ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1308.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Matching theory; allocation; COVID-19; vaccine; vaccination
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:50:54 CEST)
In this article, we examine an allocation issue faced by European Health Union (EHU). Given this situation, we introduce the issue of vaccine selection. The model proposed in this paper helps to implement vaccination optimally using matching theory. By adopting the mechanism presented in this article, this is done more easily and more quickly, so that mortality in society is lower and public satisfaction is increased. This is similar to the issues analyzed in the literature on the design mechanism of non-perishable goods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 Booster; Influenza and COVID-19; Vaccination Strategy; Combining Vaccination
Online: 17 November 2022 (10:31:53 CET)
Background: The uptake of COVID-19 booster vaccines has been significantly low. Therefore, it is questionable whether combining the COVID-19 booster vaccines with Influenza vaccines can increase the population's interest in taking such vaccines and manage the health pandemic effectively. Methodology: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a synthesis of the findings and summary of a total of 30 research articles based on the topic, ‘combining influenza and COVID-19 booster vaccination strategy’ was undertaken. The research articles were identified from three databases, namely, PubMed, Cochran Library, and Google Scholar using specific keywords and inclusion criteria. However, research articles that were not peer-reviewed and not published in English were excluded from the systematic review and meta-analysis. The average risk ratio of the included articles was 0.78% based on a 95% CI. On the other hand, the heterogeneity between such studies was I2 = 35%, while the statistical significance of their findings occurred at p < 0.05. The average p-value of the included research studies was p = 0.62, implying that the null hypothesis was not rejected in almost all the studies. Results: A synthesis of the chosen research articles revealed that when influenza and COVID-19 booster vaccines are combined, there is potential for an increase in the uptake of the latter, mainly because many populations have already been accustomed to taking influenza vaccines on an annual basis. Conclusions: In this way, through such findings, medical health experts can make informed decisions to increase the population's willingness to receive the COVID-19 booster vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; vaccines; hesitancy; attitudes; medical students; healthcare workers
Online: 31 July 2023 (02:20:29 CEST)
University students, particularly those in the healthcare disciplines, constitute a category of particular interest in regard to COVID-19 vaccines and the attitudes to vaccination, as their future professional role will enable them to inform and educate citizens regarding vaccination. The objectives of the study were to investigate the vaccination coverage with a COVID-19 vaccine among students from different degree programs at the Medical universities in Bulgaria behaviors and attitudes toward vaccination with a COVID-19 vaccine. A prospective cross-sectional study in the period September 2021- March 2022 was conducted. Information on demographics, university program, year of study, general attitudes and behavior towards vaccines and attitudes and personal experience with COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines were collected. The chi-square test was used to test for associations and binominal logistic regression was used to identify possible predictors for vaccination. A total of 3050 students with a median age of 22 years, predominantly female took part in the study. Three-thirds of the students (73.5%) have been vaccinated against COVID-19. The main reasons for vaccine hesitancy in both group of students were the fear of side effects and the doubts about the safety of the vaccines although non-vaccinated students significantly more frequently express those fears. Respondents who considered to have: a) limited access to sufficient information to inform COVID-19 vaccine uptake; b) lack of public awareness and education campaigns about effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines; c) insufficient information about COVID-19 vaccines during the University education; and d) had a positive COVID-19 diagnosis were less likely to be vaccinated. Students who have not completed the mandatory immunization cycle according to country schedule were also less likely to have completed COVID-19 vaccination. The students showed an overall positive attitude towards the COVID-19 vaccines. Promoting informational campaigns that emphasize the vaccine's safety will be more effective to further increase the vaccination coverage with COVID-19 vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; children; pediatrics; public health
Online: 1 September 2022 (02:25:22 CEST)
Background: This study describes the attitudes and practices of Brazilian adults regarding the mandatory vaccination for COVID-19 and the hesitancy to children´s vaccination. Methods: The participants answered an online questionnaire disseminated on social networks. An adaptation of the SAGE-WG questionnaire was used to measure the children's vaccination hesitancy. Results: Among 1,007 participants, 677 (67.4%) believed that vaccination for COVID-19 among adults should be mandatory. Just over half of the participants (51.5%) believe that parents and guardians should be free to decide whether their children should be vaccinated against COVID-19, and 9.1% were unsure about this. Younger, non-religious people who have higher self-perceptions of risk for COVID-19, and who evaluate the federal government's performance in combating the disease as bad or very bad, have a higher agreement with mandatory vaccination, a lower agreement that parents and guardians should be free to vaccinate their children, and lower child vaccination hesitancy scores. Conclusion: In Brazil, mandatory COVID-19 vaccination for adults is far from a consensus, and an expressive part of the population believes that parents and guardians should be free to choose whether or not to vaccinate their children. These perceptions and vaccine hesitancy for children are associated with religious and political inclinations.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; lymphoma; BNT162b2; mRNA-1273
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:21:17 CEST)
Currently available COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy in clinical trials.1-3 However, cancer patients, including those with hematological malignancies, were largely excluded from these trials. In this prospective, observational study we measured anti-S protein IgG titers as well as avidity in lymphoma patients (n=67) vaccinated with a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Serological response rates in lymphoma patients who were treatment naïve (100% in CLL, 88.9% in other, non-CLL non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients), or who were last treated more than 24 months prior to vaccination (100% in CLL, 90% in other-NHL), were similar to healthy controls (100%). Patients on active therapy, however, had a diminished response rate (40% in CLL, 21.0% in other-NHL). No patient who received anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) within six months of vaccination responded. Thus, the utility of testing anti-S titers should be explored in patients on active therapy or with recent anti-CD20 mAb exposure, to assess their response to vaccination. We also propose studying passive protection with S-protein mAbs as an alternative prophylactic strategy for patients who respond poorly to vaccination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0350.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Mental stress Covid-19; Covid-19 vaccine dataset; Vaccine sociodemographic; Vaccine acceptance rate; Vaccine perception
Online: 18 August 2022 (13:36:16 CEST)
In this study, we surveyed over 600 participants to determine: a) major causes to mental stress during the pandemic and its future impacts, and b) diversity in public perception and acceptance (specifically for children) of Covid-19 vaccination. Statistical results and intelligent clustering outcomes indicate significant relationships between sociodemographic diversity, mental stress causes, vaccination perception, and Covid-19 infections. For instance, statistical results indicate significant dependence between mental stress due to Covid-19 and gender (p = 1.7e-05). Over 25% of males indicated work related stress comparing 35% in females however, females indicated more stressed (17%) due to relationships comparing to males (12%). Around 30% of Asian/Arabic participants don’t feel vaccination being safe as compared to 8% of white-British and 22% of white-European indicating significant dependence (p = 1.8e-08) with ethnicity. More specifically, vaccination acceptance for children is significantly dependent to ethnicity (p = 3.7e-05) where only 47% participants show willingness towards children’s vaccination. Primary dataset in this study along with experimental outcomes identifying sociodemographic information diversity with respect to public perception and acceptance of vaccination to children and potential stress factors might be useful for public and policy makers to be better prepared for future epidemics as well as working globally to combat mental health issues and running more effective vaccination campaigns.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0919.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; mRNA-based vaccine; systemic sclerosis
Online: 16 October 2023 (03:45:06 CEST)
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a respiratory tract infection caused by the new virus SARS-CoV-2. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. Since then, there has been a rush to find preventative or curative treatment. This arrived with the appearance of the COVID-19 vaccine, months after the declaration of the pandemic. In the setting of global COVID-19 immunization, there have been reports of rare skin immune-mediated diseases (IMD) after COVID-19 vaccination, particularly systemic sclerosis. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is the most reported new onset IMD following messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccination. The pathogenesis of SSc is not fully understood, and the diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms. We report a 54-year-old male, with no prior history of autoimmune disorder, with rapid and progressive skin thickening (Modified Rodnan skin score 30/51), weeks after his mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) showed a strongly positive nuclear fine-speckled pattern, but no SSc autoantibodies were found. The patient was diagnosed with SSc based on the persistence of autoantibodies and the clinical criteria according to the 2013 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism classification. Due to the proximity of the two events, we hypothesized a cross-reaction between COVID-19 vaccination and, in genetically predisposed patients, an emergence of systemic sclerosis. Our case suggests a potential relationship between the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and new-onset autoimmune diseases. Physicians should be aware of this possible association.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0390.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid-19; inequalities; vaccination
Online: 6 July 2023 (13:24:07 CEST)
Socio-demographic factors are responsible of health inequalities also in vaccination. The aim of this study was to evaluate their role at population level through a population-based study performed on the whole population entitled to receive COVID-19 vaccines in Umbria Region, Italy, and registered to the Regional Healthcare Service as of February 28th, 2021. Socio-demographic characteristics and vaccination status in terms of uptake at least one dose of any available vaccine, completion of the primary vaccination cycle and uptake of the booster doses as of February 28th, 2022 were col-lected from the Umbria regional database. The percentage of eligible population who did not initiate the COVID-19 vaccination, complete the full vaccination cycle and get the booster dose was 11.8%, 1.2% and 21.5% respectively. A younger age, being a not-Italian citizen, and not holding an ex-emption for chronic disease/disability and a GP/FP were associated to all the endpoints. Females, as compared to males, were more likely to not initiate the vaccination but less likely to not receive the booster dose. On the contrary, results on the deprivation index were not conclusive. The findings, beyond confirming current knowledge at population level, provide new inputs for better tailoring vaccination campaigns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1686.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Keywords: COVID-19; data; transmission; asymptomatic
Online: 27 November 2023 (08:45:36 CET)
A population dynamics epidemic model is developed that incorporates age of infection and age of vaccination. The model analyzes pre-symptomatic and symptomatic periods of an infected individual in terms of infection age. The model analyzes the efficacy of vaccination in terms of vaccination age. The model is applied to the 2003 SARS epidemic in Taiwan and the current COVID-19 epidemic in New York State.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0533.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccine; Prediction; Regression; Ensemble learning; AdaBoost
Online: 22 June 2021 (08:30:30 CEST)
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created immense threats to public health on various levels around the globe. The unpredictable outbreak of this disease and the pandemic situation are causing severe depression, anxiety and other mental as physical health related problems among the human beings. To combat against this disease, vaccination is essential as it will boost the immune system of human beings while being in the contact with the infected people. The vaccination process is thus necessary to confront the outbreak of COVID-19. This deadly disease has put social, economic condition of the entire world into an enormous challenge. The worldwide vaccination progress should be tracked to identify how fast the entire economic as well as social life will be stabilized. The monitor ofthe vaccination progress, a machine learning based Regressor model is approached in this study. This tracking process has been applied on the data starting from 14th December, 2020 to 24th April, 2021. A couple of ensemble based machine learning Regressor models such as Random Forest, Extra Trees, Gradient Boosting, AdaBoost and Extreme Gradient Boosting are implemented and their predictive performance are compared. The comparative study reveals that the AdaBoostRegressor outperforms with minimized mean absolute error (MAE) of 9.968 and root mean squared error (RMSE) of 11.133.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0414.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccinations; all-cause mortality; relative risk
Online: 24 February 2023 (02:03:36 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemics has had an unprecedented global impact, and the COVID-19 mass vaccination campaign has been commonly regarded as crucial to overcome the pandemics. Since all-cause mortality is the best way to measure the consequences of a health intervention, the present study was devised to analyze the all-cause mortality data of the United Kingdom (UK), which are made publicly available broken down by vaccination status. Data from January to May 2022 were retrospectively collected and analyzed according to age groups and vaccination status and the relative risk (RR) for all-cause mortality was calculated in comparison to the corresponding unvaccinated groups. All-cause mortality RR was also calculated from January to May 2021 for vaccinated people. Results show that the all-cause mortality RR was higher in people who received one or two doses of COVID-19 vaccines throughout the whole period and in any of the age groups considered. People vaccinated with three doses more than 21 days earlier had RRs lower than unvaccinated people, which however linearly increased over time. RR in vaccinated people of all ages in comparison to unvaccinated people were lower in January-May 2021, however they steadily grew over time. The finding that all-cause mortality RR in vaccinated in comparison to unvaccinated people increases over time requires careful examination to understand the underlying factors. Meanwhile, all the other major countries should undertake a systematic collection of all-causes mortality broken down by vaccination status, and mass vaccination campaigns should be suspended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0247.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Covid-19 vaccination coverage; anti-SARS-CoV-2 herd immunity; Covid-19 vaccination strategy; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 27 April 2022 (05:04:20 CEST)
The pandemic associated with SARS-CoV-2 is a worldwide public health challenge. The WHO has proposed to achieve 70% COVID-19 vaccination coverage in all countries by mid-2022. Nevertheless, the prevention strategy based on COVID-19 vaccination and other applied prevention measures have not been sufficient to prevent SARS-CoV-2 epidemic waves. The study assessed the vaccination coverage that would be required to establish herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2 by taking into account virus transmissibility (Ro values from 1.1 to 10) and Covid-19 vaccination effectiveness. The study found that Covid-19 vaccination programs could establish herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2 with Ro < 3 with levels of Covid-19 vaccination effectiveness of 10−100% and against viruses with Ro values ranging from 3 to 10 with levels of Covid-19 vaccination effectiveness of 70−100%. Factors reducing Covid-19 vaccination effectiveness (emergent variants, reinfections, high risk individuals) and factors increasing SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility (close settings) increased percentages of vaccination coverage that would be required to establish herd immunity. The vaccination coverage objective of 70% could be adequate against SARS-CoV-2 with Ro values of 1.1−2.5, while percentages of vaccination coverage of 80% and 90% could be more adequate against viruses with Ro values of 2.5−3.5 and >3.5, respectively. On February 2022, the vaccination coverage for complete vaccination was lower than 70% in 73.2% of the countries of the world. Percentages of Covid-19 vaccination coverage must be increased in most countries of the world to increase individual and herd immunity levels in the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; mRNA vaccine; thrombotic events
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:55:17 CEST)
Introduction: Real-world safety studies can provide important evidence on the thromboembolic risk associated with COVID-19 vaccines, considering that millions of people have been already vaccinated against COVID-19. In this study, we aimed to estimate the incidence of thromboembolic events after COVID-19 vaccination and to compare the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine with other COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: We conducted a retrospective real-world safety study using data from two different data sources: the Italian Pharmacovigilance database (Rete Nazionale di Farmacovigilanza, RNF) and the Campania Region Health system (Sistema INFOrmativo saNità CampanIA, SINFONIA). From the start date of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign (December 27th, 2021) to September 27th, 2022, information on COVID-19 vaccinations and thromboembolic evets were extracted from the two databases. The reporting rate (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of thromboembolic events for 10,000 doses was calculated for each COVID-19 vaccine. Moreover, the odds of being vaccinated with the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine vs. the other COVID-19 vaccines in cases with thromboembolic events vs. controls without thromboembolic events were computed. Results: A total of 12,692,852 vaccine doses were administered in Campania Region, of which 6,509,475 (51.28%) were in female and mostly related to the Pfizer-BioNtech vaccine (65.05%), followed by Moderna (24.31%), Oxford–AstraZeneca (9.71%), Janssen (0.91%), and Novavax (0.02%) vaccines. A total of 641 ICSRs with a COVID-19 vaccines and a vascular events were retrieved from the RNF for the Campania Region, of which 453 (70.67%) were in female. Most ICSRs reported the Pfizer-BioNtech vaccine (65.05%), followed by Oxford–AstraZeneca (9.71%), Moderna (24.31%), and Janssen (0.91%). A total of 2,451 events were reported in the ICSRs (3.8 events for ICSRs) of which 292 were thromboembolic events. The highe RRs of thromboembolic events were found with the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine (RR: 4.62, 95%CI: 3.50-5.99) and Janssen vaccine (RR: 3.45, 95%CI: 0.94-8.82). Thromboembolic events were associated with a higher likelihood of exposure to the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine compared to Pfizer-BioNtech (OR: 6.06; 95%CI: 4.22-8.68) and Moderna vaccines (OR: 6.46; 95%CI: 4.00-10.80). Conclusion: We observed a higher reporting of thromboembolic events with viral-vector based vaccines (Oxford–AstraZeneca and Janssen) and an increased likelihood of being exposed to the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine compared to the mRNA vaccines (Pfizer-BioNtech and Moderna) among thromboembolic cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: vaccine side effects; inactivated COVID-19 vaccine; sinopharm vaccine; sinovac vaccine; whole attenuated vaccine; COVID-19 vaccination; vaccine hesitancy
Online: 2 September 2022 (05:12:45 CEST)
Vaccination is one of the most effective methods for preventing morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Vaccine hesitancy has led to a decrease in vaccine uptake; driven by misinformation, fear, and perceptions of vaccine safety. Whole inactivated vaccines have been used in one-fifth of the vaccine recipients in Africa, however there is limited real-world data on their safety. We evaluated the reported side effects and factors associated with reported side effects following vaccination with whole inactivated COVID-19 vaccines - BBiBP-CorV (Sinopharm) and CoronaVac (Sinovac). A quantitative survey evaluating attitudes and side effects from vaccination was administered to 1016 adults presenting at vaccination centers. Two follow-up telephone interviews were conducted to determine side effects after the first and second vaccination dose. Overall, the vaccine was well tolerated; 26.0% and 14.4% reported side effects after the first and second dose respectively. The most frequent local and systemic side effects were pain at the injection site and headaches respectively. Most symptoms were mild, and no participants re-quired hospitalization. Participants who perceived COVID-19 vaccines as safe or had a personal COVID-19 experience were significantly less likely to report side effects. Our findings provide data on the safety and tolerability of whole inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in an African population, providing the necessary data to create effective strategies to increase vaccination and support vaccination campaigns.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Reinfection
Online: 26 December 2022 (03:53:55 CET)
Background: Repeated SARS-CoV-2 infections are plausible and related published data are scarce. We aimed to identify factors associated with the risk of recurrent (three episodes) laboratory-confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted and 1,700 healthcare workers were enrolled. We used risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate factors associated with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Results: We identified 14 participants with recurrent illness episodes. Therefore, the incidence rate was 8.5 per 10,000 person-months. In multiple model, vaccinated adults (vs. unvaccinated, RR = 1.05 [1.03 - 1.06]) and those with a severe first illness episode (vs mild disease, RR = 1.05 [1.01 - 1.10]) were at increased risk for repeated symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 reinfections. Increasing age showed a protective effect (per each additional year of age: RR = 0.98 [0.97 - 0.99]). Conclusions: Our results suggest that recurrent SARS-CoV-2 infections are rare events in adults and they seem to be determined, partially, by vaccination status and age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: south africa; COVID-19; vaccine acceptancy; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine denial
Online: 1 August 2022 (06:02:11 CEST)
Unprecedented in scale, immense COVID-19 immunization programmes have been rolled out globally. This article explores aspects of hypothetical vaccine acceptability in Soweto, South Africa, shortly before such vaccines became available. Whereas hypothetical acceptance was normative, this has not translated into uptake today, which remains concerningly low in South Africa, especially in Soweto. For that reason, we mobilise anthropological concepts to analyse acceptance, hesitancy, and denial, respectively, to gauge and understand public proclivity to inoculate. We find that COVID-19’s haphazard mediatization generated a ‘field of suspicion’ towards authorities and vaccination, which, amplified by dis- and misinformation, fostered othering, hesitancy, and denial considerably. It remains paramount during vaccination rollouts to unveil and address aspects detrimental to vaccine confidence and selectivity, especially in lower-income groups for underlying, context-specific cultural, spiritual, historical, and socioeconomic reasons. Appropriate mediazation alongside a debunking of counterfactual claims is crucial in driving forward immunization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1901.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; SARS COV2; coronavirus; autoimmunity; molecular mimicry
Online: 29 November 2023 (15:25:59 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on global health, notably the virus's association with autoimmune illnesses. Autoimmune illnesses occur when the immune system of the body targets healthy cells, causing damage and inflammation. The potential impact of COVID-19 on autoimmune disorders, the hazards of COVID-19 vaccinations for persons with autoimmune diseases, and the potential risks of COVID-19 vaccines are all discussed in this essay. COVID-19 can cause autoimmune illnesses by causing inflammation, organ and tissue damage, and molecular mimicry, in which the immune system mistakenly assaults healthy cells for the virus. However, not everyone infected with COVID-19 develops autoimmune disorders. While some research has found a link between COVID-19 and autoimmune illnesses, this does not always suggest causation. Other factors, such as genetics and environment, may also play a role in the emergence of autoimmune illnesses. COVID-19 can aggravate existing autoimmune disorders by causing the immune system to attack healthy cells, making management more difficult and increasing the risk of consequences. People with autoimmune disorders, on the other hand, may not be at a higher risk of severe COVID-19 than the general population. Some research has found that persons with autoimmune disorders are more likely to have severe COVID-19, whereas others have found no difference. COVID-19 vaccinations may represent dangers to persons with autoimmune illnesses since they contain antigens that can activate the immune system. Furthermore, due to their already overactive immune systems, some vaccines may not perform as well for people with autoimmune disorders, and some people with autoimmune diseases may have severe reactions to immunizations, producing inflammation and other symptoms. COVID-19 may not be any more hazardous to those with autoimmune illnesses than it is to the general population. The connection between COVID-19 and autoimmune disorders is complicated and under investigation. While some research implies that people with autoimmune disorders have a higher risk of severe COVID-19, others demonstrate no difference in death rates between them and the general population. There are also counterarguments that COVID-19 can induce and exacerbate autoimmune disorders, as well as worries about COVID-19 vaccine hazards for people who have autoimmune diseases. More research is required to completely understand the influence of COVID-19 on autoimmune illnesses, as well as the dangers and benefits of vaccinations for these people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0685.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: doença rara; COVID 19; vacinação; Políticas públicas
Online: 9 August 2023 (02:40:09 CEST)
The anti-Covid19 vaccination campaign has been fortified on the positive effects that immunization is bringing the nations, since infection rates, hospitalizations, and deaths have been falling according to the data in constant disclosure by official government organs and the channels of communication. In Brazil, the effective and free National Vaccination Program haven’t prioritized patients with rare diseases, who have extreme comorbidities, and who had to follow the calendar prepared by the government. The problematic question is why these “rare people” weren´t considered priorities. The understanding of the reasons and the resumption of the debate about the rights of patients with rare diseases justify this study, which sought to be based on regular descriptors issued by official government agencies and by critics of rare disease issues in debates made in scientific articles. We sought to respond to the following objectives: analyze dispensed care of rare disease patients in the vaccination campaign anti-Covid-19; identify the procedures implemented by the National Vaccination Plan for the Brazilian population over 18 years of age; describe the panorama of the pandemic disease since its discovery to the mutations already disseminated; and evaluate the effectiveness of the plan implemented from the perspective of “rare person”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; medical staff; vaccine
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:36:41 CET)
Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has triggered the need for developing rapidly effective and safety vaccines to prevent infection, particularly in those at-risk populations such as medical personnel. The objective of this study was to assess perception of COVID-19 vaccination amongst Colombian physicians featuring two different sceneries of COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out through an online survey, directed at medical staff in several cities in Colombia. The percentage of physicians who have a positive perception to be vaccinated and the associated factors that determine that decision were determined. A binomial regression analysis adjusted for age and sex was carried out, taking as a dependent variable the acceptance of free vaccination with an effectiveness of 60 and 80%. The most significant factors were determined in the non-acceptance of vaccination. Results: Between 77.1% and 90.8% of physicians in Colombia, accept COVID-19 vaccination, according to the scenario evaluated where the effectiveness of the vaccine was 60 or 80%, respectively. Medical specialty, have ever paid for a vaccine, recommend administrating the vaccine to their parents or people over 70 years and dispense the vaccine to their children were the factors to be vaccinated for free with an effectiveness of 60% and 80%. Conclusions: There is a high perception of the intention to vaccinate physicians in Colombia against COVID-19. But it is very similar to that of the general population, according to results reported in other studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0085.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vaccines; Myocarditis; Pericarditis
Online: 6 February 2023 (07:51:04 CET)
Cardiac complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been well-identified since the beginning of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Such conditions can occur of various etiologies, such as respiratory failure and hypoxemia, direct cardiac tissue damage due to viral replication, indirect myocarditis as systemic inflammation, and the interaction of different medications. Recently, with the start of the COVID-19 vaccination programs, COVID-19 vaccine-associated cardiac adverse events (AEs) have emerged and are increasingly being reported. Although these AEs are usually mild and self-limited, they can sometimes cause severe, catastrophic outcomes. This review compares the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the de novo SARS-CoV-2 infection-related and COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis and pericarditis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1091.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antigen; COVID-19 vaccination; machine learning
Online: 28 April 2023 (03:23:48 CEST)
Vaccines trigger a complicated immunological response that includes B and T cells, with B cells producing antibodies. SARS-CoV-2 immunity weakens over time after vaccination. Discovering key changes in antigen-reactive antibodies over time after vaccination could help improve vaccine efficiency. In this study, we collected data on blood antibody levels in a cohort of healthcare workers vaccinated for COVID-19 and obtained 73 antigens in samples from four groups according to the duration after vaccination, including 104 unvaccinated healthcare workers, 534 healthcare workers within 60 days after vaccination, 594 healthcare workers between 60 and 180 days after vaccination, and 141 healthcare workers over 180 days after vaccination. An efficient machine learning based framework containing four feature selection methods (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, light gradient boosting machine, Monte Carlo feature selection, and maximum relevance minimum redundancy) and four classification algorithms (decision tree, k-nearest neighbor, random forest, and support vector machine) was designed to screen out essential antigens. Several efficient classifiers with weighted F1 value around 0.75 were constructed. This study revealed that S1+S2, S1.mFcTag, S1.HisTag, S1, S2, Spike.RBD.His.Bac, Spike.RBD.rFc, and S1.RBD.mFc were most highly ranked among all features, where S1 and S2 are the subunits of Spike, and the suffixes represent the tagging information of different recombinant proteins. Meanwhile, the classification rules were extracted from the optimal decision tree to explain quantitatively the roles of antigens in the classification. This study identified antibodies associated with decreased clinical immunity based on populations with different time spans after vaccination. These antibodies have important implications for maintaining long-term immunity to SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0478.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Perception, Covid-19, Vaccination, University Students, Bangladesh
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:27:47 CEST)
After a long waited span, the whole world could see the ray of covid-19 vaccine to resist the planet to watch the death procession. But some country people especially the people of Bangladesh keep them aside to take the vaccination. This study aims to understand the perception towards the COVID-19 vaccination program in Bangladesh and the targeted subject is the university student as they are suffering highly depression nowadays. Higher education has been affected globally as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in 223 countries. Moreover, for this pandemic situation, the university students can not complete their graduation which binds them to enter their professional career. Alike all of the developed countries, as well as developing countries, Bangladesh, also considered vaccination as an effective measure to protect the peoples from the Covid-19 virus. This study targeted three psychological factors of the university students and surveyed 322 students from the different universities in Bangladesh to understand their perception regarding vaccines. Moreover, it is seen that most of the students doubt the effectiveness of the vaccine which interrupts them from taking the vaccine willingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1465.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; influenza; vaccine hesitancy
Online: 21 September 2023 (10:34:49 CEST)
Vaccine hesitancy substantially impacts global vaccination rates. During the COVID-19 pandem-ic in Germany, vaccination uptake exhibited considerable regional disparities. To assess the fac-tors contributing to this variation, we examined the influence of sociodemographic variables on COVID-19, COVID-19 booster, and influenza vaccinations within a cohort of 37,078 participants from 13 German federal states in the digital health cohort study, DigiHero. Our findings re-vealed variations in vaccination rates based on sociodemographic factors. However, these fac-tors had limited explanatory power regarding regional differences in vaccine uptake. In contrast, we found substantial correlations between regional support of specific parties during last local elections and the vaccination uptake at Landkreis-level. In conclusion, sociodemographic factors alone did not suffice to explain the regional disparities in vaccine uptake. Political stances can play a major role, but the current investigation did not assess the individual political orienta-tion, but used only ecological approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0351.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; BCG immunization; SARS-CoV-2; immunity and tuberculosis
Online: 19 April 2020 (13:55:50 CEST)
The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine (BCG vaccine) designed to prevent tuberculosis in children has been shown to induce a trained immune response in the body to fight against bacteria as well as other parasites and viruses. This knowledge has been reciprocated to generate the idea that this vaccine can also offer protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2). Some recent pre-print articles have highlighted that countries with mass BCG immunizations seems to have a lower incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared to those without BCG immunization. There are yet no experimental proof of any such association and the world health organisation (WHO) is currently testing the theory with clinical trials on selected cohorts. Epidemiologists and other scientific experts has expressed both their hope and concern simultaneously regarding the success theory of BCG vaccination to prevent COVID-19. Though its still not verified in any way whether the BCG vaccination can actually prevent COVID-19 or not but we believe a thorough analytical research in this regard is indeed worth a shot.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0435.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: cost benefit analysis; vaccination; COVID-19; health economics; economic appraisal; pharmacoeconomics
Online: 25 November 2021 (15:21:36 CET)
(1) Background: in epidemiological terms, it has been possible to calculate the savings in health resources and the reduction in health effects of COVID vaccines. From the point of view of economic evaluation, some studies have estimated its cost-effectiveness with the vaccination showing highly favorable results, which in some cases is cost-saving; (2) Methods: a cost-benefit analysis of the vaccination campaign in the North Metropolitan Health Region (Catalonia). An epidemiological model based on observational data and before and after comparison is used. The information on the doses used and the resources assigned (conventional hospital beds, ICU, number of tests) has been extracted from administrative data from the largest Primary Care provider in the region (Catalan Institute of Health). A distinction is made between the social perspective and the health system; (3) Results: the costs of vaccination are estimated at 137 million euros (€48.05/dose administered). This figure is significantly lower than the positive impacts of the vaccination campaign, which are estimated at 470 million euros (€164/dose administered). Of these, 18% corresponds to the reduction of ICU discharges, 16% to the reduction in conventional hospital discharges, 5% to the reduction in PCR tests and 1% to the reduction of RAT tests. Monetization of deaths and cases with sequelae avoided account for 53% and 5% of total savings, respectively. The benefit/cost ratio is estimated at 3.4 from a social perspective and 1.41 from a health system perspective. The social benefits of vaccination are estimated at €116.67 per dose of vaccine given (€19.93 from the point of view of the health system); (4) Conclusions: the mass vaccination campaign against COVID is cost-saving. From a social perspective, most of these savings come from the monetization of the reduction in mortality and cases with sequelae, although the intervention is equally widely cost-effective from the point of view of the health system thanks to the reduction in the use of resources. It is concluded that, from an economic perspective, the vaccination campaign has high social returns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1433.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: COVID-19; full vaccination; booster vaccination; all-cause mortality; excess mortality
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:48:47 CEST)
This study updates previous research showing that 22 all-cause mortality in 31 European countries increased over time the higher the 21 COVID-19 full vaccination uptake. The update illuminates that a one percentage point increase in 21 full vaccination uptake initially decreased all-cause mortality from Jan to Mar 22 by –0.423 percent (95% CI –0.577, –0.270), but the following 14 months, a one percentage point increase in 21 booster vaccination uptake oppositely increased mortality by 0.366 percent (95% CI 0.250, 0.482). The findings indicate that full vaccination initially prevented mortality, but subsequently, booster vaccination, in particular, detrimentally and consistently induced higher mortality. The effects remained robust when controlling for alternative explanations. Studies have argued that heat waves caused mortality in the 22 summer and energy prices caused mortality in the 22-23 winter. However, the update shows that booster vaccination consistently induced higher mortality when neither heat waves nor energy prices were likely explanations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19, vaccine/vaccination; stress; anxiety; hesitancy; preparedness; Jordan/Arab
Online: 6 May 2022 (14:06:14 CEST)
Although vaccinating the world is adopted by the WHO to limit COVID-19 transmission, people’s worries about vaccines may suppress their desire for vaccination despite vaccine availability. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of stress and anxiety among 250 Jordanians who received their first vaccine dose at a local community health center. The respondents completed the stress and anxiety subscales of the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale 21 (DASS-21) pre- and post-vaccination. The respondents expressed more moderate-severe levels of stress pre than post vaccination (20.8% and 13.2%, respectively). Meanwhile, 37.2% and 45.2% of the respondents expressed moderate-severe anxiety pre and post vaccination, respectively. Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed that the drop in the level of stress from pre (median (IQR) = 5 (1-8)) to post vaccination (median (IQR) = 3 (1-7)) was statistically significant (z = -3.81, p = 0.001, r = 0.17) while the increase in anxiety was not. Anxiety median significantly dropped among individuals experiencing mild to severe anxiety pre vaccination. Similarly, stress and anxiety significantly increased among individuals expressing normal anxiety pre vaccination (z = -3.57 and -8.24, p values = 0.001, r = 0.16 and 0.37, respectively). Age positively correlated with post vaccination anxiety among respondents with mild pre vaccination anxiety, and it negatively correlated with pre vaccination level of stress in the normal anxiety group. Gender, marital status, respondents’ level of education, and history of COVID-19 infection had no significant correlation with anxiety or stress at either point of measurement. Overcoming their hesitancy to receive COVID-19 vaccine, individuals with normal levels of anxiety experienced a rise in their distress symptoms following immunization. On the contrary, vaccination seemed to desensitize anxious individuals. Policymakers need to formulate a population-specific plan to increase vaccine preparedness and promote psychological well-being over all during the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1358.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Covid-19; vaccines; chronic kidney disease; hemodialysis; lymphocytopenia
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:39:11 CET)
Laboratory analyses reveal significant differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients in parameters like C-reactive protein, ferritin, and white blood cell counts. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses identify several factors influencing mortality, including comorbidities, pneumonia development, and various inflammatory markers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccination; Adverse event; Case report; Iran
Online: 3 March 2023 (08:30:15 CET)
Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has significantly contributed to the recent pandemic control. COVID-19 vaccines are available with different platforms and the primary clinical trials results presented acceptable safety profile of the approved vaccines. Nevertheless, the long-term assessment of the adverse events or rare conditions need to be investigated. The present systematic review, aimed at classification of Iranian case reports following COVID-19 immunization. To achieve this goal, the related published case reports were explored via PubMed, Web of Science and Google scholar according to PRISMA guideline and available up to 14th Dec, 2022. Out of 437 explored studies, the relevant data were fully investigated which totally led to 40 studies including 64 case reports with a new onset of a problem. The cases were then classified according to the various items such as the type of adverse event manifestations and COVID-19 vaccine. The reported COVID-19 vaccines in the studied cases included Sinopharm, AstraZeneca, and COVAXIN. The results showed that the adverse events presented in 8 different categories from which cutaneous problems accounted as the most prevalent manifestations (43.7%) in which rare diseases were also screened such as Steven-Johnson syndrome, Morphea and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Notably, almost 60% of the cases had no comorbidities. Moreover, the obtained data revealed nearly half of the incidences occurred after the first dose of injection and the mean duration of improvement after the symptom onset was 18.72±24.69 days. 73% of all the cases were either significantly improved or fully recovered. Although the advantages of COVID-19 vaccination is undoubtedly significant, the high risk individuals including those with a history of serious disease or comorbidities immunodeficiency conditions should be vaccinated with the utmost caution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0338.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine attitudes; vaccine development; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 15 September 2020 (10:32:28 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to ravage the world, with the United States being highly affected. A vaccine provides the best hope for a permanent solution to controlling the pandemic. However, to be effective, a vaccine must be accepted and used by a large majority of the population. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the relationships of several factors with attitudes toward potential COVID-19 vaccination. The survey was administered to 316 respondents across the United States by a survey corporation. Prior vaccine usage and attitudes predicted attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination. Assessment of the severity of COVID-19 for the United States was also predictive. Approximately 68% of all respondents were supportive of being vaccinated for COVID-19, but side effects, efficacy, and length of testing remained concerns. Longer testing, increased efficacy and development in the United States were significantly associated with increased vaccine acceptance. Messages promoting COVID-19 vaccination should seek to alleviate the concerns of those who are already vaccine-hesitant. Messaging directed at the benefits of vaccination for the United States as a country would address the second predictive factor. Enough time should be taken to allay concerns about both short and long-term side effects before a vaccine is released.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1787.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Vaccination strategy; Covid-19; epidemiology; vaccines distributions
Online: 25 August 2023 (07:30:25 CEST)
Vaccination has been the most effective way to control the outbreak of the Covid pandemic. The numbers and types of vaccines have reached considerable proportions, even if the question of vaccine procedures and frequency still needs to be resolved. We learn the necessity of defining a vaccination distribution strategies with regard to Covid that could be used for any future pandemics of similar gravity. In fact, vaccine monitoring implies the existence of a strategy that should be measurable in terms of input and output, based on a mathematical model, including death rates, spread of infections, symptoms, hospitalization and so on. This paper addresses the issue of vaccine diffusion and strategies for monitoring the pandemic. It provides a description of the importance and take up of vaccines and the links between procedures and the containment of Covid variants, as well as the long-term effects. Finally, the paper focuses on the global scenario in a world undergoing profound social and political change, with particular attention on current and future health provision. This contribution would represent an example of vaccination experiences which can be useful in other pandemic or epidemiological contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0472.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Online misinformation; COVID-19 vaccination; fully vaccinated; Intelligence Quotient; per capita income
Online: 20 September 2021 (12:12:19 CEST)
The objective of the study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with lower COVID-19 vaccination rates in the United States. The study evaluated the effect of red-blue political affiliation and the effect of the US state's average educational aptitude score and per capita income on states' vaccination rates. The study found that states with concomitantly lower income along with lower educational aptitude scores are less vaccinated while the states with higher income have higher vaccination rates even among those with lower educational aptitude scores. These findings stayed significant after adjusting for red-blue political affiliation where states with red political affiliation have lower vaccination rates. Further study is needed to evaluate how to stop online misinformation among states with low income and low educational aptitude scores; and whether such an effort will increase overall vaccination rates in the United States.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0204.v7
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Covid-19 vaccination; death rate; sick status days
Online: 14 March 2023 (06:35:57 CET)
Background. The main impetus behind the worldwide Covid-19 vaccination campaign in 2021 was to reduce the mortality attributed to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the preceding year. Nevertheless, rigorous analyses of the mortality benefits conferred by this massive vaccination effort have been lacking. Methods Statistics offers us an essential methodological approach for measuring the impacts of Covid-19 vaccination on public health. The mathematical relation between vaccinated-alive groups can be repeated between vaccinated-dead groups with relatively high statistical reliability because of the large population numbers involved. This method also confers greater statistical usefulness because it eliminates the Simpson effect. Results Calculations were performed for each of the following five(5) four-week intervals: weeks 35-38 (2021), weeks 39-42 (2021), weeks 43-46 (2021), weeks 47-50 (2021), and weeks 50(2021)-1(2022). The results obtained confirm that the mortality of the vaccinated coronavirus-infected groups was 14.5% higher on average than the mortality of non-vaccinated coronavirus-infected groups. Conclusions Vaccinated infected groups appear to have higher average mortality than their non-vaccinated infected counterparts. The findings suggest the legitimacy of extending the statistics between vaccinated living and vaccinated dead individuals for different age groups. Calculating the impact of Covid-19 vaccination on the mortality rate is a necessary step towards satisfying the first principle of medicine: “Primum non nocere”, “Do no harm”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 reactions; ITP syndromes 2; COVID-vaccine women susceptibility
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:43:09 CEST)
Vaccination is the most promising approach for ending or containing the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. However, serious post-COVID vaccine reactions including immunocytopenia (ITP) syndrome has been increasingly reported. Several factors cause increased risks including multiple doses, age-dependent heterogeneity in immune-responses, platelet cross-reactions with microbial components, and Long-COVID syndrome. Thus, in the absence of a widely available specific therapeutics, vigilance is important while more studies are imperative. Using a structured questionnaire sent to different regions in Saudi Arabia, we conducted a comprehensive investigation on the frequency, rates, disease patterns, and patient demographics of post-COVID-19 side effects on febrile patients after three major vaccines. Results indicated the majority administered Pfizer BioNtech vaccine (81%, n=809); followed by AstraZeneca (16%, n=155); and Moderna (3%, n=34). In overall 998 participants, 74% (n=737) had no serious symptoms; however, 26.2% (n=261) revealed typical syndrome. In a focused group of 722, shortness of breath (20%), bruises or bleeding (18%), inattention (18%), GIT symptoms (17.6%), skin irritation (8.6%), and anosmia and ageusia (8%) were the most prominent. The onset time was mostly in 1-3 days in 49% (n=128), followed by 4-7 days in 21.8% (n=57), 8-14 days in 16.5% (n=43), and more than a month in 12.6% (n=33). The onsets occurred mostly after the first, second, or both doses 9%, 10%, and 7%, respectively. The frequency of symptoms was significantly higher among after Moderna ® vaccine (P-value = 0.00006) and it was significantly lower in participants who received Pfizer (P-value 0.00231). We did not find significant difference in symptoms related to differences in regions. Similarly, the region, age, gender, education, and nationality had no influence in the dose and onset timings. The findings of this study have significant clinical implications in disease management strategies, preventive measures, and vaccine development. Future vertical studies would reveal more insights into the mechanisms of post-COVID vaccine syndrome.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19; immunogenicity; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; neutralizing antibodies; durability; booster
Online: 14 April 2023 (10:20:45 CEST)
Vaccines are crucial for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, and booster doses are becoming increasingly important. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine from AstraZeneca as a third dose in healthcare workers at different time intervals (one, three, and six months). Two methods to measure immune response—ELISA (EUROIMMUN Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG, Luebeck, Germany) and ELISpot (Mabtech AB, Macka Strand, Sweden)—were used. A total of 170 participants were included in the study. The results showed that while IgG levels decreased at six months compared to levels at one and three months, they were still significantly higher than the baseline. Furthermore, neutralizing levels at three and six months after the third dose were not significantly different. These findings suggest that the immune response induced by the vaccine is robust and effective for several months. These results have significant implications for public health policymakers, as they provide strong support for booster vaccinations. The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine appears to be a reliable option for preventing the spread of COVID-19, and this study provides valuable information for healthcare workers and policymakers in managing the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0757.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid-19; Vaccine; Medical Science Students; Mandatory Policy
Online: 10 May 2023 (14:01:57 CEST)
Introduction. Covid-19 faced the world with serious health and socioeconomic issues. At the very beginning of the pandemics, the vaccine was considered by health authorities and the medical community the only way to curb the spread of the virus. One of the measures that have been proposed to increase vaccinations was the mandatory policy. The purpose of this study was to compare determinants of voluntary and mandatory vaccination among students of Albanian University. Methodology: This cross-sectional study by means of an online survey, was conducted among students enrolled in the private University “Albanian University”, Tirana, Albania during the last week of winter semester 7-14 Feb 2022. Results: 878 students participated in this study, among them 612 (69.7%) were females, 266 (30%) were males. 506 (57%) of the participants were enrolled in Medical Sciences (MS), 372(42.3%) were Non-Medical Science (Non-MS) group. 773 (88%) was vaccinated against Covid-19, 105 (11.8%) were not vaccinated. 466 (53%) reported voluntary vaccination, 412 (46.9%) reported mandatory vaccination. Among students that vaccinated voluntary 266 (57%) were from MS group, 200(42.9%) from Non-MS group. 237(57.5%) of students in mandatory vaccination group were from MS group, 175 (42.4%) from Non-MS. Conlusion. Vaccine safety and efficacy were hindering factors of vaccination. Also, based on the results of this study, the students felt encouraged to vaccinate by the academic staff. This clearly demonstrates that the staff does not lack the skills to enhance stu-dents' knowledge about the risk of infectious diseases and the importance of vaccination. Therefore, to influence as much as possible students’ attitude toward vaccination, comprehensive educational programs including modification of existing curricula should be considered.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0567.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccination; Default; Opt-Out; Cancellation Rate
Online: 19 April 2023 (08:06:33 CEST)
Vaccination is the key infection control measure against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Most municipalities in Japan have adopted an opt-in system for COVID-19 vaccination, but its background information is limited. We, therefore, aimed to examine the differences in vaccination coverages and their cancellation rates between opt-in and opt-out settings for COVID-19 vaccination in 10 cities in A prefecture, Japan. 10 cities in A Prefecture were surveyed by email as of 10 October 2021 on the vaccination coverage by age group (12 years and older) and the cancellation rate on the day of vaccination. We also checked on the complaints received in the opt-out group. Opt-out was adopted in one of the ten cities in which vaccination was designed for all household members aged 15-64, thus serving as the opt-out group. Vaccination coverage in the opt-out group was 88.2%-89.2% for the first dose and 84.9%-86.0% for the second dose at 95% confidence intervals in the comparable 20–64-year age group. In contrast, the overall opt-in group (nine cities, one of which did not have an identified vaccination rate) was 51.3%-83.6% for the first dose and 63.5%-74.8% for the second dose in the same age group. For the opt-out group, the cancellation rate on the day was 11.3% for the first dose and 3.7% for the second dose, which had a lower cancellation rate than that of the opt-out on influenza vaccines in previous studies, 71%. Meanwhile, the opt-in group did not monitor them. There were no complaints about default changes in the opt-out group. While there is room for further research, such as understanding the reasons for accepting the default change by residents in the opt-out group, it was suggested that making opt-out the default would promote COVID-19 vaccination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Post-Acute COVID-19 Vaccination Syndrome; PACVS, G-protein-coupled receptor; receptor antibody; interleukin-6; dis-autonomy; chronic fatigue.
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:14:41 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination can entail chronic fatigue/dis-autonomy tentatively termed post-acute COVID-19 vaccination syndrome (PACVS). We explored receptor autoantibodies and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as somatic correlates of PACVS. Blood markers determined before and six months after first-time SARS-CoV-2-vaccination of healthy controls (N = 89, 71 females, mean/ median age 39/ 49 years) were compared with corresponding values of PACVS-affected persons (N= 191, 159 females, mean/median age: 40/39 years) exhibiting chronic fatigue/dis-autonomy (≥ three symptoms for ≥ five months after last SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination) not due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or confounding diseases/medications. Normal vaccination response encompassed decreases of 11 receptor-antibodies (by 25 - 50 %, p < 0.0001), increases in two receptor-antibodies (by 15 - 25 %, p < 0.0001) and normal IL-6. In PACVS, serological vaccination-response appeared significantly (p < 0.0001) altered, allowing discrimination from normal post-vaccination state (sensitivity = 90%, p < 0.0001) by increased angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies (cut-off ≤ 10.7 U/ml, ROC-AUC = 0.824 ± 0.027), decreased alpha-2B adrenergic receptor antibodies (cut-off ≥ 25.2 U/ml, ROC-AUC = 0.828 ± 0.025) and increased IL-6 (cut-off ≤ 2.3 pg/ml, ROC-AUC = 0.850 ± 0.022). PACVS is thus indicated as a somatic syndrome delineated/detectable by diagnostic blood markers
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0046.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; seroconversion; inactivated SARS-CoV2 vaccine; BNT162 Vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine booster shot; heterologous vaccination; mixed vaccination; vaccination strategy
Online: 2 March 2022 (12:05:03 CET)
This study aimed to evaluate the mixed and homogeneous application of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine CoronaVac (CV) and the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 (BNT). This prospective cohort study included 235 health care workers, who had received two prime shots with CoronaVac. They were divided into three cohorts after the third month: Cohort-I (CV/CV); Cohort-II (CV/CV/CV) and Cohort-III (CV/CV/BNT). Anti-S-RBD-IgG and total an-ti-spike/anti-nucleocapsid-IgG antibody concentrations were examined in vaccinated health workers at the 1st, 3rd and 6th months following the second dose of the vaccination. The mean age of 235 health care workers who participated in the project was 39.51±10.39 (min-max: 22-64). At the end of the 6th month, no antibodies were detected in 16.7% of Cohort-I participants, and anti-S-RDB IgG levels showed a decrease of 60% compared to the levels of the 3rd month. The antibody concentrations of the 6th month were found to have increased by an average of 5.13 times compared to the 3rd-month levels in the Cohort-II and 20.4 times in Cohort-III. The heterologous vaccination strategy “CoronaVac and BNT162b2 regimen” is able to induce a stronger immunity and it will help remove inequalities in the developing world where CoronaVac was the initial prime.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: vaccine; adenovirus; COVID-19; spike; endothelial; vector; coagulation; clot; thrombopenia; platelet
Online: 15 April 2021 (14:05:48 CEST)
Prothrombotic thrombocytopathy mimicking heparin-induced thrombocytopenia has been observed in patients with severe COVID-19 and after immunisation with the Vaxzevria vaccine. Herein, we discuss the pathogenesis of this disorder focusing on the possible involvement of anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) autoantibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0763.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: vaccination hesitancy; fear; Protection Motivation Theory; psychology; prediction; COVID-19 vaccination; health behavior
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:14:51 CET)
The present research aimed at understanding individuals’ vaccination intentions and behaviours against COVID-19 through two different studies. In Study 1 (N = 213, 73% women; mean age = 24.03) the PMT model was tested considering the fear of COVID-19 as a possible mediator between threat appraisal (in terms of both health and social life) and intentions to get vaccinated when vaccination was not already available. In Study 2 (N = 1111, 68.9% women; mean age = 38.33), we aimed to understand how people who got vaccinated and the ones who did not differed, considering fear of vaccination, personality and vaccination hesitancy, which is determined not only by strictly individual but also by social factors. In study 1, contrary to what we expected, fear of Covid-19 was not a significant predictor of vaccination intention, which was predicted by both response efficacy and self-efficacy. In Study 2, in line with previous studies, vaccine hesitancy was negatively related to vaccination. More specifically, the social-oriented dimension of collective responsibility was the strongest predictor of effective behaviour. Our findings provide insights into the complexity of vaccine acceptance and emphasise the need for targeted interventions to promote vaccination and mitigate the spread of infectious diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0889.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS); COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Vaccination
Online: 13 October 2023 (10:58:23 CEST)
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and its related symptoms have been identified as a possible complication of COVID-19 infection and vaccination and have recently gained attention. The diagnosis and management of POTS require great care and attention, even under normal circumstances, due to its complex nature. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and its complications have further complicated the diagnosis and management of this syndrome in COVID-19-related settings. The objective of this study is to enhance our comprehension of POTS and POTS-like symptoms in the context of COVID-19. To achieve this, we provide a concise overview of the POTS concept, its potential underlying mechanisms, available clinical reports of POTS following COVID-19 infection and vaccination, as well as the clinical manifestations of this syndrome in COVID-19-related scenarios with a brief overview of its management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0115.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Explainable machine learning; COVID-19; Vaccination uptake; Shapley values; Feature importance.
Online: 8 June 2022 (05:30:18 CEST)
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is considered responsible for the lower rate of acceptance of vaccines in many parts of the world. However, sources of this hesitancy are rooted in many social, political, and economic factors. This paper strives to find the most important variables in predicting the COVID-19 vaccination uptake. We introduce an explainable machine learning (ML) framework to understand the COVID-19 vaccination uptake around the world. To predict vaccination uptake, we have trained a random forest (RF) regression model using a number of sociodemographic and socioeconomic data. The traditional decision tree (DT) regression model is also implemented as the baseline model. We found that the RF model performed better than the DT model since RF is more robust to handle nonlinearity and multi-collinearity. Also, we have presented feature importance based on impurity measure, permutation, and Shapley values to provide the most significant unbiased features. It is found that electrification coverage and Gross Domestic Product are the strongest predictors for higher vaccination uptake, whereas the Fragile state index (FI) contributed to lower vaccination uptake. These findings suggest addressing issues that are found responsible for lower vaccination uptake to combat any future public health crisis.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: ALDH2; rs671; COVID-19; vaccine; immunogenicity
Online: 24 May 2022 (10:08:35 CEST)
Uncovering the predictors of vaccine immunogenicity is essential for infection control. We have reported that the most prevalent polymorphism of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene, rs671, may be associated with an attenuated immune system. To test the inverse relation between rs671 and antibody production after COVID-19 vaccination, the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein S1 subunit (S1) IgG were repeatedly measured for four months before and after vaccination with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, in 88 Japanese workers and students (including 45 females, aged 21–56 years, with an rs671 variant allele frequency of 0.3). The mixed model including fixed effects of the vaccine type, weeks post vaccination (categorical variable), sex, age, body height, smoking status, ethanol intake, exercise habit, perceived stress, steroid use, allergic diseases, and dyslipidemia, indicated an inverse association between log-transformed anti-S1 IgG levels and the number of rs671 variant alleles (partial regression coefficient = -0.15, p = 0.002). Our study indicated for the first time that the variant allele of ALDH2, rs671, is associated with the attenuated immunogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Our finding may provide a basis for personalized disease prevention based on a genetic polymorphism that is prevalent among East Asians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0530.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: vaccine, pregnancy complication, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, maternal complications, pandemic, prevention, safety
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:22:31 CEST)
Introduction.Sars-CoV-2 infection poses particular problems in pregnancy, as the infection more frequently causes severe complications than in unaffected pregnant women, or non-pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Now that vaccination is available and rapidly getting implemented worldwide, the question arises whether pregnant women should be vaccinated, and if so, whether they should get priority. Methods. Available scientific data and available guidelines about vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 were collected by the Guideline Committee of the International Society of Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISIDOG), and were analyzed, discussed and summarized as guidelines for health care workers caring for pregnant women. Concluding statements were graded according to the Oxford Evidence Based Medicine Grading System. Results. There is evidence to consider pregnancy as a risk factor for serious complications of COVID-19 infection, even in the absence of additional risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity which increase these risks even more in pregnancy. Currently available data slightly favor mRNA-based vaccines above vector-based vaccines during pregnancy and breastfeeding, until more safety data become available. Conclusion. ISIDOG advices policy makers and societies to prioritize pregnant women to receive vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, and favor the mRNA vaccines until further safety information becomes available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1297.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Vaccination hesitancy; Medical Mistrust; Cynical Distrust; Anger; Nurses; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:20:45 CEST)
During the pandemic, nurses experienced anger that stemmed from a sense of threat, frustration or even a sense of injustice. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vaccination hesitancy, anger, cynicism and medical mistrust among nurses, as there are no relevant studies in the literature. The study was conducted online by completing self-report questionnaires. The Dimensions of Anger Reactions-5, the 8-item "Cynical Distrust" scale and the Medical Mistrust Multiformat Scale were used. For vaccination hesitancy, two questions with a 5-point scale were used; one question examining hesitancy to get vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine, and another question examining hesitancy to get vaccinated with the influenza vaccine. 387 nurses (66 men and 321 women) participated in the study. Nurses showed statistically greater hesitancy for the COVID-19 vaccine compared to hesitancy for the influenza vaccine. The variation in Vaccine Hesitancy was explained by the scores in the Medical Mistrust Multiformat Scale, the Dimensions of Anger Reactions and the Cynical Distrust Scale. The Medical Mistrust Multiformat Scale mediated the relationship between Cynical Distrust Scale and Total Vaccine Hesitancy. The Dimensions of Anger Reactions Scale significantly moderated the indirect effect of Cynical Distrust Scale on Total Vaccine Hesitancy through the Medical Mistrust Multiformat Scale. In conclusion, it is highly likely that anger is involved in reported vaccine hesitancy both by activating schemas of distrust in others and by adopting antisystemic views of mistrust in the medical system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; government; cross-sectional survey; perceived risk
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:21:45 CEST)
Introduction: This study explores exposure to misinformation, COVID-19 risk perception, and confidence towards the government as predictors to negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from 30 June to 30 August 2021 involving 775 respondents. The survey instrument for the questionnaire is an adaptation from various different studies consisting of five main variables: 1) misinformation about vaccination; 2) risk perception toward COVID-19; 3) attitudes toward the vaccination programme; 4) intention to get vaccinated; and 5) public confidence in the government in executing the vaccination programme. Results: The results of this study indicate that higher exposure to misinformation led to higher levels of negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. When the perceived risk of COVID-19 infection was high, mistrust of vaccine benefits was low but there were also higher worries about the future effects of the vaccine. Confidence in government was associated with lower negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: The results of this study may help develop an understanding of negative attitudes toward vaccinations in Malaysia and its contributing factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1653.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccine uptake; reduction of barriers to vaccination; health misinformation; vaccine hesitancy; Kenya
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:35:18 CEST)
Ever since the tremendous success of the rapid vaccine development against COVID‑19, its availa-bility, distribution, and deployment have been a significant concern; however, evidence suggests that vaccine hesitancy has become a greater problem. Therefore, trust in vaccines is crucial and critically dependent on regimes' ability to communicate the benefits of immunization. This study investigated ideas on ways to reduce barriers to COVID-19 vaccination uptake. It explores methods to overcome COVID-19 vaccine barriers through qualitative research: interviews and group discussions involving healthcare providers, administration personnel, teachers, and individuals with chronic conditions across urban (Mombasa) and rural (Kilifi) Kenya. Audio-recorded discussions were transcribed and thematically analyzed across locations. Five themes emerged in our results regarding how to reduce barriers to the COVID vaccine in the context of Kenya, including awareness campaigns, engaging diverse stakeholders, using various communication techniques, capacity building to increase vac-cination centers and trained staff, and lastly, revising relevant government health policies and guidelines. These results indicate the importance of adopting multiple approaches, as no single strategy could boost vaccine acceptance. Moreover, this study provides recommendations for con-ceiving actionable interventions to potentially boost vaccine demand and maintain routine immun-ization in Kenya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0236.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccines; Vaccine Hesitancy; Healthcare workers; Vaccine acceptance; Vaccination; Vaccines; Arab Healthcare workers
Online: 9 April 2021 (08:41:36 CEST)
Background: Health Care Workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of acquiring and transmitting COVID-19 infection. Also, they present role models for communities with regards to attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination. Hence, hesitancy of HCWs towards vaccination can crucially affect the efforts aiming to contain the pandemic. Previously published studies paid little attention to HCWs in Arab countries, which has a population of over 440 million. Objectives: to assess the rates of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Arabic-speaking HCWs residing in and outside the Arab countries, and their perceived barriers towards vaccination. Methods: a cross-sectional study based on an online survey was conducted from 14-Jan 2021 to 29-Jan 2021, targeting Arabic-speaking HCWs from all around the world. Results: the survey recruited 5,708 eligible participants (55.6% males, 44.4% females, age 30.6±10 years) from 21 Arab countries (87.5%) and 54 other countries (12.5%). Our analysis shows a significant rate of vaccine hesitancy among Arabic-speaking HCWs residing in and outside Arab countries (25.8% and 32.8%, respectively). The highest rates of hesitancy were among participants from the west region of the Arab world (Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria). The most cited reasons for hesitancy were concerns about side effects and distrust in vaccine expedited production and healthcare policies. Factors associated with higher hesitancy included age of 30-59, previous or current suspected or confirmed COVID-19, female gender, not knowing the vaccine type authorized in the participant’s country, and not regularly receiving the influenza vaccine. Conclusion: this is the first large-scale, multinational, post-vaccine-availability study on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among HCWs. It reveals high rates of hesitancy among Arab-speaking HCWs. Unless addressed properly, this hesitancy can impede the efforts for achieving widespread vaccination and collective immunity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: sialic acid; sialylation; xeno-sialic acid; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 1 October 2023 (07:28:10 CEST)
The host glycosylation mechanism synthesizes the carbohydrates of glycoproteins of viral envelopes. Due to the loss of the Cytidine Monophospho-N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Hydroxylase gene by some mammalian species, including humans (negative-CMAH), Neu5Gc is no longer synthesized. Uptake of Neu5Gc by negative-CMAH species, through the intake of food products derived from positive-CMAH mammals, leads to incorporating Neu5Gc-glycans in the glycocalyx (xenosialylation). Neu5Gc, being a Mammalian-associated Carbohydrate Antigen (MCA), acts as a non-self-antigen, inducing an inflammatory reaction (Xenosialitis), and triggering the production of circulating antiNeu5Gc antibodies to attack/remove all incorporated Neu5Gc. In the state of Xenosialitis, the virus-neutralizing antibodies produced by a heavily xenosialylated patient following exposure to viral infection (including SarsCoV2) or anti SarsCoV2 vaccination cross-react against all incorporated non-self Neu5Gc-MCA glycans due to their resemblance with viral envelope antigens synthesized by the host glycosylation mechanism. In addition, the circulating anti-XeSias antibodies determine the massive removal of the circulating neutralizing FC-xeno-contaminated antibodies by the serum, living only the hyper-inflammatory agalattosylated antiviral IgG antibodies. Therefore, we hypothesize that the combination of antibody cross-reaction against non-self Neu5Gc-MCA glycans and the massive removal of the xeno-contaminated newly formed neutralizing antibodies in favor of hyper reactive antibodies, could be the cause of the massive inflammatory reaction (cytokine storm, coagulopathies, neuropathies) observed in Covid 19 patients or after anti-SarsCoV2 vaccination. Therefore, evaluating the serum anti-MCA antibodies titer, particularly anti-Neu5GC antibodies, could be a groundbreaking tool to timely identify patients at risk of developing severe complications in case of all viral infections, including SARS-CoV2 and repeated vaccinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0488.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; Receptor binding domain (RBD); natural infection; vaccination; neutralizing antibodies
Online: 8 August 2023 (07:11:22 CEST)
(1) Background: To fight for COVID-19 pandemic, immunity against SARS-CoV-2 should be achieved not only through natural infection but also vaccination. Controversies exist about the effect of COVID-19 vaccination on previously infected persons; (2) Methods: A prospective cohort was undergone to collect sera from unvaccinated survivors and vaccinated persons--with and without COVID-19 pre-infection. The sera were analyzed for the anti-Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) titers by ELISA and for the capacity to neutralize the pseudovirus of the Wuhan-Hu-1 strain by luciferase assays; (3) Results; Neither the antibody titers nor the neutralization capacity was significantly different between the three groups. However, the correlation between the antibody titers and the percentage of viral neutralization derived from sera of unvaccinated survivors was higher than that from vaccinated persons with pre-infection (Spearman correlation coefficient (r) = -0.8558; 95% CI, -0.9259 to -0.7288), p <0.0001 vs -0. 581; 95% CI, -0.7679 to -0.3028; p = 0.0002, respectively), indicating the capacity to neutralize the virus is better among the unvaccinated individuals. (4) Conclusions: Vaccines induced anti-RBD titers as high as the natural infection with lower neutralization capacity, and it did not boost the immunity in pre-infected persons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: COVID-19; hemodialysis; vaccination; cellular immunity; humoral immunity; adverse reactions
Online: 7 September 2022 (05:14:06 CEST)
Most studies on vaccines of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have focused on antibody, but cellular immunities are also critical. We aimed to evaluate the immune reactions of hemodialysis (HD) patients after the administration of the booster dose from the perspective of both humoral and cellular immunities. Hemodialysis patients (HD group) and age- and sex-matched non-dialysis individuals (control group) receiving three doses of BNT162b2 vaccine were measured for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (IgG) and T-SPOTⓇ.COVID test (T-SPOT) before, 3 weeks, and 3 months after the booster dose. The HD group had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels 3 weeks and 3 months after the booster dose than the control group, although both groups had no difference in SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels before the booster dose. Moreover, the HD group had significantly higher T-SPOT levels before and 3 weeks after the booster dose than the control group, but the difference was not significantly different 3 months after the booster dose. Furthermore, the incidence rates of local and systemic adverse reactions were significantly higher in the HD group than in the control group. HD patients obtained higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels and SARS-COV-2-specific T-cell responses after the booster dose than control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: vaccination, the first 30 days; COVID-19 vaccines introduction; Cameroon; achievements; challenges; lessons learned
Online: 3 June 2021 (09:53:49 CEST)
Cameroon's national vaccination campaign was launched on April 12, 2021, amid a nationwide outbreak of COVID-19 with two types of vaccines. This study provides preliminary evidence of the level of coverage of the population and gives an early overview of the challenges, the achievements and the lessons learned. COVID-19 vaccine administration data were obtained from data of the Cameroon Ministry of Public Health. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted. Thirty days after the introduction of COVID 19 vaccines, five percent of the target population was vaccinated. Women represented one third of the people vaccinated regardless of age and health conditions. Although AEFI reported were minor and scanty with both vaccines, the majority of the vaccinated did not come back for their second dose. There is a need to build confidence among eligible beneficiaries in order to expand the benefits of vaccination to control the current pandemic. The country is still far below the target which could be worrisome given that the uptake is slow and, the 391 200 doses of the AstraZeneca are going to expire in August 2021. This study offers insights into those early efforts as a contribution to significant discussions about upcoming approach to improve service delivery and uptake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0101.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; CoronaVac; Vaccines; Antibodies
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:03:11 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic is the biggest public health threat facing the globe today. Multiple vaccines have been approved, however the emergence of viral variants such as the recent Omicron, raises the possibility of booster doses to achieve adequate protection. In Brazil, the CoronaVac (Sinovac) vaccine was used, however it’s important to assess the immune response to this vaccine over time. This study aimed to monitor the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in those immunized with CoronaVac and SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Samples were collected between August 2020 and August 2021. Within the vaccinated cohort, some individuals had history of infection by SARS-CoV-2 prior to immunization and others not. We analyzed RBD-specific and neutralizing- antibodies. Anti-RBD antibodies were detected in both cohorts, with a peak between 45-90 days post infection or vaccination, followed by a steady decline over time. In those with previous history of COVID-19, a higher, longer, more persistent response was observed. This trend was mirrored in the neutralization assays, where infection followed by immunization resulted in higher, longer lasting responses which were conditioned on the presence of levels of RBD antibodies right before the vaccination. This supports the necessity of booster doses of CoronaVac in due course to prevent serious disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0702.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine acceptance; vaccine willingness; vaccine hesitancy; quantitative; online survey; Philippines
Online: 27 April 2021 (10:12:47 CEST)
With COVID-19 vaccines slowly being rolled out in many countries, it is important to understand the public’s acceptance of being vaccinated. This study aims to study the willingness and motivations among residents of the cities of Caloocan, Malabon, and Navotas, Philippines to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Based on an online survey of 137 respondents, who willingly participated in the study, 71% will take a COVID-19 vaccine if it becomes available, with similar rates among respondents from Caloocan (82%), Malabon (83 %), and Navotas (81%). If a vaccine is proven safe and effective, more respondents (82%) will take a COVID-19 vaccine. Furthermore, safety against COVID-19 as well as the safety and effectiveness of vaccines are the primary factors why respondents are willing or unwilling to get a vaccine. The results highlight the need for effective messaging that promotes COVID-19 vaccination, with emphasis on the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine, and its benefits to the public, especially that the vaccines that will be delivered in the country in the next few months are not the most preferred brands by the respondents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0871.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: women’s health; COVID-19 vaccine; menstrual-related disturbances; formerly menstruating women; secondary amenorrhea
Online: 13 June 2023 (03:38:41 CEST)
To date, the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on formerly menstruating women remains unknown. For this reason, a retrospective observational cross-sectional study was conducted (N= 548) using an online survey. General characteristics, medical history, and adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination were recorded. In comparison with the first dose, significantly higher percentages of respondents experienced menstrual-related disturbances (dose 1: 38.5% vs. dose 2: 44.8%; McNemar=9.15; mid P-value=0.002), as well as the simultaneous occurrence of two or more of these symptoms (dose 1: 11.2% vs. dose 2: 15.3%; McNemar=13.53; mid P-value=0.044) after receiving the second one. Among them, those related with the length and flow stand out, being of long-term nature in about 17-20% of cases. Interindividual factors influencing this unexpected event after receiving the dose 1 may include weight (AOR 1.02, CI 95% 1.01–1.03, P<.001), perimenopause (AOR 2.28, CI 95% 1.37–3.77, P=.001), pre-existing diagnoses of non-autoimmune rheumatic/articular conditions (AOR 0.31, CI 95% 0.10–1.00, P=0.05), hormonal contraceptive use (AOR 0.25, CI 95% 0.07-0.82, P=0.02), suffering from other vaccine side effects − such as arm pain (AOR 0.61, CI 95% 0.39–0.95, P=0.03), headache (AOR 0.53, CI 95% 0.35 – 0.80, P=.003), swollen glands (AOR 0.29, CI 95% 0.15 – 0.60, P=.001) and nauseas (AOR 0.35, CI 95% 0.14 – 0.86, P=0.02) – and the number of previous pregnancies (AOR 2.70, CI 95% 1.54 – 4.76, P=.001). Formerly menstruating women may experience long-term menstrual-related disturbances following COVID-19 vaccination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: ADEM; COVID-19 VACCINES; MYOPERICARDITIS; IMMUNE CHECK POINTS
Online: 19 July 2023 (02:58:47 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 vaccines have been a game changer in the pandemic, their extensive use was favorable compared to the burden of COVID-19 complications. Despite the low incidence of complications, it was important to analyze them carefully to understand the underlying mechanisms and predisposing factors. For instance, myopericarditis especially from mRNA vaccines, and its relatively higher prevalence in young adults and adolescents has raised a public concern about the use of this vaccine in this group. We aimed through this review to compare the age likelihood of ADEM from COVID-19 vaccines, with that reported in myopericarditis cases; secondary outcome parameters included the gender and number of doses needed to induce COVID-19 vaccines related ADEM. Methodology: A literature search has been conducted on relevant databases to retrieve all case reports/series and systematic reviews describing ADEM with possible linkage to COVID-19. Exclusion criteria included any report not including the desired outcome parameters. Our results were then qualitatively compared with a similar systematic review reporting myopericarditis from COVID-19 vaccines. Results: In 38 cases with ADEM, mean age was 49±16 compared to 25±14 in myopericarditis, females were more likely to be affected, and while most of myopericarditis cases develop after the second dose, most of ADEM cases develop after the first dose (76%). Moreover, age>56 years was more predictive of negative outcome after ADEM in the form of death or permanent vegetative state. Conclusion: The discrepancy in age, gender and number of doses needed to induce complications between ADEM and myopericarditis, signify that the tissue affected is the major orchestrator of the age, gender, and dose characteristics, and not the type of vaccines. A leakier blood brain barrier with aging, might allow easier passage of autoantibodies and cytokines into the brain while lack of inhibitory immune checkpoints in the myocardium in young age might explain the higher prevalence of those cases in young adults and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1476.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: COVID-19 mathematical model; Vaccination; Stochastic Asymptotic stability; Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto points; Spectral Method
Online: 21 July 2023 (07:13:53 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a high contagious respiratory infectious disease that has afiected millions of people worldwide. Initially, basic public health measures were implemented to control specially the spread of such virus. However, vaccination has emerged as a highly efiective strategy in combating COVID-19 and reducing its transmission. Several efiective and safe vaccines have been approved to prevent the inadvertent spread of the disease. In this study, a modeling approach is used to analyze the impact of these vaccines on the dynamics of COVID-19. By applying a higher-order numerical method, the model is solved based on reported cases in Pakistan. A spectral method is employed for the numerical solution, and the model is simulated to assess the efiects of vaccination. The Next-generation method is used to calculate the threshold quantity, known as R0, which indicates the potential for disease transmission. The study also includes a detailed stability analysis, examining the invariance properties of the model solution and discussing equilibrium points and their stability in disease-free and endemic states. Furthermore, the study presents graphical representations of the influence of special parameters on the dynamics of the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0010.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: DTP vaccine,; Africa; COVID-19; Vaccine coverage; Joinpoint regression; Health care system; Vaccination rates
Online: 1 May 2023 (03:49:11 CEST)
: Background: Vaccine-related death is one of the leading causes of death among African Children. Vaccine coverage is a very important measure to decrease infant mortality. Covid-19 Pandemic has affected the healthcare system and may have disrupted vaccine coverage. Methods: DTP third doses (DTP3) Vaccine Coverage was extracted from UNICEF databases from 2012 to 2021( the last available date). Joinpoint regression was performed to detect the point where the trend changed. The annual percentage change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) was calculated for Africa and the regions. We compared DTP3 vaccination coverage in 2019 with 2021 in each country to verify compliance with WHO targets. Result: During the whole period, the vaccine coverage in Africa has increased with an Annual Percent change of 1.2% (IC 95% 0.9-1.5): We detected one Joint point in 2019. In 2019-2021, there was a decrease in DTP3 coverage with an APC of -3.5(95% -6.0;-0,9). (P< 0.001). Vaccination rates have decreased in many regions and countries during the last two years. Conclusions. COVID-19 has disrupted vaccine coverage, decreasing it all over Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Cross-border travel; Immunity certificate; Regional collaboration; Vaccination certificate; Vaccination passport; Asia
Online: 24 August 2022 (13:54:00 CEST)
COVID-19 vaccination certificates (CVCs) have played a key role in safe reopening of borders for international travel and trade, so understanding key stakeholder perceptions of enablers and barriers for their effective use is critical. The COVID-19 Vaccination Policy Research and Deci-sion-Support Initiative in Asia (CORESIA) was established to address policy questions related to CVCs. We conducted two online surveys, i.e., one for the public and one for health and non-health sector experts, from June to October 2021 in nine Asian countries. Descriptive analysis identified participants, enablers, and barriers. Most participants (78% public, 89% experts) accepted the use of CVCs, primarily to resume international travel (76%). Most respondents in both surveys wanted the minimum vaccination coverage to be 60% before CVCs were implemented nation-wide. Most of the public (82%) agreed to maintain existing non-pharmaceutical interventions, while most experts wanted risk-based testing and quarantine policy for incoming travellers (51%) and both digital and paper format CVCs (64%). Support for CVCs for international travel remains high in Asia. Recognising key enablers and barriers for effective use of CVCs from COVID-19 pandemic may help policymakers draft effective border policies for future epidemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0278.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; mRNA vaccine; adenoviral vector vaccine; adverse event; local adverse event; systemic adverse event
Online: 16 February 2023 (08:00:51 CET)
The immunization of healthcare workers in the early stages of the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines was prioritized in order to ensure uninterrupted medical care provision. At the same time the increasing number of available COVID-19 vaccines may trigger hesitancy towards the decision to get vaccinated. Thus, accumulating reliable information on the adverse events following immunization may educate and urge the general population to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. The present study aimed to evaluate the adverse events (AEs) following immunization with any of the available COVID-19 vaccine among Bulgarian healthcare workers (HCWs). A cross-sectional study among HCWs in Plovdiv, Bulgaria was conducted in the period March – September 2021. Through a semi-structured online questionnaire, the participants reported the adverse events following the administration of the first and second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. A total of 253 respondents, vaccinated with one of the available vaccines against COVID-19 took part in the study. Of them 71.9% were females, and 75.9% received mRNA-based vaccines, while 24.1% received a viral-vector based vaccine. Overall 91.6% and 82.6% of all participants reported at least one local AE after the first and second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. The share of respondents reporting at least one systemic AE after the first and second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine was 59.7% and 62.4% respectively. The most common local AE was pain at the injection spot (84.0%), while the most common systemic AEs were fatigue (54.9%), chills (43.2%), and headache (41.7%). The mRNA-based vaccines versions seem to cause higher prevalence of local AEs, while the vector-based vaccines were linked with increased prevalence of systemic AEs. Female HCWs and the younger age group were associated with an increased risk of adverse events generally. Our results added more evidence that mRNA-based and viral-vector based vaccines are generally safe. The reported adverse events were mild, although they occurred in a high share of the respondents. No serious AEs attributable to the vaccines were reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; all-cause mortality; excess mortality; causal inferences; ecological fallacy; individualistic fallacy
Online: 21 February 2023 (03:49:52 CET)
We primarily study a possible link between 2021 COVID-19 vaccination uptake in Europe and monthly 2022 excess all-cause mortality, i.e., mortality higher than before the pandemic. Analyses of 31 countries weighted by population size show that all-cause mortality during the first nine months of 2022 increased more the higher the 2021 vaccination uptake; a one percentage point increase in 2021 vaccination uptake was associated with a monthly mortality increase in 2022 by 0.105 percent (95% CI, 0.075-0.134). When controlling for alternative explanations, the association remained robust, and we discuss the result emphasizing causality as well as potential ecological fallacy. Also, the study shows that 2021 all-cause mortality was lower the higher the vaccination uptake, but this association became non-significant when controlling for alternative explanations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV2; inactivated vaccine; mRNA vaccine; COVID-19; homologous vaccination; heterolo-gous vaccination; protectivity
Online: 8 June 2022 (05:39:30 CEST)
This prospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine schemes, ho-mologous versus heterologous vaccine strategies, and vaccine-induced anti-S-RBD-IgG antibody response in preventing COVID-19 among 942 healthcare workers one year after vaccination with the inactivated and/or mRNA vaccines. All participants received the first two primary doses of vaccines, 13.6% of them lacked the dose-3, 50.5% the dose-4, and 90.3% the dose-5. Antibody lev-els increased with the increase in number of vaccine doses and also in heterologous vaccine regi-mens. In both inactive and mRNA vaccines, infection rates were significantly higher in 2-dose-receivers, but lower in 4- or 5-dose receivers and increasing the total number of vaccine doses resulted in more protection against infection: the 3-dose regimen yielded 4.71 times more protection, the 4-dose 11.76 times and 5-dose 38.46 times more protection from COVID-19 infec-tion, compared to any 2-dose vaccination regimens. Antibody levels at the end of the first year of 4- or 5-dose-receivers were significantly higher than 2- or 3-dose-receivers. To conclude; increased number of total vaccine doses and anti-S-RBD antibody levels increased the protection from COVID-19 infection. Therefore, four or more doses are recommended in one year, for effective protection, especially in risk groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0095.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Ethnic and Racial Minorities; Ethnicity; Covid-19; Covid-19 Vaccines; Vaccination Hesitancy; Health Inequities; Primary Health Care; Public Health; Health Promotion; Systemic Racism
Online: 3 July 2023 (13:55:22 CEST)
People from Black and Asian backgrounds are more likely to die from Covid-19 but less likely to be vaccinated, threatening to exacerbate health inequalities already experienced by ethnic minority groups. Literature suggests that mistrust rooted in structural inequality may be a key barrier to Covid-19 vaccine uptake. We need to better understand how structural inequalities influence vaccine confidence. Understanding and addressing these processes is likely to lead to longer-term impacts than information alone. We draw on health and sociological theories of structure and agency to inform our understanding of structural factors. We conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with 22 people from London and surrounding areas in December 2021 to March 2022. Fifteen participants were members of the public from ethnic minority backgrounds and 7 were professionals working with the public to address concerns and encourage vaccine uptake. Our findings suggest that people from ethnic minority backgrounds make decisions regarding Covid-19 vaccination based on a combination of how they experience external social structures (including political authority, social positioning and racial inequality) and internal processes (what they believe and understand about Covid-19 vaccines). We may be able to support knowledge accumulation through the provision of reliable and accessible information, particularly through primary and community care. But we recommend a number of changes to research, policy and practice which address structural inequalities. These include working with communities to improve ethnicity data collection, increasing funding allocation to health conditions where ethnic minority communities experience poorer outcomes, greater transparency and public engagement in the vaccine development process, and culturally adapted research recruitment processes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1484.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant; SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant; variant of concern (VOC); tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF); vaccination; booster dose; lockdown; Italy
Online: 24 October 2023 (08:17:16 CEST)
Like all RNA viruses, SARS-CoV-2 shows high mutation rate, which has led to the emergence of new variants. Among them, Gamma and Delta developed at the turn of 2020-2021 in Amazonas and India, two ecoregions characterized by hot-humid weather, very similar to that of the summer season due to climate change in Italy, the first Western country to have been hit hard by COVID-19 and to experience lockdown restrictions in a democratic framework of 58,85 million people. Methods: during the state of national health emergency and the Draghi government, the Civil Defense Department daily released the aggregate data coming from the Ministry of Health, the Higher Institute of Health, the Independent Provinces and the Italian Regions, in order to inform about the pandemic situation in Italy. Among these data there were the number of deaths, hospitalizations in intensive care units (ICU), non-ICU patients, contagions, and performed swabs. By means of a team effort, we have collected and elaborated all these data, comparing COVID-19 pandemic in Italy during the summers 2020 (following the nationwide lockdown), 2021 and 2022. Results: from summer 2020 (before mass vaccination) to summers 2021 (after primary mass vaccination) and 2022 (after booster mass vaccination) all pandemic trend indicators have showed a sharp worsening in Italy. COVID-19 deaths increased by ≈298% and ≈834%, ICU hospitalizations by ≈386% and ≈310%, non-ICU hospitalizations by ≈224% and ≈600%, contagions by ≈627% and ≈6.850% (i.e. ≈68,50 times), swabs by ≈354% and ≈370%, and the mean positivity rate passed from ≈1% to ≈2% and ≈20%, respectively. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted in any climate, including areas with hot and humid weather, and the emergence of variants adapted to hot-humid climate may result in summer COVID-19 outbreaks, even in neither tropical nor subtropical countries. Although COVID-19 vaccines can confer cross-protection against newly emerging variants, this cross-immunity is obviously not absolute but limited, also taking into account that vaccine protection wanes considerably after 6 months. It follows that a subject vaccinated at the beginning of winter will not be completely covered in the height of summer, without forgetting the unvaccinated. As a final remark, the long nationwide lockdown made it possible to flatten SARS-CoV-2 circulation and, therefore, its negative impact on Italy during summer 2020.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0057.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; BNT162b2; vaccination; S-RBD; SARS-CoV-2; seroconversion
Online: 1 December 2022 (10:22:30 CET)
The humoral response of the COVID-19 vaccine varies from person to person. It largely depends on prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, obtaining an adequate immune response, and leaving a trace of changing antibody concentration over time. We retrospectively analyzed five clinical cases from selected patients and employees of the oncology hospital. All mild COVID-19 convalescents received the BNT162b2-Comirnaty mRNA vaccine three or four times. The levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies, as well as S-RBD antibodies, were analyzed for two years. The concentration of antibodies was assessed in the laboratory using the chemiluminescent immunoassay CLIA, MAGLUMI. Results: (1) Active autoimmune disease stabilized the level of IgG-specific antibodies after systemic mRNA vaccination for at least six months. (2) Post-vaccination IgG and S-RBD levels decreased when vaccination was performed within three months of onset. (3) The booster dose administered only increased the S-RBD antibody levels. Declining IgG-specific antibodies were observed. (4) The S-RBD IgG levels were not correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels in the vaccinated convalescents. (5) Subsequent reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination three times released a more significant specific antibody response. Based on the collected data, we suggest that monitoring S-RBD antibodies is sensitive but not equivalent to a specific humoral response for SARS-CoV-2 IgG. We suggested that administering at least three doses of the mRNA vaccine should serve as the basis for immunization. The three-month interval may be the best alternative to an immunization schedule for non-immunocompromised people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0709.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; covid 19; pregnancy; passive immunization; maternal immunization; influenza vaccines; diphtheria tetanus pertussis vaccine
Online: 28 December 2020 (16:54:31 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has raised questions about the possible cross immunity resulting from common vaccination programs and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, the Spanish Obstetric Emergency group performed a multicenter prospective study on the vaccination status of Influenza and Tdap (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine boost administered in adulthood) in consecutive cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a pregnancy cohort, in order to assess its possible association with the clinical presentation and severity of symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as to determine the factors that may affect vaccination adherence. 1,150 SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women from 78 Spanish hospitals were analyzed: 183 had not received either vaccine, 23 had been vaccinated for Influenza only, 529 for Tdap only and 415 received both vaccines. No association was observed between the vaccination status and the clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or the severity of symptoms. However, a lower adherence to the administration of both vaccines was observed in the Latin-American subgroup. Based on the results above, we reinforce the importance of maternal vaccination programs in the actual pandemic. Health education campaigns should be specially targeted to groups less likely to participate in these programs, as well as for a future SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0564.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vaccine; Children; SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG; Memory T cell
Online: 8 September 2023 (02:55:35 CEST)
(1) Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection is mostly accompanied by mild COVID-19 symptoms in children. However, the multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) and long-term sequelae are often severe complications. Therefore, the protection of the pediatric population against SARS-CoV-2 with effective vaccines is particularly important. Here we compare the humoral and cellular immune responses elicited in children (n=15) aged 5-11 years vaccinated with RBD-based vaccines combined in a heterologous scheme of SOBERANA® 02 and SOBERANA® Plus with those from children (n=10) aged 4-11 years who recovered from mild symptomatic COVID-19. (2) Methods: Blood samples were taken 14 days after last dose for vaccinated and 45-60 days after the infection diagnosis for COVID-19 recovered children. Anti-RBD IgG and ACE2-RBD inhibition were assessed by ELISA; IgA, cytokine and cytotoxic related proteins profile were determined by multiplex assays. Total B and T cell subpopulations and IFN-γ release were measured by multiparametric flow cytometry using a large panel of antibodies after in vitro stimulation with S1 peptides. (3) Results: Significant higher levels of specific anti-RBD IgG and IgA and ACE2-RBD inhibition capacity were found in vaccinated children in comparison to COVID-19 recovered children. Th1-like and Th2-like CD4+ T cells were also significantly higher in vaccinated subjects. IFN-γ secretion were higher in central memory CD4+ T cells of COVID-19 recovered children, but no differences between both groups were found in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells effector, terminal and naïve T cell subpopulations. High levels of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10 in contrast to low levels of IL-4 suggesting a predominant Th1 cell polarization. Cytotoxic-related proteins granzyme A and B, perforin and granulin were also found in the supernatant after S1 stimulation in both vaccinated and recovered children. (4) Conclusions: Vaccination with the heterologous scheme of SOBERANA® 02/ SOBERANA® Plus induces strong antibody and cellular immune response compared to natural infections of young children.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1591.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; revaccination; virus-neutralization; antigenic cartography
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:18:07 CEST)
Rapid emergence of evasive SARS-CoV-2 variants is an on-going challenge for COVID-19 vaccinology. Traditional virus neutralization tests provide detailed datasets of neutralization titers against the viral variants. Such datasets are difficult to interpret and do not immediately inform on the sufficiency of the breadth of antibody response. Some of these issues could be tackled using the antigenic cartography approach. In this study, we created antigenic maps using neutralization titers of sera from donors who received Sputnik V booster vaccine after primary Sputnik V vaccination and compared them with the antigenic maps based on serum neutralization titers of Comirnaty-boosted donors. Traditional analysis of neutralization titers against WT, Alpha, Beta, Delta, Omicron BA.1 and BA.4/BA.5 showed a significant booster humoral response after both homologous (Sputnik V) and heterologous (Comirnaty) revaccinations against all the studied viral variants. However, despite this, a more in-depth analysis using antigenic cartography revealed that Omicron variants remain antigenically distant from WT, which is indicative of the formation of insufficient levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies. The implications of these findings may be significant when developing a new vaccine regimen.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1883.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; mRNA vaccine; SARS-CoV-2 spike; myocarditis; ACE2; renin-angiotensin system
Online: 29 November 2023 (12:20:42 CET)
Myocarditis has been recognized as a possible rare complication of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. It concerns between one and five vaccinated people per 100,000 in the general population, with increased incidence in adolescent and young adult men. Most often, cases of myocarditis have been reported in the days following the second dose of vaccine mainly in younger male patients. This rare complication of vaccination usually resolves within days or weeks. However, the pathophysiological events responsible for the increase in frequency of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination remain unclear. Several recent reports have highlighted that free spike proteins circulating in the blood of patients at high levels appear to play a major role in myocarditis. Here, we review the most relevant data that partly lift the veil on the molecular mechanisms of the induction of myocarditis following mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination. We hypothesize that a mechanism of molecular mimicry of the viral spike triggers transient dysregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, leading to increased soluble angiotensin II binding to the transmembrane receptor angiotensin II type I receptor, similar to what is observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We suggest to standardize management of suspected cases of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine-induced myocarditis, including angiotensin II and spike antigenemia monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0313.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; Sinopharm vaccine; neutralizing antibodies; anti-S1 IgG antibodies; anti-RBD IgM antibodies; anti-N IgM antibodies; anti-N IgG antibodies; interferon γ.
Online: 5 July 2023 (12:31:08 CEST)
Several vaccines against COVID -19 have been developed and licenced to enhance the immune response against SARS-CoV-2. Similarly, infection with SARS-CoV-2 before vaccination has been shown to provide significant protection against severe infection and hospitalisation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three doses of Sinopharm vaccine and SARS-CoV-2 infection on the specific immune response in 103 volunteers, measuring neutralizing antibodies, anti-S1 IgG, anti-RBD IgM, anti-N IgM, anti-N IgG antibodies and interferon γ. Our results showed that the presence of cardiovascular diseases increased the level of anti-N-IgG antibodies, while endocrinological diseases decreased the level of neutralizing antibodies and anti-N-IgG antibodies, suggesting that these diseases alter the effect of vaccine immunity. In addition, there was a significant decrease in anti-S1 IgG levels 6 months and in anti-N IgG levels 18 months post-infection, while neutralizing antibody and interferon γ levels were constant at 3, 6 and 18 months post-infection. Therefore, our results confirm the importance of hybrid immunity as the strongest and most durable compared to exclusively natural or vaccine-induced immunity. Significant positive correlations were found between humoral and cellular immunity markers: neutralizing antibodies, anti-S1 IgG, anti-N IgG and interferon γ, indicating a unique coordinated response specific to COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2047.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19 vaccination; integration mapping tool; routine immunization; field testing; PHC; Cote d'Ivoire
Online: 30 August 2023 (07:17:54 CEST)
Abstract Introduction: With the containment of the COVID-19 pandemic in Côte d'Ivoire, efforts were made to seamlessly integrate COVID-19 vaccination into the national immunization program. A collaborative initiative involving UNICEF, WHO, GAVI, and partner organizations resulted in the creation of the COVID-19 Vaccine Integration Mapping Tool. This paper presents a case study documenting the field testing of the Integration Mapping Tool and assessing the integration of COVID-19 vaccination within primary healthcare and routine immunization in Côte d'Ivoire. The study aims to describe the pilot process, gather feedback on tool usefulness and challenges, and establish integration priorities through roadmap development. Methods: Under the guidance of the Ministry of Health and Universal Coverage Cabinet, a workshop was conducted with participants from major health programs to field test the tool. Data analysis was performed using Excel, and the results were presented through tables, heat maps, and line graphs. Results: The first-of-its-kind field test of the Integration Mapping Tool in Cote d'Ivoire showcased its potential to bring key partners together to discuss the current state of integration, to improve transparency about resource allocation resource allocation, and enhance data management for the successful incorporation of COVID-19 vaccination into existing immunization systems. The integration of COVID-19 vaccines in Côte d'Ivoire showed a moderate level of progress, with improvement needed in resource allocation, payment systems, targeting of highest risk groups and vaccine administration. Support should be increased for target population identification, distribution points, quality of care mechanisms, and health personnel training. Health information systems and access to essential medicines were relatively satisfactory. Integration into existing programs, intersectoral collaboration, national health strategy, communication strategy, community participation, and data utilization require improvement. The post-workshop satisfaction survey gave the tool a score of .7 out of 10. Early lessons from Côte d'Ivoire provide guidance for enhancing integration, focusing on data-driven decision-making, collaboration, stakeholder engagement, and effective leadership. Conclusion: The successful field test of the Integration Mapping Tool (IMT) in Côte d'Ivoire marks a groundbreaking milestone, exemplifying the transformative potential of innovative tools in immunization practices. The IMT's application sets a precedent for seamless COVID-19 vaccination integration worldwide, emphasizing data-driven decision-making, collaboration, timing, and leadership. The pilot exercise's success in Côte d'Ivoire was attributed to political commitment, well-facilitated workshops, assessments, and the fact that the team in CI had previously already developed some initial integration plan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0248.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID–19; vaccination; all-cause mortality; age; gender; complex system; pathogen interference; seasonality; miRNAs; nonspecific vaccine effects
Online: 12 April 2023 (07:06:23 CEST)
All vaccines exhibit both specific and non-specific effects. The specific effects are measured by the efficacy against the target pathogen, while the non-specific effects can be detected by the change in all-cause mortality . All-cause mortality data (gender, age band, vaccination history, month of death) between January 2021 and May 2022 was compiled by the Office for National Statistics. COVID–19 vaccination gave good protection on many occasions but less so for younger ages. Each gender and age group shows its own unique vaccination benefit/disbenefit time profile. Individuals are free to make vaccination decisions. For example, women aged 18-39 show a cohort who do not progress beyond the first or second dose. The all-cause mortality outcomes for the Omicron variant showed a very poor response to vaccination with 70% of sex/age/vaccination stage/month combinations increasing all-cause mortality, probably due to unfavorable antigenic distance between the first-generation vaccines and this variant, and additional non-specific effects. The all-cause mortality outcomes of COVID–19 vaccination is far more nuanced than have been widely appreciated, and virus vector appear better than the mRNA vaccines in this specific respect. The latter are seemingly more likely to increase all-cause mortality especially in younger age groups. An extensive discussion/literature review is included to provide potential explanations for the observed unexpected vaccine effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccines; capillary leak syndrome
Online: 11 January 2023 (09:41:36 CET)
Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is an uncommon, potentially life-threatening disorder defined as recurrent attacks of pseudo-shock. This syndrome occurs due to the disruption of endothelial cells, which leads to increased vascular permeability, causing intravascular fluid to leak into the extravascular space and albumin to be retained in the interstitial space. SCLS can lead to hypovolemia, peripheral hypoperfusion, and acute renal insufficiency. The syndrome is presented with fever, generalized edema, pleural effusions, dyspnea, hypovolemia, hemoconcentration, prerenal azotemia, shock, and syncope. After ruling out other causes of hypovolemic shock, the diagnosis of SCLS can be considered on the presence of the classical triad of hypotension, hemoconcentration, and hypoalbuminemia. Eliminating the precipitating factors is the cornerstone of SCLS management. It is advisable to be very cautious and weigh the risks and benefits of vaccination of people with a history of this condition. This review will discuss and compare different aspects of SLCS after SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Bivalent COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccination booster; COVID-19; Omicron; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 6 March 2023 (07:00:00 CET)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant of concern has been the dominant cause of worldwide COVID-19 cases since 2022. All the Omicron sublineage viruses have demonstrated high transmissibility and an ability to escape vaccine-induced immunity. While first-generation vaccines, including monovalent vaccines, continue to provide protection against severe disease, hospitalization and mortality, their efficacy against Omicron sub variants remains sparse. These vaccines have also been associated with rapidly waning protection against primary COVID-19 and COVID-19 reinfections conferred by evolving Omicron sublineages.. This led to the development and deployment of updated vaccines and the introduction of the bivalent booster. Through this review, we highlight the brief journey of the variants of concern leading to the dominance of Omicron and the effectiveness of the key vaccines against these variants, including the updated (bivalent) boosters.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Unreported COVID-19 Death; Provisional COVID-19 Death; Death Reporting Discrepancy; Bangladesh
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:32:05 CEST)
Objective: We aim to assess the reporting discrepancy and the difference between confirmed and unreported COVID-19-like death counts.Study Design: The study is based on time-series data.Methods: We used publicly available data to explore the differences between confirmed death counts and deaths with Codiv-19 symptoms between March 8, 2020, and July 11, 2020, in Bangladesh.Results: During the week ending May 9, 2020, the unreported COVID-19-like death count was higher than the confirmed COVID-19 death count; however, it was lower in the following weeks. On average, unreported COVID-19-like death counts were similar to the confirmed COVID-19 death counts during the same period. However, the reporting authority neither considers these deaths nor adjusts for potential seasonal influenza or other related deaths, which might produce incomplete COVID-19 data and respective mortality rates. Conclusions: Documenting unreported deaths with COVID-19 symptoms needs to be included in provisional death counts because it is essential to estimate a robust COVID-19 mortality rate and to offer data-driven pandemic response strategies. An urgent initiative is needed to prepare an acceptable guideline for COVID-19 death reporting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; depression; anxiety; post-acute COVID-19 syndrome; post-COVID
Online: 12 August 2022 (04:56:33 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to examine the course of Depression and anxiety in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history compared with those without a psychiatric history. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey for COVID-19 survivors was conducted from July to September 2021. 6016 COVID-19 survivors, the accuracy of whose responses was determined to be assured, were included in analyses. Exposures included psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection, and the main outcomes and measures included severity of depression and anxiety, as assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), respectively. Results: Mean severity of PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were significantly higher in participants with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history. Two-way analysis of covariance for PHQ-9 showed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and a significant interaction effect of psychiatric history × time since infection. Two-way analysis of covariance for the GAD-7 score revealed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection and the interaction effect of these factors. Conclusions: The course of depression and anxiety was more severe in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0240.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Locomotion; regulatory modes; resilience; COVID-19; Covid-19 anxiety.
Online: 4 July 2023 (13:48:34 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted a significant impact on mental health globally. The uncertainty, fear, and stress associated with this crisis have contributed to a heightened prevalence of anxiety, depression, and various other mental health disorders. In this scenario, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship between locomotion regulatory mode, resilience, and COVID-19 anxiety. It is worth noting that previous extensive research has established a significant correlation between high levels of locomotion and diverse positive psychological conditions, such as optimism, reduced hopelessness, and positive affect. A total of 243 participants completed measures of locomotion regulatory mode, resilience, and COVID-19 anxiety. In line with our hypotheses, individuals' locomotion regulatory mode was negatively, although non significatively, associated with COVID-19 anxiety. Furthermore, resilience was found to mediate the relationship between locomotion regulatory mode and COVID-19 anxiety, indicating that individuals displaying high locomotion may be better equipped to cope with the stress and uncertainty of the COVID-19 pandemic due to their greater levels of resilience. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of considering both locomotion and resilience in managing anxiety related to COVID-19 and suggest that interventions aimed at enhancing resilience may be beneficial particularly for individuals with low locomotion regulatory mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; ACE2; severity; post-COVID-19 patients; comorbidity.
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:36:06 CEST)
ACE2 impact on the severity of COVID-19 is widely discussed but still controversial. To estimate its role in aspects of the main risk factors and comorbidities, we involved post-COVID-19 patients in Ternopil region (Ukraine). Recruitment period was July 2020 to December 2021. Medical records, treatment modalities and outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Serum human ACE2 protein was measured with Cusabio ELISA kits (Houston, TX, USA). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS21.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level of ACE2 serum protein was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with mild symptoms compared to more severe course of disease, and inversely had changed from 1 to 90 days after recovery. In patients with mild COVID-19, ACE2 level significantly decreased over time, while among critical patients, it increased by 34.1percent. Such results could be explained by ACE2 shedding from tissues into circulation. Loss of the membrane-bound form of the enzyme decreases the virus entry into cells. Our studies did not identify any sex-related ACE2 serum levels correlation. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and diabetes mellitus. All comorbidities except respiratory diseases contribute to the severity of disease and correlate with ACE2 blood serum level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; asymptomaticspread; early-stage COVID-19 mitigation
Online: 20 April 2020 (06:18:33 CEST)
Background: Early-stage interventions in a potential pandemic are important tounderstand as they can make the difference between runaway exponential growththat is hard to turn back and stopping the spread before it gets that far. COVID-19 is an interesting case study because there have been very different outcomesin different localities. These variations are best studied after the fact if precisionis the goal; while a pandemic is still unfolding less precise analysis is of value inattempting to guide localities in the early stages to learn lessons of those that pre-ceded them. Methods: I examine three factors that could differentiate strategy: asymptomaticspread, differences in use of the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) tuberculosis vac-cine and cloth face masks.Results:Differences in disease progression as well as the possibility of alternativestrategies to prevent COVID-19 from entering the runaway phase or damping itdown later can be elucidated by a study of asymptomatic infection. A study todemonstrate not only what fraction are asymptomatic but how contagious they arewill also inform policy on universal mask wearing. Conclusions: While a COVID-19 outbreak is at a level that makes accurate trace-and test possible, investigation of asymptomatic transmission is viable and shouldbe attempted to enhance understanding of spread and variability in the disease aswell as policy options for slowing the spread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0413.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: long COVID; COVID 19 vaccination; COVID awareness
Online: 24 December 2021 (23:40:18 CET)
Background Recently, a surge of COVID 19 was observed globally, regionally and nationally. With increasing numbers of cases, the frequency of long COVID is on the rise. Management and control of long COVID depend on changes in respect of human behaviors and requires an understanding of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding health threats. MethodsA descriptive cross sectional study using online survey to gather data on the socio-economic background, knowledge, attitudes and practices on long-term complications of COVID. Results: Out of 201 respondents, 89.2% participants have heard about long-term complications of COVID 19. Only 35.9% have demonstrated adequate knowledge in the questions relating to co-morbidities and risk factors of COVID-19. A total of 92.2% believe that they should adhere to preventive measures following vaccination. Less than 60 % were following the advice on avoiding unnecessary travel and crowded places. Further, less than 50% were following COVID preventive measures. ConclusionAlthough the majority of participants have heard about long-term complications and common symptoms, the knowledge regarding co-morbidities that can lead to severe disease and long COVID was not satisfactory. The attitudes of the participants indicated increasing concern about long COVID. Practices indicate lack of adherence to key measures such as avoiding crowded places. These findings highlight the need for further increasing of awareness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19; Long Covid-19; Long Haulers Covid; Post Covid-19 Syndrome; Post-Acute Covid-19; Corona Virus; SARS-Cov-2; Novel Corona Virus 2019; Post-Acute SARS-CoV-2; PASC, Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19; Late Sequelae COVID-19
Online: 18 March 2021 (17:16:52 CET)
Introduction: Despite more than one year passed since the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 were reported, there is still no consensus on the definition and clinical management of post-acute-COVID-19. The condition has heterogeneously been named as Chronic COVID syndrome, Post COVID-19 Syndrome, post-acute sequela of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), and the more familiar long COVID. Method: In order to capture all relevant published studies, we undertook a multi-step search with no language restriction. The following four-step search strategy was utilized: First, a preliminary (limited) search was conducted on January 20, 2021, in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify the appropriate keywords. Then, on January 30, 2021, we adopted a search strategy of electronic databases from Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of sciences, using those keywords. Then, after duplicate removal, we screened all titles, abstracts, and full texts. This resulted in 66 eligible studies. Subsequently, after a forward and backward search of their references and citations an additional 54 publications were found, resulting in a total of 120 publications that formed the basis of the present analysis. The titles, abstracts, and full-texts of non-English articles were translated using Google Translate for further evaluation. We conducted our scoping review based on the PRISMA-ScR Checklist.Results: We found only one randomized clinical trial in our search. Of the 67 original studies, 22 were cohort and 28 were cross-sectional studies totaling 74.6% of the original studies. Of the total of 120 publications, 59 (49.1%) focused on signs and symptoms, 28 (23.3%) were focused on management, and 13 (10.8%) focused on pathophysiology. Ten (9%) publications focused on imaging studies. Ninety-one percent of the original investigations came from high and upper-middle-income countries, highlighting the scarcity of reports originating from low-income and lower-middle-income countries.Conclusion: The predominant symptoms among those with the so-called “Long COVID” were: fatigue, breathlessness, arthralgia, sleep difficulties, and chest pain. Recent reports also point to the risk of long-term sequela with cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, mental health, neurologic, and renal involvement in those who survive the acute phase of the illness. The ambiguity and controversies in its definition have impaired proper recognition and management of those requiring additional support following the resolution of the acute phase of this infection. This has resulted in long-standing distress for the patients and their families. Our findings highlight the need for a multidisciplinary approach, support, and rehabilitation for these patients in terms of long-term mental and physical health.
Online: 21 July 2020 (13:46:45 CEST)
Today, we are all threatened by an unprecedented pandemic: COVID-19. How different is it from other coronaviruses? Will it be attenuated or become more virulent? Which animals may be its original host? In this study, we analyzed 377 publicly available complete genome sequences for the COVID-19 virus, the previously known flu-causing coronaviruses (HCov-229E, HCov-OC43, HCov-NL63 and HCov-HKU1) and the lethal, pathogenic P3/P4 viruses, SARS, MERS, Victoria, Lassa, Yamagata, Ebola, and Dengue. We found strong similarities between the current circulating COVID-19 and SARS and MERS, as well as COVID-19 in rhinolophines and pangolins. On the contrary, COVID-19 shares little similarity with the flu-causing coronaviruses and the other P3/P4 viruses. Strikingly, we observed divergence of COVID-19 strains isolated from human hosts has steadily increased from December 2019 to March 2020, suggesting COVID-19 is actively evolving in human hosts. From all existing human COVID-19 genome sequences, we calculated the first common model that represents the shared sequences of the human COVID-19 strains, which provides important information for vaccine and antibody development. Geographic and time-course analysis of the evolutionary trees of the human COVID-19 reveals possibly heterogeneous evolutional paths among strains from 21 countries. This finding has important implications to the management of COVID-19 and the development of vaccines.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0269.v1
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:59:21 CEST)
Understanding the clinical conditions and outcomes of Covid-19 infected patients with immunodeficiency like HIV will be an information for improving management and treatment modalities. It was reported a patient of HIV plus clinical confirmed Covid-19 in this presentation.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0077.v4
The Ongoing COVID-19 Epidemic Curves Indicate Initial Point Spread in China With Log-Normal Distribution of New Cases per Day With a Predictable Last Date of the Outbreak Version 4: Predictions for Selected European Countries, USA and the World as a Whole and Try to Predict the End of the Outbreak Including a Discussion of a Possible “New Normal”
Online: 19 April 2020 (08:15:10 CEST)
During an epidemic outbreak it is useful for planners and responsible authorities to be able to plan ahead to estimate when an outbreak of an epidemic is likely to ease and when the last case can be predicted in their area of responsibility. Theoretically this could be done for a point source epidemic using epidemic curve forecasting. The extensive data now coming out of China makes it possible to test if this can be done using MS Excel a standard spreadsheet program available to most offices. The available data is divided up for whole China and the different provinces. This and the high number of cases makes the analysis possible. Data for new confirmed infections for Hubei, Hubei outside Wuhan, China excluding Hubei as well as Zhejiang and Fujian provinces all follow a log-normal distribution that can be used to make a rough estimate for the date of the last new confirmed cases in respective areas. In the version 2 continuation work, 9 additional days were added for the Chinese data to evaluate the previous predictions. The extra data then available from China follows the previous predicted trend supporting the usefulness of this simple technique. In the version 2 we also tested the feasibility for a non-specialist to make similar predictions using additional data from S Korea now available. In this third continuation the predictions for Version 2 are evaluated for S Korea and fits well the beginning of the decline but it seems to be difficult to bring down numbers of cases per day under about 100 new cases per day, potential reasons for this is discussed. To further evaluate when in a prediction becomes reliable the Chinese data was used to evaluate to make predictions for each day around the peak in number of cases and after2-3 consecutive days of decreasing new cases per day the prediction becomes reliable. In version 3 data for Italy just reaching this point was used to make further predictions for that country. A second new analysis was also added to use the fitted equation to detect when the acceleration of new cases per day stopped increasing exponentially. In the Chinese case this measured point coincides with the date of the complete Hubei lockdown and in the new Italian analysis it coincides with the mandatory Italian lockdown. Predicted dates for the end of the Italian outbreak is also added. In version 4 we expand the analysis to selected European countries, USA and the World as a whole and try to predict the end of the outbreak. We further discuss the apparent success of the used techniques that might work to introduce a “new normal” not very different to the previous to stop secondary outbreaks of COVID19 and future COVIDs that are sure to come.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2032.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; post-COVID-19; pulmonary manifestations; spirometry; chest tomography.
Online: 28 July 2023 (12:48:47 CEST)
COVID-19 generated a scenario for global health with multiple systemic impairments. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical, radiological, and pulmonary functional evolution in 302 post-COVID-19 patients. Regarding post-COVID-19 pulmonary symptoms, dry cough, dyspnea, and chest pain were the most frequent. Of the associated comorbidities, asthma was more frequent (23.5%). Chest Tomography (CT) initially showed a mean pulmonary involvement of 69.7%, and the evaluation in the subsequent months showed an improvement in the evolutionary image, and with less than six months post-pathology, there was a commitment of 37 .7%, from six to twelve months, 20% and after 12 months, 9.9%. And as for most of the sample, 50.3% of the patients presented CT normalization in less than six months after infection, 23% normalized between six and twelve months, and 5.2% normalized the images after twelve months, with one remaining. Percentage of 17.3% who maintained post-COVID-19 pulmonary residual sequelae. Regarding spirometry, in less than six months after the pathology, 59.3% of the patients already showed a regular exam; 12.3% normalized their function within six to twelve months, and 6.3% concluded a normal exam after twelve months of post-pathology evaluation. Only 3.6% of the patients still showed some alteration in this period.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19 mitigation, education, indoor air quality, COVID-19 testing
Online: 16 March 2023 (11:16:45 CET)
In this case study, we describe a well-resourced private school system that implemented COVID-19 mitigation measures based on public health expert guidance as well as the lessons learned from this process. Avenues is a 10-year-old private school with campuses in NYC, São Paulo, Shenzhen, Silicon Valley, as well as online, which offers education at sixteen grades: 2 early learning years, followed by a pre-kindergarten–grade 12 school. We describe the mitigation measures Avenues implemented. We compare COVID-19 case prevalence at the school to the reported case prevalence in New York City, as reported by the New York State Department of Health. We compare the school's indoor air quality (IAQ) to ambient IAQ measures reported in the literature. The school's COVID-19 transmission mitigation measures successfully reduced the prevalence of COVID-19 among its students, staff, and faculty. The school also established a consistent high level of IAQ through various ventilation mechanisms. The school received positive parent and community feedback on the policies and procedures it established, with many parents commenting on the high level of communication and trust established by the school. This successful school reopening provides useful data for school closure and reopening standards to prepare for future pandemic and epidemic events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID 19; health personnel; Burnout, Psychological; COVID 19 stress syndrome
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:42:28 CEST)
Purpose: The healthcare pressure and emotional tension during the first year of the COVID 19 pandemic have been able to affect the health of healthcare personnel. Physical and psychological symptoms attributed to a work situation and or COVID 19 infection are describ ed in health professionals. Objective: to analyze the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms directly or indirectly related to COVID 19 (occupational causes, illness or persistent COVID 19) after a 12 month pandemic. Methods: #COVID19PS is a cro ss sectional analytical study using an ad hoc questionnaire distributed through social media to record physical and psychological symptoms related to COVID 19 in health professionals. Variables: age, sex, geographical origin, profession, characteristics of the work environment, physical symptoms, Maslach test ( for health professionals. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis using t distribution, Chi square, ANOVA using IBM SPSS v20®. Results: N=1.159 ( women, 21.8% men; 44.6% <35 years old, 23.9% between 35 45years); 96.5% Spaniards. Professions: 17.1% medicine, 12.7% nursing, 32% physiotherapy, 24.1% occupational therapy, 14.1% others; 47.5% belonged to direct care for COVID 19 patients. 28.2% had passed the disease and 3.7% had it acti ve. 61.6% had physical symptoms ( neurological, 31.7% musculoskeletal, 29.6% general, 20.9% gastrointestinal, 20.3% skin, 19.2% cardiovascular, 16% respiratory (p= 96.9% had a medium high Burnout index (p= 48.3% with high levels of Emot ional Exhaustion, 62.9% with medium high level of Depersonalization and 74% with medium low levels of Personal Accomplishment. Conclusion: all health professions present high rates of physical and burnout consequences of the first year of COVID 19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0415.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; Vaccine hesitancy; COVID-19 Vaccine; Saudi Arabia
Online: 31 May 2022 (09:22:49 CEST)
On 11th March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. Vaccination programs have advanced greatly in the global health period, despite widespread anti-vaccination attitudes and misinformation. Vaccine hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine is currently a major issue in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was carried out from June 25, 2021 to October 2021 in order to investigate the knowledge levels of acceptance and hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine among Saudi’s nationals. The data was collected through a close-ended structured questionnaire from a total of 565 respondents. Overall, 78.41% respondents were female, 62.48% having university level education and 61.06% were unemployed. Majority of the participants 82.30% (n=465) think that Pfizer vaccine has the highest efficiency against COVID-19. Our study concludes that majority of the participants have satisfactory knowledge about COVID-19 vaccination. Concerns over vaccine components, effectiveness of vaccine and possible side effects are among the key causes for vaccine hesitancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; CoVID-19 Dignosis; CoVID-19 Chemistry & Biology
Online: 16 March 2021 (11:54:28 CET)
CoVID-19 is a multi-symptomatic disease which has made a global impact due to its ability to spread rapidly, and its relatively high mortality rate. Beyond the heroic efforts to develop vaccines, which we will not discuss, the response of scientists and clinicians to this complex problem has reflected the need to detect CoVID-19 rapidly, to diagnose patients likely to show adverse symptoms, and to treat severe and critical CoVID-19. Here we aim to encapsulate these varied and sometimes conflicting approaches and the resulting data in terms of chemistry and biology. In the process we highlight emerging concepts, and potential future applications that may arise out of this immense effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; real-time RT-PCR; COVID-19 symptoms; COVID-19 hematological findings; Bangladesh
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:47:03 CEST)
Objective: SARS-Cov-2 infection or COVID-19 is a global pandemic. From the time of identification to till, multiple clinical symptoms and parameters have been identified by the researchers of various countries and regions regarding the diagnosis and presentations of COVID-19 disease. In this manuscript, we investigated the primary symptoms and basic hematological presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the Bangladeshi patients. Methodology: We have collected the disease history of mild to moderate degree of COVID-19 patients; hematological and biochemical on admission reports of moderate degree COVID-19 patients. All of them were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR in different institutes in Bangladesh. Results: According to this study though COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh commonly presented with fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and sore throat, but symptoms like myalgia, diarrhea, skin rash, headache, Abdominal pain/cramp, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, and a higher temperature of >1000F have a greater presentation rate and more frequent than other published studies. CRP and Prothrombin time was found to increase in all the patients. Serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, and D-Dimer were found increased among 53.85%, 80.43, 44%, and 25% patients respectively. 17.39% of the patients had leukocytosis and neutrophilia. 28.26% of patients presented with lymphocytopenia. 62.52% of patients had mild erythrocytopenia. Conclusion: Despite some similarities, our study has evaluated a different expression in presenting symptoms in the case of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh. CRP, Prothrombin time, serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, D-Dimer, erythrocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia can be initial diagnostic hematological findings and assessment for prognosis COVID-19 disease. Also, gender variations have a different scenario of clinical and laboratory appearance in this region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0500.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; impact on society during COVID-19; behavioral impact of COVID-19; government policies against COVID-19; measures adopted by the government; COVID-19 Statistics; Infection rate and Data analysis
Online: 21 September 2020 (11:09:11 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 pandemic has pulled us all a few steps back, were we never shake hands or hug each other when we meet our friends and family after a gap, but instead we greet them by saying Namaste and joining our hands together. As we all know, COVID-19 spreads through air and the only way to shield ourselves is by maintaining a safe distance from one another. Methodology: In order to conduct a meta-analysis on the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala and India, the data was retrieved from various sites hosted by the government bodies. The data for analysis was collected from May 2020 to July 2020. The average number of days required to reach every 5000 fresh cases were also calculated using this data. COVID-19 has affected all the economy holistically regardless of financial, behavioral, or societal aspects. Conclusion: Lifting of the lockdown in a step by step process keeping in mind the necessities for the nation was a thoughtful act, but the people who mistook this opportunity and did not remain in quarantine after coming from abroad was recognized as the reasons behind the sudden and uncontrolled rise in the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala, India. The government authorities had no other option but to lift the restrictions to reduce the economic burdens that had already affected the daily wage worker and farmers prompting them to give up their lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1915.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: post-COVID-19 syndrome; diabetes; overweight; COVID-19 pneumonia; observational study
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:18:29 CEST)
In the aftermath of the COVID pandemic, post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) remains a challenge and may continue to represent a major health problem in the future. Moreover, the influence of type 2 diabetes and being overweight on PCS remains unclear. This study aimed to assess this influence. We performed an observational study from October 2020 to July 2022, which included 466 patients (269 males and 197 females) with a median age of 65. They were hospitalized due to COVID-19 pneumonia and had persistent symptoms after 1 month of COVID-19 infection. The patients were divided into four groups according to the study objectives: patients with type 2 diabetes, overweight patients, overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, and normal-weight patients without type 2 diabetes. The clinical and demographic data collected during hospitalization and regular visits at the Community Healthcare Center dr. Adolf Drolc Maribor were analyzed. Our results showed that type 2 diabetes patients had a more difficult course of treatment and longer hospitalization. Moreover, more type 2 diabetes patients underwent rehabilitation than the other study groups. The prevailing symptoms in our patients with PCS were dyspnea and fatigue, mostly in female patients with type 2 diabetes. Our study also showed that more women with type 2 diabetes and more overweight women with type 2 diabetes suffered from secondary infections. Further, more overweight patients were treated in the intensive care unit compared to the other groups. However, our study showed an interesting result that patients with type 2 diabetes had the shortest PCS durations. Type 2 diabetes and being overweight are risk factors for PCS onset and prolonged duration. Therefore, our data that revealed a shorter duration of PCS in type 2 diabetes patients compared to the other investigated groups was unexpected. We believe that answering this question regarding the results will enable us to improve PCS treatment in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0136.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; health personnel; fear to COVID-19
Online: 8 February 2023 (02:34:46 CET)
The aim of this study was to estimate the association between fear of COVID-19 and risk perception with preventive behavior in health professionals from three Latin American countries. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted. Health professionals with on-site care in Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Peru were surveyed. Information was collected through an online self-report questionnaire. The main variables were preventive behavior as the dependent variable and fear of COVID-19 and risk perception as independent variables. Linear regression was used, and Beta coefficients and p-values were calculated. 435 health professionals were included, the majority were aged 42 years or older (45.29%, 95%CI: 40.65%-50.01%) and female (67.82%, 95%CI: 63.27%-72.05%). It was shown that the greater the fear of COVID-19, the greater the preventive behavior of COVID-19 infection (B=2.21, p=0.002 for total behavior; B=1.12, p=0.037 for additional protection at work; B=1.11, p<0.010 for hand washing). The risk perception of COVID-19 infection had a slight direct relationship with preventive behaviors (B=0.28, p=0.021 for total behavior; B=0.13, p=0.015 for hand washing), with the exception of the preventive behavior of using additional protection at work (p=0.339). We found that fear and risk perception are associated with increased practice of hand washing and use of additional protection at work. Further studies are required on the influence of working conditions, job performance and the occurrence of mental health problems in frontline personnel with regard to COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: second COVID-19 booster; vaccination; COVID-19; willingness; predictors; general population
Online: 2 June 2022 (04:07:07 CEST)
Given the concerns of waning immunity from the primary COVID-19 vaccines and the first booster dose, we conducted an on-line cross-sectional study in May 2022 to investigate willingness to receive a second COVID-19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine and its associated factors. Overall, 22.7% of participants were willing to be vaccinated, 39.3% were unsure, but tend to be willing, 25.8% were unsure, 4.9% were unsure, but tend to be unwilling, and 7.4% were unwilling to be vaccinated. The main reasons against accepting a second COVID‐19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine COVID-19 dose included concerns about the side effects, the opinion that further vaccination is unnecessary, and effectiveness uncertainties. Males, younger individuals, participants without a previous COVID-19 diagnosis, and those with good/very good self-perceived physical health were significantly more frequently willing to receive a second COVID‐19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine. Also, increased fear of the COVID-19, increased trust in COVID-19 vaccination and decreased fear of a second booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine were associated with increased willingness. Our results show some hesitancy and unwillingness toward further COVID-19 vaccination and indicate that fear of COVID-19 and trust in COVID-19 vaccination affect public opinion
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0619.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 Mexico; stress in healthcare professionals; COVID-19 stress scale
Online: 26 September 2020 (08:07:00 CEST)
The world is currently, subjected to the worst health crisis documented in modern history; an epidemic led by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). At the epicenter of this crisis, healthcare professionals continue working to safeguard our well-being. To the regular high levels of stress, COVID new heights even more to healthcare professionals so depending on the area, specialty, and type of work. Here we investigated what are the tendencies, or areas most affected. Through an adaptation of the original COVID-stress scale, we developed a remote, fast test designed for healthcare professionals of the Northeastern part of Mexico, an important part of the country with economic and cultural ties to the US. Our results showed 4 key correlations as highly dependent: Work area – Xenophobia (p < 0.045), Work with COVID patients - Traumatic stress (p < 0.001) and Total number of COVID patients per day – Traumatic stress (p < 0.027), and Total number of COVID patients - Compulsive checking and reassurance. Overall concluding that normal levels of stress have increased (mild – moderate). Additionally, we further determine that the fear of being an asymptomatic patient (potential to spread without knowing) continues being a concern.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Virus; Vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; Covid-19; Covid-19 vaccine
Online: 7 September 2020 (03:46:59 CEST)
This tutorial is organized into three major sections—viruses, vaccines and the race for a Covid-19 vaccine. The goal is to provide enough background on viruses, history of vaccines, and the science of vaccinology founded on the principles of immunity. The hope is that this will enable us to understand the challenges, methods and prospects for developing a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Many important viruses such as smallpox, HIV, HCV and SARS-CoV-2 which is responsible for causing the Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are presented in detail, which is then followed by a description of different vaccine development methods and strategies. The tutorial then discusses different candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provides specific details of many of the prospective vaccines on the leader-board which are undergoing clinical trials. The tutorial concludes with a realistic projection for a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 based on the historical scientific record.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: China's COVID-19 Guide; Remdesivir; Xuebijing; Hydroxychloroquine; IL6 inhibitors; COVID-19
Online: 26 March 2020 (01:48:42 CET)
Currently, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 proven by clinical trials. WHO and CDC guidelines therefore endorse supportive care only. However, frontline clinicians have been applying several virus-based and host-based therapeutics in order to combat SARS-CoV-2. Medications from COVID-19 case reports, observational studies and the COVID-19 Treatment Guideline issued by the China's National Health Commission (7th edition published March 3rd, 2020. Edited translation attached) are evaluated in this review. Key evidence from relevant in vitro researches, animal models and clinical studies in SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are examined. Antiviral therapies remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and umifenovir, if considered, could be initiated before the peak of viral replication for optimal outcomes. Ribavirin may be beneficial as an add-on therapy and is ineffective as a monotherapy. Corticosteroids use should be limited without indicating comorbidities. IVIG is not recommended due to lack of data in COVID-19. Xuebijing may benefit patients with complications of bacterial pneumonia or sepsis. The efficacy of interferon is unclear due to conflicting outcomes in SARS and MERS studies. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown in vitro inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 and may be beneficial as both prophylactic and treatment therapy. For patients who developed cytokine release syndrome, interleukin-6 inhibitors may be beneficial. Given the rapid disease spread and increasing mortality, active treatment with readily available medications may be considered timely prior to disease progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: nCov-19, COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV
Online: 1 April 2020 (09:30:00 CEST)
Coronaviruse disease (COVID-19) outbreak has created an emergency globally, and social distancing and isolation is the only solution to prevent its spread. Several countries have announced fully locked on to tackle this pandemic. The recent COVID-2019 has shaken the globe with incidence cases of more than half-million cases, and a mortality toll of more than twenty thousand to date. The coronavirus family is inclusive of pathogen of both – animal species and humans, encapsulating the isolated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Researchers round the globe have been dexterously working to decode this lethal virus. Many mathematical frameworks have also been depicted which have helped to understand the dynamics of the COVID-19. Research on coronaviruses continues to explore various aspects of viral replication and pathogenesis to understanding the predilection of these viruses to switch between species, to develop an infection in a new host, and to identify significant reservoirs of coronaviruses will dramatically aid in our potential to prophesize when and where potential epidemics may occur. Many of the non-structural and accessory proteins encoded by the viruses remain unclear and unknown. This systematic review highlights the current situation of the pandemic, virus genomic composition, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, and prognosis along with mathematical models of disease transmission and dynamics.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Clustering; COVID-19; Long COVID; disease severity
Online: 2 November 2022 (01:02:16 CET)
The increasing number of people living with Long COVID requires the development of more personalized care, as for now limited treatment options and rehabilitation programs adapted to the variety of Long COVID presentations are available. Our objective was to design an easy-to-use Long COVID classification to help stratifying people with Long COVID. Individual characteristics and a detailed set of 62 self-reported persisting symptoms together with quality of life indexes 12 months after initial COVID-19 infection were collected in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infected people in Luxembourg. A hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC) was used to identify clusters of people. We identified 3 patterns of Long COVID symptoms with a gradient in disease severity. Cluster-Mild encompassed almost 50% of the study population and was composed of participants with less severe initial infection, fewer comorbidities, and fewer persisting symptoms (mean=2.9). Cluster-Moderate was characterized by a mean of 11 persisting symptoms and a poor sleep and respiratory quality of life. Cluster-Severe was characterized by a higher proportion of women and smokers as in the other clusters, with a higher number of Long COVID symptoms, in particular of vascular, urinary, and skin symptoms. Our study evidenced that Long COVID can be stratified in 3 sub-categories in terms of severity. If replicated in other populations, this simple classification will help clinicians to personalize the care of people with Long COVID.