REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0448.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: C-reactive protein; hs-CRP; albumins; Glasgow Prognostic Score; Endometrial Cancer; CRP to albumin ratio; CRP; Cancer; Inflammation
Online: 19 July 2020 (21:13:19 CEST)
Endometrial Cancer (EC) is the sixth most commonly occurring cancer in women with 380 000 cases in 2018. Sadly, EC morbidity and mortality are continuously increasing, therefore the medical society have a substantial need for an accurate and inexpensive diagnostic test for EC early detection and a prognostic tool for treatment planning and evaluation. Considering experience with different types of cancers C-reactive protein (CRP) appears to be a promising diagnostic and prognostic factor. Aiming to investigate its potential and in view of EC authors, this paper reviewed the following databases for metanalysis, randomized controlled trials and review articles published up to June 2020: Pubmed, Scopus, Google scholar and ClinicalKey. Studies indicate CRP >3.33 mg/l correlate with EC incidence with HR = 2.29 (p<0.05). Moreover, High-sensitivity CRP assay allows to detect CRP in very low concentrations and distinguish patients with endometriosis, soft tissue sarcomas and possibly EC. Preoperational and postoperational CRP, as well as its dynamic change are independent prognostic factors for EC and are more reliable if analyzed together. However, CRP-to-albumin ratio as well as Glasgow Prognostic Scale have greater prognostic value that CRP alone. Additionally, CRP is possibly a mediator of carcinogenesis and cancer progression through activation of inter alia FcgRs/MAPK/ERK, FcgRs/IL-6/AKT/STAT3 and FcgRs/NF-κB/NLRP3 pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1394.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); c-reactive protein (CRP); CRP/lymphocytes (CLR); inflammation; biomarker
Online: 21 September 2023 (04:29:15 CEST)
C-reactive protein to lymphocyte ratio (CLR) has been shown to be associated with diseases characterized by chronic, low-grade inflammation. Since type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is also associated with inflammation, we aimed to study the association between CLR and T2DM. Patients with T2DM who presented to internal medicine outpatient clinics of our institution were divided into 2 groups according to their glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels as well-controlled (HbA1c<7%) and poorly controlled (HbA1c≥7%) T2DM groups. Subjects assigned as healthy in routine check-up were included as control group. CLR values of the well and poorly controlled diabetics and control cases were compared. CLR of T2DM group (3.51 (0.03-21.78)) was significantly higher than that of the controls (0.65 (0.02-2.92)) (p<0.001). CLR was found to have a sensitivity of 63.2% and a specificity of 97.3% in predicting T2DM. The CLR value of patients with poor diabetic control was 4.76 (0.06-21.78), while the CLR value of patients with well controlled disease was 2.53 (0.03-12.07) (p<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the CLR in demonstrating poor diabetic control was 41.2% and the 86.1%, respectively. In conclusion, elevated CLR in T2DM patients and even more increased levels in poorly controlled diabetics suggest that CLR could be a useful additional diagnostic tool in treatment follow-up of the T2DM population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Lymphocytes; liver function biomarkers; WBCs; and CRP
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:28:34 CEST)
Abstract Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the clinical laboratory features of moderate and severe COVID-19 patients among a cohort of the Egyptian population. The study also aimed to assess the accuracy—sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of various detected parameters in predicting the severity of COVID-19 infection. Patients and methods: One hundred diagnosed COVID-19 patients and fifty healthy participants in total were involved in current study. COVID-19 patients were categorized based on how severe their symptoms into two groups. Estimates were made for serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as white blood cells (WBCs) count, lymphocytes count, and hemoglobin content (Hb) content. Results: COVID-19 patients displayed increased serum levels of liver enzymes and CRP as well as WBCs count when compared to healthy individuals. On the other hand, Hb content, lymphocytes count, and albumin level fell in all COVID-19 patients. The severe group showed a statistically significant rise in liver enzymes, WBCs, and CRP levels, compared with moderate group. WBCs and lymphocytes counts were closely correlated with age, ALT, LDH, and CRP in all cases. WBCs and lymphocytes counts also had a negative correlation with albumin Level. Additionally, WBCs count, lymphocytes count, LDH activity and CRP level have higher AUC in severe than in moderate cases. WBCs count, LDH activity and CRP level have AUC above 0.80 in the severe group. Conclusion: The current investigation found a significant correlation between WBCs count, lymphocytes count, CRP level and liver injury in COVID-19 patients. WBCs count, lymphocytes count, LDH activity and CRP level were effective indicators for determining the severity of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis; chemerin; visfatin; CRP; uric acid
Online: 29 October 2019 (09:31:13 CET)
Objective: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the synovium and articular cartilage that initiates joint damage. RA associates with a change in many inflammatory biomarkers. The present study aims to measure the levels of inflammatory adipocytokines (chemerin and visfatin) and their ratio in addition to some related biomarkers in RA patients group in comparison to healthy control group and find out their efficacy in diagnosis of RA.Methods: The study included 60 RA patients and 30 healthy control group. Serum visfatin and chemerin were measured by using ELISA technique, while other biomarkers were determined spectrophotometrically. Multivariate general linear model analysis and Receiver operating curve was used to study the opportunity of using chemerin and visfatin as diagnostic tools for RA.Results: The results indicated that there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in all lipid profile components, except HDLc that decreased, in RA patients in comparison with healthy control group; while significant decrease (p<0.001) in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol of RA patients in comparison with control group. Serum chemerin, visfatin, C-reactive protein, and uric acid levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in RA patients than those of control group. The results showed a relatively good sensitivity and specificity of chemerin (sensitivity=88.1, specificity=75.9) at a concentration=187.88ng in diagnosis of RA.Conclusions: chemerin is able to diagnose RA efficiently but this diagnoses, due to relatively small specificity, may interfere with other inflammatory disorders. However, with adjuvant with other diagnostic parameters, chemerin may represent a useful addition in diagnosis of RA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: COVID-19; CRP; vitamin D insufficiency; vitamin D spray
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:21:04 CEST)
Background: According to newly published studies, patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have significantly lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D levels than those without the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vitamin D insufficiency may be a predictor of poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D supplementation is related to improved clinical outcomes in terms of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death, particularly in individuals with moderate-to-severe forms of COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Materials and methods: This placebo-controlled five-day study was performed on 100 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with vitamin D insufficiency randomized into two groups. Vitamin D in the form of a sublingual sprayable microemulsion (LYL love your life® sunD3 LYLmicro™) was given three times daily after breakfast, lunch, and dinner (daily dose 12,000 IU) to 52 patients with blood vitamin D levels below 30 ng/ml. 48 patients in the control group received a placebo spray in the same daily regiment. Results: We observed a statistically significant increase by 8.6 ng/ml in median vitamin D level after five days of high-dose vitamin D3 spray therapy. 90.2% of subjects reached normal serum levels of vitamin D. There was a strong correlation between changes in vitamin D and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in individuals with moderately severe disease (p<0.05), while mild and severe cases showed no statistical significance comparing case and control groups. There were no statistically significant changes in ferritin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrated the possibility to rapidly increase circulating levels of vitamin D just in 5 days of high-dose intervention and found a statistically significant decrease of CRP levels in patients with moderately severe COVID-19. We were not able to detect statistically significant changes in ferritin and IL-6 levels during the 5-day vitamin D intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0002.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: controlled/”living” radical polymerization (CRP); polymer brush; poly(acrylonitrile)
Online: 1 May 2017 (07:32:56 CEST)
A new approach for the preparation of polymer brush was developed via the union of controlled/“living” radical polymerization and click chemistry. The application of the approach realized the more quickly and accurate design and synthesis of the polymer brushes. A novel functional polymer brush of poly(acrylonitrile-g-glycidyl methacrylate) with tremendous application potential in the field of biology has been successfully synthesized via the new approach. The reaction conditions of click chemistry were optimized with the reaction time and the reactant ratio and judged from UV-vis spectra. Under the optimum of click chemistry, the novel functional polymer brushes were prepared. The GPC, FTIR analyses, 1H NMR spectrum and TGA were employed to ensure the successful synthesis of poly(acrylonitrile-g-glycidyl methacrylate) polymer brushes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1840.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID19; Biomarkers; CRP; PCT; modeling analysis; ICU-acquired infections; Monitoring
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:49:50 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 infection is a cause of hypoxemic acute respiratory failure, leading to frequent intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Due to invasive organ support and immunosuppressive therapies, these patients are prone to nosocomial infections. Our aim was to assess the value of daily measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) and Procalcitonin (PCT) in the early identification of ICU-acquired infections in COVID-19 patients Methods: We undertook a prospective observational cohort study (12 months). All adult me-chanically-ventilated patients admitted for ≥ 72 hours to the ICU with COVID-19 pneumonia were divided into an infected group (n=35) and a non-infected group (n=83). Day 0 was considered as the day of the diagnosis of infection (infected group) and day 10 of ICU stay (non-infected group). The kinetics of CRP and PCT were assessed from day -10 to day 10 and evaluated using a general linear model, univariate, repeated-measures analysis. Results: 118 patients (mean age 63 years, 74% males) were eligible for the analysis. The groups did not differ in patients' age, gender, CRP, and PCT serum levels at ICU admission. However, the infected group encompassed patients with a higher severity (SOFA score at ICU admission, p=0.009) and a higher 28-day mortality (p<0.001). Before D0, CRP kinetics showed a significant increase in infected patients, whereas in noninfected it remained almost unchanged (p<0.001), while PCT kinetics did not appear to retain diagnostic value to predict superinfection in COVID-19 patients (p=0.593). Conclusion: COVID-19 patients who develop ICU-acquired infections exhibited different biomarker kinetics before the diagnosis of those infections. Daily CRP monitoring and the recognition of the CRP kinetics could be useful in the prediction of ICU-acquired infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1686.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Schizophrenia; Lactate; Physical exercise; Creatine Kinase (CK); C-Reactive Protein (CRP)
Online: 24 August 2023 (08:20:32 CEST)
Background: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder associated with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers such as lactate; in addition, the rate of physical inactivity in this population is very high, which leads to physical and metabolic alterations. Aims: This study measured the effect of assisted physical exercise over lactate levels in schizophrenia. Methods: Stable outpatients with schizophrenia and a group of Healthy controls received two different programs of Physical exercise (Aerobic and Functional) in a clinical trial. Results: Patients had higher lactate compared to healthy controls before and after intervention, and had higher rate of lactate increase after activity. The finding of increased lactate in schizophrenia detected before and after physical exercise deserve further attention in biomarker studies and in the development of physical rehabilitation in schizophrenia, suggesting different profile of oxidative metabolism after physical exercise. Basal increased lactate may reflect mitochondrial dysfunction or metabolic dysregulation, and the higher rate of increase may reflect a different metabolic and oxidative process. Conclusion: The finding is in line with recent studies as surrogate of mitochondrial dysfunction in schizophrenia and points to the need of additional studies on mitochondrial activity in schizophrenia, and to additional care in the design of physical interventions in schizophrenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0100.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: feed-forward loop (FFL); cAMP receptor protein (CRP); transcriptional factor (TF).
Online: 6 June 2018 (16:00:56 CEST)
The feed-forward loop (FFL) is an important and basic network motif to understand specific biological functions. Cyclic-AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP), a transcription factor (TF), mediates catabolite repression and regulates more than 400 genes in response to changes in intracellular concentrations of cAMP in Escherichia coli. CRP participates in some FFLs like araBAD and araFGH operons and adapt to fluctuating environmental nutrients thus enhancing the survivability of E. coli. Although computational simulations have been used to explore the potential functionality of FFLs, a comprehensive study of the functions of all structural types based on in vivo data is lacking. Also, the regulatory role of CRP-mediated feed-forward loops (CRP-FFLs) remain unclear to date. Using EcoCyc and RegulonDB, we identified 393 CRP-FFLs in the E. coli. Dose-response genomic microarray of E. coli revealed dynamic gene expression of each target gene of CRP-FFLs in response to a range of cAMP dosages. All eight types of FFLs were present in CRP regulon with various expression patterns of each CRP-FFL, that were further divided into five functional groups. Microarray and reported regulatory relationships identified 202 CRP-FFLs which were directly regulated by CRP in these eight types of FFLs. Interestingly, 30% (147/482) of genes were directly regulated by CRP and CRP-regulated TFs, indicating that these CRP-regulated genes were also regulated by other CRP-regulated TFs responding to environmental signals through CRP-FFLs. Furthermore, we applied gene ontology annotation to reveal the biological functions of CRP-FFLs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0191.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: BDNF; CRP; C-peptide; leptin; pregnancy; skinfold thickness; thyroid hormones; type-1 diabetes mellitus
Online: 11 January 2023 (02:57:33 CET)
The study aimed to determine the relationship between glucose, C-peptide, BDNF, and leptin between mother and fetus and neonatal weight. Methods: In the prospective observational cohort study, we included 66 women with T1DM. According to the z-score for neonatal weight, patients were divided into Healthy weight neonates (n=42) and Overweight neonates (n=24). The maternal blood samples were taken during pregnancy and cesarean section when the umbilical vein blood sample was also withdrawn. The maternal vein sera were analyzed for fasting glucose, CRP, leptin, BDNF, TSH, FT3, and FT4. The umbilical vein sera were analyzed for glucose, C-peptide, leptin, TSH, FT3, FT4, and BDNF concentration. The neonatologist measured the skinfold thickness on the third day of neonatal life. Results: A strong correlation was confirmed between maternal and umbilical vein glucose concentration and maternal glucose and C-peptide in umbilical vein blood. A negative correlation was found between the concentration of BDNF in the umbilical vein and glucose in maternal blood. A strong correlation was seen between BMI and maternal blood leptin concentration, neonatal fat body mass, and umbilical vein blood leptin concentration. Increased odds for Overweight neonates were BMI, BDNF, and TSH in the first trimester of pregnancy. Maternal leptin concentration decreased the odds of Overweight neonates. Conclusions: Maternal glucose concentrations affect the fetus’s glucose, C-peptide, and BDNF concentrations. Leptin levels increase in maternal blood due to increased body mass index, and in the neonate, its fat body mass is responsible for increased leptin concentrations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Major depression; inflammation; sickness behaviour; mechanism; model; microglia; zcitokynes; CRP; blood brain barrier; choroid plexus
Online: 3 March 2022 (10:28:08 CET)
Current lines of research into mood disorders indicate that immune mediators participating in the pathophysiology of chronic somatic disorders have potent influences on brain functions, even when these mediators are produced in peripheral tissues. Elevated levels of circulating immune molecules have been consistently associated with depressive symptoms in a number of clinical populations and experimental models, to the extent that major depressive disorder (MDD) is now seen, at least in part, as a disorder of immunity. This paradigm has brought to the fore the use of anti-inflammatory therapies as adjunctive to standard antidepressant therapy with the hope to improve treatment efficacy, particularly in those cohorts that do not respond well to standard medication. Such new practice requires the availability of biomarkers to tailor these new therapies to those most likely to benefit but also clear mechanisms of action describing the interaction between peripheral immunity and brain function. These mechanisms are generally studied in preclinical models that try to recapitulate the human disease through peripherally induced sickness behaviour as the model for immune-induced MDD. After an appraisal of the data in rodent models and their adherence to the data in clinical cohorts, we propose a modified model of periphery-brain interaction that goes beyond the currently established view of interaction between peripheral cytokines and microglia cells as the driver of depression. Instead, we suggest that brain barriers are primary actors in the communication between body and brain and, as a consequence, in the pathophysiology of the disease. This model suggests novel biomarkers, novel targets for therapies as well as a novel mechanism for resistance to standard treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Immunotherapy; immune-checkpoint inhibitor; response prediction; men and women; pembrolizumab; nivolumab; atezolizumab; ECOG; CRP; chemo-immunotherapy
Online: 24 November 2021 (09:02:46 CET)
Men with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have a more favorable response to immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) monotherapy, while women especially benefit from ICI-chemotherapy (CHT) combinations. To elucidate such sex differences in clinical practice, we retrospectively analyzed two cohorts treated with either ICI monotherapy (n=228) or ICI-CHT combination treatment (n=80) for advanced NSCLC. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to calculate progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS), influencing variables were evaluated using Cox-regression analyses. No significant sex differences for PFS/OS could be detected in either cohort. Men receiving ICI monotherapy had a statistically significant independent impact on PFS by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG) ≥2 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-3.29, p=0.021), higher C-reactive protein (CRP; HR 1.06, 95%CI: 1.00-1.11, p=0.037) and negative programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) status (HR 2.04, 95%CI: 1.32-3.15, p=0.001), and on OS by CRP (HR 1.09, 95%CI: 1.03-1.14, p=0.002). In men on ICI-CHT combinations, multivariate analyses (MVA) revealed squamous histology (HR 4.00, 95%CI: 1.41-11.2, p=0.009) significant for PFS; ECOG≥2 (HR 5.58, 95%CI: 1.88-16.5, p=0.002) and CRP (HR 1.19, 95%CI: 1.06-1.32, p=0.002) for OS. Among women undergoing ICI monotherapy, no variable proved significant for PFS, ECOG≥2 had a significant interaction with OS (HR 1.90, 95%CI 1.04-3.46, p=0.037). Women treated with ICI-CHT had significant MVA findings for CRP with both PFS (HR 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02-1.16, p=0.007) and OS (HR 1.11, 95%CI: 1.03-1.19, p=0.004). Although men and women responded similarly to both ICI mono- and ICI-CHT treatment, predictors of response differed by sex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: C-reactive protein; STEMI; AMI; CRP apheresis; CMR; MRI; infarct size; inflammation; inflammatory mediators; ischaemia; hypoxia; phagocytosis
Online: 12 October 2022 (13:41:12 CEST)
In the multicenter, non-randomized, exploratory C-reactive protein (CRP) Apheresis in Myocardial Infarction (CAMI-1) study, CRP apheresis after ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) significantly decreased blood CRP concentrations in humans. Cardiac damage was assessed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR1) 3-9 d after onset of STEMI symptoms and quantified by myocardial infarct size (IS; %), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; %), circumferential strain (CS) and longitudinal strain (LS) Compared with the control group (n=34), cardiac damage was significantly lower in the apheresis group (n=32). These findings suggested improved wound healing due to CRP apheresis already within few days after the STEMI event. In the current supplementary data analysis of CAMI-1, we have tested by a follow-up CMR (CMR2) after an average of 88 (65-177) d whether the effect of CRP apheresis is clinically maintained. After this time period wound healing in STEMI is considered complete. Whereas patients with low CRP production and a CRP gradient cut off of <0.6 mg/L/h in the hours after STEMI (9 of 32 patients in the CRP apheresis group) did not significantly benefit from CRP apheresis in CMR2, patients with high CRP production and a CRP gradient cut off of >0.6 mg/L/h (23 of 32 patients in the CRP apheresis group) showed significant treatment benefit. In the latter patients, CMR2 revealed a lower IS (-5.4%; p=0.05), a better LVEF (+6.4%; p=0.03), and an improved CS (-6.1%; p=0.005). No significant improvement, however, was observed for LS (-2.9%; p=0.1). These data suggest a sustained positive effect of CRP apheresis on the heart physiology in STEMI patients with high CRP production well beyond the period of its application. The data demonstrate the sustainability of the CRP removal from plasma which is associated with less scar tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: blood component removal; C-reactive protein; CRP apheresis; COVID-19; multiple organ fail-ure; pulmonary fibrosis; SARS virus
Online: 2 March 2022 (02:34:23 CET)
Background: The fulminant course of COVID-19, triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents with a high mortality rate and still lacks a causative treatment. C-reactive protein (CRP) has been shown to increase dramatically during the disease progression and correlates with deleterious outcomes. Selective CRP apheresis can reduce circulating CRP levels fast and effective. Methods: Seven hospitalized patients with documented severe COVID-19 progression, elevated CRP plasma levels (> 100 mg/L) and signs of respiratory failure were treated with CRP apheresis. 2-12 CRP apheresis sessions were performed generally in 24 h time intervals and depending on CRP plasma levels. Results: CRP apheresis reduced CRP plasma levels by up to 84% within a few hours, without exhibiting side effects in any patient. Despite signs of severe lung infiltration in all patients, only one patient died. The other patients showed improvements within the chest x-ray after CRP apheresis and were able to recover regardless of intubation and/or ECMO (4 patients). All remaining six patients were discharged from the hospital in good clinical condition. All patients had comorbidities. Conclusions: This case series presents a mortality rate of only 14%, which is dramatically lower than expected from the presented CRP levels as well as comorbidities and ventilation require-ments. Our clinical observations regarding the here presented seven patients support the hypoth-esis that CRP is a candidate to be therapeutically targeted in the early stage of severe COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: bone mineral markers; phosphate/calcium homeostasis; dialysis; inflammation; mortality; vitamin D receptor polymorphism; diabetes; vascular calcification; hs-CRP; CKD
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:34:19 CEST)
Polymorphism of vitamin D3 receptor (VDR), has been associated with low bone mineral density and other immune and metabolic disorders; however, its impact on mortality of female dialysis patients is not well studied. This study aimed to identify bone mass-related factors, VDR gene polymorphism, and their interaction with morbid conditions that could influence all-cause mortality. In 246 female dialysis patients, age 43±11 years on continuous ambulatory dialysis peritoneal; 48%, haemodialysis; 23% and automated peritoneal dialysis; 29%. Tscore, Ca, PO4, albumin, hs-CRP, osteoprotegerin, fetuin, osteocalcin, iPTH, PINP and β-CTx were measured. PCR products were digested with Bsml to analyze VDR polymorphisms. Patients n=229; were followed for a median of 17 (15-31) months; 42 patients died. Bsml polymorphism, bb=64% and BB+Bb=36%. Hs-CRP was the risk of death in multivariate Cox Analysis. Patients with bb and inflammation had a higher risk of death (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.08-5.68) persisted after adjustment for age, diabetes and iPTH (HR 2.33; 95% CI, 1.01-8.33) and after further adjustment for vintage, albumin, osteoprotegerin and vitamin D therapy (HR 3.49; 95% CI, 1.20-10.9). We may conclude that the presences of the bb genotype of VDR and inflammation have additive effects on all cause-mortality in females in CAPD, APD, and HD patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1456.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: circuit training; resistin; weighted vest; normal weight obesity; cardiopulmonary fitness; Vo2max; IL-6; hs-CRP, cardiovascular; cardiovascular disease risk factors
Online: 22 August 2023 (02:58:37 CEST)
This study investigated the effects of whole-body circuit training using a weighted vest on plasma resistin, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness for normal-weight obese women. In this study, thirty- six normal-weight obese women were divided into three groups: Weighted Vest Circuit Training (WVCT) (n = 12), Body Weight Circuit Training (BWCT) (n = 12), and Control (CON) (n = 12). Whole-body circuit training was conducted three times a week for eight weeks to compare and analyze plasma resistin, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness before and after training. Although there was no significant baseline difference between the groups regarding skeletal muscle mass, it significantly increased for the WVCT group after eight weeks. percent body fat significantly decreased for the WVCT and BWCT groups, and there was a significant difference when the percent body fat of these two groups were compared to that of the control group. Moreover, the WVCT and BWCT groups displayed a significant decrease in plasma resistin, showing a significant difference from the CON group. The WVCT and BWCT group showed a significant decrease in plasma IL-6, whereas the CON group showed a significant increase. VO2max significantly increased post-training compared to before in the BWCT group and the WVCT group, and the WVCT group showed differences between groups compared to the BWCT group and the CON group. None of the three groups displayed significant changes in plasma hs-CRP, yet there was a significant difference between the hs-CRPs of the WVCT and BWCT group and that of the CON group. In conclusion, whole-body circuit training using a weighted vest efficiently improves body composition, plasma resistin, and cardiopulmonary fitness, reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors in normal-weight obese women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0810.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: NLR; CRP; P/F; COVID-19; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio; Neutrophils; Lymphocytes; immune system; biomarkers; SARS-CoV-2; inflammation; ICU; lung failure
Online: 11 May 2023 (07:07:51 CEST)
All severe cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections are characterized by a high risk of disease progression towards ARDS, leading to bad outcome. Respiratory symptoms in COVID-19 patients often do not correspond to disease’s worsening. A dysregulated host response to the large viral load could play a key role in the disease progression. In our sample median age was 74 years (72-75) and 54% were men. Median period of hospitalization was 9 days. Firstly, we observed an asynchronous trend of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in 764 selected among 963 patients who were consecutively recruited in two hospitals (Cannizzaro, S. Marco) in Catania, Italy. NLR values in deceased patients showed an increase from baseline over time. By contrast, CRP tended to fall from baseline to median day of hospitalization in all four subgroups, but steeply increased at the end of hospitalization only in ICU-admitted patients. Then we evaluated the relationships between NLR and CRP as continuous variables with PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P/F). Finally, we made mediation and moderation analyses to determine the link between inflammation (CRP), immune system (neutrophils and lymphocytes) and respiratory failure (P/F). CRP, neutrophils and P/F are linked in the same pathogenetic chain leading to respiratory failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Vascular inflammation; Peripheral arterial disease (PAD); Chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI); GHAS trial; TNF-α; hs-CRP; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); NOX4; eNOS; VEGF-A.
Online: 3 December 2021 (09:44:42 CET)
Background: Vascular inflammation plays a crucial role in peripheral arterial disease (PAD), although the role of the mediators involved has not yet been properly defined. The aim of this work is to investigate gene expression and plasma biomarkers in chronic limb-threating ischemia (CLTI). Methods: Using patients from the GHAS trial, both blood and ischemic muscle samples were obtained to analyze plasma markers and mRNA expression, respectively. Statistical analy-sis was performed by using univariate (Spearman, t-Student, X2) and multivariate (multiple lo-gistic regression) tests. Results: 35 patients were available at baseline (29 for mRNA expression). Baseline characteristics (mean): Age:71.4±12.4 (79.4% male); TNF-α:10.7±4.9; hs-CRP:1.6±2.2; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR):3.5±2.8. Plasma TNF-α was found elevated (≥8.1) in 68.6% of patients, while high hs-CRP (≥0.5) in 60.5%. Diabetic patients with high level of inflammation showed significantly higher levels of NOX4 expression at baseline (p=0.0346). Plasma TNF-α had a negative correlation with eNOS expression (-0.5, p=0.015) and hs-CRP with VEGF-A (-0.63, p=0.005). The expression of NOX4 was parallel to that of plasma TNF-α (0.305, p=0.037), especial-ly in DM. Cumulative mortality at 12-month was related to NLR ≥3 (p=0.019) and TNF-α ≥8.1 (p=0.048). The best cut-off point for NLR to predict mortality was 3.4. Conclusions: NOX4 and TNF-α are crucial for the development and complications of lower limb ischemia, especially in DM. hs-CRP could have a negative influence on angiogenesis too. NLR and TNF-α represent suita-ble markers of mortality in CLTI. These results are novel because they connect muscle gene expres-sion and plasma information in patients with advanced PAD, deepening the search of new and ac-curate targets for this condition.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Computed Tomography (CT), Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), C reactive protein (CRP), Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), Kidney Urinary bladder ( KUB), Dimercapto Succinic Acid (DMSA)
Online: 24 January 2018 (11:41:15 CET)
Renal artery thrombosis is a sporadic serious clinical condition which potentially cause renal infarction. Diagnosis of renal infarction can be delayed or missed due to non specific clinical presentation and overlapping appearance of medical and surgical phenomena. Early diagnosis supported by biochemical and radiological findings while appropriate management potentially improve morbidity and mortality. Persistent abdominal or flank pain with raised LDH and proteinuria on background of thromboembolism risk factors supports the diagnosis. Despite the rarity of the disease rapid identification with prompt medical or endovascular intervention could prevent irreversible renal parenchymal damage.