ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0099.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: COVID-19-sleep disorders; brain mechanisms; the blood-brain barrier permeability.
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:09:41 CEST)
Here, we review findings and trends in sleep research in 2020-2021 demonstrating how COVID-19 and sleep disorders can induce the BBB leakage via neuroinflammation, which might contribute to the 'coronasomnia' phenomenon. The new studies suggest that the controlling of sleep hygiene and quality should be incorporated into the rehabilitation of COVID-19 patients. We also discuss perspective strategies for prevention of COVID-19-related BBB disorders. We demonstrate that sleep might be a novel biomarker of the BBB leakage and the analysis of sleep EEG patterns can be a breakthrough non-invasive technology for diagnosis of the COVID-19-caused BBB disruption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0084.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: long COVID; Post COVID-19 condition; sleep disorders, SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; children
Online: 14 October 2022 (10:13:22 CEST)
Acute SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and adolescents are usually mild. However, they can suffer from ongoing symptoms generally referred as long COVID. Sleep disorders are one of the most frequent complaints in long COVID although precise data are missing. We assessed the sleep behavior of children and adolescents who presented at our outpatient clinic between January 2021 and May 2022 with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ-DE). We compared sleep behavior at three different time points: pre-COVID-19, post-COVID-19 at initial presentation and post-COVID-19 at re-presentation. Data from 45 patients were analyzed. Of those, 64% were female and the median age was 10 years (range 0-18 years). Asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 disease was experienced in 89% of patients, whilst 11% experienced moderate disease. Initial presentation occurred at a median of 20.4 weeks (6 weeks - 14 months) after infection. The CSHQ-DE score increased significantly from pre-COVID-19 (45.82+8.7 points) to post-COVID-19 (49.40+8.3 points; p=<0.01). The score then normalized at re-presentation (46.98+7.8; p=0.1). The greatest changes were seen in the CSHQ-DE subscale score "daytime sleepiness". Our data show that children and adolescents with long COVID often suffer from sleep disturbance. For most children and adolescents these sleep disorders decreased over time without further medical intervention, aside from a basic sleep consultation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Sleep cycle; Sleep pills; Sleep habits; Covid 19; Students; PSQI
Online: 8 March 2023 (08:36:06 CET)
The alterations in sleep among undergraduate students have been a burden to their mental health and academic studies. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scale in this study conducted among Georgian and International students. The respondents participated in this study through the University intranet as their responses remained anonymous. The survey comprised the demographic characteristics and sleep health deteriorating wake patterns such as subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction. A total of 500 students completed this study, 72% were Georgian students, and 28% were international students. 50.8% of Georgian students were under the age of 20 years, and 74.3% of international students were between 21 and 30 years of age. Most Georgian students reported poor subjective sleep quality, short sleep duration, fewer sleep disturbances, and daytime dysfunction. However, sleep latency was higher among international students. Both categories of students reported using sleeping pills as the statistical significance was observed between global score and gender, subjective sleep quality, and age grade of Georgian students (p<0.05). This study aimed to evaluate the sleep-wake health quality among international and Georgian undergraduate students at the University of Georgia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sleep depth; sleep duration; sleep timing; time zones; COVID-19; aviation
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:18:13 CEST)
Fatigue risk to commercial pilots operating under global pandemic conditions had not been in-vestigated prior to COVID-19. Examining how pilots slept during COVID-19 pandemic-specific flights can provide a precedent for estimating fatigue risk for future public health emergencies. Twenty (n=20) pilots flying across five COVID-19 humanitarian missions between Brazil and China wore a sleep-tracking device (the Zulu watch), which has been validated for the estimation of sleep timing (sleep onset and offset), duration, efficiency, and sleep depth (Wake, Interrupted, Light, or Deep Sleep) throughout the mission period. Pilots also reported sleep timing, duration and subjective quality of their in-flight rest periods using a sleep diary. To our knowledge, this is the first report of commercial pilot sleep behavior during ultra-long-range operations under COVID-19 pandemic conditions. Moreover, these analyses provide an estimate of sleep depth during in-flight sleep, which has not been reported previously in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0190.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Sleep habits; Sleep disorders; Students: Academic achievement.
Online: 13 October 2021 (08:26:58 CEST)
Sleep deprivation (failure to get enough sleep) is a public health issue that can negatively impact our body including cognitive function. Many studies have been done in Saudi Arabia to evaluate the impact of poor sleep and academic performance but almost all of them were done at university level. To investigate the relationship between sleep quality and general degree of academic achievement in school students. This is a cross-sectional, school-based study, conducted at Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia. A total of 957 participants (615 male and 342 female) were recruited from a state school. The study used a standardized, confidential, validated self-administered questionnaire to assess sleep quality and habits. By using Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS 22), achievement of the students was significantly related to the following parameters; laziness and fatigue after wake-up time and during school time, lack of concentration during school time, difficulty in complete tasks during school time and inability to maintain wakefulness during school time. Furthermore, students with poor academic degrees reported more significant incidence of sleeping at school, excessive daytime sleepiness, and other sleep related disorder than good academic degrees. Students with poor sleep quality have lower school grades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0143.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; demyelinating disorders; PEG
Online: 8 February 2023 (09:55:41 CET)
Introduction: The rapid emergence of COVID-19 as a global crisis has led to the approval of many vaccinations, which were unfortunately associated with high complication rates due to a lack of sufficient safety studies. Objectives: The following manuscript focuses on discussing the demyelinating disorders that were noticed after COVID vaccine administration. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using anonymous medical records from the US vaccine adverse events reporting system, complications retrieved included Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS), and Multiple sclerosis (MS), outcome parameters were age, sex and the dose after which this complication was observed. Patients younger than 18 years-old were excluded as some of the vaccines, namely Janssen (JNJ-78436735) is not yet approved below this age. Results: Our analysis showed that demyelinating disorders were more likely to occur in patients over the age of 50 compared to other age groups, regardless of the type of vaccination, except for MS and ADEM occurrences after the Jansen vaccine. In addition, demyelinating complications were more likely to occur after the first dose of vaccination. Conclusion: Further research and observation of demyelinating diseases in different vaccinations, as well as additional in vitro studies, are recommended to further explain the pathogenesis of demyelinating disorder occurrence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Pharmacotherapy; Sleep-Wake Disorders; Hypersomnolence; Restless Legs Syndroms; Parasomnias; Sleep-related breathing disorders; Insomnia; Circadian Disorders
Online: 20 October 2023 (03:52:18 CEST)
Biological, environmental, behavioral, and social factors can influence sleep and lead to sleep disorders or diseases. Sleep disorders are common, numerous and heterogeneous in terms of their etiology, pathogenesis, and symptomatology. Management of sleep-wake circadian disorders (SWCD) includes education to sleep hygiene, behavioral strategies, psychotherapy (cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), particularly), instrument-based treatments (i.e. positive airway pressure therapy, hypoglossal nerve stimulation), and pharmacotherapy. Depending on the disease, therapy varies and is executed sequentially, or can be a combination of several forms of therapy. Drugs used for SWCD include traditional sleep or wake-promoting agents, chronotherapeutic agents. Recently, novel medications, which are more precisely acting on specific neurochemical systems (i.e. orexin system) important for sleep and wake, are also increasingly being used. In this review, the pharmacotherapy of common sleep disorders (insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorder, central disorders of hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm sleep wake disorders, parasomnias, and sleep-related movement disorders) embedded in the overall therapeutic concept of each disorder is presented. There is also an outlook on possible future pharmacotherapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1520.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Post-COVID-19; Pandemic; Women's Sleep Patterns; Quality
Online: 23 November 2023 (11:06:39 CET)
The study aimed to evaluate the after-effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the sleep quality and patterns of women across different cultural settings within Iraq, spanning the period of 2022. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a diverse cohort of women from multiple provinces in Iraq. The survey measured various parameters, including sleep duration, onset latency, and disturbances. The post-pandemic period has seen a notable decline in sleep quality among the female population. Contributing factors include psychological stress, lifestyle changes due to the pandemic, and ongoing socio-economic challenges. The impact on sleep quality exhibited variation across different cultural groups, indicating a significant cultural influence on the pandemic's psychological aftermath. The study concludes that the post-pandemic phase has adversely affected the sleep health of women in Iraq, with cultural factors playing a critical role in these changes. There is a pressing need for culturally sensitive public health strategies to address sleep disturbances and mitigate their long-term effects on women's health. Public health initiatives should be tailored to address the specific cultural contexts within Iraq to improve sleep health among women. Further research is warranted to explore the long-term consequences of disturbed sleep patterns and the effectiveness of different intervention strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Obstructive Sleep Apnea; COVID-19; Hospitalization; Infection; Epidemiology
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:02:12 CEST)
Background: Medical comorbidities increase the risk of severe COVID-19 infection. In some studies, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been identified as a comorbid condition that is associated with an increased prevalence of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, but few have investigated this association in a general population. Research Question: In a general population, is OSA associated with increased odds of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization and are these altered with COVID-19 vaccination? Study Design: Cross-sectional survey of a diverse sample of 15,057 U.S. adults Results: COVID-19 infection and hospitalization rates were 38.9% and 2.9% respectively. OSA or OSA symptoms were reported in 19.4%. In logistic regression models adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and comorbid medical conditions, OSA was positively associated with COVID-19 infection (aOR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.39-1.79) and COVID-19 hospitalization (aOR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.05). In fully adjusted models, boosted vaccination status was protective against both infection and hospitalization. Boosted vaccination status attenuated the association between OSA and COVID-19 related hospitalization, but not infection. Participants with untreated or symptomatic OSA were at greater risk for COVID-19 infection; those with untreated, but not symptomatic OSA were more likely to be hospitalized. Interpretation: In a general population sample, OSA is associated with a greater likelihood of having had a COVID-19 infection and a COVID-19 hospitalization with the greatest impact observed among persons experiencing OSA symptoms or who were untreated for their OSA. Boosted vaccination status attenuated the association between OSA and COVID-19 related hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0138.v1
Online: 9 June 2022 (08:11:21 CEST)
Lack of sleep is a factor that disrupts the receptors' reception of information from the environ-ment and contributes to the emergence of problems with maintaining balance. The main pur-pose of this study was to find out whether Computer Dynamic Posturography could be a useful tool in distinguishing between people who sleep well from people with insomnia. The study participants were 76 male students who were divided into groups based on the results obtained from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Questionnaire. In each group, postural stability had been tested using three main tests: Strategy Organization Test SOT, Motor Control Test MCT and Ad-aptation Test ADT. The results of the analysis show that the obtained results differ in the exam-ined groups under the SOT test. Among people with insomnia, higher values of the tested pa-rameters were noted, than with people who sleep well, which translates into a worse ability to maintain balance. The greatest impact is observed when using eyesight and a vestibular system to maintain a stable posture. It was confirmed that Computer Dynamic Posturography is used to differentiate between people who sleep well from people with insomnia in the group of men. Lack of sleep significantly disturbs postural stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Covid-19 lockdown; sleep quality; parental education; SENDO project
Online: 10 March 2023 (13:36:42 CET)
Abstract: Introduction: Covid-19 lockdown has caused important changes in children's routines, especially in terms of nutrition, physical activity, screen time, social activity, and school time. Regarding these changes, recent studies show that Covid-19 lockdown was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression in children. The objective of this study was to assess changes in sleep quality in Spanish children during lockdown decreed by the Spanish government between March and June 2020. Methodology: We compared the BEAR score of 478 participants in the SENDO project at the periods before, during and after lockdown. We used hierarchical models with two levels of clustering to account for the intra-cluster correlation between siblings. Interaction of time with and a set of a priori selected variables was assessed by introducing the interaction term into the model and calculating the likelihood ratio test. Results: Mean scores in the BEAR questionnaire referred to the periods before, during, and after lockdown were 0.52 (sd 1.25), 1.43 (sd 1.99) and 1.07 (sd 1.55), respectively, showing a worsening of sleep quality as a result of confinement. Parental level of education was found to be an effect modifier (p for interaction=0.004). Children whose parents had higher education (university graduates or higher) showed a smaller worsening than those without. Conclusion: We found that the mean score in the BEAR questionnaire significantly worsened during lockdown and significantly improved after it. However, it did not reach the initial level. The mean score in the BEAR questionnaire referred to the period after lockdown was significantly higher than before.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Sleep quality; Chronic pain; Temporomandibular disorder; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; STOP-Bang; Epworth Sleepiness Scale
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:11:14 CEST)
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate and compare sleep quality between patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder and healthy controls, and to analyze the association of sleep quality with disease characteristics, obstructive sleep apnea risk factors, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Methods: Chronic temporomandibular disorder patients (n=503) and 180 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included, who completed well-organized clinical report and answered questions on sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), sleep apnea risk factors (STOP-Bang questionnaire), and excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale). Results: Mean global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly higher in the patients (6.25±2.77) than in healthy controls (6.25±2.77) (p<0.001). Poor sleep was significantly more prevalent in the patient group (56.9%) than in healthy controls (22.2%) (p<0.001). Compared with healthy controls, chronic temporomandibular disorder patients had a higher likelihood of obstructive sleep apnea. (STOP-Bang total score ≥3; 7.2% vs. 16.1%; p<0.01) and higher excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale score ≥10; 12.8% vs. 19.7%; p<0.05). Age (odds ratio=2.551; p<0.001), female sex (odds ratio=1.885; p=0.007), total Epworth sleepiness scale score (odds ratio=1.839; p=0.014), and headache attributed to temporomandibular disorder (odds ratio=1.519; p=0.049) were the most powerful predictors of poor sleep (global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score ≥5) in chronic temporomandibular disorder patients. Conclusion: Chronic temporomandibular disorder patients had sleep quality impairment. Various factors, including peripheral and central factors, affect the patient's sleep quality. Therefore, in addition to sleep quality and sleep-related problems, the underlying central mechanism for poor sleep quality should be assessed when treating chronic temporomandibular disorder patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0295.v4
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: COVID-19; taste disorder; saliva secretory disorder; treatment; pathogenic mechanism
Online: 14 April 2023 (03:34:06 CEST)
Since the worldwide spread of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), treating taste and saliva secretory disorders associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become one of the most critical issues in the COVID-19 era. The aim of the present study was to update information on treatments being applicable to such oral symptoms and discuss their pathogenic mechanisms. Promising treatments include different types of methods using tetracycline, corticosteroid, zinc, stellate ganglion block, phytochemical curcumin, traditional herbal medicine, nutraceutical vitamin D, photobiomodulation, antiviral drug, malic acid sialagogue, chewing gum, acupuncture, and/or moxibustion. At present, however, fully validated treatments are still lacking for COVID-19-associated ageusia/dysgeusia/hypogeusia and xerostomia/dry mouth/hyposalivation. An appropriately selected treatment and oral healthcare should be provided to COVID-19 patients and survivors suffering from taste and saliva secretory disorders. Understanding of currently available treatment options is required for dental profes-sionals because they not only experience patients who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 or recov-ered from COVID-19 but first become aware of their abnormal taste and salivary secretion. By doing so, dentists and dental hygienists can play a crucial role in managing COVID-19-associated oral symptoms and contribute to improving the oral health-related quality of life of the relevant dental patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0506.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: circadian rhythm; sleep disorders; socioeconomic status; stress; allostatic load; health outcome
Online: 10 December 2018 (14:18:30 CET)
The variations in socioeconomic status (SES) between different social classes of a population correspond to differences in accessibility to all resources available and able to improve global health. While SES is now known as one of the main determinants for a good health and a good aging, its influence on sleep disorders (SD) is not well understood. SES is a concept, not directly observable but estimated using indicators like income, education, occupational status and area of living. This theoretical review explores some theories linking environment of people with occurrence of SD, with different patterns associated to SES. A model of interaction is proposed to summarize and conceptualizes these interactions and to promote more research on the topic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccination; Adverse event; Case report; Iran
Online: 3 March 2023 (08:30:15 CET)
Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has significantly contributed to the recent pandemic control. COVID-19 vaccines are available with different platforms and the primary clinical trials results presented acceptable safety profile of the approved vaccines. Nevertheless, the long-term assessment of the adverse events or rare conditions need to be investigated. The present systematic review, aimed at classification of Iranian case reports following COVID-19 immunization. To achieve this goal, the related published case reports were explored via PubMed, Web of Science and Google scholar according to PRISMA guideline and available up to 14th Dec, 2022. Out of 437 explored studies, the relevant data were fully investigated which totally led to 40 studies including 64 case reports with a new onset of a problem. The cases were then classified according to the various items such as the type of adverse event manifestations and COVID-19 vaccine. The reported COVID-19 vaccines in the studied cases included Sinopharm, AstraZeneca, and COVAXIN. The results showed that the adverse events presented in 8 different categories from which cutaneous problems accounted as the most prevalent manifestations (43.7%) in which rare diseases were also screened such as Steven-Johnson syndrome, Morphea and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Notably, almost 60% of the cases had no comorbidities. Moreover, the obtained data revealed nearly half of the incidences occurred after the first dose of injection and the mean duration of improvement after the symptom onset was 18.72±24.69 days. 73% of all the cases were either significantly improved or fully recovered. Although the advantages of COVID-19 vaccination is undoubtedly significant, the high risk individuals including those with a history of serious disease or comorbidities immunodeficiency conditions should be vaccinated with the utmost caution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0618.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; neurology; movement disorders; ataxia; Parkinson disease
Online: 27 August 2020 (12:24:18 CEST)
It is not established whether SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patients with movement disorders, are at greater risk for more serious outcomes than the larger COVID-19 population beyond the susceptibility associated with greater age. We reviewed electronic health records and conducted telephone interviews to collect the demographics and clinical outcomes of patients seen at our Movement Disorders Center who tested positive for COVID-19 from 8 March 2020 through 6 June 2020. Thirty-six patients were identified, 23 men and 13 women, median age of 74.5 years. They primarily carried diagnoses of idiopathic Parkinson disease (n=22; 61%) and atypical parkinsonism (n=7; 19%) with the balance having other diagnoses. Twenty-seven patients (75%) exhibited alteration in mental status and fifteen (42%) had abnormalities of movement as common manifestations of COVID-19; in 61% and 31%, these were the presenting symptoms of the disease. 67% of patients in our cohort required hospitalization, and the mortality rate was 39%.. These data demonstrate that in patients with movement disorders, the likelihood of hospitalization and death after contracting COVID-19 was substantially greater than in the general population. Patients with movement disorders frequently presented with altered mental status, generalized weakness, or worsening mobility but not anosmia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0102.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Physical inactivity; work from home; sleep; Covid-19 and public health.
Online: 6 December 2022 (11:33:34 CET)
To examine the association of sleep quality and work from home with physical inactivity (PI) in leisure time during Covid-19 pandemic. A population-based household survey was conducted in two Bra-zilian municipalities from October to December 2020. Leisure-time physical activity (PA) was self-reported, and individuals who practiced less than 150 minutes of moderate PA or 75 minutes of vigorous PA weekly were classified as PI. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). WFH was assessed by: "Currently, how is your work routine regarding location? Associations were investigated using logistic regression and directed acyclic graphs (DAG) for the multivariate models. A total of 1,750 adults were interviewed, 69.1% were PI and 51.9% had poor sleep quality. Furthermore, 79.8% were not in WFH. In multivariate analysis, leisure PI was associated with poor sleep quality (OR:1.59: 95% CI: 1.02-2.48), and not being in WFH (OR:1.62: 95% CI: 1.05-2.50). When performing the combined analysis between these two factors, and who were not in WFH were four times more likely to be PI at leisure (OR=4.22;95%CI:2.05-8.65). The results indicate a high prevalence of PI, with poor quality sleep and non-WFH associated with leisure PI. These combined factors exacer-bated the occurrence of PI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0836.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Long covid; Post covid; Sleep disorders
Online: 11 May 2023 (09:42:22 CEST)
Objectives: To examine the long term impact of COVID-19 on sleep patterns and development of sleep disorders. Methods: Using the centralized Massachusetts General Brigham (MGB) Research Patient Data Registry (RPDR), SARS-CoV2 positive patients were surveyed about their sleep patterns before and after the viral infection. Information related to co-morbid conditions and medications were obtained through chart review. Results: Two hundred and forty five completed surverys were analysed. Average age was 53.3 ± 16.3 years, and participants were predominantly Non-Hispanic White (84.1%) and female (74.3%). Average BMI (kg/m2) was 29.9 ± 6.9, and a greater proportion was non-smokers (63.2%). After COVID-19, there was an increase in the percentage of participants reporting difficulty initiating (31 ± 46% vs. 39 ± 49%, P=0.01), and maintaining sleep (43 ± 49% vs. 57 ± 49%, P<0.001), and use of sleep aids (24 ± 43% vs. 30 ± 45% P=0.003) with an incidence rate of 24.3%, 37.4%, and 12.3% respectively. In addition, there was an increase in daytime fatigue and the need for napping (58 ± 49% vs. 36 ± 48%, P <0.0001) with an incidence of 8% and 23% respectively. The sleep symptoms persisted beyond 12 months among 28% of the participants and were predominantly seen among women. Conclusions: Infection with SARS-CoV2 has negative effects on sleep, and a significant proportion of adults experience insomnia and daytime sleepiness beyond 12 months after recovering from the initial infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: atherosclerosis; COVID-19; inflammation; cardiovascular system; cytokines; endothelium; lipoproteins; renin-angiotensin system; atheroma; autoimmunity; vasa vasorum.
Online: 16 December 2022 (06:32:21 CET)
The article describes how atherosclerosis and coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) may affect each other. The features of this comorbid pathogenesis at various levels (vascular, cellular and molecular) are considered. A bidirectional influence of these conditions is described: the presence of cardiovascular diseases affects different individual susceptibility to viral infection. In turn, SARS-CoV-2 can have a negative effect on the endothelium and cardiomyocytes, causing blood clotting, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and thus exacerbating the development of atherosclerosis. In addition to the established entry into cells via ACE2 принимая во внимание его влияние на, other mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry are currently under investigation, for example, through CD147. Pathogenesis of comorbidity can be determined by the influence of the virus on various links which are meaningful for atherogenesis: generation of oxidized forms of LDL, launch of a cytokine storm, damage to the endothelial glycocalyx, and mitochondrial injury. The transformation of a stable plaque into an unstable one plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis complications and can be triggered by COVID-19. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 on large vessels such as aorta is more complex than previously thought considering its impact on vasa vasorum. Current information on the mutual influence of the medicines used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and acute COVID-19 is briefly summarized
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: eating disorders; anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa; personality traits; screening tools; Covid-19
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:11:08 CEST)
This article aims to review the screening and diagnostic tools for eating disorders (ED). Eating disorders represent a complex pathology defined by an imbalance between hunger and satiety, installed in an emotional, traumatic, or conflictive context. Recently, the emphasis regarding ED is focused on the link between genetics, mental pathology, and the somatic and metabolic phenotype and early detection. Early detection and intervention can assure a better recovery and can improve a lot the quality of life of these patients. Methods: We selected ten articles of central importance on the topic in a systematic search on eight databases, articles selected on the type of scales, and size of the study. Results: We identified eight questionnaire scales used in large trials in ED disorders in the scanned literature, choose because we consider it the most accurate and the ones that evaluate best the pathology and the elements that are important as specific traits in ED. There are interview-type scales and self-administered scales. Interview scales are characterized by assessments of symptoms and diagnosis, while self-administered assess particular traits and the possibility of further development of eating disorders. The majority of the scales evaluated were described and used in adult populations. From all the scales assessed and analyzed, only three are described at the child population – it is EAT-26 (> 16 years), EDI-3 (>13 years), and ANSOCQ (> 13 years). Conclusions: It is essential to develop specific scales for people under 18 years of age, given the increasing incidence of ED among children and the need for early detection and appropriate intervention. Early detection of ED in children implies a simple and accurate evaluation at the primary care level or in schools, as the course of the disease can be subclinical for several years. Moreover, the need for accurate scales and telemedicine testing and diagnosis is of high importance during the COVID-19 pandemic as youth are at particular risk being psychologically affected due to disrupted education and social interactions - at a critical time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: COVID-19; Lockdown; endocrine diseases; daily habits; food consumption; sleep disorders; anxiety
Online: 2 August 2020 (15:32:38 CEST)
In March 2020 the World Health Organization declared the “pandemic state” due to COVID-19 imposing strict confinement of the world population. People were forced to spend more time at home, changing some daily routines, including social interactions, the possibility to perform sports, and diet habits. These changes could exert a greater impact on patients suffering from chronic diseases, such as endocrine patients. This study aimed to assess the effects of Covid-19 induced quarantine on daily habits in a group of patients with endocrine disorders, focusing on food consumption, eating, and sleep habits during the confinement. Eighty-five endocrine patients were enrolled. A structured interview was administered investigating: socio-demographic information, general medical conditions and habits adopted during the quarantine. All patients underwent the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y1) to assess state anxiety. Subjects had mainly a sedentary lifestyle. We found a significant increase in the number of cigarettes in smokers, an increase of meals consumed during the confinement and a high rate of sleep disorder occurrence, especially insomnia. The changes of daily habits were, probably, due to the alterations of routine, that determined more bore and inactivity during the day.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1615.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Anti-obesity drugs; BMI; Glucose tolerance; Homeostasis; Obesity; Sleep disturbances; Molecular pathology
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:15:14 CEST)
Accumulation of extra fats in the body results in disturbance in homeostasis causing obesity. The pathophysiology of obesity has been associated with various genetic, epigenetic factors and the disturbed lifestyles of an individual. One of the outcomes is disturbance in the sleep cycle which leads to sleep disorders. The evolutionary significance of sleep lies in the fact that it saves energy and is crucial for adjustment of an individual to ecological and environmental factors, and thus maintains homeostasis. Sleep has an anabolic function and replenishes the wakefulness-associated loss of glycogen stores. However, the modern lifestyle is well known to disrupt sleep behavior and patterns affecting human health negatively. Alteration in homeostasis leads to several acute and chronic pathophysiological conditions like obesity and related metabolic morbidities being one amongst them. Shorter sleep duration and poor sleep quality are important risk factors associated with the development of obesity and have more adverse effects on energy homeostasis. Consequently, it is crucial to comprehend the obesity and sleep relationship and its therapeutic strategies, given that strong crosstalk exists between energy balance that favors obesity and sleep apnea. It is therefore highly recommended to the people with a high risk of obesity to maintain sleep discipline and good sleep hygiene in our daily life. Interventions are required to improve both sleep quality and quantity, and associated obesity. More focused research is needed for uncovering the pieces of evidence that determine whether such interventions can improve obesity-related health consequences. The present review discusses the important findings on the therapeutic and neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating sleep and obesity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Inflammation; NF-κB; drug repurposing; drug development; autoimmunity; COVID-19; multiple sclerosis; rheumatoid arthritis
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:16:25 CET)
NF-κB is a central mediator of inflammation, response to DNA damage and oxidative stress. As a result of its central role in so many important cellular processes, NF-κB dysregulation has been implicated in the pathology of important human diseases. NF-κB activation causes inappropriate inflammatory responses in diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, modulation of NF-κB signaling is being widely investigated as an approach to treat chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. The emergence of COVID-19 in late 2019, the subsequent pandemic and the huge clinical burden of patients with life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia led to a massive scramble to repurpose existing medicines to treat lung inflammation in a wide range of healthcare systems. These efforts continue and these efforts continue to be con-troversial. Drug repurposing strategies are a promising alternative to de-novo drug development, as they minimize drug development timelines and reduce the risk of failure due to unexpected side effects. Different experimental approaches have been applied to identify existing medicines which inhibit NF-κB that could be repurposed as anti-inflammatory drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0038.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: physical activity; sedentary behaviour; sleep; active play; outdoor time; movement behaviours; COVID-19
Online: 1 December 2020 (16:08:08 CET)
The aim was to examine the sociodemographic predictors associated with changes in movement behaviours (physical activity, screen time and sleep) among toddlers and pre-schoolers during the early stages of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Chile. Caregivers of 1- to 5-year-old children completed an online survey between March 30th and April 27th, 2020. Information about the child's movement behaviours before (retrospectively) and during the pandemic, as well as family characteristics were reported. In total, 3,157 participants provided complete data (mean children age: 3.1±1.38 years). During early stages of the pandemic, time spent in physical activity decreased, recreational screen time and sleep duration increased, and sleep quality declined. Toddlers and pre-schoolers with space to play at home and living in rural areas experienced an attenuated impact of the pandemic restrictions on their physical activity levels, screen time, and sleep quality. Older children, those whose caregivers had a higher educational level, and children living in apartments had greater changes, mainly a decrease in total physical activity and increase in screen time. This study has shown the significant impact of the pandemic restrictions on movement behaviours in toddlers and pre-schoolers in Chile.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2204.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; Social isolation stress; Neuropsychiatric disorders; Biopsychosocial vulnerability; Therapeutic strategies
Online: 1 September 2023 (07:30:29 CEST)
The COVID-19 Pandemic generated, in addition to severe symptoms, hospitalizations, and deaths worldwide, stress from the fear of the disease and social uncertainties, from restriction measures and social isolation. Stress from social isolation impacts mental health, aggravating conditions, and triggering neuropsychiatric symptoms in individuals with biopsychosocial vulnerability. During and immediately after the period of social restriction imposed by the Pandemic, the scientific community carried out several research protocols. It revealed results that relevantly demonstrate the harmful effect of the stress induced by the Pandemic situation. This review reports and discusses research results demonstrating impairments in neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, dementia, eating disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression. In addition to studies showing the effect of social isolation on disorders, research results are reported and discussed that evaluated protocols with some possible therapeutic intervention strategies during times of social restriction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1552.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Covid-19; sleep; well-being; remote and in-person work; faculty and staff; disabilities
Online: 22 August 2023 (10:48:39 CEST)
We explored the impacts of the remote and return to in-person work periods on sleep and well-being as reported by faculty (n = 22) and non-teaching staff (n=21) with and without disabilities. Our results show that contrary to expectations, the Covid-19 remote teaching/working period resulted in better sleep, as well as greater well-being, than the return to in-person. With respect to sleep, faculty members had slightly more negative outcomes than staff, most evident in heightened anxiety and work aspects. Faculty with disabilities had somewhat worse sleep and well-being during the remote period than faculty without disabilities. During the return to in-person work, both faculty and non-teaching staff reported more negative than positive sleep and well-being outcomes. In particular, during the in-person period faculty members experienced slightly more negative sleep outcomes related to anxiety and work, while staff members experienced slightly more negative sleep outcomes related to the need to commute and lifestyle. Our findings show that there were benefits and disadvantages to both remote and in-person work periods, suggesting a hybrid work schedule should be considered in more detail, particularly as an optional reasonable accommodation for faculty and staff with disabilities. Our study highlights that training to keep faculty abreast of the latest technological innovations, ways to promote work-life balance and steps to remedy classroom size and building ventilation to prevent the spread of disease all need urgent attention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0335.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: light therapy; sleep disorder; daytime sleepiness; circadian rhythm; clock gene
Online: 14 April 2023 (03:14:34 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Light therapy (LT) is used as an adjunctive treatment for sleep problems. This study evaluates the impact of LT on sleep quality and sleep-related parameters in patients with sleep disorders. Materials and Methods: We performed a pilot randomized, open-label clinical trial. Fourteen patients aged 20–60 years with sleep disorders for more than three months were randomized into the control and LT groups (1:1 ratio). The LT group was instructed to use a device that provides bright LT (6000 K, 380 lux, wavelength 480 nm) for at least 25 minutes before 09:00 am for two weeks. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate circadian preference, mood, and sleep-related parameters. We analyzed serum cortisol levels and clock genes expression. Results: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), insomnia severity index, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index were significantly improved within the LT group only after the two-week period. When comparing the two groups, only the change in ESS significant was significant (mean difference; control: -0.14 vs LT: -1.43, p=0.021) after adjusting for baseline characteristics. There were no significant differences in serum cortisol or clock genes expression. Conclusions: LT can improve daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep disorders; however, further well-designed studies are warranted to confirm its efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; school closures; school-aged children; physical activity; screen time; sleep; Hong Kong
Online: 29 July 2022 (03:57:32 CEST)
Despite concerns about the negative effects of social distancing and prolonged school closures on children’s lifestyle and physical activity (PA) during the COVID-19 pandemic, robust evidence is lacking on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s wellbeing and daily life. This study aimed to examine changes in the PA levels, sleep patterns and screen time of school-aged children during the different phases of COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong using a repeated cross-sectional design. School students (Grades 1 to 12) were asked to report their daily electronic device usage and to fill in a sleep dairy recording their daily sleep and wake-up time. They were equipped with a PA monitor, Actigraph wGT3X-BT, to obtain objective data on their PA levels and sleep patterns. Students were recruited before the pandemic (Sep 2019 – Jan 2020; n=577), during school closures (Mar 2020 – Apr 2020; n=146), and after schools partially reopened (Oct 2020 – Jul 2021; n=227). Our results indicated lower PA levels, longer sleep duration, and longer screen time among participants recruited during school closures than those recruited before the COVID-19 outbreak. Primary school students were found to sleep on average for an extra hour during school closures. Our findings illustrate the impact of social distancing policies during the COVID-19 pandemic on the sleep pattern, screen time, and PA level in school-aged children in Hong Kong. Professionals should reinforce the importance of maintaining a physically active lifestyle, good sleep hygiene, and healthy use of electronic devices to parents and school-aged children during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Molecular mimicry; immune tolerance; autoimmune disorders; central nervous system.
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:10:40 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 can trigger autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) diseases in genetically susceptible individuals, a mechanism poorly understood. Molecular mimicry (MM) has been identified in other viral diseases as potential triggers of autoimmune CNS events. This study investigated if MM is the process through which SARS-CoV-2 induce the breakdown of immune tolerance. The frequency of autoimmune CNS disorders was evaluated in a prospective cohort with patients admitted in the COVID-19 Intense Care Unity (ICU) in Rio de Janeiro. Then, an in silico analysis was performed to identify the conserved regions which share high identity between SARS-Cov-2 anti-gens and human proteins. The sequences with significant identity and antigenic properties were then assessed for their binding capacity to HLA subtypes. Of the 112 patients included, 3 were classified as having an autoimmune disorder. A total of eleven combinations had significant linear and three-dimensional overlap. NMDAR1, MOG and MPO were the self-antigens with more significant combinations, followed by GAD65. All sequences presented at least one epitope with strong or intermediate binding capacity to the HLA subtypes selected. This study underscores the possibility that CNS autoimmune attacks observed in COVID-19 patients, including those in our population, could be driven by MM in genetically predisposed individuals.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Angiotensin II; Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; COVID-19; Brain; Dementia; Furin; Neurological disorders; SARS-CoV-2; Spike protein.
Online: 31 October 2023 (14:53:01 CET)
Neurological disorders have been reported to occur in a large number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, suggesting that this disease may also exert long-term adverse neurological consequences. COVID-19 occurs due to the infection by a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The membrane fusion protein of SARS-CoV-2, the spike protein, binds to its human host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), to initiate membrane fusion between the virus and host cell. The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 contains the furin protease recognition site and its cleavage enhances the infectivity of this virus. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the ACE2 receptor has been shown to downregulate ACE2, thereby increasing the levels of pathogenic angiotensin II (Ang II). The furin protease cleaves between S1 subunit of the spike protein with the binding domain toward ACE2 and S2 subunit with transmembrane domain that anchors to the viral membrane, and this activity releases the S1 subunit into the blood circulation. The released S1 subunit of the spike protein would also bind to and downregulate ACE2, in turn, increasing the level of Ang II. Considering that a viral particle contains a number of the spike protein molecules, furin-dependent cleavage would release a large number of free S1 proteins each of which can downregulate ACE2, while the infection with a viral particle only affects one ACE2 molecule. Therefore, the furin-dependent release of S1 protein would dramatically amplify the ability to downregulate ACE2 and produce Ang II. We hypothesize that this amplification mechanism that the virus possesses, but not the infection per se, is the major driving force behind the neurological disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0819.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; children; adolescents; psychiatric hospitalization; mood disorders; non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors; suicidal ideation
Online: 12 October 2023 (15:43:28 CEST)
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the quarantine measures on children and adolescents’ hospitalization psychiatric has been poorly studied, especially in Italy, the first European country to adopt social restrictions. To fill this gap, this retrospective study examined changes in admissions to our child and adolescent psychiatry ward from the emergency department during the two COVID-19 quarantine periods in Italy (March to June 2020; October 2020 to January 2021) compared with two reference periods (defined as 12 months prior to the respective quarantine periods). Specifically, we examined data on the number of inpatients and the distribution of psychopathological disorders (i.e., psychosis, mood disorder) and self-injurious behaviors. The results revealed significantly fewer admissions during the first quarantine period relative to the first reference period and, conversely, significantly more admissions during the second quarantine period relative to the second reference period. Of note, the results showed an increased frequency of mood disorders, non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors and suicidal ideation during the quarantine periods, compared to the reference periods. The findings underline the need to focus on the psychopathological profile of children and adolescents with patient-tailored therapeutic interventions and suggest the importance of developing psychological healthcare services for future emergency periods..
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0636.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder; Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; Behavioural Neuroscience; Mental Health; COVID-19; Pandemic; Paediatric Neurology
Online: 26 July 2020 (15:31:51 CEST)
Children and young people (CYP) with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) may be particularly vulnerable to adverse mental health effects due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional U.K parent-reported study from 2nd April-2nd June 2020, using the Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire. CYP with NDDs (n=371) compared to neurotypical controls, had a higher prevalence of emotional symptoms (42% vs 15%), conduct problems (28% vs 9%), and lower prosocial behaviours (54% vs 22%). Those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed inflated conduct, and those with autism spectrum disorder exhibited decreased prosocial behaviours. Females with ASD had higher emotional symptoms compared to males.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0419.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Resveratrol; Cardiovascular disease; Bioavailability; Diet; COVID-19; Resveratrol carriers; Cardiovascular protection
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:00:17 CET)
Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced by many plants as a defense mechanism against stress-inducing conditions. The richest dietary sources of resveratrol are berries and grapes, their juices and wines. Good bioavailability of resveratrol is not reflected in its high biological activity in vivo because of resveratrol isomerization and its poor solubility in aqueous solutions. Proteins, cyclodextrins and nanomaterials have been explored as innovative delivery vehicles for resveratrol to overcome this limitation. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated beneficial effects of resveratrol in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Main beneficial effects of resveratrol intake are cardioprotective, anti-hypertensive, vasodilatory, anti-diabetic, and improvement of lipid status. As resveratrol can alleviate the numerous factors associated with CVD, it has potential as a functional supplement to reduce COVID-19 illness severity in patients displaying poor prognosis due to cardio-vascular complications. Resveratrol was shown to mitigate the major pathways involved in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 including regulation of the renin-angiotensin system and expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, stimulation of immune system and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines release. Therefore, several studies already have anticipated potential implementation of resveratrol in COVID-19 treatment. Regular intake of resveratrol rich diet, or resveratrol-based complementary medicaments, may contribute to a healthier cardio-vascular system, prevention and control of CVD, including COVID-19 disease related complications of CVD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; Endurance athletes; mental health; sleep; cardiopulmonary exercise testing; cardiorespiratory fitness; exercise capacity; physical exercise; psychology
Online: 24 March 2023 (12:23:44 CET)
COVID-19 has harmful impact on health. It is especially important for endurance athletes (EAs). Sleep and psychology influence sport performance. Aims of this study were: (1) investigation of the consequences of mild COVID-19 on sleep and psychology and (2) assessment of the conse-quences of the infection on cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) results. 49 EAs (males= 43; 87.76%, females= 6; 12.24%, age= 39.9±7.8 years, height= 178.4±6.8 cm, weight= 76.3±10.4 kg; BMI= 24.0±2.6 kg·m−2) underwent maximal cycling or running CPET pre- and post- COVID-19 and completed a survey. Exercise performance was deteriorated after COVID-19 (maximal oxy-gen uptake; VO2max= 47.81±7.81 vs 44.97±7.00 ml·kg·min−1 respectively pre- and post- infection; p<0.001). Waking up at night affected heart rate (HR) at the respiratory compensation point (RCP) (p=0.028). Sleep time influenced pulmonary ventilation (p=0.013), breathing frequency (p=0.010), and blood lactate concentration (Lac) (p=0.013) at RCP. Maximal power/speed (p=0.046) and HR (p=0.070) linked with the quality of sleep. Stress management and relaxation techniques linked with VO2max (p=0.046), maximal power/speed (p=0.033), and maximal Lac (p=0.045). Cardiorespiratory fitness was deteriorated after mild COVID-19 and was correlated with sleep and mental health. Medical Professionals should encourage EAs to maintain proper mental health and sleep after COVID-19 infection to facilitate recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0617.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Sleep duration; sleep latency; sleep efficiency; health behaviour
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:17:01 CEST)
Growing evidence suggests sleep plays an important role in the development of healthy adolescents, with increased interest in the associations between sleep and mental health. Higher duration and quality of sleep has been suggested as a mechanism for increased wellbeing in adolescents. Cross sectional data was collected from 5,661 Irish adolescents. 55% of Irish adolescents reported meeting the guidelines for adolescents of 8-10 hours per night. This was found to decrease with age. Higher duration and quality of sleep was positively associated with wellbeing and negatively associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. A higher frequency of physical activity was associated with longer duration and higher quality of sleep. 9-10 hours of sleep was associated with the highest levels of wellbeing and lowest symptoms of anxiety and depression. The relationship between physical activity and increased wellbeing may be impacted by physical activity leading to higher durations and quality of sleep.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0381.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Alcohol dependence; Depression; Stress; Gender; Income; Differences; Behavioural disorders; Mental disorders; Socio-economic effects; Pandemic; Isolation; COVID-19; Slovak students
Online: 13 November 2020 (13:24:34 CET)
The objective of the study was to examine the effects of perceived stress on depression and subsequently to examine the effects of depression on alcohol use disorders. The data were obtained by an electronic questionnaire survey during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (n=1523 Slovak college students). Descriptive, regression and correlation analysis were used in the analytical processing, while the analyses included students' scores in three diagnostic tools (Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ 9) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)), as well as gender and income characteristics. The PSS identified an increased level of perceived stress in female students, in contrast, the AUDIT showed an increased level of alcohol use disorders in male students. Differences in mental and behavioural disorders between the gender and income categories were significant in most of the analysed cases. In terms of gender-income characteristics, it was possible to confirm a significant positive effect of the PSS score on the PHQ 9 score, as well as a significant positive effect of the PHQ 9 score on the AUDIT score. As a result, efforts to reduce stress will be reflected in a reduction of depressive disorders as well as a reduction of excessive alcohol consumption among students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1897.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: subiculum; wake; sleep; REM sleep; NREM sleep; vigilance state
Online: 27 September 2023 (14:29:31 CEST)
This review provides an overview of the current understanding of the neural systems involved in regulating wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) in mammals. Specifically, we focus on the anatomical connections between the subiculum, a component of the hippocampal formation, and the regions responsible for regulating the sleep-wake cycle. The subiculum exhibits direct connections with key areas involved in sleep regulation, such as the lateral hypothalamus, tuberomammillary nucleus, basal forebrain, ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, ventrolateral tegmental area, and suprachiasmatic nucleus. Additionally, second-order projections from the subiculum are received by the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and locus coeruleus, suggesting potential involvement of the subiculum in the regulation of circadian rhythms, particularly the circadian sleep-wake cycle. We also discuss alterations in the subiculum observed in individuals with sleep disorders and sleep-deprived mice, underscoring the significance of investigating neuronal communication between the subiculum and pathways promoting both sleep and wakefulness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: microbiome; adverse childhood experiences (ACEs); gerobiotics, microimmunosome; healthspan; circadian rhythms; sleep disorders; noncommunicable diseases and conditions (NCDs); chronic disorders; early life programming
Online: 7 December 2021 (12:48:17 CET)
Adverse childhood experiences are known to program children for disrupted biological cycles, premature aging, microbiome dysbiosis, immune-inflammatory misregulation, and chronic disease multimorbidity. To date, the microbiome has not been a major focus of deprogramming efforts despite its emerging role in every aspect of ACE-related dysbiosis and dysfunction. This article examines: 1) the utility of incorporating microorganism-based, anti-aging approaches to combat ACE-programmed chronic diseases (also known as noncommunicable diseases and conditions, NCDs) and 2) microbiome regulation of core systems biology cycles that affect NCD comorbid risk. In this review microbiota influence over three key cyclic rhythms (circadian cycles, the sleep cycle, and the lifespan/longevity cycle) as well as tissue inflammation and oxidative stress are discussed as an opportunity to deprogram ACE-driven chronic disorders. Microbiota, particularly those in the gut, have been shown to affect host-microbe interactions regulating the circadian clock, sleep quality, as well as immune function/senescence and regulation of tissue inflammation. The microimmunosome is one of several systems biology targets of gut microbiota regulation. Furthermore, correcting misregulated inflammation and increased oxidative stress is key to protecting telomere length and lifespan/longevity and extending what has become known as the healthspan. This review article concludes that to reverse the tragedy of ACE-programmed NCDs and premature aging, managing the human holobiont microbiome should become a routine part of healthcare and preventative medicine across the life course.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0141.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: bruxism; electromyography; sleep apnea; polysomnography; sleep bruxism; sleep wake disorders
Online: 14 November 2023 (07:55:30 CET)
Background: The gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep bruxism (SB) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is Polysmnography (PSG). At the end of the apnea episodes there is frequently a final hy-permotor muscle activity that could act as a confusion factor in the diagnosis of SB with the elec-tromyography portable devices. The aim of this study was to compare the concordance on the number of episodes of SB in a population with OSA, between the diagnosis obtained by PSG, an-alyzed manually by a neurophysiologist and that obtained manually and automatically by a portable electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiography (EKG) device. Methods: Twenty-three subjects underwent one night of polysomnographic study with simulta-neous recording with the EMG-EKG device. The variables referring to the number of episodes and the SB index measured with both tools and analyzed in the manual and automatic modes were compared. Masticatory muscle activity was scored according to published criteria. The sample was segmented by severity of OSA according to AASM criteria. ANOVA, correlations, and the Bland–Altman plot were used to quantify the agreement between both methods. The concordance was calculated through the ICC. Results: The total events of SB per night in the PSG study were on average (8.17), lower than the one obtained with EMG-EKG manual analysis (14.13) and automatic (29.26). Both the SB PSG and Manual EMG-EKG episodes decrease from non-OSA (PSG = 16 ± 13,55, EMG-EKG = 16,83 ±11,58) to severe OSA (PSG = 3,14 ± 4,26, EMG-EKG = 9,86 ± 8,09). However, in the case of automatic EMG-EKG mode: the number of SB episodes in severe OSA doubled (41,23 ± 12,50) with respect to non OSA (24,50 ± 12,19). On average: the EMG-EKG device Automatic analysis measures 21.08 units more than PSG. The results with the manual EMG-EKG analysis improved. Conclusion: There is no concordance between the results obtained in the PSG neurophysiologic analysis and those obtained by means of the EMG-EKG device automatic and manual analysis for the diagnosis of SB in a population mostly with OSA. The OSA could act as a confusion factor in the diagnosis of SB with the electromyography portable devices, but further study is needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0387.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: evolutionary bottleneck; evolution of sleep; sleep variability; function of sleep
Online: 20 July 2020 (10:31:23 CEST)
The Nocturnal Bottleneck explains how mammals evolved from their reptilian ancestors after inverting the chronotype, form diurnal to nocturnal. Pre-mammals traded-off the excellent visual system of their ancestors for improvements in audition and in olfactory telencephalon, needed for efficient orientation in the dark. This was how the mammalian nocturnal telencephalic wakefulness was born. However, the modified visual system of those pre-mammals became sensitive to the dangerous diurnal light and the exposure would involve a high risk of blindness and death. Therefore, pre-mammals had to remain immobile with closed eyes hidden in lightproof burrows during light time. This was the birth of the mammalian sleep. Typical reptiles distribute their wake time cycling between Basking Behavior, to attain the preferred body temperature, and poikilothermic Goal Directed Behavior, to perform life sustaining tasks. These cycles persisted during the new mammalian sleep. However, as the behavioral output had to be blocked during light time, the paralyzed reptilian Basking Behavior and Goal Directed Behavior cycles became the NREM and REM cycles, respectively. This was how NREM and REM cycles remained incorporated within the mammalian sleep. After the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction, the environmental pressure for nocturnal life was softened, allowing high variability in chronotype and sleeping patterns. This permitted some mammalian groups, e.g., primates, to begin the quest for diurnal wake.Concluding, sleep constituted an additional bottleneck in the mammalian evolution. The reduced population of pre-mammals that was able to develop sleep during light time, including NREM and REM, became full mammals and survived; the remainder perished.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0318.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Subjective sleep assessment; Autism spectrum disorder; REM sleep; NREM sleep
Online: 27 December 2018 (10:21:06 CET)
Sleep disturbances very common in children with autism. That is why it requires instruments that facilitate its evaluation. Goals: Perform the evaluation of sleep from a subjective prospect in a group of children with primary autism and compare to a control group, using the Sleep Habits in Children Survey (CSHQ), In order to determine sleep disturbances, according to the sub-scales results. Method: A prospective cross-sectional study of the sample was carried out. A group with primary Autism n = 21 was selected. For the assessment of the dream we chose (CSHQ). The differences between independent groups were calculated by applying a Mann Whitney U test (p <0.05). Results: The group of children with autism showed the highest values of the total scale (mean = 48.00) wish is congruent with a greate disfuntion of sleep, compared to the control group (mean = 36.47) for p = 0.00. Significant differences were found for all sub scales p = 0.00, with the exception of sub-scale number 7. Conclusions: There is a high presence of sleep disturbances in children with primary autism, which are related to multifactorial causes, with the exception of sleep breathing disorders that did not show statistically significant differences between groups.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccines; capillary leak syndrome
Online: 11 January 2023 (09:41:36 CET)
Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is an uncommon, potentially life-threatening disorder defined as recurrent attacks of pseudo-shock. This syndrome occurs due to the disruption of endothelial cells, which leads to increased vascular permeability, causing intravascular fluid to leak into the extravascular space and albumin to be retained in the interstitial space. SCLS can lead to hypovolemia, peripheral hypoperfusion, and acute renal insufficiency. The syndrome is presented with fever, generalized edema, pleural effusions, dyspnea, hypovolemia, hemoconcentration, prerenal azotemia, shock, and syncope. After ruling out other causes of hypovolemic shock, the diagnosis of SCLS can be considered on the presence of the classical triad of hypotension, hemoconcentration, and hypoalbuminemia. Eliminating the precipitating factors is the cornerstone of SCLS management. It is advisable to be very cautious and weigh the risks and benefits of vaccination of people with a history of this condition. This review will discuss and compare different aspects of SLCS after SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Bivalent COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccination booster; COVID-19; Omicron; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 6 March 2023 (07:00:00 CET)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant of concern has been the dominant cause of worldwide COVID-19 cases since 2022. All the Omicron sublineage viruses have demonstrated high transmissibility and an ability to escape vaccine-induced immunity. While first-generation vaccines, including monovalent vaccines, continue to provide protection against severe disease, hospitalization and mortality, their efficacy against Omicron sub variants remains sparse. These vaccines have also been associated with rapidly waning protection against primary COVID-19 and COVID-19 reinfections conferred by evolving Omicron sublineages.. This led to the development and deployment of updated vaccines and the introduction of the bivalent booster. Through this review, we highlight the brief journey of the variants of concern leading to the dominance of Omicron and the effectiveness of the key vaccines against these variants, including the updated (bivalent) boosters.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Unreported COVID-19 Death; Provisional COVID-19 Death; Death Reporting Discrepancy; Bangladesh
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:32:05 CEST)
Objective: We aim to assess the reporting discrepancy and the difference between confirmed and unreported COVID-19-like death counts.Study Design: The study is based on time-series data.Methods: We used publicly available data to explore the differences between confirmed death counts and deaths with Codiv-19 symptoms between March 8, 2020, and July 11, 2020, in Bangladesh.Results: During the week ending May 9, 2020, the unreported COVID-19-like death count was higher than the confirmed COVID-19 death count; however, it was lower in the following weeks. On average, unreported COVID-19-like death counts were similar to the confirmed COVID-19 death counts during the same period. However, the reporting authority neither considers these deaths nor adjusts for potential seasonal influenza or other related deaths, which might produce incomplete COVID-19 data and respective mortality rates. Conclusions: Documenting unreported deaths with COVID-19 symptoms needs to be included in provisional death counts because it is essential to estimate a robust COVID-19 mortality rate and to offer data-driven pandemic response strategies. An urgent initiative is needed to prepare an acceptable guideline for COVID-19 death reporting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; depression; anxiety; post-acute COVID-19 syndrome; post-COVID
Online: 12 August 2022 (04:56:33 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to examine the course of Depression and anxiety in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history compared with those without a psychiatric history. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey for COVID-19 survivors was conducted from July to September 2021. 6016 COVID-19 survivors, the accuracy of whose responses was determined to be assured, were included in analyses. Exposures included psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection, and the main outcomes and measures included severity of depression and anxiety, as assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), respectively. Results: Mean severity of PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were significantly higher in participants with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history. Two-way analysis of covariance for PHQ-9 showed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and a significant interaction effect of psychiatric history × time since infection. Two-way analysis of covariance for the GAD-7 score revealed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection and the interaction effect of these factors. Conclusions: The course of depression and anxiety was more severe in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2136.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; children; sleep apnea; sleep-disordered breathing; sleep quality
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:19:12 CEST)
Sleep-disordered breathing is a significant problem affecting the pediatric population. These conditions can affect sleep quality and significantly affect children's overall health and well-being. Difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behavioral patterns characterize autism spectrum disorder. Sleep disturbances are common in children with ASD. This literature review aims to gather and analyze available studies on the relationship between SDB and children with autism spectrum disorder. We comprehensively searched the literature using major search engines (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science). After removing duplicates, we extracted a total of 96 records. We selected 19 studies for inclusion after a thorough title and abstract screening process. A total of 7 articles were ultimately included. This review has analyzed the relationship between autism spectrum disorder and sleep-disordered breathing, particularly Obstructive Sleep Apnea, highlighting an intriguing web of complex associations. Some studies involving children have demonstrated a significant association between autism spectrum disorder and the presence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Furthermore, a heightened risk of developing sleep disturbances, including sleep-disordered breathing, has emerged in children with autism. The risk and prevalence of obesity are increasing in pediatric subjects with autism spectrum disorder. Obesity has been identified as a predictive factor for Sleep-disordered breathing, and Body Mass Index can directly correlate with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in these children. Adenotonsillectomy has proven to be pivotal in improving behavioral issues in autism spectrum disorder children with obstructive Sleep Apnea. In conclusion, this review underscores the complexity of the interplay between autism spectrum disorder and sleep-disordered breathing, emphasizing the importance of further research to understand underlying mechanisms and develop optimal therapeutic and preventative approaches to enhance sleep quality and overall health in children with autism spectrum disorder.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0100.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Hospitalized patients, sleep wake dysfunction, sleep disorders, circadian rhythm, sleep apnea
Online: 5 September 2018 (14:49:34 CEST)
Hospitalized patients frequently have disordered and poor-quality sleep due to a variety of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. These include frequent nighttime intrusions, insomnia related to pain and unfamiliar environments, dark conditions during the day with loss of natural light, and disruption of natural sleep cycle due to illness. Sleep wake disturbances can result in deleterious consequence on physical, emotional and cognitive status, which may impact patient satisfaction, clinical recovery, and hospital length of stay. Despite this, clinicians frequently fail to document sleep disturbances and are generally unaware of best practices to improve sleep quality in the hospital. The purpose of this review is to discuss sleep disturbances in hospitalized patients with a focus on causes of sleep disturbance, effect of poor quality sleep, high risk populations, considerations for surveillance and prevention, as well as pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic options for treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0240.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Locomotion; regulatory modes; resilience; COVID-19; Covid-19 anxiety.
Online: 4 July 2023 (13:48:34 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted a significant impact on mental health globally. The uncertainty, fear, and stress associated with this crisis have contributed to a heightened prevalence of anxiety, depression, and various other mental health disorders. In this scenario, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship between locomotion regulatory mode, resilience, and COVID-19 anxiety. It is worth noting that previous extensive research has established a significant correlation between high levels of locomotion and diverse positive psychological conditions, such as optimism, reduced hopelessness, and positive affect. A total of 243 participants completed measures of locomotion regulatory mode, resilience, and COVID-19 anxiety. In line with our hypotheses, individuals' locomotion regulatory mode was negatively, although non significatively, associated with COVID-19 anxiety. Furthermore, resilience was found to mediate the relationship between locomotion regulatory mode and COVID-19 anxiety, indicating that individuals displaying high locomotion may be better equipped to cope with the stress and uncertainty of the COVID-19 pandemic due to their greater levels of resilience. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of considering both locomotion and resilience in managing anxiety related to COVID-19 and suggest that interventions aimed at enhancing resilience may be beneficial particularly for individuals with low locomotion regulatory mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; ACE2; severity; post-COVID-19 patients; comorbidity.
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:36:06 CEST)
ACE2 impact on the severity of COVID-19 is widely discussed but still controversial. To estimate its role in aspects of the main risk factors and comorbidities, we involved post-COVID-19 patients in Ternopil region (Ukraine). Recruitment period was July 2020 to December 2021. Medical records, treatment modalities and outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Serum human ACE2 protein was measured with Cusabio ELISA kits (Houston, TX, USA). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS21.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level of ACE2 serum protein was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with mild symptoms compared to more severe course of disease, and inversely had changed from 1 to 90 days after recovery. In patients with mild COVID-19, ACE2 level significantly decreased over time, while among critical patients, it increased by 34.1percent. Such results could be explained by ACE2 shedding from tissues into circulation. Loss of the membrane-bound form of the enzyme decreases the virus entry into cells. Our studies did not identify any sex-related ACE2 serum levels correlation. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and diabetes mellitus. All comorbidities except respiratory diseases contribute to the severity of disease and correlate with ACE2 blood serum level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; asymptomaticspread; early-stage COVID-19 mitigation
Online: 20 April 2020 (06:18:33 CEST)
Background: Early-stage interventions in a potential pandemic are important tounderstand as they can make the difference between runaway exponential growththat is hard to turn back and stopping the spread before it gets that far. COVID-19 is an interesting case study because there have been very different outcomesin different localities. These variations are best studied after the fact if precisionis the goal; while a pandemic is still unfolding less precise analysis is of value inattempting to guide localities in the early stages to learn lessons of those that pre-ceded them. Methods: I examine three factors that could differentiate strategy: asymptomaticspread, differences in use of the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) tuberculosis vac-cine and cloth face masks.Results:Differences in disease progression as well as the possibility of alternativestrategies to prevent COVID-19 from entering the runaway phase or damping itdown later can be elucidated by a study of asymptomatic infection. A study todemonstrate not only what fraction are asymptomatic but how contagious they arewill also inform policy on universal mask wearing. Conclusions: While a COVID-19 outbreak is at a level that makes accurate trace-and test possible, investigation of asymptomatic transmission is viable and shouldbe attempted to enhance understanding of spread and variability in the disease aswell as policy options for slowing the spread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0413.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: long COVID; COVID 19 vaccination; COVID awareness
Online: 24 December 2021 (23:40:18 CET)
Background Recently, a surge of COVID 19 was observed globally, regionally and nationally. With increasing numbers of cases, the frequency of long COVID is on the rise. Management and control of long COVID depend on changes in respect of human behaviors and requires an understanding of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding health threats. MethodsA descriptive cross sectional study using online survey to gather data on the socio-economic background, knowledge, attitudes and practices on long-term complications of COVID. Results: Out of 201 respondents, 89.2% participants have heard about long-term complications of COVID 19. Only 35.9% have demonstrated adequate knowledge in the questions relating to co-morbidities and risk factors of COVID-19. A total of 92.2% believe that they should adhere to preventive measures following vaccination. Less than 60 % were following the advice on avoiding unnecessary travel and crowded places. Further, less than 50% were following COVID preventive measures. ConclusionAlthough the majority of participants have heard about long-term complications and common symptoms, the knowledge regarding co-morbidities that can lead to severe disease and long COVID was not satisfactory. The attitudes of the participants indicated increasing concern about long COVID. Practices indicate lack of adherence to key measures such as avoiding crowded places. These findings highlight the need for further increasing of awareness.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Clear Aligners; Maxillomandibular advancement; sleep apnea; intermaxillary advancement; sleep surgery; sleep medicine
Online: 11 February 2021 (13:20:43 CET)
Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) is a surgical intervention that reduces the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea via anterior repositioning of the upper and lower jaws. Pre-operative orthodontic alignment is often a critical component in aiding MMA. Orthodontia are important in intraoperative anchorage for intermaxillary fixation, healthy post-operative occlusion, and post-operative skeletal stability. Sequential clear aligners (SCA) refer to removable orthodontic appliances that are replaced at regular intervals to stimulate dental migration without the use of bonded hardware. These aligners have demonstrated efficacy in aiding orthognathic surgery for dentofacial deformities, which share some technical similarities with MMA for OSA. Here, we explore the treatment protocol for MMA followed by post-operative SCA treatment. Our experiences show that post-operative orthodontic treatment with SCAs results in similarly successful post-operative surgical outcomes given that the patient’s pre-operative occlusion is stable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19; Long Covid-19; Long Haulers Covid; Post Covid-19 Syndrome; Post-Acute Covid-19; Corona Virus; SARS-Cov-2; Novel Corona Virus 2019; Post-Acute SARS-CoV-2; PASC, Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19; Late Sequelae COVID-19
Online: 18 March 2021 (17:16:52 CET)
Introduction: Despite more than one year passed since the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 were reported, there is still no consensus on the definition and clinical management of post-acute-COVID-19. The condition has heterogeneously been named as Chronic COVID syndrome, Post COVID-19 Syndrome, post-acute sequela of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), and the more familiar long COVID. Method: In order to capture all relevant published studies, we undertook a multi-step search with no language restriction. The following four-step search strategy was utilized: First, a preliminary (limited) search was conducted on January 20, 2021, in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify the appropriate keywords. Then, on January 30, 2021, we adopted a search strategy of electronic databases from Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of sciences, using those keywords. Then, after duplicate removal, we screened all titles, abstracts, and full texts. This resulted in 66 eligible studies. Subsequently, after a forward and backward search of their references and citations an additional 54 publications were found, resulting in a total of 120 publications that formed the basis of the present analysis. The titles, abstracts, and full-texts of non-English articles were translated using Google Translate for further evaluation. We conducted our scoping review based on the PRISMA-ScR Checklist.Results: We found only one randomized clinical trial in our search. Of the 67 original studies, 22 were cohort and 28 were cross-sectional studies totaling 74.6% of the original studies. Of the total of 120 publications, 59 (49.1%) focused on signs and symptoms, 28 (23.3%) were focused on management, and 13 (10.8%) focused on pathophysiology. Ten (9%) publications focused on imaging studies. Ninety-one percent of the original investigations came from high and upper-middle-income countries, highlighting the scarcity of reports originating from low-income and lower-middle-income countries.Conclusion: The predominant symptoms among those with the so-called “Long COVID” were: fatigue, breathlessness, arthralgia, sleep difficulties, and chest pain. Recent reports also point to the risk of long-term sequela with cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, mental health, neurologic, and renal involvement in those who survive the acute phase of the illness. The ambiguity and controversies in its definition have impaired proper recognition and management of those requiring additional support following the resolution of the acute phase of this infection. This has resulted in long-standing distress for the patients and their families. Our findings highlight the need for a multidisciplinary approach, support, and rehabilitation for these patients in terms of long-term mental and physical health.
Online: 21 July 2020 (13:46:45 CEST)
Today, we are all threatened by an unprecedented pandemic: COVID-19. How different is it from other coronaviruses? Will it be attenuated or become more virulent? Which animals may be its original host? In this study, we analyzed 377 publicly available complete genome sequences for the COVID-19 virus, the previously known flu-causing coronaviruses (HCov-229E, HCov-OC43, HCov-NL63 and HCov-HKU1) and the lethal, pathogenic P3/P4 viruses, SARS, MERS, Victoria, Lassa, Yamagata, Ebola, and Dengue. We found strong similarities between the current circulating COVID-19 and SARS and MERS, as well as COVID-19 in rhinolophines and pangolins. On the contrary, COVID-19 shares little similarity with the flu-causing coronaviruses and the other P3/P4 viruses. Strikingly, we observed divergence of COVID-19 strains isolated from human hosts has steadily increased from December 2019 to March 2020, suggesting COVID-19 is actively evolving in human hosts. From all existing human COVID-19 genome sequences, we calculated the first common model that represents the shared sequences of the human COVID-19 strains, which provides important information for vaccine and antibody development. Geographic and time-course analysis of the evolutionary trees of the human COVID-19 reveals possibly heterogeneous evolutional paths among strains from 21 countries. This finding has important implications to the management of COVID-19 and the development of vaccines.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0269.v1
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:59:21 CEST)
Understanding the clinical conditions and outcomes of Covid-19 infected patients with immunodeficiency like HIV will be an information for improving management and treatment modalities. It was reported a patient of HIV plus clinical confirmed Covid-19 in this presentation.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0077.v4
The Ongoing COVID-19 Epidemic Curves Indicate Initial Point Spread in China With Log-Normal Distribution of New Cases per Day With a Predictable Last Date of the Outbreak Version 4: Predictions for Selected European Countries, USA and the World as a Whole and Try to Predict the End of the Outbreak Including a Discussion of a Possible “New Normal”
Online: 19 April 2020 (08:15:10 CEST)
During an epidemic outbreak it is useful for planners and responsible authorities to be able to plan ahead to estimate when an outbreak of an epidemic is likely to ease and when the last case can be predicted in their area of responsibility. Theoretically this could be done for a point source epidemic using epidemic curve forecasting. The extensive data now coming out of China makes it possible to test if this can be done using MS Excel a standard spreadsheet program available to most offices. The available data is divided up for whole China and the different provinces. This and the high number of cases makes the analysis possible. Data for new confirmed infections for Hubei, Hubei outside Wuhan, China excluding Hubei as well as Zhejiang and Fujian provinces all follow a log-normal distribution that can be used to make a rough estimate for the date of the last new confirmed cases in respective areas. In the version 2 continuation work, 9 additional days were added for the Chinese data to evaluate the previous predictions. The extra data then available from China follows the previous predicted trend supporting the usefulness of this simple technique. In the version 2 we also tested the feasibility for a non-specialist to make similar predictions using additional data from S Korea now available. In this third continuation the predictions for Version 2 are evaluated for S Korea and fits well the beginning of the decline but it seems to be difficult to bring down numbers of cases per day under about 100 new cases per day, potential reasons for this is discussed. To further evaluate when in a prediction becomes reliable the Chinese data was used to evaluate to make predictions for each day around the peak in number of cases and after2-3 consecutive days of decreasing new cases per day the prediction becomes reliable. In version 3 data for Italy just reaching this point was used to make further predictions for that country. A second new analysis was also added to use the fitted equation to detect when the acceleration of new cases per day stopped increasing exponentially. In the Chinese case this measured point coincides with the date of the complete Hubei lockdown and in the new Italian analysis it coincides with the mandatory Italian lockdown. Predicted dates for the end of the Italian outbreak is also added. In version 4 we expand the analysis to selected European countries, USA and the World as a whole and try to predict the end of the outbreak. We further discuss the apparent success of the used techniques that might work to introduce a “new normal” not very different to the previous to stop secondary outbreaks of COVID19 and future COVIDs that are sure to come.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0440.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; coronavirus; subjective sleep quality; risk perception; fear of infection; rumination; perception of collective coordinated defense; collective efficacy beliefs
Online: 24 September 2021 (14:34:47 CEST)
Background: Only few studies have studied the link between risk perception and sleep in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates the effect of two distinct risk appraisals—risk perception and perception of collective coordinated defense (PCCD) on Chinese adults’ sleep quality during the COVID-19 pandemic, and tested COVID-19-related fear and rumination as potential mediators of the relationships. Methods: Data were collected using a self-report online questionnaire from a sample of 224 Chinese adults during the fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. Results: COVID-19 risk perception and PCCD were related to poor sleep quality. Mediation analysis showed that both fear and rumination mediated the relationship between risk perception and sleep quality, whereas only fear mediated the relationship between PCCD and sleep quality. The model showed an excellent fit to the data and accounted for 44% of the variance in sleep quality in Chinese adults. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the distinct perceptual processes—risk appraisals in particular—contributed to poor sleep quality in Chinese adults during the COVID-19 public emergencies. These findings would be helpful for policy makers to address the sleep problems induced by psychological consequences of the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2032.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; post-COVID-19; pulmonary manifestations; spirometry; chest tomography.
Online: 28 July 2023 (12:48:47 CEST)
COVID-19 generated a scenario for global health with multiple systemic impairments. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical, radiological, and pulmonary functional evolution in 302 post-COVID-19 patients. Regarding post-COVID-19 pulmonary symptoms, dry cough, dyspnea, and chest pain were the most frequent. Of the associated comorbidities, asthma was more frequent (23.5%). Chest Tomography (CT) initially showed a mean pulmonary involvement of 69.7%, and the evaluation in the subsequent months showed an improvement in the evolutionary image, and with less than six months post-pathology, there was a commitment of 37 .7%, from six to twelve months, 20% and after 12 months, 9.9%. And as for most of the sample, 50.3% of the patients presented CT normalization in less than six months after infection, 23% normalized between six and twelve months, and 5.2% normalized the images after twelve months, with one remaining. Percentage of 17.3% who maintained post-COVID-19 pulmonary residual sequelae. Regarding spirometry, in less than six months after the pathology, 59.3% of the patients already showed a regular exam; 12.3% normalized their function within six to twelve months, and 6.3% concluded a normal exam after twelve months of post-pathology evaluation. Only 3.6% of the patients still showed some alteration in this period.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19 mitigation, education, indoor air quality, COVID-19 testing
Online: 16 March 2023 (11:16:45 CET)
In this case study, we describe a well-resourced private school system that implemented COVID-19 mitigation measures based on public health expert guidance as well as the lessons learned from this process. Avenues is a 10-year-old private school with campuses in NYC, São Paulo, Shenzhen, Silicon Valley, as well as online, which offers education at sixteen grades: 2 early learning years, followed by a pre-kindergarten–grade 12 school. We describe the mitigation measures Avenues implemented. We compare COVID-19 case prevalence at the school to the reported case prevalence in New York City, as reported by the New York State Department of Health. We compare the school's indoor air quality (IAQ) to ambient IAQ measures reported in the literature. The school's COVID-19 transmission mitigation measures successfully reduced the prevalence of COVID-19 among its students, staff, and faculty. The school also established a consistent high level of IAQ through various ventilation mechanisms. The school received positive parent and community feedback on the policies and procedures it established, with many parents commenting on the high level of communication and trust established by the school. This successful school reopening provides useful data for school closure and reopening standards to prepare for future pandemic and epidemic events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0414.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccinations; all-cause mortality; relative risk
Online: 24 February 2023 (02:03:36 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemics has had an unprecedented global impact, and the COVID-19 mass vaccination campaign has been commonly regarded as crucial to overcome the pandemics. Since all-cause mortality is the best way to measure the consequences of a health intervention, the present study was devised to analyze the all-cause mortality data of the United Kingdom (UK), which are made publicly available broken down by vaccination status. Data from January to May 2022 were retrospectively collected and analyzed according to age groups and vaccination status and the relative risk (RR) for all-cause mortality was calculated in comparison to the corresponding unvaccinated groups. All-cause mortality RR was also calculated from January to May 2021 for vaccinated people. Results show that the all-cause mortality RR was higher in people who received one or two doses of COVID-19 vaccines throughout the whole period and in any of the age groups considered. People vaccinated with three doses more than 21 days earlier had RRs lower than unvaccinated people, which however linearly increased over time. RR in vaccinated people of all ages in comparison to unvaccinated people were lower in January-May 2021, however they steadily grew over time. The finding that all-cause mortality RR in vaccinated in comparison to unvaccinated people increases over time requires careful examination to understand the underlying factors. Meanwhile, all the other major countries should undertake a systematic collection of all-causes mortality broken down by vaccination status, and mass vaccination campaigns should be suspended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID 19; health personnel; Burnout, Psychological; COVID 19 stress syndrome
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:42:28 CEST)
Purpose: The healthcare pressure and emotional tension during the first year of the COVID 19 pandemic have been able to affect the health of healthcare personnel. Physical and psychological symptoms attributed to a work situation and or COVID 19 infection are describ ed in health professionals. Objective: to analyze the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms directly or indirectly related to COVID 19 (occupational causes, illness or persistent COVID 19) after a 12 month pandemic. Methods: #COVID19PS is a cro ss sectional analytical study using an ad hoc questionnaire distributed through social media to record physical and psychological symptoms related to COVID 19 in health professionals. Variables: age, sex, geographical origin, profession, characteristics of the work environment, physical symptoms, Maslach test ( for health professionals. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis using t distribution, Chi square, ANOVA using IBM SPSS v20®. Results: N=1.159 ( women, 21.8% men; 44.6% <35 years old, 23.9% between 35 45years); 96.5% Spaniards. Professions: 17.1% medicine, 12.7% nursing, 32% physiotherapy, 24.1% occupational therapy, 14.1% others; 47.5% belonged to direct care for COVID 19 patients. 28.2% had passed the disease and 3.7% had it acti ve. 61.6% had physical symptoms ( neurological, 31.7% musculoskeletal, 29.6% general, 20.9% gastrointestinal, 20.3% skin, 19.2% cardiovascular, 16% respiratory (p= 96.9% had a medium high Burnout index (p= 48.3% with high levels of Emot ional Exhaustion, 62.9% with medium high level of Depersonalization and 74% with medium low levels of Personal Accomplishment. Conclusion: all health professions present high rates of physical and burnout consequences of the first year of COVID 19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0415.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; Vaccine hesitancy; COVID-19 Vaccine; Saudi Arabia
Online: 31 May 2022 (09:22:49 CEST)
On 11th March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. Vaccination programs have advanced greatly in the global health period, despite widespread anti-vaccination attitudes and misinformation. Vaccine hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine is currently a major issue in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was carried out from June 25, 2021 to October 2021 in order to investigate the knowledge levels of acceptance and hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine among Saudi’s nationals. The data was collected through a close-ended structured questionnaire from a total of 565 respondents. Overall, 78.41% respondents were female, 62.48% having university level education and 61.06% were unemployed. Majority of the participants 82.30% (n=465) think that Pfizer vaccine has the highest efficiency against COVID-19. Our study concludes that majority of the participants have satisfactory knowledge about COVID-19 vaccination. Concerns over vaccine components, effectiveness of vaccine and possible side effects are among the key causes for vaccine hesitancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; CoVID-19 Dignosis; CoVID-19 Chemistry & Biology
Online: 16 March 2021 (11:54:28 CET)
CoVID-19 is a multi-symptomatic disease which has made a global impact due to its ability to spread rapidly, and its relatively high mortality rate. Beyond the heroic efforts to develop vaccines, which we will not discuss, the response of scientists and clinicians to this complex problem has reflected the need to detect CoVID-19 rapidly, to diagnose patients likely to show adverse symptoms, and to treat severe and critical CoVID-19. Here we aim to encapsulate these varied and sometimes conflicting approaches and the resulting data in terms of chemistry and biology. In the process we highlight emerging concepts, and potential future applications that may arise out of this immense effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; real-time RT-PCR; COVID-19 symptoms; COVID-19 hematological findings; Bangladesh
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:47:03 CEST)
Objective: SARS-Cov-2 infection or COVID-19 is a global pandemic. From the time of identification to till, multiple clinical symptoms and parameters have been identified by the researchers of various countries and regions regarding the diagnosis and presentations of COVID-19 disease. In this manuscript, we investigated the primary symptoms and basic hematological presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the Bangladeshi patients. Methodology: We have collected the disease history of mild to moderate degree of COVID-19 patients; hematological and biochemical on admission reports of moderate degree COVID-19 patients. All of them were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR in different institutes in Bangladesh. Results: According to this study though COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh commonly presented with fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and sore throat, but symptoms like myalgia, diarrhea, skin rash, headache, Abdominal pain/cramp, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, and a higher temperature of >1000F have a greater presentation rate and more frequent than other published studies. CRP and Prothrombin time was found to increase in all the patients. Serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, and D-Dimer were found increased among 53.85%, 80.43, 44%, and 25% patients respectively. 17.39% of the patients had leukocytosis and neutrophilia. 28.26% of patients presented with lymphocytopenia. 62.52% of patients had mild erythrocytopenia. Conclusion: Despite some similarities, our study has evaluated a different expression in presenting symptoms in the case of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh. CRP, Prothrombin time, serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, D-Dimer, erythrocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia can be initial diagnostic hematological findings and assessment for prognosis COVID-19 disease. Also, gender variations have a different scenario of clinical and laboratory appearance in this region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0500.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; impact on society during COVID-19; behavioral impact of COVID-19; government policies against COVID-19; measures adopted by the government; COVID-19 Statistics; Infection rate and Data analysis
Online: 21 September 2020 (11:09:11 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 pandemic has pulled us all a few steps back, were we never shake hands or hug each other when we meet our friends and family after a gap, but instead we greet them by saying Namaste and joining our hands together. As we all know, COVID-19 spreads through air and the only way to shield ourselves is by maintaining a safe distance from one another. Methodology: In order to conduct a meta-analysis on the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala and India, the data was retrieved from various sites hosted by the government bodies. The data for analysis was collected from May 2020 to July 2020. The average number of days required to reach every 5000 fresh cases were also calculated using this data. COVID-19 has affected all the economy holistically regardless of financial, behavioral, or societal aspects. Conclusion: Lifting of the lockdown in a step by step process keeping in mind the necessities for the nation was a thoughtful act, but the people who mistook this opportunity and did not remain in quarantine after coming from abroad was recognized as the reasons behind the sudden and uncontrolled rise in the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala, India. The government authorities had no other option but to lift the restrictions to reduce the economic burdens that had already affected the daily wage worker and farmers prompting them to give up their lives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0146.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia; psychosis; sleep; sleep disturbances; sleep disorders; integrative medicine; acupuncture; add-on therapy
Online: 23 February 2018 (04:59:52 CET)
Background: Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder that has a large impact on patients’ lives. In addition to Western medicine, the use of additional treatments, such as acupuncture, in treating the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms is increasing. Methods: We conducted a systematic review on the use of acupuncture as an add-on treatment for patients with schizophrenia that are in regular care, with a special focus on the treatment of the often accompanying co-morbid sleep disorders. In this study, we searched the Medline, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ERIC databases with a cut-off date of December 31, 2017, thereby following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol. Results: Our search resulted in 26 eligible studies. Most studies showed limited evidence for the use of acupuncture as add-on therapy in the treatment of clinical symptoms, but beneficial effects have been reported in the treatment of co-morbid sleep disorders. Conclusions: Limited evidence was found for the use of acupuncture as add-on therapy in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; however, positive results were found in the treatment of sleep disorders, but this result needs to be confirmed in large, randomized, controlled trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cyclic alternating pattern; sleep texture; sleep apnea; polysomnography
Online: 31 May 2023 (05:32:49 CEST)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is multi-faceted world-wide distributed disorder exerting deep effects on the sleeping brain. In the latest years strong efforts have been dedicated to find novel measures assessing the real impact and severity of the pathology, traditionally trivialized by the simplistic apnea/hypopnea index. Due to the unavoidable connection between OSA and sleep we reviewed the key aspects linking the breathing disorder with sleep pathophysiology, focuings on the role of cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). Sleep structure, reflecting the degree of apnea-induced sleep instability, may provide topical informations to stratify OSA severity and foresee some of its dangerous consequences such as excessive daytime sleepiness and cognitive deterioration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1383.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Mindfulness based stress reduction; mental health; mindfulness; sleep quality; post COVID period
Online: 20 July 2023 (05:16:48 CEST)
(1) Background: COVID-19 had devastating effects on both physical and mental well-being, prompting the need for interventions. This study aimed to explore the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction on mental health, mindfulness, and sleep disorders in COVID-19 survivors.; (2) Methods: In this interventional parallel study, the sample was selected university students in nursing and midwifery faculties using total population sampling. The intervention included providing counseling on mindfulness methods by trained experts. General health, mindfulness and sleep quality questionnaires were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS22, descriptive and interferential statistic. A significance level of 0.05 was considered; (3) Results: In this study, the mean age of the students was 20.29 ± 2.03 years. 69.5% of the participants were female and 96% were single. 71.3% were studying nursing and 67% had a history of Corona infection. The intervention was only effective on general health questionnaire and the mean score of this questionnaire was 1.7 higher than the control group; (4) Conclusions: the study indicated that MBSR intervention improves mindfulness, mental health, and sleep quality in COVID-19 survivors. Regular assessment and use of this intervention can help address long-term challenges and improve overall well-being.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Evolution of sleep, NREM sleep, REM sleep, Rhombencephalic-spinal wake, Diencephalic wake, Cortical wake
Online: 9 March 2021 (11:12:11 CET)
Three types of wakefulness appeared along the vertebrate’s phylogeny and ontogeny: spinal-rhombencephalic in fish, brainstem-diencephalic in reptiles and cortical in mammals, in which the paralyzed spinal-rhombencephalic wake and the brainstem-diencephalic wake remain as REMS and NREMS The spinal-rhombencephalic and cortical types of wake are inherently anti-homeostatic. Animals must forage, reproduce, and survive to predation disregarding the environmental circumstances, hence temporarily forgetting the homeostatic regulation. After fulfilling the vital functions, the brainstem-diencephalic wake recovers the homeostatic control. The phasic signs of REMS are adaptive in immature mammals, serving for demanding heat, milk and defense to their mother. These advantages outweigh the REMS' poikilostasis in infants. The adults’ poikilostasis of REMS is harmless in thermoneutral environments but is mal-adaptive in aquatic environments in which REMS is reduced or even disappears. These exceptions explain the anomalous examples of REMS. An on-off hypothalamic switch homeostatically regulates the entrance and exit from REMS. Furthermore, the vital phasic signs of REMS depend on a second pontine proportional homeostatic control. Altogether, they regulate the expression of REMS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1915.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: post-COVID-19 syndrome; diabetes; overweight; COVID-19 pneumonia; observational study
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:18:29 CEST)
In the aftermath of the COVID pandemic, post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) remains a challenge and may continue to represent a major health problem in the future. Moreover, the influence of type 2 diabetes and being overweight on PCS remains unclear. This study aimed to assess this influence. We performed an observational study from October 2020 to July 2022, which included 466 patients (269 males and 197 females) with a median age of 65. They were hospitalized due to COVID-19 pneumonia and had persistent symptoms after 1 month of COVID-19 infection. The patients were divided into four groups according to the study objectives: patients with type 2 diabetes, overweight patients, overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, and normal-weight patients without type 2 diabetes. The clinical and demographic data collected during hospitalization and regular visits at the Community Healthcare Center dr. Adolf Drolc Maribor were analyzed. Our results showed that type 2 diabetes patients had a more difficult course of treatment and longer hospitalization. Moreover, more type 2 diabetes patients underwent rehabilitation than the other study groups. The prevailing symptoms in our patients with PCS were dyspnea and fatigue, mostly in female patients with type 2 diabetes. Our study also showed that more women with type 2 diabetes and more overweight women with type 2 diabetes suffered from secondary infections. Further, more overweight patients were treated in the intensive care unit compared to the other groups. However, our study showed an interesting result that patients with type 2 diabetes had the shortest PCS durations. Type 2 diabetes and being overweight are risk factors for PCS onset and prolonged duration. Therefore, our data that revealed a shorter duration of PCS in type 2 diabetes patients compared to the other investigated groups was unexpected. We believe that answering this question regarding the results will enable us to improve PCS treatment in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0136.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; health personnel; fear to COVID-19
Online: 8 February 2023 (02:34:46 CET)
The aim of this study was to estimate the association between fear of COVID-19 and risk perception with preventive behavior in health professionals from three Latin American countries. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted. Health professionals with on-site care in Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Peru were surveyed. Information was collected through an online self-report questionnaire. The main variables were preventive behavior as the dependent variable and fear of COVID-19 and risk perception as independent variables. Linear regression was used, and Beta coefficients and p-values were calculated. 435 health professionals were included, the majority were aged 42 years or older (45.29%, 95%CI: 40.65%-50.01%) and female (67.82%, 95%CI: 63.27%-72.05%). It was shown that the greater the fear of COVID-19, the greater the preventive behavior of COVID-19 infection (B=2.21, p=0.002 for total behavior; B=1.12, p=0.037 for additional protection at work; B=1.11, p<0.010 for hand washing). The risk perception of COVID-19 infection had a slight direct relationship with preventive behaviors (B=0.28, p=0.021 for total behavior; B=0.13, p=0.015 for hand washing), with the exception of the preventive behavior of using additional protection at work (p=0.339). We found that fear and risk perception are associated with increased practice of hand washing and use of additional protection at work. Further studies are required on the influence of working conditions, job performance and the occurrence of mental health problems in frontline personnel with regard to COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 Booster; Influenza and COVID-19; Vaccination Strategy; Combining Vaccination
Online: 17 November 2022 (10:31:53 CET)
Background: The uptake of COVID-19 booster vaccines has been significantly low. Therefore, it is questionable whether combining the COVID-19 booster vaccines with Influenza vaccines can increase the population's interest in taking such vaccines and manage the health pandemic effectively. Methodology: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a synthesis of the findings and summary of a total of 30 research articles based on the topic, ‘combining influenza and COVID-19 booster vaccination strategy’ was undertaken. The research articles were identified from three databases, namely, PubMed, Cochran Library, and Google Scholar using specific keywords and inclusion criteria. However, research articles that were not peer-reviewed and not published in English were excluded from the systematic review and meta-analysis. The average risk ratio of the included articles was 0.78% based on a 95% CI. On the other hand, the heterogeneity between such studies was I2 = 35%, while the statistical significance of their findings occurred at p < 0.05. The average p-value of the included research studies was p = 0.62, implying that the null hypothesis was not rejected in almost all the studies. Results: A synthesis of the chosen research articles revealed that when influenza and COVID-19 booster vaccines are combined, there is potential for an increase in the uptake of the latter, mainly because many populations have already been accustomed to taking influenza vaccines on an annual basis. Conclusions: In this way, through such findings, medical health experts can make informed decisions to increase the population's willingness to receive the COVID-19 booster vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: second COVID-19 booster; vaccination; COVID-19; willingness; predictors; general population
Online: 2 June 2022 (04:07:07 CEST)
Given the concerns of waning immunity from the primary COVID-19 vaccines and the first booster dose, we conducted an on-line cross-sectional study in May 2022 to investigate willingness to receive a second COVID-19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine and its associated factors. Overall, 22.7% of participants were willing to be vaccinated, 39.3% were unsure, but tend to be willing, 25.8% were unsure, 4.9% were unsure, but tend to be unwilling, and 7.4% were unwilling to be vaccinated. The main reasons against accepting a second COVID‐19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine COVID-19 dose included concerns about the side effects, the opinion that further vaccination is unnecessary, and effectiveness uncertainties. Males, younger individuals, participants without a previous COVID-19 diagnosis, and those with good/very good self-perceived physical health were significantly more frequently willing to receive a second COVID‐19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine. Also, increased fear of the COVID-19, increased trust in COVID-19 vaccination and decreased fear of a second booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine were associated with increased willingness. Our results show some hesitancy and unwillingness toward further COVID-19 vaccination and indicate that fear of COVID-19 and trust in COVID-19 vaccination affect public opinion
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0619.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 Mexico; stress in healthcare professionals; COVID-19 stress scale
Online: 26 September 2020 (08:07:00 CEST)
The world is currently, subjected to the worst health crisis documented in modern history; an epidemic led by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). At the epicenter of this crisis, healthcare professionals continue working to safeguard our well-being. To the regular high levels of stress, COVID new heights even more to healthcare professionals so depending on the area, specialty, and type of work. Here we investigated what are the tendencies, or areas most affected. Through an adaptation of the original COVID-stress scale, we developed a remote, fast test designed for healthcare professionals of the Northeastern part of Mexico, an important part of the country with economic and cultural ties to the US. Our results showed 4 key correlations as highly dependent: Work area – Xenophobia (p < 0.045), Work with COVID patients - Traumatic stress (p < 0.001) and Total number of COVID patients per day – Traumatic stress (p < 0.027), and Total number of COVID patients - Compulsive checking and reassurance. Overall concluding that normal levels of stress have increased (mild – moderate). Additionally, we further determine that the fear of being an asymptomatic patient (potential to spread without knowing) continues being a concern.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Virus; Vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; Covid-19; Covid-19 vaccine
Online: 7 September 2020 (03:46:59 CEST)
This tutorial is organized into three major sections—viruses, vaccines and the race for a Covid-19 vaccine. The goal is to provide enough background on viruses, history of vaccines, and the science of vaccinology founded on the principles of immunity. The hope is that this will enable us to understand the challenges, methods and prospects for developing a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Many important viruses such as smallpox, HIV, HCV and SARS-CoV-2 which is responsible for causing the Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are presented in detail, which is then followed by a description of different vaccine development methods and strategies. The tutorial then discusses different candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provides specific details of many of the prospective vaccines on the leader-board which are undergoing clinical trials. The tutorial concludes with a realistic projection for a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 based on the historical scientific record.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: China's COVID-19 Guide; Remdesivir; Xuebijing; Hydroxychloroquine; IL6 inhibitors; COVID-19
Online: 26 March 2020 (01:48:42 CET)
Currently, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 proven by clinical trials. WHO and CDC guidelines therefore endorse supportive care only. However, frontline clinicians have been applying several virus-based and host-based therapeutics in order to combat SARS-CoV-2. Medications from COVID-19 case reports, observational studies and the COVID-19 Treatment Guideline issued by the China's National Health Commission (7th edition published March 3rd, 2020. Edited translation attached) are evaluated in this review. Key evidence from relevant in vitro researches, animal models and clinical studies in SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are examined. Antiviral therapies remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and umifenovir, if considered, could be initiated before the peak of viral replication for optimal outcomes. Ribavirin may be beneficial as an add-on therapy and is ineffective as a monotherapy. Corticosteroids use should be limited without indicating comorbidities. IVIG is not recommended due to lack of data in COVID-19. Xuebijing may benefit patients with complications of bacterial pneumonia or sepsis. The efficacy of interferon is unclear due to conflicting outcomes in SARS and MERS studies. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown in vitro inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 and may be beneficial as both prophylactic and treatment therapy. For patients who developed cytokine release syndrome, interleukin-6 inhibitors may be beneficial. Given the rapid disease spread and increasing mortality, active treatment with readily available medications may be considered timely prior to disease progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: sleep; anesthesia; rapid eye movement (REM) sleep; NREM sleep; sharp-wave ripples (SWRs); dreaming; consciousness
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:12:47 CEST)
Sleep is still considered a mystery, despite intense scientific investigation. Here we present the first complete biological theory of sleep. The role of sleep is to restore the optimal homeostatic state, which is essential for tissue performance and health. Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) restores cortical and most other brain neurons, via relaxed global activity managed by thalamocortical circuits. The role of REM sleep is to restore acetylcholine (ACh) neurons, which support focused responses and hence cannot participate in global oscillations. Sleep enhances learning and memory via state restoration and ACh-affected paths. NREMS induces a lack of consciousness because global synchronous activity prevents focused responses, which are essential for consciousness. Dreams result from focused neural firing during sharp-wave ripples and REMS, and have a sense of reality because they involve the same neurons representing focused perceptual responses during wake. Anesthetics utilize a variety of mechanisms that prevent focused responses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: nCov-19, COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV
Online: 1 April 2020 (09:30:00 CEST)
Coronaviruse disease (COVID-19) outbreak has created an emergency globally, and social distancing and isolation is the only solution to prevent its spread. Several countries have announced fully locked on to tackle this pandemic. The recent COVID-2019 has shaken the globe with incidence cases of more than half-million cases, and a mortality toll of more than twenty thousand to date. The coronavirus family is inclusive of pathogen of both – animal species and humans, encapsulating the isolated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Researchers round the globe have been dexterously working to decode this lethal virus. Many mathematical frameworks have also been depicted which have helped to understand the dynamics of the COVID-19. Research on coronaviruses continues to explore various aspects of viral replication and pathogenesis to understanding the predilection of these viruses to switch between species, to develop an infection in a new host, and to identify significant reservoirs of coronaviruses will dramatically aid in our potential to prophesize when and where potential epidemics may occur. Many of the non-structural and accessory proteins encoded by the viruses remain unclear and unknown. This systematic review highlights the current situation of the pandemic, virus genomic composition, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, and prognosis along with mathematical models of disease transmission and dynamics.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Clustering; COVID-19; Long COVID; disease severity
Online: 2 November 2022 (01:02:16 CET)
The increasing number of people living with Long COVID requires the development of more personalized care, as for now limited treatment options and rehabilitation programs adapted to the variety of Long COVID presentations are available. Our objective was to design an easy-to-use Long COVID classification to help stratifying people with Long COVID. Individual characteristics and a detailed set of 62 self-reported persisting symptoms together with quality of life indexes 12 months after initial COVID-19 infection were collected in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infected people in Luxembourg. A hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC) was used to identify clusters of people. We identified 3 patterns of Long COVID symptoms with a gradient in disease severity. Cluster-Mild encompassed almost 50% of the study population and was composed of participants with less severe initial infection, fewer comorbidities, and fewer persisting symptoms (mean=2.9). Cluster-Moderate was characterized by a mean of 11 persisting symptoms and a poor sleep and respiratory quality of life. Cluster-Severe was characterized by a higher proportion of women and smokers as in the other clusters, with a higher number of Long COVID symptoms, in particular of vascular, urinary, and skin symptoms. Our study evidenced that Long COVID can be stratified in 3 sub-categories in terms of severity. If replicated in other populations, this simple classification will help clinicians to personalize the care of people with Long COVID.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0390.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid-19; inequalities; vaccination
Online: 6 July 2023 (13:24:07 CEST)
Socio-demographic factors are responsible of health inequalities also in vaccination. The aim of this study was to evaluate their role at population level through a population-based study performed on the whole population entitled to receive COVID-19 vaccines in Umbria Region, Italy, and registered to the Regional Healthcare Service as of February 28th, 2021. Socio-demographic characteristics and vaccination status in terms of uptake at least one dose of any available vaccine, completion of the primary vaccination cycle and uptake of the booster doses as of February 28th, 2022 were col-lected from the Umbria regional database. The percentage of eligible population who did not initiate the COVID-19 vaccination, complete the full vaccination cycle and get the booster dose was 11.8%, 1.2% and 21.5% respectively. A younger age, being a not-Italian citizen, and not holding an ex-emption for chronic disease/disability and a GP/FP were associated to all the endpoints. Females, as compared to males, were more likely to not initiate the vaccination but less likely to not receive the booster dose. On the contrary, results on the deprivation index were not conclusive. The findings, beyond confirming current knowledge at population level, provide new inputs for better tailoring vaccination campaigns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0995.v1
Online: 26 April 2023 (13:11:27 CEST)
In this study, we use descriptive statistics and data visualization techniques to analyze datasets and identify patterns and relationships between bikeshare and other transportation modes. We also use regression analysis to quantify the impact of various factors on bikeshare usage. Our results indicate that bikeshare trips during the pandemic were much longer compared to pre-pandemic times. Moreover, usage of bikeshare differed by user group, with casual users showing a greater increase in usage compared to subscribers. We plotted bivariate choropleth maps to visualize the spatial distribution of changes in bikeshare usage. Our findings suggest that an increase in bikeshare travel was associated with a reduction in travel by ride-hailing and public transit, especially in the northern part of the city, indicating a potential replacement of other modes of transportation. On the western and southern boundary of the city, bikeshare had a complementary effect with other modes. Overall, the data acquired for this study provides a valuable opportunity to understand the behavior of bikeshare users in Chicago, the intercorrelation of bikeshare with other transportation modes, and the impact of infrastructure on bikeshare usage. The findings of this study can inform the design and implementation of bikeshare systems in other cities and contribute to the development of a more sustainable transportation system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0152.v1
Online: 7 June 2021 (08:29:46 CEST)
Fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is one of the most critical challenges facing the global health system today. The possibility to identify the group of persons in the cohort of people under 50 years old, who are sensitive to the COVID-disease by non-invasive methods, is a very perspective approach for estimating the epidemiological state of the human population. The study aimed to identify the features of people's faces with COVID-19 that the most correlate with disease severity could serve as one of these approaches. For this aim, 525 photos of patients' faces with different outcomes of COVID-19 disease were analyzed using the Dlib face recognition convolutional neural network pre-trained for face recognition. Face descriptor vectors were obtained using the convolutional neural network. Facial features were found that predict a person's sensitivity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus (disease severity), and the contribution of each of the features to the risk of developing a severe form of COVID in a person was found. The accuracy of the binary classification of the individual severity of the COVID-19 course using the k-nearest neighbors algorithm on the test dataset was accuracy - 84%, AUC - 0.90.
Online: 17 May 2021 (17:06:31 CEST)
The most severe threat that the Covid-19 pandemic poses to the global economy is the need to choose between human lives and livelihoods. Bangladesh must assess the implications of such impacts on Bangladesh's macro-financial scenario to maintain the economy's current high growth trajectory. The paper outlines the major Covid-19 shock wave transmission channels to the four major sectors of the Bangladesh economy. Authorities around the world have taken every precaution possible to halt the spread of the pandemic. An aggregate transmission framework that includes these four sectors is required to contain the impact of Covid-19 can propagate through these sectors and eventually impact macro-financial stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0139.v1
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:00:43 CEST)
Resilience is an adaptive coping mechanism needed by health workers, especially nurses who have longer working hours than other health workers to provide care to patients in the era of the Covid-19 pandemic which is a global health problem. The aim of this literature review is to identify the resilience of nurses during the covid-19 pandemic the 21 st century global nursing paradigm. This language method uses literature reviews which are summaries of 10 articles in the publication years of 2020-2021 on search 4 databased electronic searches contain namely Scopus, ProQuest, Pubmed, and Scient Direct. This review used prisms. The eligibility of these studies were from its title, abstract, research methodology, results and discussion. The results of the review were presented in narrative form. The results of a review of 10 articles found that the form of psychological factors during the covid-19 pandemic, mental distress and influencing factors in nurses caring for patients with COVID-19, resilience nurses during the covid-19 pandemic. Conclusion: The 21 st century global nursing paradigm, one of the global problems in the health sector, with the outbreak of the corona virus disease (Covid-19), the role of nurses as the front guard is needed by the community to provide health services in line with the increasing incidence of covid-19 cases. Strong nurses need an adaptive inner coping mechanism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Psychological; Stigma; Covid-19
Online: 2 April 2021 (17:02:40 CEST)
Introduction: Corona Virus Disease 2019 causes health problems in the world in the form of a health crisis that results in psychological problems as fear and anxiety. The purpose of this study to determine the factors that influence psychological and stigma during the Covid-19 pandemic.Methods: This study is a literature review with five databases (Scopus, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and ProQuest), studies design used a cross-sectional or quasi-experimental, with a date of March 2021. The Center for Review and Dissemination and the JBI Guide are used to measure the Quality and Prism checklist for guide reviews. A feasibility study based on title, abstract, full text, and research methodology. The data analysis used narrative analysis based on the research findings.Results: Eleven articles met the predefined review inclusion criteria. Research is base on related factors psychology, related factors stigma, and factors related to psychological and stigma. Most of the factors associated with psychological conditions and stigma have a quasi-experimental and cross-sectional design. Participants averaged over a thousand for each study and discussed psychology factors related to the stigma. Conclusion: Factors related to psychological are age, education, symptoms and health conditions, gender, information, economy, exposure duration, and social support, while factors related to stigma are environment, history of comorbid diseases, discrimination, and public perceptions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0066.v1
Online: 1 February 2021 (17:34:13 CET)
In critically ill patients with COVID-19, concomitant abnormalities of coagulation have been seen with an unusually high incidence. Standard coagulation tests are limited in their ability accurately to reflect the severity of the pro-thrombotic phenotype observed in severe COVID-19 infections. In this narrative review we consider the role of rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) as a near bedside test allowing a more comprehensive assessment of haemostatic function in the context of COVID-19 infection. Comprehensive literature search was conducted on PubMed, revealing 13 publications on the subject. The coagulopathy of this disease process appears to be insufficiently represented with often normal conventional coagulation test parameters. Whilst not the perfect substitute for in vivo coagulation, studies utilising rotational thromboelastometry assays in COVID-19 patients have demonstrated increased maximum clot firmness (consistent with hyper-coagulability) and reduced maximum lysis (consistent with “fibrinolytic shutdown”). ROTEM appears to be a possible tool for risk stratification and to monitor the potential modulation of fibrinogen-dependent coagulation processes with enhanced anti-coagulation strategies. Precisely how these coagulation abnormalities can be modified by optimum, individualised medical interventions to improve clinical outcome, however, remains unclear.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0607.v1
Online: 24 December 2020 (08:54:34 CET)
The Saudi government has undertaken rapid and swift actions, such as suspending Omrah and holding international flights. Such affirmative actions enhanced citizens and residents’ confidence in the government officials’ ability to fight the pandemic. However, there are more than 361,178 reported cases of Covid-19 with 6131 deaths as of December 22, 202. As nurses are the largest component of the health care workforce in Saudi Arabia, it is important that they are trained and have the skills and resources to adapt, whether on the frontline of a crisis or in a clinical environment. Nurses play a key function in fulfilling the needs of medical treatment by being the most important part of the health care delivery system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0173.v1
Online: 7 December 2020 (15:36:05 CET)
Culture, gender and religion are closely linked each other’s, profoundly affect the role of each person within the Society, and also affect the ability to access to the health resources. We are now living a worldwide crisis due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In order to appropriately tackle it, an alliance between science, politics and citizens is needed. In this article, we summarize current evidences of how religions can represent, on one hand, a risk moment for spreading the virus (in relation with overcrowded events), on the other, a precious opportunity to engage people, and in particular minorities, in fighting the pandemic. To win this fight, we need a multicultural approach that takes into account every aspect of human life, and among these religion, which influences so much culture, everyday life and well-being.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; Sepsis; Inflammation
Online: 19 July 2020 (15:11:24 CEST)
Severe COVID-19 disease is characterised by an exaggerated inflammatory response, called cytokine storm, accompanied by a condition of immune depression. Even sepsis is characterised by an exaggerated inflammatory response, called SIRS (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome), accompanied by a condition of immune depression called CARS (compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome). Clinical studies reveal that most sepsis patients who did not die during the hyper inflammatory response (SIRS) subsequently succumbed to the condition of immune depression (CARS). Severe acute pancreatitis begins with local inflammation that induces systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), accompanied and followed by a compensatory anti-inflammatory response (CARS). In COVID-19 disease, the male response to SARS CoV-2 virus is typically characterised by a robust inflammatory response. Instead, a cell-mediated immune response is dominant in women. This means that the male sex tends to have a more robust hyper inflammatory response than the female one. Furthermore, in women the condition of immune depression is less represented, therefore they are more protected. Sepsis, severe acute pancreatitis and COVID-19 disease evolve between two fundamental aspects: hyper inflammation and immunodepression. The experience gained over years of studies of sepsis and severe acute pancreatitis suggests that therapies should be differentiated according to the evolutionary stage of the disease. The goal is to save the lives of most patients with COVID-19 disease. The identification of critical points, suitable for designing the windows of therapeutic opportunity, may allow the use of therapeutic interventions, in the COVID-19 disease, which are effective (there are no approved drugs yet), safe (without significant side effects), targeted (based on the evolutionary phase of the disease) personalized, (based on sex, co-morbidities, age, etc.) and timely (based on signs, symptoms, laboratory parameters and instrumental investigations).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0228.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Superspreaders; COVID-19; Influencers
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:19:54 CEST)
Since the first confirmed case of COVID-19, information was spreading in large amounts over social media platforms. Information spreading about the COVID-19 pandemic can strongly influence people’s behavior. Therefore, identifying information superspreaders (or influencers) during the COVID-19 pandemic is an im- portant step towards understanding public reactions and information dissemination. In this work, we present an analysis over a large Arabic tweets collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. The presented study con- struct a network from users’ behaviors to identify information superspreaders during the month of March, 2020. We employed both HITS and PageRank algorithms to analyze the influence of information spreading, and compared the ranking of the users. The results show that both HITS and PageRank discovered a similar subset of superspreaders with 40% were found to be verified Twitter accounts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: infodemic; misinformation; COVID-19
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:16:33 CEST)
Misinformation during the COVID-19 outbreak has shaped our perception of the disease. Some people thinkthe disease is a bioweapon while others are convinced that it is a hoax. Heightened anxiety often producesfearful rumors, some of which are absurd while others seem plausible and are laced with some truths. But, how does misinformation affect disease spread? In this paper, we construct a mathematical model parameterized by Ugandan data, to study the effect of misinformation on community COVID-19 spread. The analysis shows that misinformation leads to high number of COVID-19 cases in a community, and the effect is highest in the rumour initiators and spreaders. This analysis underscores the importance of addressing misinformation in COVID risk communication.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; ACE2; amblygeustia
Online: 24 April 2020 (03:34:21 CEST)
The infected and fatal cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) keep increasing around the world, to explore the infection routes and pathogenesis of 2019-nCoV could be meaningful for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Previous studies showed that the oral cavity is at potentially high risk of 2019-nCoV infection. The ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV was reported could express on oral epithelium and salivary glands, and 2019-nCoV could be detected in patients’ saliva. Recently, the amblygeustia were found to widely exist in the COVID-19 patients. To explore the potential mechanism of amblygeustia, we performed further analysis via independent in-house single-cell profiles. Our results showed that ACE2 was inclined to express in taste cells, which indicated that 2019-nCoV may invade into taste cells at the early stage of COVID-19, and lead to the amblygeustia of patients. Above findings about the 2019-nCoV and COVID-19 in oral cavity are valuable and enlightening for future epidemic prevention strategy.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0353.v1
Online: 19 April 2020 (16:54:43 CEST)
We have proposed a model considering two equally sized population (group A and group B) with low and high levels of disease tolerance. We have argued that in the more tolerant group (group B) the progression of the disease with respect to time will be slow with lower number of infections at any given time. We attribute this effect to the innate immunity which advantageously, can also be one of the major contributing factors for flattening the curve. We have compared the growth of Covid-19 disease in various countries to understand this effect.
DATASET | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0263.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Twitter; Arabic; COVID-19
Online: 16 April 2020 (08:15:28 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic spread of the coronavirus across the globe has affected our lives on many different levels. The world we knew before the spread of the virus has become another one. Every country has taken preventive measures, including social distancing, travel restrictions, and curfew, to control the spread of the disease. With these measures implemented, people have shifted to social media platforms in the online sphere, such as Twitter, to maintain connections. In this paper, we describe a coronavirus data set of Arabic tweets collected from January 1, 2020, primarily from hashtags populated from Saudi Arabia. This data set is available to the research community to glean a better understanding of the societal, economical, and political effects of the outbreak and to help policy makers make better decisions for fighting this epidemic.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; azithromycin; bee
Online: 2 April 2020 (11:06:47 CEST)
The pharmacology of azithromycin, and the actions of certain bee products, suggest the possibility of overlap with the pathophysiology of COVID-19 at several points in the disease process. First, intercellular epithelial tight junctions of the respiratory tract serve as a critical barrier to invaders. Pathophysiological factors capable of disrupting this epithelial barrier include viral virulence factors such as those observed for other coronaviruses; virulence factors derived from potentially synergistic pathogens such as Candida albicans and Porphyramonas gingivalis; and imbalances in the host inflammatory response. Azithromycin, and to a lesser extent, certain bee products, appear to have actions that oppose such processes. Second, the matrikine PGP or its derivatives may contribute to risk in individuals at high risk for serious COVID-19 infection, especially during reactivation; but azithromycin is capable of modulating PGP in some contexts. Third, the most serious COVID-19 infections are associated with massive upregulation of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF alpha, and other inflammatory cytokines. The anti inflammatory actions of azithromycin and bee derived products such as melittin are potentially capable of modulating these processes, as well. Azithromycin is already in current use as a treatment for COVID-19; however, it's utility as a protector of epithelial barrier function would be most likely to be realized in prophylactic context rather than in a treatment context. Similarly, since the anti inflammatory effects of bee products take time, their effectiveness of melittin and other bee products would be expected to be maximized in a prophylactic context. In the context of the current pandemic, prophylaxis with azithromycin, bee products, or both, might be warranted for individuals at high risk for serious COVID-19 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0308.v1
Online: 20 March 2020 (07:01:44 CET)
Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) can lead to multiple organ injuries such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute renal injury (AKI) and so on. ACE2 is an important part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and a key protein needed for COVID-19 to invade cells. First of all, we searched the HPA, GTEx and FANTOM5 Databases and found that the expression of ACE2 in kidney tissue was significantly higher than that in lung tissue. Then, by searching the Nephroseq Database, it is further verified that ACE2 is highly expressed in renal tissue and plays a protective role in renal tissue. However, current studies have found that the incidence of AKI caused by COVID-19 is much lower than that of ARDS. Because of this, we further searched the proteins interacting with ACE2 protein through the STING Database and analyzed the expression of tissue protein mRNA in the HPA Database. It was noted that AGTR2 mRNA was highly expressed in lung tissue, but low in kidney tissue, and hard tissue specificity in lung tissue. Through further research, it is found that AGTR2 plays a major role in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, AGTR2 may be a key protein in COVID-19 pneumonia, and AGTR2 may be a potential new therapeutic target for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: sleep apnea; professional drivers; snoring; screening; sleep disordered breathing
Online: 1 October 2023 (07:15:13 CEST)
Sleep apnea is common in professional truck drivers. As undiagnosed and/or untreated sleep apnea is a risk factor for sleepiness-related traffic accidents, it should be recognized. We develop a new, simple tool to screen sleep apnea in this population. Altogether, 2066 professional truck drivers received a structured questionnaire. 175 drivers had a clinical examination and were invited to sleep laboratory studies, including cardiorespiratory polygraphy. We studied associations of different risk factors with the presence of sleep apnea. We established a new simple screening tool for sleep apnea that was compared to other existing screening tools. 1095 drivers filled in the questionnaire. 172 drivers had successful cardiorespiratory polygraphy. Full data was available for 160 male drivers, who were included in the analyses. The following five risk factors for sleep apnea formed the BAMSA-score (0 to 5): BMI>30 kgm-2, Age>50 years, Male gender, Snoring at least on one night per week and presence of Apneas at least sometimes. BAMSA showed a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 78.8% in detecting AHI≥15, when using a cut point of 4 and the ROC area was 0.823. BAMSA is a sensitive and easy-to-use tool in predicting sleep apnea in male professional drivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0369.v4
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia; impaired neurogenesis; sleep-wake cycle; non-REM sleep
Online: 20 November 2018 (07:06:35 CET)
Through the use of a simplified model of consciousness this paper illustrates the symptoms of schizophrenia linked to neocortical structures and functions. It makes the case that the bewildering and varied presentation of symptoms in schizophrenia can be analyzed and explained using such models. The model is used to illustrate the central thesis of the paper, that schizophrenia is a disorder of neurogenesis which leads to progressive neurochemical, functional and neurophysiological changes that create the characteristic behaviors of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19 Coagulopathy; hormonal contraception; COVID-19; venous thromboembolism; pulmonary embolism; thrombolysis
Online: 8 May 2023 (05:29:27 CEST)
Coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19) may be complicated by thrombotic events, particularly venous thromboembolism (VTE), which have been reported both in critically ill hospitalized patients and in individuals with mild symptoms. It is known that the chronic use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) is associated with higher risk of VTE. To date, there are only few reports concerning the association of OCPs and VTE/pulmonary embolism (PE) in COVID-19 patients. Given that during the convalescent phase of disease, a state of endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability and a low-grade inflammation may be persistent, the occurrence of thromboembolic events following acute COVID-19 infection may be not surprising. Herein, we report a case of high-risk PE detected in a post-COVID-19 young woman under hormonal contraception, which required thrombolytic treatment. A number of prothrombotic phenomena, such as overweight, hormonal contraceptive therapy, recent COVID-19 infection and prolonged immobilization, might have synergically contributed to the development of a sublethal thromboembolic event.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0120.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Pre-COVID-19; Post-COVID-19; Secondary Schools; Water Demand; Groundwater; Nigeria
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:22:37 CEST)
The prevalence of corona virus and the novel COVID-19 disease in the entire globe has exacerbated different impact on socioeconomic spectrum in the world, including water use pattern. Thus a research was conducted to examine the comparative use of water during pre- and post-COVID-19 lockdown pattern among post-primary schools in Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria. A survey was conducted among fifteen schools which were randomly selected, but with eight public and seven private schools for the investigation. Both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used in data analysis. The results revealed that the major source of water to the schools investigated is ground water which is obtained through hand-dug wells and boreholes. It was further discovered that there was increase in water use during post-COVID-19 lockdown era as a result of the directive by the government that clean water should be provided for hand-washing by all schools regardless of the owner to curtail the spread of COVID-19 disease in the country. One sample t-test also revealed that there was a significant difference in water use at (p<0.01) level. It is recommended that the government and other stakeholders in water sector to ensure that all-time and non-seasonal dependent source of water be provided rather than ground water source which is susceptible to variations in water yields from seasonal variations. This will enable continuous clean water supply, for all purposes, including COVID-19 protocols.