designed an online calculator to create graphics and text to report results. Despite best efforts, false positive and false negative Covid-19 test results are unavoidable4,5. A positive or negative test result from one laboratory has a different probability for the presence of disease than the same result from another laboratory. Likelihood ratios and confidence intervals can convert the physician or other healthcare professional’s clinical estimate of pre-test probability to post-test probability of disease. Ranges of probabilities differ depending on proven method PPA and NPA in each laboratory. We recommend that laboratories verify PPA and NPA and utilize a the “Clinician’s Probability Calculator” to verify acceptable test performance and create reports to help guide clinicians with estimation of post-test probability of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: newborn; antibiotic stewardship; sepsis risk calculator; early onset sepsis; infant; KAP study; mother baby nurse; mother baby unit
Online: 6 September 2023 (11:21:46 CEST)
Successful implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) requires a well-structured approach involving all stakeholders. Despite embracing key responsibilities, nurses’ role remains poorly defined, preventing consistent engagement. We conducted a scoping survey to assess knowledge, attitude and perception of nurses towards nurse-led initial sepsis risk evaluation using the sepsis risk calculator (SRC) of newborns admitted to the mother-baby unit. Single-center, cross-sectional study. Study link was sent to all full-time nurses in mother-baby unit. Survey centered around knowledge of unit’s ASP and attitude and perception towards nurse-led initial sepsis risk evaluation. 89% response rate. 100% agreed that SRC reduced antibiotic use and 66% felt nurse-led sepsis risk evaluation will enhance nurse involvement, but this was offset by extra burden of work (66%) and low confidence in differentiating stable from clinically unstable infants (46%). Other facilitating factors included greater nurse/patient ratio (100%), targeted education (89%) and incorporation of the SRC into EMR (78%). Only 11% were willing to serve as champions for it. There was no significant correlation to age or experience however, greater number of fresh grads were interested in championing this effort. Our study identifies a need for strong foundation of knowledge and greater nurse/patient ratio as two main factors for improving nurse-led use of the SRC. Multi-site studies scoping barriers to nursing involvement for successful implementation of ASPs are necessary.