REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0027.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; Artificial Intelligence; prevention; testing; treatment
Online: 4 June 2020 (06:30:35 CEST)
Globally, an approximate of 380,000 patients succumbed to death due to the pandemic COVID-19 which also infected more than six million people since December 2019. Not sparing anyone, COVID-19 infections are widely reported among healthcare professionals, sanitation workers and researchers too while global leaders and various governments are providing their best in defending their citizens against this airborne and contact spread virus. In order to contain the virus and protect millions of lives from this deadly coronavirus, there is a need to have a combination of advanced engineering technology and medical facilities. Application of applied science, engineering and technology diffuse almost every aspect of contemporary living. Grasping the fundamentals to determine humanity's most imperative and forthcoming challenges is essential. Artificial Intelligence, the technology that learns, adapts and reciprocates the actions according to the situations, finds optimum position in the fight against corona virus and acts as a powerful tool against this pandemic. In this research article, the authors discusses how Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be leveraged to fight the deadly virus. The research paper further discusses the efficient utilization of AI across the globe to help in testing, treating and serving the population in these hard times. This manuscript focuses on the potential impact of the process in which AI can be implemented to prevent, test and treat.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0531.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Biosensors; COVID-19; Artificial Intelligence; Computer-aided Detection (CAD) Internet of Medical Things (IoMT).
Online: 29 November 2022 (03:44:17 CET)
Despite the fact that COVID-19 is no longer a global pandemic due to development and integration of different technologies for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Technological advancement in the field of molecular biology, electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, nanotechnology etc. has led to the development of molecular approaches and computer aided diagnosis for the detection of COVID-19. This study provides a holistic approach on COVID-19 detection based on (1) molecular diagnosis which include RT-PCR, antigen-antibody and CRISPR-based biosensors and (2) computer aided detection based on AI-driven models which include Deep Learning and Transfer learning approach. The review also provide comparison between these 2 emerging technologies and open research issues for the development of smart-IoMT-enable platform for the detection of COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0296.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: COVID-19, Deep learning, Artificial Intelligence, Ultrasound, Review
Online: 16 March 2023 (02:53:04 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected millions of people globally, with respiratory organs being strongly affected in individuals with comorbidities. Medical imaging-based diagnosis and prognosis have become increasingly popular in clinical settings to detect COVID-19 lung infections. Among various medical imaging modalities, ultrasound stands out as low-cost, mobile, and radiation-safe imaging technology. In this comprehensive review, we focus on ultrasound-based AI studies for COVID-19 detection that use public or private lung ultrasound datasets. We surveyed articles that used publicly available lung ultrasound datasets for COVID-19 and reviewed publicly available datasets and organize ultrasound-based AI studies per dataset. We analyzed and tabulated studies in several dimensions, such as data preprocessing, AI models, cross-validation, and evaluation criteria. In total, we reviewed 42 articles, where 28 articles used public datasets, and the rest used private data. Our findings suggest that ultrasound-based AI studies for the detection of COVID-19 have great potential for clinical use, especially for children and pregnant women. Our review also provides a useful summary for future researchers and clinicians who may be interested in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0711.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: pneumonia; Resnet; residual; PEPX-Resnet; COVID-19
Online: 31 May 2021 (08:29:00 CEST)
Pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, and one of the most significant approaches to diagnose pneumonia is Chest X-ray (CXR) since it was used in clinical scenes. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been widely used in computer vision community. Along with the development of CNNs, we want to make use of CNNs to recognize CXR of people who get pneumonia and make classification. It is important, especially during epidemic period. In this paper, we present a new type of residual learning framework, PEPX-Resnet, which makes use of a type of lightweight residual, and apply this network to CXR dataset. The result shows that PEPX-Resnet is easier to optimize and can have better results, especially for COVID-19 cases. PEPX-Resnet could reach higher accuracy, f1 score and some other evaluations for CXR dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; Artificial intelligence; Machine learning; Data mining
Online: 14 June 2020 (03:34:22 CEST)
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted health and wellbeing globally. To strengthen preventive and clinical care amid this pandemic, technological innovations like artificial intelligence (AI) are increasingly used in different contexts. This bibliometric study aimed to assess the current scholarly development and prominent research domains in applications of AI technologies in COVID-19 research. A total of 105 articles were retrieved from MEDLINE database that emphasized on the use of AI in the context of COVID-19. Most articles had multiple authors with a collaboration index of 7.18. Moreover, most of the articles were produced from the USA (22.86%) and China (21.9%), whereas developing countries were underrepresented among the contributing nations. Furthermore, several research domains were identified, including prevention and control, diagnostics, epidemiological characteristics, therapeutics, psychological conditions, and different areas of data sciences related to COVID-19. The current bibliometric evidence shows the early stage of development in this field, which necessitates equitable applications of AI in COVID-19 research emphasizing on health disparities, socio-legal issues, vaccine development, and applied public health research in this pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0390.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: COVID-19; vibraimage; behavioral parameters; diagnosis accuracy; ANN; AI
Online: 22 September 2021 (16:28:12 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic spreads in waves for a year and a half, despite significant worldwide efforts, the development of biochemical diagnostic methods and population vaccination. One of the reasons for the infection spread is the impossibility of early disease detection through biochemical diagnostics, since biochemical processes slowly develop in a body. At the same time, well known that behavioral characteristics of a person, measured based on reflex movements, are capable for inertialess assessment of psychophysiological parameters. Vibraimage technology is the method of head micromovements video processing by inter-frame difference accumulation and converting spatial and temporal characteristics of the inter-frame difference into behavioral and psychophysiological parameters. Here we shown that behavioral parameters measured by vibraimage changed during COVID-19 infection. The identification of changes signs in behavioral parameters detected by AI trained on patients and controls. The best diagnostic accuracy (higher 94%) obtained using instantaneous values of behavioral parameters measured with the following vibraimage settings: 10Hz frequency of basic measurements; 25 inter-frame difference accumulations and averaging the diagnostic results over period of at least 5 seconds. COVID-19 diagnoses by behavioral parameters showed earlier (5-7 days) detection of the disease compared to symptoms and positive results of biochemical RT-PCR testing. Proposed method for COVID-19 diagnosis indicates infected persons within 5 seconds video processing using standard television cameras (web, IP) and computers, allows mass testing/selftesting and will stop the pandemic spread. We assume that head micromovements analysis for diagnosis of various diseases is possible not only with the help of vibraimage technology. Further research of human head micromovement analysis will help stop the COVID-19 pandemic and will contribute to the development of new contactless and environmentally friendly methods for early diagnosis of diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: artificial intelligence; machine learning; drug design; covid-19; structure-based drug design; ligand-based drug design
Online: 2 March 2022 (03:00:37 CET)
The recent covid crisis has proven important lessons for academia and industry regarding digital reorganization. Among fascinating lessons from these times is the huge potential of data analytics and artificial intelligence. The crisis exponentially accelerated the adoption of analytics and artificial intelligence, and this momentum is predicted to continue into the 2020s and over. Moreover, drug development is a costly and time-consuming business, and only a minority of approved drugs return the revenue that exceeds the research and development costs. As a result, there is a huge drive to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. With modern algorithms and hardware, it is not too surprising that the new technologies of artificial intelligence and other computational simulation tools can help drug developers. In only two years of covid research, many novel molecules have been designed/identified using artificial intelligence methods with astonishing results in terms of time and effectiveness. This paper will review the most significant research on artificial intelligence in the de novo drug design for COVID-19 pharmaceutical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0151.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: deep learning; CNN; DenseNet; COVID-19; transfer learning
Online: 18 February 2022 (14:44:55 CET)
COVID-19 has a severe risk of spreading rapidly, the quick identification of which is essential. In this regard, chest radiology images have proven to be a practical screening approach for COVID-19 aﬀected patients. This study proposes a deep learning-based approach using Densenet-121 to detect COVID-19 patients eﬀectively. We have trained and tested our model on the COVIDx dataset and performed both 2-class and 3-class classification, achieving 96.49% and 93.71% accuracy, respectively. By successfully utilizing transfer learning, we achieve comparable performance to the state-of-the-art method while using 15x fewer model parameters. Moreover, we performed an interpretability analysis using Grad-CAM to highlight the most significant image regions at test time. Finally, we developed a website that takes chest radiology images as input and detects the presence of COVID-19 or pneumonia and a heatmap highlighting the infected regions. Source code for reproducing results and model weights are available.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0467.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Covid-19; SARS-CoV; Environmental factors; Air pollution; Smoking; Air temperature
Online: 29 May 2020 (13:02:07 CEST)
The physical environment plays an important role in the transmission of respiratory infections like Covid-19. To find relevant articles on environmental factors influencing respiratory infection outbreaks, we searched Pub med Central on the following topics: 1. Environmental pollution causing coronavirus fatality- 73 results, relevant 1 article, 2. Environmental factors affecting Covid-19, 149 results from which there were 6 relevant articles, 3. Impact of air pollution on Covid-19 fatality, 10 results, relevant 3 articles, 4. Environmental factors affecting respiratory viruses- 10646 results were obtained, 2 relevant articles. We searched Google scholar on environmental factors affecting Covid-19 transmission and found 7 relevant papers. We excluded the duplicates in each of the key words search. Date of search was on 20th April 2020. All articles included in results were scrutinized and relevance of articles was based on their content that discussed meteorological and physical environment factors in the spread and severity of Covid-19. We have discussed factors like air pollution, smoking, air temperature, humidity and air velocity as contributing factors. If meteorological factors are conducive to spread in a particular area, we need protective measures way before a respiratory infection outbreak occurs. Covid-19 is a lesson learnt the hard way, and we must enable people to practice hygienic practices with limited resources but high level of protection that it provides. Air pollution control can prevent priming of respiratory system which shall further protect from pulmonary infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus pandemic; big data; epidemic outbreak; artificial intelligence (AI); deep learning
Online: 21 April 2020 (09:01:45 CEST)
The very first infected novel coronavirus case (COVID-19) was found in Hubei, China in Dec. 2019. The COVID-19 pandemic has spread over 215 countries and areas in the world, and has significantly affected every aspect of our daily lives. At the time of writing this article, the numbers of infected cases and deaths still increase significantly and have no sign of a well-controlled situation, e.g., as of 14 April 2020, a cumulative total of 1,853,265 (118,854) infected (dead) COVID-19 cases were reported in the world. Motivated by recent advances and applications of artificial intelligence (AI) and big data in various areas, this paper aims at emphasizing their importance in responding to the COVID-19 outbreak and preventing the severe effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. We firstly present an overview of AI and big data, then identify their applications in fighting against COVID-19, next highlight challenges and issues associated with state-of-the-art solutions, and finally come up with recommendations for the communications to effectively control the COVID-19 situation. It is expected that this paper provides researchers and communities with new insights into the ways AI and big data improve the COVID-19 situation, and drives further studies in stopping the COVID-19 outbreak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0248.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: COVID-19; sentiment analysis; deep learning
Online: 19 May 2022 (03:42:40 CEST)
The Covid-19 also known as the Coronavirus is a viral disease from the SARS-CoV-2 family of virus, as at December 2019 the first case of this virus infection was identified at Wuhan, China, this seemingly isolated case soon became a global pandemic, whose effect was felt globally which also had colossal effects on both health, economic and politics . As at the time of this research about 4.5 million people have died of the Coronavirus and over 215 million people already infected by it. This pandemic stood out not just for its scale but for how social media was a major contribution to its spread as well as to curbing it. The power of social media was used to spread misinformation as well as to spread awareness on the subject, with both having massive impact on the people. In this paper we will be running a sentimental analysis on twitter under the keyword “Covid-19 and Coronavirus”, twitter is a powerful social media tool that is known for its ability to keep trends in the form of tweets, we will be drawing correlations between the peaks of tweet with the peak of infection. We will also be analyzing to know what the impact of these tweets are having on the rate of the infection and vice versa. We will also be analyzing what people are tweeting most about, what are the talking points, comparing both real time and past tweets with real time infection and death rates using deep different learning methods to access what information can be derived from it.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: COVID-19; Deep learning; Convolutional neural network; Computed Tomography; X-Rays; Classification; Detection
Online: 14 June 2020 (17:51:12 CEST)
The COVID-19 is a highly contagious viral infection which played havoc on everyone's life in many different ways. According to the world health organization and scientists, more testing potentially helps governments and disease control organizations in containing the spread of the virus. The use of chest radiographs is one of the early screening tests to determine the onset of disease, as the infection affects the lungs severely. This study will investigate and automate the process of testing by using state-of-the-art CNN classifiers to detect the COVID19 infection. However, the viral could of many different types; therefore, we only regard for COVID19 while the other viral infection types are treated as non-COVID19 in the radiographs of various viral infections. The classification task is challenging due to the limited number of scans available for COVID19 and the minute variations in the viral infections. We aim to employ current state-of-the-art CNN architectures, compare their results, and determine whether deep learning algorithms can handle the crisis appropriately. All trained models are available at https://github.com/saeed-anwar/COVID19-Baselines
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: respiratory failure; stethoscope; ultrasound; COVID-19
Online: 25 April 2020 (02:31:18 CEST)
The current Covid-19 pandemic has hugely disrupted the delivery of routine and established medical care. Patients can develop a wide range of clinical signs and symptoms from a cough and fever to severe respiratory failure. There is an ongoing argument on a concise investigative pathway to ensure the safety of all healthcare workers. The stethoscope can help with any clinical respiratory assessment but the risk of cross infection is high. Computer tomography should not be routinely performed. There is a potential place for lung ultrasound but outcomes are not yet determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0515.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep Learning; COVID-19; ResNet50; ResNet101; DenseNet121; DenseNet169; InceptionV3; Transfer Learning; Chest X-Rays
Online: 28 November 2022 (12:34:06 CET)
Coronavirus disease since December 2019 has significantly affected millions of people. Given the effect this disease has on the pulmonary systems of humans, there is a need for chest radiographic imaging (CXR) for monitoring the disease and preventing further deaths. Several studies have been shown that Deep Learning models can achieve promising results for COVID-19 diagnosis towards the CXR perspective. However, this research field is at an initial stage since there is a limited number of large CXR repositories regarding COVID-19. In this study, five deep learning models were analyzed and evaluated with the aim of identifying COVID-19 from chest X-Ray images. More specifically, we utilized the ResNet50, ResNet101, DenseNet121, DenseNet169 and InceptionV3 using Transfer Learning. All models were trained and validated on the largest publicly available repository for COVID-19 CXR images. Furthermore, they were evaluated on unknown data as well, that was not used for training or validation, authenticating their performance, and clarifying their usage in a medical scenario. All models achieved satisfactory performance where ResNet101 was the superior model achieving 96% in Precision, Recall, and Accuracy. Our outcomes show the potential of deep learning models on COVID-19 medical offering a promising way for the deeper understanding of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0542.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Covid-19 test results; prediction; habits; health records; deep learning
Online: 25 August 2020 (08:58:07 CEST)
A patient will visit physicians when he/she feels ill. This illness is not for COVID-19 but it is a general tendency of human being to visit doctor probably it can not be controlled by general drug. When a patient comes to a doctor, the doctor examines him/her after knowing his/her problem. The physician always asks him/her about some questions related to him/her daily life. For example, if a young male patient comes to a doctor with a symptom of fever and cough, the first question doctor asked him that he has a habit of smoking. Then doctor asks him whether this type of symptom appeared often to him previously or not. If the answers of both questions are yes, then the first one is habit and the second one is that he may suffering from some serious disease or a disease due to the weather. The aim of this paper is to consider habit of the patient as well as he/she has been affected by a critical disease. This information is used to build a model that will predict whether there is any possibility of his/her being affected by COVID-19. This research work contributes to tackle the pandemic situation occurred due to Corona Virus Infectious Disease, 2019 (Covid-19). Outbreak of this disease happens based on numerous factors such as past health records and habits of patients. Health records include diabetes tendency, cardiovascular disease existence, pregnancy, asthma, hypertension, pneumonia; chronic renal disease may contribute to this disease occurrence. Past lifestyles such as tobacco, alcohol consumption may be analyzed. A deep learning based framework is investigated to verify the relationship between past health records, habits of patients and covid-19 occurrence. A stacked Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) based model is proposed in this paper that identifies whether a patient can be infected by this disease or not. The proposed predictive system is compared against existing benchmark Machine Learning classifiers such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Decision Tree (DT).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0215.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19; deep learning; radiography; automated detection; medical imaging; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 19 October 2020 (10:49:25 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc on the whole world, taking over half a million lives and capsizing the world economy in unprecedented magnitudes. With the world scampering for a vaccine, early detection and containment is the only redress. Existing diagnostic technologies with high accuracy like RT-PCRs are expensive and sophisticated, requiring skilled individuals for specimen collection and screening, resulting in lower outreach. So, methods excluding direct human intervention are much sought after, and artificial intelligence-driven automated diagnosis, especially with radiography images, captured the researchers' interest. This survey marks a detailed inspection of the deep-learning-based automated detection of COVID-19 works done to date, a comparison of the available datasets, methodical challenges like imbalanced datasets, and others, along with probable solutions with different pre-processing methods, and scopes of future exploration in this arena. We also benchmarked the performance of 315 deep models in diagnosing COVID-19, Normal, and Pneumonia from x-ray images of a custom dataset created from four others. The dataset is publicly available at https://github.com/rgbnihal2/COVID-19-X-ray-Dataset. Our results show that DenseNet201 model with Quadratic SVM classifier performs the best (accuracy: 98.16%, sensitivity: 98.93%, specificity: 98.77%) and maintains high accuracies in other similar architectures as well. This proves that even though radiography images might not be conclusive for radiologists, but it is so for deep learning algorithms for detecting COVID-19. We hope this extensive review will provide a comprehensive guideline for researchers in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0290.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19; image-based diagnosis; artificial intelligence; machine learning; deep learning; computerized tomography; coronavirus disease
Online: 14 October 2020 (09:07:51 CEST)
Several studies suggest that COVID-19 may be accompanied by symptoms such as a dry cough, muscle aches, sore throat, and mild to moderate respiratory illness. The symptoms of this disease indicate the fact that COVID-19 causes noticeable negative effects on the lungs. Therefore, considering the health status of the lungs using X-rays and CT scans of the chest can significantly help diagnose COVID-19 infection. Due to the fact that most of the methods that have been proposed to COVID-19 diagnose deal with the lengthy testing time and also might give more false positive and false negative results, this paper aims to review and implement artificial intelligence (AI) image-based diagnosis methods in order to detect coronavirus infection with zero or near to zero false positives and false negatives rates. Besides the already existing AI image-based medical diagnosis method for the other well-known disease, this study aims on finding the most accurate COVID-19 detection method among AI methods such as machine learning (ML) and artificial neural network (ANN), ensemble learning (EL) methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0208.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Convolutional Neural Networks; EfficientNet; Lung Ultrasound; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Pneumonia; Ensemble; Computer Vision; Supervised Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 13 March 2023 (02:41:13 CET)
A machine learning method for classifying Lung UltraSound is here proposed to pro- vide a point of care tool for supporting a safe, fast and accurate diagnosis, that can also be useful during a pandemic like as SARS-CoV-2. Given the advantages (e.g. safety, rapidity, portability, cost-effectiveness) provided by the ultrasound technology over other methods (e.g. X-ray, computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), our method was validated on the largest LUS public dataset. Focusing on both accuracy and efficiency, our solution is based on an efficient adaptive ensembling of two EfficientNet-b0 models reaching 100% of accuracy, which, to our knowledge, outperforms the previous state-of-the-art. The complexity of this solution keeps the number of parameters in the same order as an EfficientNet-b0 by adopting specific design choices that are adaptive ensembling with a combination layer, ensembling performed on the deep features, minimal ensemble only two weak models. Moreover, a visual analysis of the saliency maps on sample images of all the classes of the dataset reveals where the focus is on an inaccurate weak model versus an accurate model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0519.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; Machine learning (ML); Grey wolf optimizer (GWO); artificial neural network (ANN); time-series; outbreak prediction
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:57:14 CET)
An accurate outbreak prediction of COVID-19 can successfully help to get insight into the spread and consequences of infectious diseases. Recently, machine learning (ML) based prediction models have been successfully employed for the prediction of the disease outbreak. The present study aimed to engage an artificial neural network-integrated by grey wolf optimizer for COVID-19 outbreak predictions by employing the Global dataset. Training and testing processes have been performed by time-series data related to January 22 to September 15, 2020 and validation has been performed by time-series data related to September 16 to October 15, 2020. Results have been evaluated by employing mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and correlation coefficient (r) values. ANN-GWO provided a MAPE of 6.23, 13.15 and 11.4% for training, testing and validating phases, respectively. According to the results, the developed model could successfully cope with the prediction task.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; CNN; DLNN; GRU; mental anxiety; hybrid approach
Online: 15 September 2020 (02:56:33 CEST)
COVID-19 and new concept, lockdown, change social life of all classes of humans. Children partially feel the changes of daily life and this situation has been children’s free mind. Children are under a new type of restriction imposed on them by their parents. Normally they prefer play with their their friends than study and always waiting for holidays. They heard a new jargon i.e. lockdown where everything stands still. Very often they see peoples in the roads and few vehicles are moving in the roads. However, a peculiar thing happens now that they sit in front of computer to hear the virtual classes that are taken by the teachers. This also happens when there is no lockdown since COVID-19 still affects people. The environment is totally changed and they do not find any proper answers from the parents about the scenario.This study has been made an attempt to carry out the mental affairs of children in West Bengal, India. Several families are surveyed for collecting responses mostly from rural areas as well as urban areas for the time-period from April, 2020 to July, 2020. An effort has been given in this paper to predict the stress, depression and anxiety faced by children during the COVID-19. A Deep Learning Neural Network (DLNN) based method is applied to understand the stress level, depression level and anxiety level amongst the children. A hybrid DLNN has been presented in this research that combines both Convolutional Layer and Gated-Recurrent Unit (GRU) for obtaining the prediction of the mental health of children. The model obtains an accuracy of 89.57% for defeminizing mental anxiety of children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0654.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Depression; Big data; Social media.
Online: 28 June 2021 (13:50:49 CEST)
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is provoking a prevalent consequence on mental health because of less interaction among people, economic collapse, negativity, fear of losing jobs, and death of the near and dear ones. To express their mental state, people often are using social media as one of the preferred means. Due to reduced outdoor activities, people are spending more time on social media than usual and expressing their emotion of anxiety, fear, and depression. On a daily basis, about 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are generated on social media, analyzing this big data can become an excellent means to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on mental health. In this work, we have analyzed data from Twitter microblog (tweets) to find out the effect of COVID-19 on peoples mental health with a special focus on depression. We propose a novel pipeline, based on recurrent neural network (in the form of long-short term memory or LSTM) and convolutional neural network, capable of identifying depressive tweets with an accuracy of 99.42%. Preprocessed using various natural language processing techniques, the aim was to find out depressive emotion from these tweets. Analyzing over 571 thousand tweets posted between October 2019 and May 2020 by 482 users, a significant rise in depressing tweets was observed between February and May of 2020, which indicates as an impact of the long ongoing COVID-19 pandemic situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0230.v1
Subject: Keywords: side effect; tranditional Chinese medicine; COVID-19; artificial intelligence; coronavirus
Online: 17 February 2020 (01:18:13 CET)
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbroke in Wuhan has imposed a huge influence onto the society in term of the public heath and economy. However, so far, no effective drugs or vaccines have been developed. Whereas, the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been considered as a promising supplementary treatment for the disease owing to its clinically proven performance on many diseases even like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Meanwhile, many side-effect (SE) reports suggest the SE of the TCM prescriptions cannot be ignored in curing the COVID-19, especially because COVID-19 always simultaneously leads to dramatic degradation of the patients’ physical condition. How to evaluate the TCM regarding to their latent SE is a urgent challenge. Aim of the study: In this study, we use an ontology-based side-effect prediction framework (OSPF) developed in our previous work and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based deep learning to evaluate the TCM prescriptions that are officially recommended in China for novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Materials and methods: Firstly, we adopted the OSPF developed in our previous work, where an ontology-based model separate all the ingredients in a TCM prescription into two categories: hot and cold. Then, we established a database by converting each TCM prescription into a vector containing the ingredient dosage and the according hot/cold attribution as well as the safe/unsafe label. And, we trained the ANN model using this database, after which a safety indicator (SI), as the complementary percentage of side-effect (SE) possibility, is then given for each TCM prescription. According to the proposed SI from high to low, we re-organize the recommended prescription list. Secondly, by using this method, we also evaluate the safety indicators of some other famous TCM prescriptions that are not in the recommended list but are used traditionally to cure flu-like diseases for extending the potential treatments. Results: Based on the SI generated in the ANN model, FTS, PMSP, and SF are the safest ones in recommended list, which all own a more-than-0.8 SI. Whereas, JHQG, LHQW, SFJD, XBJ, and SHL are the prescriptions that are most likely unsafe, where the indicators are all below 0.2. In the extra list, the indicators of XC, XQRS, CC, and CHBX are all above 0.8, and at the meantime, XZXS, SJ, QW, and KBD’s indicators are all below 0.2. Conclusions: In total, there are seven TCM prescriptions which own the indicators more than 0.8, suggesting these prescriptions should be considered firstly in curing COVID-19, if suitable. We believe this work will provide a reasonable suggestion for the society to choose proper TCM as the supplementary treatment for COVID-19. Besides, this work also introduces a pilot and enlightening method for creating a more reasonable recommendation list of TCM to other diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0396.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; Pandemic; Machine Learning; Public Health; Human Mobility; Air Quality; Review
Online: 15 March 2021 (14:50:24 CET)
The ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic is affecting every facet of human lives (e.g., public health, education, economy, transportation, and the environment). This novel pandemic and citywide implemented lockdown measures are affecting virus transmission, people’s travel patterns, and air quality. Many studies have been conducted to predict the COVID-19 diffusion, assess the impacts of the pandemic on human mobility and air quality, and assess the impacts of lockdown measures on viral spread with a range of Machine Learning (ML) techniques. This review study aims to analyze results from past research to understand the interactions among the COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown measures, human mobility, and air quality. The critical review of prior studies indicates that urban form, people's socioeconomic and physical conditions, social cohesion, and social distancing measures significantly affect human mobility and COVID-19 transmission. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many people are inclined to use private transportation for necessary travel purposes to mitigate coronavirus-related health problems. This review study also noticed that COVID-19 related lockdown measures significantly improve air quality by reducing the concentration of air pollutants, which in turn improves the COVID-19 situation by reducing respiratory-related sickness and deaths of the people. It is argued that ML is a powerful, effective, and robust analytic paradigm to handle complex and wicked problems such as a global pandemic. This study also discusses policy implications, which will be helpful for policymakers to take prompt actions to moderate the severity of the pandemic and improve urban environments by adopting data-driven analytic methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0500.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; impact on society during COVID-19; behavioral impact of COVID-19; government policies against COVID-19; measures adopted by the government; COVID-19 Statistics; Infection rate and Data analysis
Online: 21 September 2020 (11:09:11 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 pandemic has pulled us all a few steps back, were we never shake hands or hug each other when we meet our friends and family after a gap, but instead we greet them by saying Namaste and joining our hands together. As we all know, COVID-19 spreads through air and the only way to shield ourselves is by maintaining a safe distance from one another. Methodology: In order to conduct a meta-analysis on the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala and India, the data was retrieved from various sites hosted by the government bodies. The data for analysis was collected from May 2020 to July 2020. The average number of days required to reach every 5000 fresh cases were also calculated using this data. COVID-19 has affected all the economy holistically regardless of financial, behavioral, or societal aspects. Conclusion: Lifting of the lockdown in a step by step process keeping in mind the necessities for the nation was a thoughtful act, but the people who mistook this opportunity and did not remain in quarantine after coming from abroad was recognized as the reasons behind the sudden and uncontrolled rise in the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala, India. The government authorities had no other option but to lift the restrictions to reduce the economic burdens that had already affected the daily wage worker and farmers prompting them to give up their lives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Covid-19; Long Covid-19; Long Haulers Covid; Post Covid-19 Syndrome; Post-Acute Covid-19; Corona Virus; SARS-Cov-2; Novel Corona Virus 2019; Post-Acute SARS-CoV-2; PASC, Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19; Late Sequelae COVID-19
Online: 18 March 2021 (17:16:52 CET)
Introduction: Despite more than one year passed since the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 were reported, there is still no consensus on the definition and clinical management of post-acute-COVID-19. The condition has heterogeneously been named as Chronic COVID syndrome, Post COVID-19 Syndrome, post-acute sequela of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), and the more familiar long COVID. Method: In order to capture all relevant published studies, we undertook a multi-step search with no language restriction. The following four-step search strategy was utilized: First, a preliminary (limited) search was conducted on January 20, 2021, in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify the appropriate keywords. Then, on January 30, 2021, we adopted a search strategy of electronic databases from Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of sciences, using those keywords. Then, after duplicate removal, we screened all titles, abstracts, and full texts. This resulted in 66 eligible studies. Subsequently, after a forward and backward search of their references and citations an additional 54 publications were found, resulting in a total of 120 publications that formed the basis of the present analysis. The titles, abstracts, and full-texts of non-English articles were translated using Google Translate for further evaluation. We conducted our scoping review based on the PRISMA-ScR Checklist.Results: We found only one randomized clinical trial in our search. Of the 67 original studies, 22 were cohort and 28 were cross-sectional studies totaling 74.6% of the original studies. Of the total of 120 publications, 59 (49.1%) focused on signs and symptoms, 28 (23.3%) were focused on management, and 13 (10.8%) focused on pathophysiology. Ten (9%) publications focused on imaging studies. Ninety-one percent of the original investigations came from high and upper-middle-income countries, highlighting the scarcity of reports originating from low-income and lower-middle-income countries.Conclusion: The predominant symptoms among those with the so-called “Long COVID” were: fatigue, breathlessness, arthralgia, sleep difficulties, and chest pain. Recent reports also point to the risk of long-term sequela with cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, mental health, neurologic, and renal involvement in those who survive the acute phase of the illness. The ambiguity and controversies in its definition have impaired proper recognition and management of those requiring additional support following the resolution of the acute phase of this infection. This has resulted in long-standing distress for the patients and their families. Our findings highlight the need for a multidisciplinary approach, support, and rehabilitation for these patients in terms of long-term mental and physical health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0073.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; SEIR modeling; Italy; stochastic modeling; swarm intelligence; Google COVID 19 Community Mobility Reports
Online: 5 May 2020 (16:10:48 CEST)
We applied a generalized SEIR epidemiological model to the recent SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in the world, with a focus on Italy and its Lombardia, Piemonte, and Veneto regions. We focus on the application of a stochastic approach in fitting the model numerous parameters using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) solver, to improve the reliability of predictions in the medium term (30 days). We analyze the official data and the predicted evolution of the epidemic in the Italian regions, and we compare the results with data and predictions of Spain and South Korea. We link the model equations to the changes in people’s mobility, with reference to Google’s COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. We discuss the effectiveness of policies taken by different regions and countries and how they have an impact on past and future infection scenarios.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; diagnosis; deep features; SVM
Online: 22 April 2020 (05:58:22 CEST)
The detection of coronavirus (COVID-19) is now a critical task for the medical practitioner. The coronavirus spread so quickly between people and approaches 100,000 people worldwide. In this consequence, it is very much essential to identify the infected people so that prevention of spread can be taken. In this paper, the deep feature plus support vector machine (SVM) based methodology is suggested for detection of coronavirus infected patient using X-ray images. For classification, SVM is used instead of deep learning based classifier, as the later one need a large dataset for training and validation. The deep features from the fully connected layer of CNN model are extracted and fed to SVM for classification purpose. The SVM classifies the corona affected X-ray images from others. The methodology consists of three categories of Xray images, i.e., COVID-19, pneumonia and normal. The method is beneficial for the medical practitioner to classify among the COVID-19 patient, pneumonia patient and healthy people. SVM is evaluated for detection of COVID-19 using the deep features of different 13 number of CNN models. The SVM produced the best results using the deep feature of ResNet50. The classification model, i.e. ResNet50 plus SVM achieved accuracy, sensitivity, FPR and F1 score of 95.33%,95.33%,2.33% and 95.34% respectively for detection of COVID-19 (ignoring SARS, MERS and ARDS). Again, the highest accuracy achieved by ResNet50 plus SVM is 98.66%. The result is based on the Xray images available in the repository of GitHub and Kaggle. As the data set is in hundreds, the classification based on SVM is more robust compared to the transfer learning approach. Also, a comparison analysis of other traditional classification method is carried out. The traditional methods are local binary patterns (LBP) plus SVM, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) plus SVM and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) plus SVM. In traditional image classification method, LBP plus SVM achieved 93.4% of accuracy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccines; capillary leak syndrome
Online: 11 January 2023 (09:41:36 CET)
Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is an uncommon, potentially life-threatening disorder defined as recurrent attacks of pseudo-shock. This syndrome occurs due to the disruption of endothelial cells, which leads to increased vascular permeability, causing intravascular fluid to leak into the extravascular space and albumin to be retained in the interstitial space. SCLS can lead to hypovolemia, peripheral hypoperfusion, and acute renal insufficiency. The syndrome is presented with fever, generalized edema, pleural effusions, dyspnea, hypovolemia, hemoconcentration, prerenal azotemia, shock, and syncope. After ruling out other causes of hypovolemic shock, the diagnosis of SCLS can be considered on the presence of the classical triad of hypotension, hemoconcentration, and hypoalbuminemia. Eliminating the precipitating factors is the cornerstone of SCLS management. It is advisable to be very cautious and weigh the risks and benefits of vaccination of people with a history of this condition. This review will discuss and compare different aspects of SLCS after SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0032.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Project-oriented learning; sustainable development objectives; teaching innovation; situated learning; COVID-19.
Online: 1 April 2021 (16:19:26 CEST)
The use of active methodologies in the university is a priority to achieve higher quality learning. One of these methodologies with the greatest potential for training in competencies is Project-Oriented Learning (PLA), using it in an innovative way. Associating the use of this methodology with the objectives of sustainable development, which have become even more important since the Pandemic by COVID-19, can be a good idea to achieve a more sustained and situated learning. The aim of this study is to find out to what extent research on teaching innovation with Project-Oriented Learning is associated with the Sustainable Development Goals. A systematic review was carried out as indicated by PRISMA through the following databases: WOS and Scopus. WOS found 15 articles on AoP and 6 on Project-Oriented Learning and sustainability. In Scopus 2 were found in 2019. The main results show that in the University, especially in the branches of engineering, AoP is widely used, however, it is rarely related to SDGs. Among the conclusions, we highlight the need for research on project-oriented learning and sustainable development goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: lung ultrasound; infants; children; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; multisystem inflammatory syndrome.
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:29:22 CET)
It is already well known that infants and children infected with COVID-19 develop mild to mod-erate forms of the disease, with fever and oropharyngeal congestion being the most common symptoms. Nevertheless, there are cases in which the patients accuse respiratory symptoms. These cases need lung evaluation, which can be done using lung ultrasound (LUS), because it is a non-irradiating and repeatable imaging technique. 19 children with COVID-19 pneumonia were eval-uated using LUS. The LUS score (LUSS) for each patient varied between 1 to 8 points from a max-imum of 36 points. The arithmetic mean was 4.47 ± 2.36 (S.D), while 95% CI for the Arithmetic mean was 3.33 to 5.61. The lung changes were correlated with their biomarkers, specifically in-flammatory markers. The correlation between LUSS and LDH, D-dimers and IL-6 was a strong positive one with r=0.66 (p=0.01, 95% CI 0.147 to 0.896) between the LUSS and LDH level at symptomatic infants and children (with cough present) and r=0.66 (p=0.01, 95% CI 0.140 to 0.895) between LUSS and D-dimers level at symptomatic infants and children (with cough pre-sent). The results suggest that LUS could be a good imaging technique that can be used both in ini-tial evaluation of children with respiratory diseases, and, also in their follow-up, correlated with symptoms and biomarkers.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: COVID-19; 2019 novel coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; Deep Transfer Learning; Convolutional Neural Network; Machine Learning; CGAN
Online: 5 May 2020 (04:14:58 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the fastest transmittable virus caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The detection of COVID-19 using artificial intelligence techniques and especially deep learning will help to detect this virus in early stages which will reflect in increasing the opportunities of fast recovery of patients worldwide. This will lead to release the pressure off the healthcare system around the world. In this research, classical data augmentation techniques along with CGAN based on a deep transfer learning model for COVID-19 detection in chest CT scan images will be presented. The limited benchmark datasets for covid-19 especially in chest CT images is the main motivation of this research. The main idea is to collect all the possible images for covid-19 that exists until the very writing of this research and use the classical data augmentations along with CGAN to generate more images to help in the detection of the COVID-19. In this study, five different deep convolutional neural network-based models (AlexNet, VGGNet16, VGGNet19, GoogleNet, and ResNet50) have been selected for the investigation to detect the coronavirus infected patient using chest CT radiographs digital images. The classical data augmentations along with CGAN improve the performance of classification in all selected deep transfer models. The Outcomes show that ResNet50 is the most appropriate deep learning model to detect the COVID-19 from limited chest CT dataset using the classical data augmentation with testing accuracy of 82.91%.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: 2019 novel coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Deep Transfer Learning; Convolutional Neural Network; Machine Learning; GAN
Online: 7 April 2020 (10:59:04 CEST)
The coronavirus (covid-19) pandemic is putting healthcare systems across the world under unprecedented and increasing pressure according to the World Health Organization (WHO). With the advances in computer algorithms and especially Artificial Intelligence, the detection of this type of virus in the early stages will help in fast recovery and help in releasing the pressure off healthcare systems. In this paper, a GAN with deep transfer learning for coronavirus detection in chest x-ray images is presented. The lack of benchmark datasets for covid-19 especially in chest x-rays images is the main motivation of this research. The main idea is to collect all the possible images for covid-19 that exists until the writing of this research and use the GAN network to generate more images to help in the detection of the virus from the available x-rays images with the highest accuracy possible. The dataset used in this research was collected from different sources and it is available for researchers to download and use it. The number of images in the collected dataset is 307 images for four different types of classes. The classes are the covid-19, normal, pneumonia bacterial, and pneumonia virus. The dataset is divided into 90% for the GAN and the training and the validation phase, while 10% used in the testing phase. The GAN helps in generating more images from the original dataset to be 30 times larger than the originally collected dataset. The GAN also help in overcoming the overfitting problem and made the proposed model more robust. Three deep transfer models are selected in this research for investigation. The models are the Alexnet, Googlenet, and Restnet18. Those models are selected based on their small number of layers on their architectures, which will reflect in reducing the complexity of the models and the consumed memory and time. Using a combination of GAN and deep transfer models prove it is efficiency according to validation, testing accuracy, and performance measurements such as precision, recall, and F1 score. Three case scenarios are tested through the paper, the first scenario which includes 4 classes from the dataset, while the second scenario includes 3 classes and the third scenario includes 2 classes. All the scenarios include the covid-19 class as it is the main target of this research to be detected. In the first scenario, the Googlenet is selected to be the main deep transfer model as it achieves 80.6% in testing accuracy. In the second scenario, the Alexnet is selected to be the main deep transfer model as it achieves 85.2% in testing accuracy, while in the third scenario which includes 2 classes(covid-19, and normal), Googlenet is selected to be the main deep transfer model as it achieves 100% in testing accuracy and 99.9% in the validation accuracy. All the performance measurement strengthen the obtained results through the research. Finally, this research may be considered one of the first trails to use GAN and deep transfer models together to help in detecting coronaviruses (covid-19) within the absence of a benchmark dataset around the world, especially in x-rays chest images.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Psychological; Stigma; Covid-19
Online: 2 April 2021 (17:02:40 CEST)
Introduction: Corona Virus Disease 2019 causes health problems in the world in the form of a health crisis that results in psychological problems as fear and anxiety. The purpose of this study to determine the factors that influence psychological and stigma during the Covid-19 pandemic.Methods: This study is a literature review with five databases (Scopus, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and ProQuest), studies design used a cross-sectional or quasi-experimental, with a date of March 2021. The Center for Review and Dissemination and the JBI Guide are used to measure the Quality and Prism checklist for guide reviews. A feasibility study based on title, abstract, full text, and research methodology. The data analysis used narrative analysis based on the research findings.Results: Eleven articles met the predefined review inclusion criteria. Research is base on related factors psychology, related factors stigma, and factors related to psychological and stigma. Most of the factors associated with psychological conditions and stigma have a quasi-experimental and cross-sectional design. Participants averaged over a thousand for each study and discussed psychology factors related to the stigma. Conclusion: Factors related to psychological are age, education, symptoms and health conditions, gender, information, economy, exposure duration, and social support, while factors related to stigma are environment, history of comorbid diseases, discrimination, and public perceptions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0472.v3
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Online misinformation; COVID-19 vaccination; fully vaccinated; Intelligence Quotient; per capita income
Online: 20 September 2021 (12:12:19 CEST)
The objective of the study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with lower COVID-19 vaccination rates in the United States. The study evaluated the effect of red-blue political affiliation and the effect of the US state's average educational aptitude score and per capita income on states' vaccination rates. The study found that states with concomitantly lower income along with lower educational aptitude scores are less vaccinated while the states with higher income have higher vaccination rates even among those with lower educational aptitude scores. These findings stayed significant after adjusting for red-blue political affiliation where states with red political affiliation have lower vaccination rates. Further study is needed to evaluate how to stop online misinformation among states with low income and low educational aptitude scores; and whether such an effort will increase overall vaccination rates in the United States.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0031.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep learning; Convolutional Neural Network; Coronavirus; COVID-19; radiology; CT scan; Medical image analysis; Automatic medical diagnosis; lung CT scan dataset
Online: 5 September 2020 (03:36:20 CEST)
COVID-19 is a severe global problem, and AI can play a significant role in preventing losses by monitoring and detecting infected persons in early-stage. This paper aims to propose a high-speed and accurate fully-automated method to detect COVID-19 from the patient's CT scan images. We introduce a new dataset that contains 48260 CT scan images from 282 normal persons and 15589 images from 95 patients with COVID-19 infections. At the first stage, this system runs our proposed image processing algorithm to discard those CT images that inside the lung is not properly visible in them. This action helps to reduce the processing time and false detections. At the next stage, we introduce a novel method for increasing the classification accuracy of convolutional networks. We implemented our method using the ResNet50V2 network and a modified feature pyramid network alongside our designed architecture for classifying the selected CT images into COVID-19 or normal with higher accuracy than other models. After running these two phases, the system determines the condition of the patient using a selected threshold. We are the first to evaluate our system in two different ways. In the single image classification stage, our model achieved 98.49% accuracy on more than 7996 test images. At the patient identification phase, the system correctly identified almost 234 of 245 patients with high speed. We also investigate the classified images with the Grad-CAM algorithm to indicate the area of infections in images and evaluate our model classification correctness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0725.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19, Students' learning habits, Pandemic
Online: 27 April 2021 (14:18:23 CEST)
The novel coronavirus has had the world on halt for a few months now. Changes in lifestyles have become a part and parcel of our daily lives, especially for students. With new teaching practices undertaken, new reforms are being made from students in kindergarten to college. This paper presents insights on the changing learning habits of Indian students due to the hit of novel coronavirus (COVID-19). A total of 648 students from various institutes took part in the survey by responding to the questionnaires on time spent by them both for online and offline studies and others asked in closed format options. The insights are derived by comparing the performance of students based on their institute types, hours spent on self-study as well as the assistance provided by the colleges. The overall confidence in particular subjects by the end of the semester is being determined as the end result.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: nCov-19, COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV
Online: 1 April 2020 (09:30:00 CEST)
Coronaviruse disease (COVID-19) outbreak has created an emergency globally, and social distancing and isolation is the only solution to prevent its spread. Several countries have announced fully locked on to tackle this pandemic. The recent COVID-2019 has shaken the globe with incidence cases of more than half-million cases, and a mortality toll of more than twenty thousand to date. The coronavirus family is inclusive of pathogen of both – animal species and humans, encapsulating the isolated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Researchers round the globe have been dexterously working to decode this lethal virus. Many mathematical frameworks have also been depicted which have helped to understand the dynamics of the COVID-19. Research on coronaviruses continues to explore various aspects of viral replication and pathogenesis to understanding the predilection of these viruses to switch between species, to develop an infection in a new host, and to identify significant reservoirs of coronaviruses will dramatically aid in our potential to prophesize when and where potential epidemics may occur. Many of the non-structural and accessory proteins encoded by the viruses remain unclear and unknown. This systematic review highlights the current situation of the pandemic, virus genomic composition, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, and prognosis along with mathematical models of disease transmission and dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: endometrial cancer; ultrasound; lymph nodes; staging; metastases; biomarkers; model; COVID-19
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:24:17 CEST)
Background: Myometrial invasion (MI) is a parameter currently used in transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) in endometrial cancer (EC) to determine local staging, however, without molecular diagnostics, it is insufficient for selection of high-risk cases, i.e., those with a high risk of lymph node metastases (LNM). Methods: One hundred sixteen consecutive EC patients, who had received 2D transvaginal ultrasound examinations in their preoperative workup and final histopathology results as a reference standard, were included in this prospective study. Univariate and multivariate logistic models of analyzed TVS biomarkers (tumor [T] size, T area [AREA], T volume [SPE-VOL], MI, T-free distance to serosa [TFD], endo-myometrial irregularity, [EMIR], cervical stromal involvement, CSI) were evaluated to assess the relative accuracy of the possible LNM predictors. To avoid a potential bias in assuming linear relations between LNM and continuous predictors, spline functions were applied. Calculations were made in R with the use of libraries splines, glmulti, and pROC. Results: LNM was found in 20 out of 116 (17%) patients. In univariate analysis, only uMI, EMIR, uCSI and uTFD were significant predictors of LNM. Accuracy was 0.707 (AUC 0.684, 95% CI 0.568-0.801) for uMI (p<0.01), 0.672 (AUC 0.664, 95% CI 0.547-0.781) for EMIR (p<0.01), 0.776 (AUC 0.647, 95% CI 0.529-0.765) for uCSI (p<0.01), and 0.638 (AUC 0.683, 95% CI 0.563-0.803) for uTFD (p<0.05). The cut-off value for uTFD was 5.2 mm. However, AREA and VOL revealed significant relation by non-linear analysis as well. Among all possible multivariate models, the one comprising interactions of splines of uTFD with uMI and splines of SPE-VOL with uCSI showed most usefulness. Accuracy was 0.802 (AUC 0.791, 95% CI 0.673-0.91) Conclusions: A combination of uTFD for patients with uMI>50%, and SPE-VOL for patients with uCSI, allows for the most accurate prediction of LNM in EC, rather than uMI alone.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: China's COVID-19 Guide; Remdesivir; Xuebijing; Hydroxychloroquine; IL6 inhibitors; COVID-19
Online: 26 March 2020 (01:48:42 CET)
Currently, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 proven by clinical trials. WHO and CDC guidelines therefore endorse supportive care only. However, frontline clinicians have been applying several virus-based and host-based therapeutics in order to combat SARS-CoV-2. Medications from COVID-19 case reports, observational studies and the COVID-19 Treatment Guideline issued by the China's National Health Commission (7th edition published March 3rd, 2020. Edited translation attached) are evaluated in this review. Key evidence from relevant in vitro researches, animal models and clinical studies in SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are examined. Antiviral therapies remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and umifenovir, if considered, could be initiated before the peak of viral replication for optimal outcomes. Ribavirin may be beneficial as an add-on therapy and is ineffective as a monotherapy. Corticosteroids use should be limited without indicating comorbidities. IVIG is not recommended due to lack of data in COVID-19. Xuebijing may benefit patients with complications of bacterial pneumonia or sepsis. The efficacy of interferon is unclear due to conflicting outcomes in SARS and MERS studies. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown in vitro inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 and may be beneficial as both prophylactic and treatment therapy. For patients who developed cytokine release syndrome, interleukin-6 inhibitors may be beneficial. Given the rapid disease spread and increasing mortality, active treatment with readily available medications may be considered timely prior to disease progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0597.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: COVID-19 detection; biosensor application; COVID-19 transmission styles; sensors interaction; artificial intelligence
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:01:55 CEST)
The global spread of coronavirus disease (COVID -19) worldwide has had a significant effect on social and economic growth. The contamination keeps on advancing quickly and eccentrically, representing a significant test to its recognition and conclusion. Coronaviruses are commonly recognized by seclusion from tests, regardless of whether natural or clinical, utilizing some atomic science procedures, which can take a few days. In this work an analytical review of virus transmission, methods of diagnosing COVID -19 using artificial intelligence techniques to classify images and types of biosensors. At long last, the deformities and points of interest of each kind of sensor are recognized and examined. This exploration gives an explanatory audit of the utilization of crown infection COVID-19 in 2019. Related examinations were led utilizing five dependable databases, for example, Science Direct, IEEE Xplore, Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed. An acceptable investigation is remembered for this audit, which can be depended upon as a logical database to put resources into another technique for recognizing COIVD-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS Coronavirus; COVID-19; AKI; CKD
Online: 17 April 2020 (01:53:32 CEST)
In December 2019, an animal human coronavirus transmission occurred in Wuhan, China. A state of global pandemic was shortly declared, among a very rapid contagious spread of the virus. The causative virus was identified as SARS CoV 2 virus and is genetically related to the previous SARS outbreak in 2003. The virus causes wide clinical spectrum from mild flu like symptoms to adult respiratory distress syndrome. Kidney involvement has been reported in several reports in patients with various degrees of severity of SARS CoV2 infection. As knowledge is evolving, the accurate incidence of AKI is not known. Many questions are yet to be answered as regards the effect of epidemiological variables and comorbidities on the occurrence of AKI. Some reports have observed the occurrence of hematuria and proteinuria in a percentage of infected patients. Moreover, chronic kidney disease has not been found in some reports to add to the adverse outcomes, an aspect that merits further exploration. Patients on regular hemodialysis may be vulnerable to contagion due to lower status of immunity and need for frequent attendance to healthcare facilities. Due to the previous factors, prevention and mitigation of SARS CoV2 virus in this vulnerable population constitutes a major challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0533.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccine; Prediction; Regression; Ensemble learning; AdaBoost
Online: 22 June 2021 (08:30:30 CEST)
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created immense threats to public health on various levels around the globe. The unpredictable outbreak of this disease and the pandemic situation are causing severe depression, anxiety and other mental as physical health related problems among the human beings. To combat against this disease, vaccination is essential as it will boost the immune system of human beings while being in the contact with the infected people. The vaccination process is thus necessary to confront the outbreak of COVID-19. This deadly disease has put social, economic condition of the entire world into an enormous challenge. The worldwide vaccination progress should be tracked to identify how fast the entire economic as well as social life will be stabilized. The monitor ofthe vaccination progress, a machine learning based Regressor model is approached in this study. This tracking process has been applied on the data starting from 14th December, 2020 to 24th April, 2021. A couple of ensemble based machine learning Regressor models such as Random Forest, Extra Trees, Gradient Boosting, AdaBoost and Extreme Gradient Boosting are implemented and their predictive performance are compared. The comparative study reveals that the AdaBoostRegressor outperforms with minimized mean absolute error (MAE) of 9.968 and root mean squared error (RMSE) of 11.133.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Resilience; Nurses; Covid-19
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:00:43 CEST)
Resilience is an adaptive coping mechanism needed by health workers, especially nurses who have longer working hours than other health workers to provide care to patients in the era of the Covid-19 pandemic which is a global health problem. The aim of this literature review is to identify the resilience of nurses during the covid-19 pandemic the 21 st century global nursing paradigm. This language method uses literature reviews which are summaries of 10 articles in the publication years of 2020-2021 on search 4 databased electronic searches contain namely Scopus, ProQuest, Pubmed, and Scient Direct. This review used prisms. The eligibility of these studies were from its title, abstract, research methodology, results and discussion. The results of the review were presented in narrative form. The results of a review of 10 articles found that the form of psychological factors during the covid-19 pandemic, mental distress and influencing factors in nurses caring for patients with COVID-19, resilience nurses during the covid-19 pandemic. Conclusion: The 21 st century global nursing paradigm, one of the global problems in the health sector, with the outbreak of the corona virus disease (Covid-19), the role of nurses as the front guard is needed by the community to provide health services in line with the increasing incidence of covid-19 cases. Strong nurses need an adaptive inner coping mechanism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0203.v4
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; masks; pandemic
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:18:00 CET)
The science around the use of masks by the general public to impede COVID-19 transmission is advancing rapidly. Policymakers need guidance on how masks should be used by the general population to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. In this narrative review, we develop an analytical framework to examine mask usage, considering and synthesizing the relevant literature to inform multiple areas: population impact; transmission characteristics; source control; PPE; sociological considerations; and implementation considerations. A primary route of transmission of COVID-19 is via respiratory droplets, and is known to be transmissible from presymptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Reducing disease spread requires two things: first, limit contacts of infected individuals via physical distancing and other measures, and second, reduce the transmission probability per contact. The preponderance of evidence indicates that mask wearing reduces the transmissibility per contact by reducing transmission of infected droplets in both laboratory and clinical contexts. Public mask wearing is most effective at reducing spread of the virus when compliance is high. The decreased transmissibility could substantially reduce the death toll and economic impact while the cost of the intervention is low. Given the current shortages of medical masks we recommend the adoption of public cloth mask wearing, as an effective form of source control, in conjunction with existing hygiene, distancing, and contact tracing strategies. Because many respiratory droplets become smaller due to evaporation, we recommend increasing focus on a previously overlooked aspect of mask usage: mask-wearing by infectious people ("source control") with benefits at the population-level, rather than mask-wearing by susceptible people, such as health-care workers, with focus on individual outcomes. We recommend that public officials and governments strongly encourage the use of widespread face masks in public, including the use of appropriate regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0254.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Policing; Crime; Stop and Search; Intelligence Led Policing; COVID-19; Coronavirus
Online: 19 May 2022 (08:11:14 CEST)
The full impact of COVID-19 on policing, crime and disorder is slowly being fully unraveled. However, there remains a number of areas of policing that are yet to be examined in detail. Two of these areas include the impact on the intrinsically linked, volume of police recorded intelligence reports, and the use of stop and search. In this study we examine them symbiotically and frame them in the context of the intelligence led policing model, in particular in an effort to understand how national lockdowns in the United Kingdom affected both proactive policing approaches and the underpinning intelligence cycle. To achieve this, we use data from freedom of information requests regarding the annual levels of recorded police intelligence over a 10-year period for 20 police services. To supplement this, we examine overall national monthly volumes of stop and search activity over a 5-year period. Finally, we then use a case study approach of 3 police services to further explore changes in the conduct of stop and search such as the officer defined ethnicity, grounds for search and disposal outcomes. The findings indicate that both recorded intelligence reports and stop and search increased dramatically during periods of lockdown, despite widespread decreases in crime and social mobility. Changes in proportional impact are identified for White and Black citizens, searches for controlled drugs and the no further action disposal, but these are not consistent across police services. Potential causes and implications are then discussed and again, framed within the context of the impact on the intelligence led policing model and wider policing environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19 Booster; Influenza and COVID-19; Vaccination Strategy; Combining Vaccination
Online: 17 November 2022 (10:31:53 CET)
Background: The uptake of COVID-19 booster vaccines has been significantly low. Therefore, it is questionable whether combining the COVID-19 booster vaccines with Influenza vaccines can increase the population's interest in taking such vaccines and manage the health pandemic effectively. Methodology: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a synthesis of the findings and summary of a total of 30 research articles based on the topic, ‘combining influenza and COVID-19 booster vaccination strategy’ was undertaken. The research articles were identified from three databases, namely, PubMed, Cochran Library, and Google Scholar using specific keywords and inclusion criteria. However, research articles that were not peer-reviewed and not published in English were excluded from the systematic review and meta-analysis. The average risk ratio of the included articles was 0.78% based on a 95% CI. On the other hand, the heterogeneity between such studies was I2 = 35%, while the statistical significance of their findings occurred at p < 0.05. The average p-value of the included research studies was p = 0.62, implying that the null hypothesis was not rejected in almost all the studies. Results: A synthesis of the chosen research articles revealed that when influenza and COVID-19 booster vaccines are combined, there is potential for an increase in the uptake of the latter, mainly because many populations have already been accustomed to taking influenza vaccines on an annual basis. Conclusions: In this way, through such findings, medical health experts can make informed decisions to increase the population's willingness to receive the COVID-19 booster vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0710.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: covid-19, machine learning, oxygen cylinder.
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:58:50 CEST)
This is break direction on oxygen sources and conveyance methodologies for COVID-19 treatment. It has been adjusted from WHO and UNICEF's specialized details and direction for oxygen treatment gadgets, which is important for the WHO clinical gadget specialized arrangement, 1 and depends on current information on the circumstance in China and different nations where cases have been distinguished. This direction is proposed for wellbeing office chairmen, clinical leaders, acquisition officials, arranging officials, biomedical architects, foundation engineers and strategy producers. It portrays how to: measure oxygen interest, to distinguish oxygen sources that are accessible, and select suitable flood sources to best react to COVID-19 patients' requirements, particularly in low-and-center pay nations. WHO will refresh these suggestions as new data opens up. Coronavirus pandemic spurred fake interest for oxygen gas chambers for clinical use - both at emergency clinics and inquisitively, for home use by patients. A few patients and surprisingly sound people investigate the conceivable outcomes and likely benefits of utilizing oxygen from chambers for private utilization. Be that as it may, this isn't continuously protected, and sufficient safety measures are to be taken, bombing which there can be fatalities. This paper investigates the significance of keeping up satisfactory degrees of oxygen levels appropriate for human utilization. It advises the clinical use and the advantages and disadvantages of putting away oxygen chambers at home. The investigation likewise addresses lawful and administrative perspectives. The investigation's discoveries can help people settle on an educated choice on the protected use regarding oxygen gas. Further, it cautions on the expanded significance of guidelines and limiting access and use. This paper aims at designing an oxygen level monitoring technique in an oxygen cylinder. The amount of oxygen present inside the oxygen cylinder is very vital information when such cylinder is in use for supply of oxygen to a critical patient. The amount of oxygen present inside the cylinder is measured by the pressure at the outlet nozzle. The pressure is measured using a high precision MEMS Pressure Sensor. The output of the MEMS pressure sensor is voltage of the order milli. An amplifier is used to amplify this milli volt signal. A microcontroller is used in cascade to process the signal and display the pressure of oxygen cylinder.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: family planning service and COVID-19; maternal; Neonatal and child health service and COVID-19; sexual behaviour and COVID-19; SARSCOVID-2 and family planning
Online: 6 June 2022 (03:39:05 CEST)
Introduction: Since its discovery in late 2019, the novel coronavirus (SARSCOVID-2) that causes COVID-19 has spread fast, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to designate the disease a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020.The epidemic has profoundly altered the preexisting global sexual and reproductive health landscape .The virus’s load has put ordinary services in jeopardy and harmed other health priorities. This encompasses both the provision and the supply of contraceptives, sexual health, new born and maternal health services. This Scoping review therefore mapped the availability evidence on the impact and effects of the COVID-19 disease outbreak on sexual and reproductive health. Methods: The methodological framework by Arksey and O’Malley guided this scoping review. A literature search was conducted from the following databases: Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, WOS, and AJOL. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist were used to document the review process. The Strobe critical review checklist was used to determine the quality of the included studies. Results:19 studies were reviewed, out of which 4 were cross sectional studies, 1 was an observational study, 1 was a descriptive analytical study and the rest were qualitative studies .Majority of the studies showed evidence on the impact of COVID-19 and family planning service, maternal and child services, and three studies reported on COVID-19 and sexual behaviour. Five of the nineteen included studies reported on the impact of COVID-19 and family planning service. Conclusion: This scoping review has granted the assessment of the impact of novel SARS-CoV-2 on Sexual and reproductive health services with regards to sexual behaviour, family planning and maternal, neonatal and child health. From the 18 articles identified and reviewed, the overall responses stipulated a significant reduction in client’s utilization of services due to challenges experiences in service implementation such as stock outs. In addition, low demand for reproductive health services by clients due to restrictions imposed on the movements of people to curb the spread of the virus. It is therefore important that Governments and relevant stakeholders in Maternal and Sexual Reproductive Health prioritize development of policies and practices that protect women from the impacts of the pandemic. Furthermore, regular audits to detect trends in MSRH are necessary to inform on going mitigation efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0333.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Covid-19; Ensemble; Genome sequencing; Machine learning; Variant
Online: 21 January 2022 (15:17:58 CET)
Covid-19 has caused infections and deaths worldwide. While research in the field of Data Science has contributed good predictions of positive Covid-19 case numbers, this study's review of literature shows there is little research in the use of variants of the virus in predictions. We set out to define and evaluate novel variant features. We find that features relating to variant trends, thresholds and amino acid substitutions are especially powerful in two tasks. In the first task, predicting Covid-19 case numbers, accuracy improved from 71.53% without variant features to 82.12% with variant features. In the second task, predicting transmission severity of variants between two classes, we created a method to build some variable ensembles through selecting appropriate models that are generated with variant features. The test results showed that our ensembles are more accurate and reliable. One particular ensemble of 14 models correctly classified 90.91% of variants, outperforming other models including the popular Random Forest ensemble. In addition, as the variant features have represented more underlying information about Covid-19 pathophysiology, our ensemble methods use only a few data samples to achieve an accurate prediction. The ensemble of 14 models uses only 50 cases of each variant, an ability that could be exploited for early detection of highly infectious variants. These research findings may benefit public health professionals, policy makers, and the research community in the collective efforts to overcome this disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: BMI; COVID-19; obesity; overweight; nutrition
Online: 10 May 2020 (14:37:36 CEST)
On March 11, 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). This review focuses on where the body mass index (BMI) value can be used as a tool to evaluate the risk of development and/or aggravation of this disease. Databases were used to search studies published up to April 18, 2020. In total, 4285 articles and other scientific literature were found, and twelve articles were included in this systematic review. The mean BMI value of severe COVID-19 patients ranged from 24.5 to 33.4 kg/m2, versus 22.0 to 24.3 kg/m2 for non-severe patients Articles using the terms obesity or overweight, without indicating the BMI value, in these patients were common, but this is not useful as the nutritional status, when not defined by this index, is confusing due to the classification being different in the West compared to among,, Asian and Korean criteria-based adults. Furthermore, the use of BMI is important during this pandemic, as it should be applied to nutritional support therapy during hospitalization of infected patients, as well as being considered in the home confinement population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Covid-19; psychological distress; anxiety; depression; PTSD
Online: 7 December 2020 (10:32:10 CET)
Background. The novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) and related syndrome (COVID-19) has required a worldwide measure of quarantine with severe consequences for millions of people. Methods. Since psychopathological consequences related to social restrictions have been reported, a systematic review according to Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and the PRISMA Statement was performed to quantify the effects of quarantine on mental health of adults. Major databases - Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, PsycInfo, and Web of Science- were researched for observational studies with data on mental health indexes related to quarantine or isolation for epidemic infections. Results. Twenty-one independent studies were included for 82,312 subjects. Conclusions. The results showed that at least 20% of people exposed to these conditions reported a psychological distress, with a prevalence of PTSD, depression and, less often, generalized anxiety. Important methodological bias weakens the conclusion of most studies, opening to the need of further research on mental health after quarantine and related risk/buffering factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0487.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; coronavirus etiology; coronavirus pathogenicity
Online: 31 May 2020 (18:16:48 CEST)
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is considered to be first reported from Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. As of present, there are over 3.7 million identified cases worldwide and more than 259,000 deaths have been reported. This disease, its incubation period, course, complications, and the basis of spread remains a potential question due to variation in the pattern of spread around the globe and relatively fewer number of large-scale studies at present. This literature review aims to study the available data on its spread and incubation period. A literature search using PubMed with regular keywords ‘coronavirus’ and ‘COVID-19’, and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) search for their etiology and pathogenicity was done with the search builder. The literature search revealed 26,689 studies among which 14 studies were selected for review. Studies were selected after the application of inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria with the removal of duplicates, and careful review for the outcome of interest ‘incubation period’. Among the 14 studies selected for review, there were eight review articles, five case reports, and one comparative study. The current literature review concludes that the mean incubation period for most of the literature falls between five days to 12 days with minimum reported time from known exposure to the onset of a symptom being one day and the maximum reported time from exposure to the onset of a symptom being 18 days.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0470.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; facial protection; masks; PAPR
Online: 31 May 2020 (15:02:43 CEST)
We live in extraordinary times, where COVID-19 pandemic has brought the whole world to a screeching halt. Tensions and contradictions that surround the pandemic ridden world include the availability, and the lack thereof, various facial protection measures to mitigate the viral spread. Here, we comprehensively explore the different type of facial protection measures, including masks, needed both for the pubic and the health care workers (HCW). We discuss the anatomy, the critical issues of disinfection and reusability of masks, the alternative equipment available for the protection of the facial region from airborne diseases, such as face shields and powered air purifying respirators (PAPR), and the skin-health impact of prolonged wearing of facial protection by HCW. Clearly, facial protection, either in the form of masks or alternates, appears to have mitigated the pandemic as seen from the minimal COVID-19 spread in countries where public mask wearing is strictly enforced. On the contrary, the healthcare systems, that appear to have been unprepared for emergencies of this nature, should be appropriately geared to handle the imbalance of supply and demand of personal protective equipment including face masks. These are two crucial lessons we can learn from this tragic experience.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0349.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: rural health; COVID-19; health disparities
Online: 20 March 2023 (07:10:34 CET)
COVID-19 has proven to be detrimental across the globe, most notably affecting the United States at an alarming rate compared to comparable countries. The pandemic has had multifactorial implications on the way communities in the United States prevent, prepare for, and address the virus; however, the impact of the pandemic on rural health is less well understood. Historically, rural communities have faced a unique set of challenges regarding accessing and receiving adequate healthcare, addressing chronic illness, and eliminating health disparities closely associated with the population’s socioeconomic status; the pandemic has exacerbated these challenges. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on rural populations both at the individual and community level. Results indicated that rural health disparities increased both at the individual and system-wide levels as a direct result of the pandemic. Budget cuts significantly affected the infrastructure of rural hospitals resulting in them being unequipped to handle such high volumes of COVID-19 cases. The lack of infectious disease specialists, access to larger medical centers with substantial numbers of ICU beds and ventilators, and an overall lack of preparedness overwhelmed rural communities. Although comorbidities such as diabetes and heart disease were associated with poorer health outcomes for a multitude of reasons, the lack of clinic and physician availability for routine care during the pandemic further exacerbated the clinical link from COVID-19 positivity to comorbidities. Furthermore, mental health deteriorated as substance use increased to a greater extent in rural communities compared to urban, during the pandemic. This study shows that health comorbidities, mental health, substance use, health literacy, access to healthcare, among others can serve as key indicators for improving healthcare in rural communities. Future studies should seek to identify key issues that disproportionately affected rural communities in comparison to their urban counterparts considering the pandemic, as well as identify gaps in the availability of rural health resources that can improve the lives of millions of Americans now and during the next pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Pandemic; Covid-19; Online learning; Teachers; Kenya
Online: 16 March 2022 (10:13:01 CET)
Majority of published articles have talked about the challenges faced by students in learning online however, little has been talked about what the teachers have gone through especially during these times of the pandemic. This paper discusses the factors university teachers face when teaching online. These factors include accessibility to the internet, level of interaction between teachers and students, costs incurred, availability of training and academic policies kept in place to enhance effectiveness of teaching online. These are further divided into personal, social and economic factors where the teachers’ age, gender, remuneration, availability of resources, location and the economic status of the country is discussed in relation to the effectiveness of online learning. Upon carrying out a literature review on articles written on the effectiveness of online learning with the main focus being teachers, it was noted that the main factors affecting the effectiveness of online learning was the availability of internet connection and training provided to teachers. In Kenya, majority of the rural areas lack access to the internet and devices to learn online which makes it difficult for a teacher to teach effectively given the pandemic constraints. This study sheds light on the need for institutions and governments to take input from their teachers and train them on how to make online learning more effective. It also shows the status of universities in Kenya which had to shift to learning online due to the pandemic. Majority of them took time to adapt to this new change due to the discussed factors. Therefore it is recommended that the Government should train teachers and address the issue of lack of internet and electricity in Kenya.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: sequelae; COVID-19; SARS-COV-2; long-COVID; systematic review
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:50:08 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 made its debut as a pandemic in 2020; since then, more than 607 million cases and at least 6.5 million deaths have been reported worldwide. While the burden of disease has been described, the long-term effects or chronic sequelae are still being described. Objective: To describe the findings of a current systematic review of the long-term effects related to post-COVID-19 sequelae. Design: A systematic review was carried out in which cohort studies, case series, clinical case reports were included, and the PubMed, Scielo, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases were ex-tracted. Information published 2020 to June 1, 2022, was sought. Results: We reviewed 300 manuscripts during the first step of the literature review process. Then 260 abstracts were analyzed. In the end, we included 32 manuscripts: 9 for pulmonary, 6 for cardiac, 2 for renal, 9 for neurological and psychiatric, and 8 for cutaneous sequelae. Conclusion: Studies show that the most common sequelae are those linked to the lungs, followed by skin, cutaneous and psychiatric alterations. Women report a higher incidence of the sequelae, as well as those with comorbidities and severer COVID-19 history. The COVID-19 pandemic has not only caused death and disease since its apparition but has also sickened millions of people around the globe who potentially suffer from serious illnesses that will continue to add to the list of health problems and further burden healthcare systems around the world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Children; Adolescents
Online: 4 March 2021 (09:53:18 CET)
Background: The COVID 19 pandemic and associated public health measures have disrupted the lives of people around the world. It is already evident that the direct and indirect psychological and social effects of the COVID 19 pandemic are insidious and affect the mental health of young children and adolescents now and will in the future. The aim and objectives of this knowledge-synthesis study were to identify the impact of the pandemic on children’s and adolescent’s mental health and to evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions employed during previous and the current pandemic to promote children’s and adolescent’s mental health. Methodology: We conducted the systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and included experimental randomized, nonrandomized controlled trials; observational studies; and qualitative studies. Results: Of the 5,828 articles that we retrieved, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. We thematically analyzed and put up the major findings under the thematic areas of impact of pandemic on children and adolescent’s mental health. These studies reported that pandemics cause stress, worry, helplessness, and social and risky behavioral problems among children and adolescents (e.g., substance abuse, suicide, relationship problems, academic issues, absenteeism from work). Interventions such as art-based programs, support services, and clinician-led mental health and psychosocial services effectively decrease mental health issues among children and adolescents. Conclusion: Children and adolescents are more likely to experience high rates of depression and anxiety during and after a pandemic. It is critical that future researchers explore effective mental health strategies that are tailored to the needs of children and adolescents. Explorations of effective channels regarding the development and delivery of evidence-based, age-appropriate services are vital to lessen the effects and improve long-term capacities for mental health services for children and adolescents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: solid-organ transplantation; COVID-19; immunosuppression
Online: 29 March 2020 (11:20:10 CEST)
Many centers worldwide raised the concern that immunocompromised patients for solid organ transplantation may be at high risk of developing a severe respiratory disease by COVID-19. Currently, there are no specific data on the COVID-19 in patients with generalized immunosuppression and transplantation.In this narrative review, we reported the main data of COVID-19 in patients with solid organ transplantation presented in the literature. The aim is to elaborate a strategy for tailored management, from diagnosis to therapy.The management of adult patients with solid organ transplantation and COVID-19 is a challenge for the clinicians. There is a lack of data in the literature, but three key-points are crucial: in the “pandemic era,” consider the symptomatic patient as positive for COVID-19 until proven otherwise; adjust/stop immunosuppressive agents; protect graft function with adequate route and dose administration of glucocorticoid and supportive measures. For pediatric patients, data are scarce. It is unclear if immunosuppression in patients with solid organ transplantation alters the predisposition to acquiring COVID-19 or if the disease implications are modified for better or for worse. Further studies are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0311.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus disease; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; model; prediction; machine learning
Online: 19 April 2020 (01:47:10 CEST)
Several outbreak prediction models for COVID-19 are being used by officials around the world to make informed-decisions and enforce relevant control measures. Among the standard models for COVID-19 global pandemic prediction, simple epidemiological and statistical models have received more attention by authorities, and they are popular in the media. Due to a high level of uncertainty and lack of essential data, standard models have shown low accuracy for long-term prediction. Although the literature includes several attempts to address this issue, the essential generalization and robustness abilities of existing models need to be improved. This paper presents a comparative analysis of machine learning and soft computing models to predict the COVID-19 outbreak. Among a wide range of machine learning models investigated, two models showed promising results (i.e., multi-layered perceptron, MLP, and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system, ANFIS). Based on the results reported here, and due to the highly complex nature of the COVID-19 outbreak and variation in its behavior from nation-to-nation, this study suggests machine learning as an effective tool to model the outbreak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0195.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; digital transformation; education; 4IR; South Africa
Online: 12 April 2020 (14:39:03 CEST)
The study sought to gauge the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in unleashing digital transformation in the education sector in South Africa. In order to gauge the impact, the study tracked the rate at which the 4IR tools were used by various institutions during the COVID-19 lockdown. Data were obtained from secondary sources, mainly newspaper articles, magazines and peer-reviewed journals. The findings are that, in South Africa, during the lockdown, a variety of 4IR tools were unleashed from primary education to higher and tertiary education where educational activities switched to remote learning (online learning). These observations point to the fact that South Africa generally has, some pockets of excellence to drive the education sector into the 4IR, which has the potential to increase access. Access to education, particularly at a higher education level, has always been a challenge due to a limited number of spaces available. Much as this pandemic has brought with it massive human suffering across the globe, there is an opportunity to assess successes and failures of deployed technologies, costs associated with them, and scaling these technologies to improve access.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0212.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; Drug targets; Inflammation; Treatment Options; Vaccines
Online: 11 August 2022 (08:07:05 CEST)
Background: A novel virulent coronavirus is what causes Novel Corona-virus Disease 2019 (nCOVID 19). It results in severe respiratory distress syndrome and potentially fatal infectious pneumonia. On March 12, 2020, the World Health Organization first labeled it a pandemic, which was then followed on the same day by a community health emergency of global concern. Vaccines against this deadly virus are now being created. Many drugs with different uses have been repurposed and tested for the prevention and treatment of the infection. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth analysis of data on possible pharmacological targets and available coronavirus treatments. Methods: Following the review protocol, a literature search was conducted. Results: Chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, and Lopinavir-Ritonavir in combination with or without interferon and convalescent plasma therapy are the main treatment candidates, according to the World Health Organization. This review article has elaborated on the current evidence of prospective pharmacological targets and related ongoing research, including inflammatory chemicals, bioactive peptides, beta cells, platelets, and the Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 Receptor. This information was gathered from published journals. In addition, stories of medications and biological products like interferons and vaccinations that are utilized or could be utilized have been provided. Conclusion: There are a variety of pharmacological targets and therapeutic strategies that need more study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0107.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Digital transformation; Covid-19; Bibliometrics; Web of Science
Online: 7 July 2022 (04:13:57 CEST)
The new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has brought with it an increase in the use of digital platforms and an exponential increase in the number of scientific papers worldwide. The purpose of this study is to show a global overview of the digital transformation from 1975 to the present (2021). The main collection of the Web of Science database was used to retrieve global scientific production on digital transformation. Bibliometric indicators of production, visibility, impact, and collaboration were analyzed to assess research progress on the topic. The results show that digital transformation is a construct of recent development, increasingly relevant and transdisciplinary, with a clear growth after the declaration of the global COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0778.v1
Subject: Keywords: Covid-19, fake news, health protocols, belief
Online: 29 April 2021 (14:31:37 CEST)
Along with the increasing number of Covid-19 cases, the development of false news or misinformation about Covid-19 -19 is getting bigger. This article aims to analyze public opinion about the various hoaxes that were widely spread in Indonesia during the pandemic. The method used is a mixture, namely literature review, in the form of searching for related journals regarding the distribution of hoaxes during the pandemic and conducting online surveys via a google form. The research conducted indicates that during the pandemic there were rapid spreads of fake news, it is proven with more than 45% of the participants who were often heard hoax news about Covid-19 on online media. From this evidence, it also can be discovered that hoax news can affect a person's belief in the Covid-19 virus.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0274.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19, Bangladesh, Challenges, Initiatives, Controversial issue
Online: 12 September 2020 (15:28:26 CEST)
Since the first coronavirus patient was identified in Bangladesh on March 8, the most controversial issue is about the exact level of the infection in Bangladesh. Conformity with the population density the number of COVID-19 tests is inadequate. As the number of tests increases, so does the number of infections, making it difficult to predict the spread of COVID-19 in Bangladesh. In this case, the unplanned initiatives are particularly responsible in other for unplanned measures, lack of public awareness, and lack of proper knowledge. In this case, the Ministry of Health has made three major mistakes, three important features of the medical system in Bangladesh have been mentioned. It is more effective to prevent COVID-19 by isolating the infected person by further testing COVID-19 until effective treatment is available and to provide adequate and effective masks and personal protective equipment (PPE). In this case, the COVID-19 testing kit invention has received a good response in many countries of the world. This study focuses on the comprehensive data verification, selection, and evaluation of COVID-19 in Bangladesh and its implications for the future, what to do to address and prevent the COVID-19 challenge, and effective treatment against the coronavirus (COVID-19). It is hopeful that the discussion of the material mentioned in this research paper will help to strike a balance between the government, citizens, and experts which will be feasible in improving the current situation in COVID-19 Bangladesh and reducing its severity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; disease severity; comorbid conditions
Online: 21 August 2020 (07:47:44 CEST)
Results: A total of 6270 individuals were assessed (1615 severe and 4655 non-severe patients). The median age was 63 (95% CI: 49-74) and 47 (95% CI: 19-63) years in the severe and non-severe groups, respectively. Moreover, about 41% of patients had comorbidities. Severity was higher in patients with history of cerebrovascular disease: OR 4.85 (95% CI: 3.11-7.57). The odds of being in severe group increase by 4.81(95% CI: 3.43-6.74) for history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This was 4.19 (95% CI: 2.84-6.19) for chronic lung disease and 3.18, 95% CI: 2.09-4.82 for cancer .The odds ratio of a diabetes and hypertension were 2.61 (95% CI: 2.02-3.3), and 2.37( 95% CI: 1.80-3.13) respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0147.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; Machine Learning; Pandemic; Additive regression model; Dynamic Map
Online: 9 May 2020 (04:30:32 CEST)
The sudden pervasive of severe acute respiratory syndrome Covid-19 has been leading the universe into a prominent crisis. It has influenced each zone, for example, industrial area, horticultural zone, Public transportation, economic zone, and so on. So as to see how Covid-19 affected the globe, we conducted an investigation characterizing the effects of the pandemic over the world using Machine Learning (ML) method. Prediction is a typical data science exercise that helps the administration with function planning, objective setting, and anomaly detection. We propose an additive regression model with interpretable parameters that can be naturally balanced by experts with domain intuition about the time series. We focus on global data beginning from 22nd January 2020, till 26th April 2020 and performed dynamic map visualization of Covid-19 expansion globally by date wise and predicting the spread of virus on all countries and continents. The major advantages of this work include accurate analysis of country-wise as well as province/state-wise confirmed cases, recovered cases, deaths, prediction of pandemic viral attack and how far it is expanding globally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0015.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; machine learning; sentiment analysis; textual analytics; Twitter
Online: 2 May 2020 (13:52:28 CEST)
Along with the Coronavirus pandemic, another crisis has manifested itself in the form of mass fear and panic phenomena, fuelled by incomplete and often inaccurate information. There is therefore a tremendous need to address and better understand COVID-19's informational crisis and gauge public sentiment, so that appropriate messaging and policy decisions can be implemented. In this research article, we identify public sentiment associated with the pandemic using Coronavirus specific Tweets and R statistical software, along with its sentiment analysis packages. We demonstrate insights into the progress of fear-sentiment over time as COVID-19 approached peak levels in the United States, using descriptive textual analytics supported by necessary textual data visualizations. Furthermore, we provide a methodological overview of two essential machine learning classification methods, in the context of textual analytics, and compare their effectiveness in classifying Coronavirus Tweets of varying lengths. We observe a strong classification accuracy of 91% for short Tweets, with the Naive Bayes method. We also observe that the logistic regression classification method provides a reasonable accuracy of 74% with shorter Tweets, and both methods showed relatively weaker performance for longer Tweets. This research provides insights into Coronavirus fear sentiment progression, and outlines associated methods, implications, limitations and opportunities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0524.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: COVID-19; chest X-ray images; deep convolutional neural network; COV-MCNet; deep learning
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:31:30 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic situation has created even more difficulties in the quick identification and screening of the COVID-19 patients for the medical specialists. Therefore, a significant study is necessary for detecting COVID-19 cases using an automated diagnosis method, which can aid in controlling the spreading of the virus. In this paper, the study suggests a Deep Convolutional Neural Network-based multi-classification approach (COV-MCNet) using eight different pre-trained architectures such as VGG16, VGG19, ResNet50V2, DenseNet201, InceptionV3, MobileNet, InceptionResNetV2, Xception which are trained and tested on the X-ray images of COVID-19, Normal, Viral Pneumonia, and Bacterial Pneumonia. The results from 3-class (Normal vs. COVID-19 vs. Viral Pneumonia) showed that only the ResNet50V2 model provides the highest classification performance (accuracy: 95.83%, precision: 96.12%, recall: 96.11%, F1-score: 96.11%, specificity: 97.84%) compared to rest of the models. The results from 4-class (Normal vs. COVID-19 vs. Viral Pneumonia vs. Bacterial Pneumonia) demonstrated that the pre-trained model DenseNet201 provides the highest classification performance (accuracy: 92.54%, precision: 93.05%, recall: 92.81%, F1-score: 92.83%, specificity: 97.47%). Notably, the ResNet50V2 (3-class) and DenseNet201 (4-class) models in the proposed COV-MCNet framework showed higher accuracy compared to the rest six models. This indicates that the designed system can produce promising results to detect the COVID-19 cases on the availability of more data. The proposed multi-classification network (COV-MCNet) significantly speeds up the existing radiology-based method, which will be helpful to the medical community and clinical specialists for early diagnosis of the COVID-19 cases during this pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; mass testing strategy; United Arab Emirates
Online: 19 January 2021 (08:59:34 CET)
Appropriate diagnostic testing to identify persons infected with SARS-COV-2 is a vital part of a health system’s ability to control the global pandemic of COVID-19 disease. The primary purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the mass testing strategy implemented throughout the UAE and the overall impact it has made on containing and controlling the spread of the disease. This study describes the mass testing strategy and capacity of the UAE during the pandemic of the new coronavirus SARS-COV-2. The UAE has conducted 15 million polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to SARS-COV-2, as of 15 November 2020. The number of tests per day varied from 10,000 by the end of March to 120,000 tests per day in November 2020. The mass testing initiative across the entire UAE forms an integral part of a bigger strategy focusing on testing, tracing contacts and isolating positive cases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: sars-cov-2, covid, covid-19, masks, dentistry, respirator, n99, n95, ffp2, ffp3,
Online: 18 August 2020 (04:30:45 CEST)
This literature review has been compiled to form an evidenced-based review on the standards for Dental Practices in their choice and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) within the COVID-19 Pandemic and beyond: it is prepared on the basis of the current best available evidence. The review encompasses risk management strategies for both Dental Personnel and Patients in the application and use of Face Masks & Respirators.In summation, from the evidence available, it is apparent that in the lab setting N95/FFP2 masks are superior in their efficiency but in the clinical setting such a difference is not seen as clearly. As such the minimum standard of care should be that of a standard surgical mask. Faced with the emergence of the virulent disease that is Covid-19, it is logical to use FFP2/N95 respirator masks in aerosol generating procedures where they offer greater resistance to fluid penetration and a better face seal when adequately fit tested as a gold standard. But if a dry field isolation technique involving high volume evacuation is used, there is no clear benefit of respirator masks (N95/FFP2 or N99/FFP3) when balanced with the extra risk of compliance, cost and comfort in wearing a standard fluid-resistant surgical mask.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0212.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Airborne virus; Particulate matters; COVID-19; Building ventilation; aerosol
Online: 13 February 2023 (09:21:13 CET)
Airborne virus, such as COVID-19, caused pandemics all over the world. Virus-containing particles produced by infected individuals are suspended in the air for extended periods of time, actually results in viral aerosols and the spread of infectious diseases. Aerosol collection and detection devices are essential for limiting the spread of airborne virus diseases. This review provides an overview of the primary mechanisms and enhancement techniques for collecting and detecting airborne viruses. Indoor virus detection strategies for scenarios with varying ventilations are also summarized based on the excellent performance of existing advanced comprehensive devices. This review provides guidance for the development of future aerosol detection devices and aids in the control of airborne transmission diseases, such as COVID-19, monkeypox, and other airborne transmission viruses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine; pregnancy; infant; MIS-C
Online: 22 August 2022 (04:00:03 CEST)
COVID-19 infection in the pediatric population usually leads to a mild illness, however, a rare but serious complication of MIS-C has been seen in children. MIS-C usually presents 2-4 weeks after COVID-19 infection or exposure, and rare reports have been documented in neonates. Vaccinations for COVID-19 have been approved for children 6 months and above in the United States, and recent reports suggest significantly low prevalence and risk of complications of MIS-C in vaccinated children compared to unvaccinated children. Vaccinations for COVID-19 are safe and recommended during pregnancy and prevent severe maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes. Evidence from other vaccine-preventable diseases suggests that through passive transplacental antibody transfer, maternal vaccinations are protective against infections in infants during the first 6 months of life. Various studies have demonstrated that maternal COVID-19 vaccination is associated with the presence of anti-spike protein antibodies in infants, persisting even at 6 months of age. Further, completion of a 2-dose primary mRNA COVID-19 vaccination series during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk for COVID-19–associated hospitalization among infants aged 6 months or less. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that maternal COVID-19 vaccination can reduce the risk of and severity of MIS-C in infants. In this article, we review the literature to support this hypothesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Mint; Menthol; Digestion; Respiration; COVID-19; Sport; Pain
Online: 15 December 2022 (07:25:06 CET)
Mint and to a lesser extent menthol have been used since antiquity for medicinal purposes. Key components of mint and menthol use such as composition and intake, safety and traditional uses are discussed prior to a review of clinical and human performance outcomes in the areas of digestive and respiratory health; antibacterial and anti-fungal properties, nocioception, migraine and headache and emerging evidence regarding COVID 19. Evidence suggests benefit for patients with irritable bowel syndrome and related digestive issues, with analgesic and respiratory effects also noted. Perceptual characteristics relating to thermal comfort and sensation, taste sensitivity and alertness are also considered; these effects are predominantly driven by stimulation of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) activity resulting in sensations of cooling and freshness, with lesser influence on thirst. Finally, sport performance is considered as a domain that may further elucidate some of the aforementioned underpinning outcomes due to its systemic and dynamic nature, especially when performed in hot environmental conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0343.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Family violence; Machine Learning; Classification; ROC; Accuracy; COVID-19
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:51:20 CEST)
In Southern Asia, Bangladesh is a well-known developing country. Because of COVID-19, we continuously face challenges. Not only can these issues occur beyond economic or health concerns, but they also generate dangerous social problems, such as family abuse. Since the inception of this epidemic, multiple social crimes are looming. Remaining home during the lockout period enhances divorce rates. This research presents a customized forecast of family violence during the COVID-19 outbreak by using machine learning methods. In this paper, we have applied Random Forest, Logistic Regression, and Naive Bayes machine learning classifiers to predict family violence and discovered the feature importance. The performance of the classifiers is evaluated based on accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score. We have employed an oversampling strategy named synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) to solve the imbalance problem of our data. Even, we have tried to compare three machine learning model performances before and after balancing of normalization data. Finally, ROC analyses and confusion matrices were developed and analyzed by using data augmentation. Our proposed system with the random forest classifier performed better with 77% accuracy in comparison with other two machine learning classifiers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19 impacts; Antimicrobial resistance; Africa
Online: 7 May 2021 (16:21:37 CEST)
Objective In this study, we aim to synthesize some evidence on the impacts that COVID-19 is having on the epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) in Africa since it was declared global pandemic by WHO in March 2020. Methodology A scoping review was undertaken by collecting and curating relevant resources from peer-reviewed articles and also from the gray literature. Mixed approaches of extracting data (qualitative and quantitative) were employed in synthesizing evidence, as suggested by Health Evidence Network (HEN). Findings A model constructed based on the synthesis of early evidences available on the effects of factors linked to COVID-19 in impacting the evolution of AMR in Africa predicted that, in cumulative terms, those factors favoring the evolution of AMR outpace those disfavoring it by no less than three folds. Conclusion COVID-19 is fueling the evolution of AMR almost unhindered in Africa. Due recognition of this crisis, concerted efforts for resource mobilization and global cooperation are needed to tackle it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0576.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine; immunosuppressed; cancer; vaccine efficacy
Online: 31 January 2023 (06:26:20 CET)
The effect of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been subsided significantly following the rapid development of vaccine. However, patients with cancer and immunosuppressed state, who are more prone to mortality and morbidity due to this infection, were excluded from majority of the vaccine trials. Moreover, suggested dose modification for cancer and immunosuppressed patients are often not followed because of lack of awareness or unavailability of vaccination schedule. This review will try to bridge this knowledge gap by summarizing the current suggestions of dose modification of COVID-19 vaccine for patients with cancer and immunosuppression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; post-COVID pulmonary fibrosis; lung injury; anti-fibrotic agents
Online: 18 May 2021 (11:32:07 CEST)
Total 219 countries and territories globally suffering from the recent pandemic COVID-19 is now in its second wave with more brutality, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) . It has several symptoms like as persistent fever; respiratory illnesses; cough; fatigue; shortness of breath; loss of appetite; persistent pain or pressure in the chest; dysgeusia; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) etc., and here the things to worry about is the development of pulmonary fibrosis after COVID-19 in both peoples who had died of due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or those who survived. Due to COVID-19, dysregulated immune response and wound repair mainly in elderly patients causes this secondary pulmonary fibrosis. Thus using anti-fibrotic agents could be meaningful in these circumstances although their efficacy in treating COVID-19 is subject to more detailed laboratory research works. In this review article you will get to know about the lung fibrosis generation due to COVID-19 infection, about anti-fibrotic agents and the currents challenges of this field.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: COVID-19; machine learning; feature significance; feature correlation; risk factors
Online: 2 June 2021 (14:54:10 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic affected the whole world, but not all countries were impacted equally. This opens the question of what factors can explain the initial faster spread in some countries compared to others. Many such factors are overshadowed by the effect of the countermeasures, so we studied the early phases of the infection when countermeasures have not yet taken place. We collected the most diverse dataset of potentially relevant factors and infection metrics to date for this task. Using it, we show the importance of different factors and factor categories as determined by both statistical methods and machine learning (ML) feature selection (FS) approaches. Factors related to culture (e.g., individualism, openness), development, and travel proved the most important. A more thorough factor analysis was then made using a novel rule discovery algorithm. We also show how interconnected these factors are and caution against relying on ML analysis in isolation. Importantly, we explore potential pitfalls found in the methodology of similar work and demonstrate their impact on COVID-19 data analysis. Our best models using the decision tree classifier can predict the infection class with roughly 80% accuracy.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; Food Supply Chain; Epidemic; Pandemic, Disruptions
Online: 9 July 2021 (09:37:29 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected the food supply chain, including producers, retailers, wholesalers, and customers. To minimize the impacts caused by pandemics and epidemics on food supply chains, it is fundamental to implement effective policies that ensure continuity in the provision, affordability, and distribution of basic food items. This research aims to identify the main impacts of pandemics and epidemics on food supply chains and policies that can minimize these impacts. Based on a systematic literature review (SLR), 174 documents are analysed to propose a taxonomy of impacts on four supply chain links: demand-side, supply-side, logistics and infrastructure, and management and operation. The taxonomy presents the main impacts, as well as the respective mitigation policies simultaneously. In addition, the literature review leads to the development of a comprehensive causal loop diagram (CLD) with the identification of main variables and their relationship with food supply chains. Finally, a specific research agenda is proposed by identifying main research gaps. These findings provide a structured method for evaluating policies that ensure the functioning of food supply chains, particularly in disruptions such epidemics and pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Ratios; Financial Crisis; Covid-19; Big Data; Accounting Data
Online: 3 August 2022 (10:42:06 CEST)
The effects of the 2008 financial crisis undoubtedly caused problems not only to the banking sector but also to the real economy of the developed and the developing countries in almost all around the globe. Besides, as is widely known, every banking crisis entails the corresponding cost to the economy of each country affected by it, which results from the shakeout and the restructuring of its financial system. The purpose of this research is to investigate the consequences of the financial crisis and the COVID-19 health crisis and how these affected the course of the four systemic banks (Eurobank, Alpha Bank, National Bank, Piraeus Bank) through the analysis of ratios for the period of 2015-2020.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: ARDS; COVID-19; Berlin Criteria; Respiratory Failure
Online: 5 June 2020 (13:54:36 CEST)
Introduction: The exponential growth of the SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission during the first months of 2020 has placed substantial pressure on health systems worldwide. The complications derived from the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vary in due to comorbidities, sex and age, with more than 50% of the patients who require some level of intensive care developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Areas covered: Various complications caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified, the most lethal being the acute respiratory distress syndrome, caused most likely by the presence of severe immune cell response and the concomitant alveolus inflammation. The authors carried out an extensive and comprehensive literature review on SARS-CoV-2 infection, the clinical, pathological and radiological presentation as well as the current treatment strategies. Expert Opinion Elevation of inflammatory biomarkers is a common trend among seriously ill patients. The information available strongly suggests that in COVID-19 patients, their altered immune response, including a massive cytokine storm, is responsible for the further damage evidenced among ARDS patients. The increasingly high number of scientific articles and evidence available can only suggest that the individualization of each case is the norm, not all patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 meet the Berlin definition and therefore ARDS should be considered as a heterogeneous disease, with a wide range in the expression of its severity and clinical manifestations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; coronavirus; remdesivir
Online: 17 April 2020 (13:02:03 CEST)
The global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, the causative viral pathogen of COVID-19, has driven the biomedical community to action – to uncover and develop anti-viral interventions. One potential therapeutic approach currently being evaluated in numerous clinical trials is the agent remdesivir, which has endured a long and winding developmental path. Remdesivir is a nucleotide analog prodrug that perturbs viral replication, originally evaluated in clinical trials to thwart the Ebola outbreak in 2014. Subsequent evaluation by numerous virology laboratories demonstrated the ability of remdesivir to inhibit coronavirus replication, including SARS-CoV-2. Here, we provide an overview of its mechanism of action, discovery, and the current studies exploring its clinical effectiveness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-COV-2; COVID-19; TTP; refractory; thrombotic microangiopathies
Online: 30 June 2022 (09:06:54 CEST)
Introduction: The proliferation of literature regarding COVID-19 pandemic has served to highlight a wide spectrum of disease manifestations and complications like thrombotic microangiopathies. Our review with a brief case presentation highlights the increasing recognition of TTP in COVID-19 and describes its salient characteristics. Methods: We screened the available literature in Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane database from inception till April 2022 of articles mentioning COVID-19 associated TTP in English Language. Results: From 404 records, we included 8 articles mentioning data of 11 patients in our review. TTP was predominantly reported in females (72%) with a mean age of 48.2 years (SD 15.1). Dyspnea was the most common symptom in 1/3rd of patients (36.6%). Neurological symptoms were reported in 27.3% of cases. The time to diagnosis of TTP was 10 days (SD: 5.8) from onset of Covid-19. All 11 cases underwent plasma exchange (PLEX), with a mean of 12 sessions per patient, whereas six cases received Rituximab (54.5%), and three received Caplacizumab (27.3%). One patient died from the illness. Conclusion: This review of available literature highlights the atypical and refractory nature of COVID-19 associated TTP. It required longer sessions of PLEX with half of the patients receiving at least one immunosuppressant.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0132.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; masks materials; pandemic
Online: 11 June 2020 (11:44:17 CEST)
It is highly likely that the wearing of face masks reduces the rate of respiratory infections (e.g. SARS-CoV-2), to protect both the user and those around them. This paper sets out to review the areas that effect the efficacy of masks, the materials, design, hygiene and fit testing, in order to make recommendations as to how to make mask from resources found in most homes for when commercial models are unavailable. This paper finds that a mask constructed with a filter made from high thread count cotton is likely to provide a reasonable level of protection (~70% filtration) and that if a layers of other materials such as chiffon or silk is added the filtration may be much higher (~90%). There is also some promise in less available materials such as vacuum cleaner bags and air conditioner filters. Examples of fabric and rigid designs are reviewed but most are limited by the fit to the users which is hard to determine in a home setting. It would be extremely helpful if a method was devised for people to test or be tested for the fit of home made masks. In the mean time careful thought should be given to whether the user judges a good fit. Users should also be careful to practice other means of hygiene and distancing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0482.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19 Infodemic; Text Classification; TFIDF Features; Network Training modes; Supervised Learning; Misinformation; News Classification; False Publications; PubMed; Anomaly Detection
Online: 26 July 2021 (12:06:04 CEST)
The spread of the Coronavirus pandemic has been accompanied by an infodemic. The false information that is embedded in the infodemic affects people’s ability to have access to safety information and follow proper procedures to mitigate the risks. This research aims to target the falsehood part of the infodemic, which prominently proliferates in news articles and false medical publications. Here, we present NeoNet, a novel supervised machine learning text mining algorithm that analyzes the content of a document (news article, a medical publication) and assigns a label to it. The algorithm is trained by TFIDF bigram features which contribute a network training model. The algorithm is tested on two different real-world datasets from the CBC news network and Covid-19 publications. In five different fold comparisons, the algorithm predicted a label of an article with a precision of 97-99 %. When compared with prominent algorithms such as Neural Networks, SVM, and Random Forests NeoNet surpassed them. The analysis highlighted the promise of NeoNet in detecting disputed online contents which may contribute negatively to the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0065.v1
Subject: Keywords: group decision-making; fuzzy analytic hierarchy process; consensus; wafer foundry; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 2 December 2020 (14:10:13 CET)
In the existing group decision-making fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) methods, the consensus among experts has rarely been fully reached. To fill this gap, in this study, a pre-aggregation fuzzy collaborative intelligence (FCI)-based FAHP approach is proposed. In the proposed pre-aggregation FCI-based FAHP approach, fuzzy intersection is applied to aggregate experts’ pairwise comparison results if these pairwise comparison results overlap. The aggregation result is a matrix of polygonal fuzzy numbers. Subsequently, alpha-cut operations are applied to derive the fuzzy priorities of criteria from the aggregation result. The pre-aggregation FCI-based FAHP approach has been applied to select suitable alternative suppliers for a wafer foundry in Taiwan amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The experimental results revealed that the pre-aggregation FCI-based FAHP approach significantly reduced the uncertainty inherent in the decision-making process by deriving fuzzy priorities with very narrow ranges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0136.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; behavioral interventions; prevention; workplace safety; safety protocols
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:54:54 CEST)
Practicing preventive etiquettes such as hand washing, hand disinfection, wearing a face mask, practicing physical distancing, disinfection of surfaces and objects can help curb the transmission of COVID-19 at the workplace. This paper focuses on interventions and behaviors required to curb the spread of COVID-19 at workplaces. We undertook a detailed multi-disciplinary literature search on the following topics: hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, physical distancing, quarantine and isolation, disinfection of objects and surfaces, behavior change, and health crisis communication. We identified interventions that are effective for preventing the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) at workplaces. These findings present very useful non-clinical interventions for preventing COVID-19 in the work environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccination; Adverse event; Case report; Iran
Online: 3 March 2023 (08:30:15 CET)
Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has significantly contributed to the recent pandemic control. COVID-19 vaccines are available with different platforms and the primary clinical trials results presented acceptable safety profile of the approved vaccines. Nevertheless, the long-term assessment of the adverse events or rare conditions need to be investigated. The present systematic review, aimed at classification of Iranian case reports following COVID-19 immunization. To achieve this goal, the related published case reports were explored via PubMed, Web of Science and Google scholar according to PRISMA guideline and available up to 14th Dec, 2022. Out of 437 explored studies, the relevant data were fully investigated which totally led to 40 studies including 64 case reports with a new onset of a problem. The cases were then classified according to the various items such as the type of adverse event manifestations and COVID-19 vaccine. The reported COVID-19 vaccines in the studied cases included Sinopharm, AstraZeneca, and COVAXIN. The results showed that the adverse events presented in 8 different categories from which cutaneous problems accounted as the most prevalent manifestations (43.7%) in which rare diseases were also screened such as Steven-Johnson syndrome, Morphea and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Notably, almost 60% of the cases had no comorbidities. Moreover, the obtained data revealed nearly half of the incidences occurred after the first dose of injection and the mean duration of improvement after the symptom onset was 18.72±24.69 days. 73% of all the cases were either significantly improved or fully recovered. Although the advantages of COVID-19 vaccination is undoubtedly significant, the high risk individuals including those with a history of serious disease or comorbidities immunodeficiency conditions should be vaccinated with the utmost caution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0476.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: COVID-19; Waste management; Recycling; Sustainability; Waste shock
Online: 31 October 2022 (09:54:27 CET)
Recycling and waste management have garnered immense popularity in recent years, but few studies have been carried out regarding these systems. Therefore, an in-depth literature review was done in order to highlight the different sectors of the recycling system that need to be reformed. Hence this study examined recycling and waste management systems within three categories–medical, municipal, and plastic–that were carried out pre and post COVID by reviewing previous studies, technical reports, and annual reports. This was done by visiting numerous academic search engines alongside online resources that were utilized to assemble literature related to waste and recycling systems. Continuing a recurring idea was that no matter the type of waste, further research regarding all waste should be carried out. Additionally, since recycling and waste management are a vital part of our society, and seeing how unpredictable events such as the pandemic may be, it is paramount that that research is done not only on how the pandemic has affected systems now, but also how we can learn from current issues to utilize them for future “waste shocks”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0031.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus disease; Coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; model; prediction; machine learning
Online: 3 May 2020 (07:44:03 CEST)
Several epidemiological models are being used around the world to project the number of infected individuals and the mortality rates of the COVID-19 outbreak. Advancing accurate prediction models is of utmost importance to take proper actions. Due to a high level of uncertainty or even lack of essential data, the standard epidemiological models have been challenged regarding the delivery of higher accuracy for long-term prediction. As an alternative to the susceptible-infected-resistant (SIR)-based models, this study proposes a hybrid machine learning approach to predict the COVID-19 and we exemplify its potential using data from Hungary. The hybrid machine learning methods of adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multi-layered perceptron-imperialist competitive algorithm (MLP-ICA) are used to predict time series of infected individuals and mortality rate. The models predict that by late May, the outbreak and the total morality will drop substantially. The validation is performed for nine days with promising results, which confirms the model accuracy. It is expected that the model maintains its accuracy as long as no significant interruption occurs. Based on the results reported here, and due to the complex nature of the COVID-19 outbreak and variation in its behavior from nation-to-nation, this study suggests machine learning as an effective tool to model the outbreak. This paper provides an initial benchmarking to demonstrate the potential of machine learning for future research.
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; sensitivity; specificity; diagnosis; prognosis
Online: 15 January 2021 (12:44:59 CET)
Study objective Since December 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused over a million deaths and resulted in adverse socio-economic impacts worldwide. However, predictability and prognostication of clinical features vary among different populations. Methods We search PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and WHO Global Health Library from December 2019 to April 2020 for studies reporting the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes. The random-effect models for transformed prevalence (single-arm) or bivariate random-effect models (sensitivity and specificity) for correlated performance indicators. Results Among the 189 included studies representing 53,659 patients, the most sensitive predictor for COVID-19 infection was fever in adults (83%, 95% confidence interval [CI]:73–90%), and the most specific predictor was fatigue (96%, 95% CI: 80–99%). Fever was the most sensitive symptom in predicting the severity (89%, 95% CI:83–92%), followed by cough (71%, 95% CI:63–78%). The most specific predictor of severe COVID-19 was a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (99%, 95% CI:98–99%). The stage of the outbreak and age significantly affect the prevalence of fever, fatigue, cough, and dyspnea. Fever, cough, fatigue, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus combined have a 3.06 positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and a 0.59 negative likelihood ratio (NLR) in the diagnosis. Additionally, fever, cough, sputum production, myalgia, fatigue, and dyspnea combined have a 10.44 PLR and a 0.16 NLR in predicting severe COVID-19. Conclusions Understanding the different distribution of predictors essential for screening potential COVID-19 infection and severe outcomes and the combination of symptoms could improve the pre-test probability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0466.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Opsoclonus; myoclonus; parainfectious
Online: 18 December 2020 (12:19:07 CET)
Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome is a heterogeneous constellation of symptoms ranging from full combination of these three neurological findings to varying degree of isolated individual sign. Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), neurological symptoms, syndromes and complications associated with this multi-organ viral infection have been reported and the various aspects of neurological involvement are increasingly uncovered. As a neuro-inflammatory disorder in nature, one would expect to observe opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome after a prevalent viral infection in a pandemic scale, as it has been the case for many other neuro-inflammatory syndromes. We report seven cases of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome presumably para-infectious in nature and discuss their phenomenology, their possible pathophysiological relationship to COVID-19 and diagnostic and treatment strategy in each case. Finally we review the relevant data in the literature regarding the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome and possible similar cases associated with COVID-19 and its diagnostic importance for clinicians in various fields of medicine encountering COVID-19 patients and its complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0337.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antibacterial agents; antibiotics; COVID-19; drug misuse; odontogenic infection
Online: 14 May 2021 (14:03:42 CEST)
This review revisits clinical use of antibiotics for most common acute oro-dental conditions; we aim to provide evidence governing antibiotics use when access to oral healthcare is not available, as during the ongoing outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In this rapid review, articles were retrieved after conducting a search on PubMed and Google Scholar. Relevant publications were selected and analyzed. Most recent systematic reviews with/without meta-analyses and societal guidelines were selected. Data were extracted, grouped, and synthesized according to the respective subtopic analysis. There were evidence supporting the use of antibiotics in common oro-dental conditions as temporary measure when immediate care is not accessible, such as in case of localized oral swellings as well as to prevent post-extraction complications. No sufficient evidence could be found in support of antibiotic use for pain resulting from pulpal origin. Consequently, antibiotic use may be justified to defer treatment temporarily or reduce risk of complications in case of localized infection and tooth extraction, when no access to immediate dental care is possible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0204.v1
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; animal models; anti-virals
Online: 12 May 2020 (05:45:58 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly pathogenic and transmissible CoV that is presently plaguing the global human population and economy. No proven effective anti-viral therapy or vaccine currently exist, and supportive care remains to be the cornerstone treatment. Through previous lessons learned from SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV studies, scientific groups worldwide have rapidly expanded the knowledge pertaining to SARS-CoV-2 virology that included in vitro and in vivo models for testing of anti-viral therapies, and randomized clinical trials. In the present narrative, we review SARS-CoV-2 virology, clinical features, pathophysiology, and animal models with a specific focus on anti-viral and adjunctive therapies currently being tested or require testing in animal models and randomized clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0661.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Pandemic situation; Bangladesh; Health sector; Biotechnology
Online: 25 December 2020 (13:08:17 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been showing a speedy growth in the number of infected patients with a remarkable mortality rate, thus it has become a worldwide public health concern. From March 8, 2020, the disease was confirmed to start spreading in Bangladesh. Since then, people got infected so exponentially that the country positions at the list of top infected countries in the world. Therefore, the objective of this comprehensive review was representing overall scenario of COVID-19 in different sectors of Bangladesh, particularly prioritizing the health sector. Up to 14 September 2020, 339,332 confirmed cases and 4,759 deaths were reported. An alarming fact is that while the global mutation rate of coronavirus is 7.23 % in average, the rate is 12.6 % in Bangladesh. Although the government ruled preventive strategies such as nationwide lockdown, social distancing, contact monitoring, quarantine and isolation, it was difficult to implement those due to lack of public awareness, inappropriate attitudes and so on. Moreover, the overburdened healthcare system had a weak response at initial stage because of insufficient healthcare facilities. Consequently, this pandemic affected severely almost all the important sectors of the country, specifically the economy, agriculture and health sectors. Hence, focusing on healthcare system as well as maintaining social distance and other essential precautions can limit the spread of infection and help to alleviate the severity of the pandemic.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; dynamic-based learning; , higher education; interactive learning; online classroom
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:17:22 CEST)
Purpose: Now traditional lecture-based teaching and learning have been affected by the COVID-19. The objectives of this article are to design the novel educational technique called ‘dynamic-based learning’ (DBL) that provides the combination of online teaching-learning methods and student’s creativity, to evaluate primary dynamic-based learning function, and to propose dynamic-based learning for higher education. Methods: DBL composes of four steps, including, preparation, homework, classroom, and evaluation, which was designed, and taught in medical and dental schools. Online support materials included mobile phone, email, Facebook Messenger, Line Messenger, Cisco Webex, and Zoom Meetings applications were recruited for this novel method. Results: A total of 32 third-year medical students and 26 sixth-year dental students was treated by DBL similarly. three subjects, including, Innovation in Dentistry, Basic Medical Research, and Principles of Pathology and Forensic Medicine were selected in this article. The results showed students could create their knowledge, ideas, and creativity during the online classes.Conclusion: DBL can be used as an alternative learning mode during the COVID-19 crisis. The benefits of DBL also include high flexibility, dynamic process, active learning, and high creativity. DBL should be tested with other disciplines such as engineering school, laws school, health sciences school, and should be compared with other traditional teaching and learning modes in the future. This method may support the global higher education systems to move forward the COVID-19 pandemic to set a novel standard of a future normal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0446.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: COVID-19; Digital Divide; Online Learning; Multi-level Digital Divide
Online: 30 June 2021 (12:28:15 CEST)
The devastating COVID-19 pandemic forced academia to go virtual. Educational institutions around the world have stressed online learning programs in the aftermath of the pandemic. However, because of insufficient access to ICT, a substantial number of students failed to harness the opportunity of online learning. This study explores the latent digital divide exhibited during the COVID-19 pandemic while online learning activities are emphasized among Bangladeshi students. It also investigates the digital divide exposure and the significant underlying drivers of the divide. A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect quantitative data mixed with open-ended questions to collect qualitative information from the student community. The findings revealed that despite the majority of students have physical access to ICT but only 32.5% of students could attend online classes seamlessly, 34.1% of the students reported the data prices as the critical barrier, and 39.8% of students identified the poor network infrastructure is the significant barrier for them to participate in online learning activities. Although most students possess physical access to the device and the Internet, they face the first-level digital divide due to the quality of access and maintaining subscriptions. Consequently, they fail to take advantage of physical access, resulting in the third-level digital divide (Utility Gap) and submerging them into a digital divide cycle. This paper aimed to explore the underlying issues of the digital divide among Bangladeshi students to assist relevant stakeholders (e.g., the Bangladesh government, Educational Institutions, Researchers) in providing the necessary insights and theoretical understanding to arrange adequate support for students to undertake conducive online learning activities.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: automatic detection; chest X-ray; convolutional neural network; COVID-19; deep learning; feature extraction; image classification; pneumonia
Online: 27 April 2021 (14:08:53 CEST)
One of the critical tools for early detection and subsequent evaluation of the incidence of lung diseases is chest radiography. At a time when the speed and reliability of results, especially for COVID-19 positive patients, is important, the development of applications that would facilitate the work of untrained staff involved in the evaluation is also crucial. Our model takes the form of a simple and intuitive application, into which you only need to upload X-rays: tens or hundreds at once. In just a few seconds, the physician will determine the patient's diagnosis, including the percentage accuracy of the estimate. While the original idea was a mere binary classifier that could tell if a patient was suffering from pneumonia or not, in this paper we present a model that distinguishes between a bacterial disease, a viral infection, or a finding caused by COVID-19. The aim of this research is to demonstrate whether pneumonia can be detected or even spatially localized using a uniform, supervised classification.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0083.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Machine Learning; COVID-19; Internet of Things (IoT); Deep Learning; Big Data
Online: 19 April 2022 (08:21:00 CEST)
Early diagnosis, prioritization, screening, clustering and tracking of COVID-19 patients, and production of drugs and vaccines are some of the applications that have made it necessary to use a new style of technology to involve, to manage and deal with this epidemic. Strategies backed by artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) have been undeniable to understand how the virus works and try to prevent it from spreading. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey article is to highlight the methods of ML, IoT and the integration of IoT and ML-based techniques in the applications related to COVID-19 from the diagnosis of the disease to the prediction of its outbreak. According to the main findings, IoT provided a prompt and efficient approach of following the disease spread. Most of the studies developed by ML-based techniques for handling COVID-19 based dataset provided performance criteria. The most popular performance criteria, is related to accuracy factor. It can be employed for comparing the ML-based methods with different datasets. According to the results, CNN with SVM classifier, Genetic CNN and pre-trained CNN followed by ResNet, provided highest accuracy values. On the other hand, the lowest accuracy was related to single CNN followed by XGboost and KNN methods.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: vaccine; adenovirus; COVID-19; spike; endothelial; vector; coagulation; clot; thrombopenia; platelet
Online: 15 April 2021 (14:05:48 CEST)
Prothrombotic thrombocytopathy mimicking heparin-induced thrombocytopenia has been observed in patients with severe COVID-19 and after immunisation with the Vaxzevria vaccine. Herein, we discuss the pathogenesis of this disorder focusing on the possible involvement of anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) autoantibodies.