ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0143.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: ocean; big-data; cite-space; co-authorship analysis; co-citation analysis; keywords co-occurrence analysis; visualization
Online: 11 February 2020 (09:41:17 CET)
Ocean big data is the scientific practice of using big data technology in the marine field. Data from satellites, manned spacecraft, space stations, airship, unmanned aerial vehicles, shore-based radar and observation stations, exploration platforms, buoys, underwater gliders, submersibles, and submarine observation networks are seamlessly combined into the ocean’s big data. Increasing numbers of scholars have tried to fully analyze the ocean’s big data. To explore the key research technology knowledge graphs related to ocean big data, articles between 1990 and 2020 were collected from the “Web of Science”. By comparing bibliometric software and using the visualization software Cite-Space, the pivotal literature related to ocean big data, as well as countries, institutions, categories, and keywords, were visualized and recognized. Journal co-citation analysis networks can help determine the national distribution of core journals. Co-citation analysis networks for documents show authors who are influential at key technical levels. Key co-occurrence analysis network keywords can determine research hot spots and research frontiers. The three supporting elements of marine big data research are shown in the co-citation network. These elements are author, institution, and country. By examining the co-occurrence of keywords, the key technology research directions for future marine big data were determined.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0145.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Leishmania; co-infections; mixed infections; co-culture; hybrid; intercellular communication
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:20:49 CEST)
Leishmania parasites present astonishing adaptative abilities that represent a matter of life or death within disparate environments during the heteroxenous parasite life cycle. From an evolutionary perspective, organisms develop methods of overcoming such challenges. Strategies that extend beyond the genetic diversity have been discussed and include variability between parasite cells during the infections of their hosts. The occurrence of Leishmania subpopulation fluctuations with variable structural genomic contents demonstrates that a single strain might shelter the variability required to overcome inconsistent environments. Such intrastrain variability provides parasites with an extraordinary ability to adapt and thus survive and propagate. However, different perspectives on this evolution have been proposed. Strains or species living in the same environment can cooperate but also compete. These interactions might increase the replication rate of some parasites but cause the loss of more aggressive competitors for others. Adaptive responses to intra- and interspecific competition can evolve as a fixed strategy (replication is adapted to the average genetic complexity of infections) or an optional strategy (replication varies according to the genetic complexity of the current infection). This review highlights the complexity of interspecies and intrastrain interactions among Leishmania parasites as well as the different factors that influence this interplay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0027.v1
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:24:32 CET)
New setting is introduced to study types of coloring numbers, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges in neutrosophic hypergraphs. Different types of procedures including neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs are proposed in this way, some results are obtained. General classes of neutrosophic hypergraphs are used to obtain chromatic number, the representatives of the colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges in neutrosophic hypergraphs. Using colors to assign to the vertices of neutrosophic hypergraphs and characterizing representatives of the colors are applied in neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs. Some questions and problems are posed concerning ways to do further studies on this topic. Using different ways of study on neutrosophic hypergraphs to get new results about number, degree and co-degree in the way that some number, degree and co-degree get understandable perspective. Neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs are studied to investigate about the notions, coloring, the representatives of the colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges in neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs. In this way, sets of representatives of colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges have key points to get new results but in some cases, there are usages of sets and numbers instead of optimal ones. Simultaneously, notions chromatic number, the representatives of the colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges are applied into neutrosophic hypergraphs, especially, neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs to get sensible results about their structures. Basic familiarities with neutrosophic hypergraphs theory and hypergraph theory are proposed for this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0027.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Fuzzy implications; (S,N) implication; residuum t-norm; (T,N) co-implication; residual co-implication
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:29:47 CEST)
Recently, many authors have been interested to introduce fuzzy implications over t-norms and t-conorms. In this paper, we introduce (S,N) and residuum fuzzy implication for Dubois t-norm and Hamacher's t-norm. Also, new concepts so-called (T,N) and residual fuzzy co-implication in dual Heyting Algebra are investigated. Some examples as well as application are discussed as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Cement; Co-process; Waste; Incineration; Landfill
Online: 12 July 2022 (04:32:38 CEST)
Recently, the amount of waste generated has been rapidly increasing, there have been difficulties disposing of waste in Korea. As a solution to this, treating waste using a cement kiln has suggested, but the environmental and economic effects have not been specifically studied. In this study, the effects of alternative resources, and reducing the social costs(Installation and Operation) associated with waste treatment facilities were analyzed. Through a co-processing method, a reduction of approximately 53kg of CO2 can be realized during the production of one ton of cement, and cost savings of about 3,815 milion USD. Another effect is an extension of the expiration date for landfills by 7.55 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0100.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Quasi-Co-Degree; Quasi-Degree; Vertex
Online: 7 February 2022 (16:23:20 CET)
New setting is introduced to study quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree arising from co-neighborhood. quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree is about a vertex which are applied into the setting of neutrosophic graphs. . The structure of set is studied and general results are obtained. Also, some classes of neutrosophic graphs namely path-neutrosophic graphs, cycle-neutrosophic graphs, complete-neutrosophic graphs and star-neutrosophic graphs, complete-bipartite-neutrosophic graphs and complete-multipartite-neutrosophic graphs are investigated in the terms of a vertex which is called either quasi-degree or quasi-co-degree. Neutrosophic number is reused in this way. It’s applied to use the type of neutrosophic number in the way that, three values of a vertex are used and they’ve same share to construct this number to compare with other vertices. Summation of three values of vertex makes one number and applying it to a comparison. This approach facilitates identifying vertices which form quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree. Quasi-degree is a value of a vertex which is maximum amid all values of vertices which are neighbors to a fixed vertex. Quasi-co-degree is a value of an edge which is maximum amid all values of edges which are neighbors to a fixed vertex but corresponded vertex is representative for this notion. Using different values which are related to a vertex inspire us to focus on edge and vertices which are corresponded to a fixed vertex. The notion of neighborhood is used to collect either vertices are titled neighbors or edges are incident to fixed vertex. In both settings, some classes of well-known neutrosophic graphs are studied. Some clarifications for each result and each definitions are provided. Using fixed vertex has key role to have these notions in the form of vertex or edge. The value of an edge has eligibility to call quasi-co-degree but the value of a vertex has eligibility to call quasi-degree. Some results get more frameworks and perspective about these definitions. The way in that, two vertices have connection together, open the way to define neighborhood and co-neighborhood. The maximum values in neighborhood and co-neighborhood introduces quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree, respectively. New name is chosen from degree. Since amid all vertices with different degrees, one vertex is chosen. In other words, one vertex is fixed and its degree turns out quasi-degree where two degrees could be assigned to a vertex. Degree of edges and degree of vertices. The number of edges which are incident to the vertex and the number of vertices which are neighbors to the vertex. Degree and co-degree are the notions which are transformed to use in quasi-style. Two neutrosophic values introduce two neutrosophic vertices separately in each settings. These notions are applied into neutrosophic graphs as individuals but not family of them as drawbacks for these notions. Finding special neutrosophic graphs which are well-known, is an open way to purse this study. Some problems are proposed to pursue this study. Basic familiarities with graph theory and neutrosophic graph theory are proposed for this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0586.v1
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:49:51 CEST)
Potential of co-digestion mixing thickened secondary sludge (TS) from extended aeration wastewater treatment plant and locally available substrates (whey, grease and septage) has been studied using three steps. The first step was a batch test to determine biological methane potential (BMP) of different mixtures of the three co-substrates with TS. The second step has been carried out with lab-scale reactors (20 L) simulating anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors fed by three mixtures of co-substrates determined according to previous step results. Modelling using ADM1 as a mechanistic model was applied in the third step to help understanding the co-digestion process. According to BMP step, septage used as co-substrate has a negative effect on performance and addition of 10 to 30% grease or 10% whey would lead to a higher production of biogas and with an increase of the methane content. The results from the reactor showed less evi-dence of the positive effects observed with the BMP assay. Protein and lipid fractions of particu-late biodegradable COD are important variables for digester stability and methane production as predicted by modelling. Results of simulations with ADM1 model adapted to co-digestion confirmed that this model is a powerful tool to optimize the process of biogas production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: TRβ; tumor suppression; co-regulators; therapeutics
Online: 23 July 2021 (15:14:12 CEST)
There is compelling evidence that the nuclear receptor TRβ, a member of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) family, is a tumor suppressor in thyroid, breast and other solid tumors. Cell-based and animal studies reveal that the liganded TRβ induces apoptosis, reduces an aggressive phenotype, decreases stem cell populations, and slows tumor growth through modulation of a complex interplay of transcriptional networks. TRβ-driven tumor suppressive transcriptomic signatures include repression of known drivers of proliferation such as PI3K/Akt pathway and activation of novel signaling (JAK1/STAT1) and metabolic reprogramming in both thyroid and breast cancers. The presence of TRβ is also correlated with a positive prognosis and response to therapeutics in BRCA+ and triple-negative breast cancers respectively. Ligand activation of TRβ enhances sensitivity to chemotherapeutics. TRβ co-regulators and bromodomain-containing chromatin remodeling proteins are emergent therapeutic targets. This review considers TRβ as a potential biomolecular diagnostic and therapeutic target.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: critical pedagogy; experiential learning; co-production
Online: 5 July 2021 (10:35:42 CEST)
The sense of uncertainty and fragility due to the effects and magnitude of global challenges we are facing (from pandemic circumstances to climate change impacts) requires – much more than in the past – the capacity to generate a visionary and forefront design approach in the young gen-erations aiming at stimulating their reaction attitude rather than providing consolidated tools from past conditions that no longer exist or will rapidly evolve. Within this general framework, we have investigated the effectiveness and impacts of experienced-based methods of learning and innovative educational tools in architecture aimed at shaping expertise in which the environ-mental dimension and the climate-change challenge dialogues with the context's complexity in terms of socio-cultural dynamics, real potentialities and constrains, addressing their transdisci-plinary trajectories. The paper analyses 5 international pioneering teaching experiences that provide the opportunity to understand the outcomes of collaborative and experiential learning processes in which the educational activities leverage a dialogue between diverse communities (academia-citizens-policymakers-practitioners). The study outcomes show that shifting the pedagogical paradigm towards in-field-experience-based models can improve the awareness of future practitioners for climate implications of architectural design, implement their analysis and project skills while triggering processes of knowledge transfer and co-production at community level, and allow them to better address the societal and cultural issues involved within decision making.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0608.v1
Online: 22 April 2021 (13:23:35 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to explore conceptual approaches in co-production studies and to examine current research trends of the study. The conceptual paper includes research articles related to co-production in public administration field. By thoroughly scrutinizing 32 research works of co-production, this study highlights major loopholes in the field of the study. The contributions of the study are: (1) identifying two common characteristics of co-production, (2) categorising three types of co-producing by end-users, and (3) finding that goals and success of co-production are more beneficial for service providers though its initial approach is citizen-centric approach. We suggest that future studies should be (1) to focus on reasons for co-production failures or success, (2) to discover further hindrances for co-production in service production, (3) to examine influencing factors on service providers as well as institutional impacts on co-production process, and (4) to include practical assessment in co-production study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0084.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: antimony; ferrihydrite; silica; adsorption; co-precipitation
Online: 10 January 2018 (07:02:42 CET)
Elevated antimony concentrations in aqueous environments from anthropogenic sources is becoming of global concern, here iron oxides are known to strongly adsorb aqueous antimony species with different oxidation states, but the effect of silica on the removal characteristics is not well understood despite being a common component in the environment. In this study, ferrihydrite was synthesized at various Si/Fe molar ratios to investigate its adsorption and co-precipitation behaviors with aqueous antimony anionic species, Sb(III) and Sb(V). The XRD analyses of the precipitates showed two broad diffraction features at approximately 35° and 62° 2θ, which are characteristic of 2-line ferrihydrite, no significant shifts in peak positions in the ferrihydrite regardless of the Si/Fe ratios. The infrared spectra showed a sharp band at ~990 cm−1, corresponding to asymmetric stretching vibrations of Si-O-Fe bonds which increased in intensity with increasing Si/Fe molar ratios. Further, the surface charge on the precipitates became more negative with increasing Si/Fe molar ratios. The adsorption experiments indicated that Sb(V) was preferentially adsorbed at acidic conditions and decreased dramatically with increasing pH while the adsorption rate of Sb(III) ions was independent of pH, however, the presence of silica suppressed the adsorption of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) ions. The results showed that Sb(III) and Sb(V) ions were significantly inhibited by co-precipitation with ferrihydrite even in the presence of silica by isomorphous substitution in the ferrihydrite crystal structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: stroke; antioxidant; co-drug; animal model
Online: 20 October 2016 (08:46:38 CEST)
Background: Previously, our laboratory has provided evidence that pre-administration of the antioxidant, lipoic acid covalently bonded to various naturally occurring antioxidants, enhanced neuroprotective capacity compared to the administration of lipoic acid on its own. The naturally occurring compound scopoletin, a coumarin derivative, has been shown in various in vitro studies to have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanism of actions. To date, the effect of scopoletin on neuronal cell death in an in vivo model of ischemia or ischemia-reperfusion has not been investigated. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to determine if scopoletin on its own, or a co-drug consisting of lipoic acid and scopoletin covalent bond, named UPEI-400, would be capable of demonstrating a similar neuroprotective efficacy. Methods: Using a rodent model of stroke in male rats (anesthetized with Inactin®; 100 mg/kg, iv), the middle cerebral artery was permanently occluded for 6 hours (pMCAO), or in separate animals, occluded for 30 min followed by 5.5 hrs of reperfusion (ischemia/reperfusion; I/R). Results: Pre-administration of either scopoletin or UPEI-400 significantly decreased infarct volume in the I/R model (p<0.05), but not in the pMCAO model of stroke. However, UPEI-400 was ~1000 times more potent as compared to scopoletin on its own. The optimal dose of UPEI-400 was then injected during the occlusion and at several time points during reperfusion and significant neuroprotection was observed for up to 150 mins following the start of reperfusion (p<0.05). Conclusion: The data suggest that synthetic combination of scopoletin with lipoic acid (UPEI-400) is a more effective neuroprotectant that either compound on their own. Also, since UPEI-400 was only effective in a model of I/R, it is possible that it may act to enhance neuronal antioxidant capacity and/or upregulate anti-inflammatory pathways to prevent the neuronal cell death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0267.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: adsorption; coatings; poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate); corrosion tests; atomic force microscopy
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:00:55 CET)
Poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) named further PVBA was investigated as protective coating for copper corrosion in 0.9 % NaCl solution using electrochemical measurements such as, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization associated with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The PVBA coating on the copper surface (Cu-PVBA) was modeled in methanol containing PVBA. Its inhibitory properties against corrosion was comparatively discussed with those of the copper sample treated in methanol without polymer (Cu-Me) and of untreated sample (standard copper). A protective performance of PVBA coating of 80 % was computed from electrochemical measurements, for copper corrosion in NaCl solution. Also, AFM images designed a specific surface morphology of coated surface with PVBA, clearly highlighting a polymer film adsorbed on the copper surface, which presents certain deterioration after corrosion, but metal surface was not significantly affected compared to those of untreated samples or treated in methanol, in the absence of PVBA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0248.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Neutrosophic Quasi-Order; Neutrosophic Quasi-Size; Neutrosophic Quasi-Number; Neutrosophic Quasi-Co-Number; Neutrosophic Co-t-Neighborhood
Online: 17 March 2022 (08:48:38 CET)
New setting is introduced to study co-neighborhood, neutrosophic t-neighborhood, neutrosophic quasi-vertex set, neutrosophic quasi-order, neutrosophic neighborhood, neutrosophic co-t-neighborhood, neutrosophic quasi-edge set, neutrosophic quasi-size, Neutrosophic number, neutrosophic co-neighborhood, co-neutrosophic number, quasi-number and quasi-co-number. Some classes of neutrosophic graphs are investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0130.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: crowdsourcing; value co-creation; business sustainability; stakeholder
Online: 8 August 2022 (04:09:12 CEST)
As a typical form of value co-creation, crowdsourcing has been increasingly applied by firms to generate business value. By engaging a crowd, a platform, and other stakeholders, a crowdsourcer can foster the co-creation of a portfolio of value for diverse stakeholders. In analyzing the value co-creation in crowdsourcing, we propose a framework by combining the theories and frameworks in value co-creation and crowdsourcing. The framework examines the key stakeholders, joint purpose, engaged value co-creation processes, contributions, bidirectional relationships of the engagement, and perceived value, exhibiting a holistic view of the value co-creation in a crowdsourcing project. Results of the analysis reveal the business performance of the crowdsourcing project and identify areas of improvement regarding business sustainability. This is a major theoretical contribution of this study. The research design applied a case study approach to empirically investigate a crowdsourcing project. Both the theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0337.v1
Online: 24 January 2022 (09:41:10 CET)
This pot-based study investigated the influence of co-composted wood-derived biochar on lettuce growth performance under salinity and drought stress conditions. Biochar of two particle sizes; > 2 mm and < 1 mm were co-composted with the mixture (1:1 ratio of dry weight) of cow and poultry manures. Co-composted biochars were applied at 5% and 7% rates in soil. Control treatments included the amendment of mixture of biochar with manure in soil. Pots were subjected to slight drought (48-55% water filled pore space (WFPS) of soil) and non-drought conditions (60% WFPS) and under 0 and 1.3 dS m-1 salinity. Results revealed that plants growth performance was significantly better under treatments of co-composted biochar and no salt stress conditions, than when mixture of biochar and manure was applied to soil as non-composted fertilizer. Under no stress condition, small particle-sized co-composted biochar increased root biomass by 786.2% than the large particle-sized co-composted biochar at same application rate. As compared to large-sized co-composted biochar, small sized co-composted biochar at high application rates increased root biomass by 167 – 245% but not leaf biomass under both stress conditions. Small particle-sized co-composted biochar amendment also increased the phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) of lettuce leaves than large particle-sized co-composted biochar under no stress condition. The amendment of small-sized co-composted biochar also increased significantly the concentration of Olsen phosphorus in soil than the amendment of large-particle-sized co-composted biochar. In conclusion, amendment of small particle-sized co-composted biochar has the potential of attenuating salinity and drought stress in lettuce and promoting P cycling in soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0053.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Co-scheduling; HPC; scheduling theory; stochastic optimization
Online: 3 September 2021 (10:14:03 CEST)
Applications in high-performance computing (HPC) may not use all available computational resources, leaving some of them underutilized. By co-scheduling, i.e. running more than one application on the same computational node, it is possible to improve resource utilization and overall throughput. Some applications may have conflicting requirements on resources and co-scheduling may cause performance degradation, so it is important to take it into account in scheduling decisions. In this paper, we formalized co-scheduling problem and proposed multiple scheduling strategies to solve it: an optimal strategy, an online strategy and heuristic strategies. These strategies vary in terms of the optimality of the solution they produce and a priori information about the system they require. We showed theoretically that the online strategy provides schedules with a competitive ratio that has a constant upper limit. This allowed us to solve the co-scheduling problem using heuristic strategies that approximate this online strategy. Numerical simulations showed how heuristic strategies compare to the optimal strategy for different input systems. We proposed a method for measuring input parameters of the model in practice and evaluated this method on HPC benchmark applications. We showed high accuracy of measurement method, which allows to apply proposed scheduling strategies in scheduler implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0483.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: city; CO; COVID 19; emission; social distancing
Online: 28 April 2020 (07:36:53 CEST)
The social distancing as a response to COVID 19 pandemic has led to the exceptional reductions of daily routine people activities and vehicle uses mainly in city. This same situation was also experienced by several busy, large, and populous cities in Southeast Asia (SA) countries. Correspondingly, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that the social distancing implementation period has increased the air quality in the term of carbon monoxide (CO) emission reduction as drawn from Jakarta city as an example of the one of populated cities in SA region. The CO was measured in parts per billions (ppb) and monitored on the daily basis employing remote sensor platform. The monitor periods were started from January, February, March, and April 2020 with 10 measurement days for each month. The social distancing was implemented from mid of March to the recent April. The CO measurement data were statistically tested to justify the significant effects of social distancing on the CO levels. Based on the CO data analysis, the order of CO mean by months is February > January > March > April. The CO levels for January, February, March, and April were 87.46 ppb (95%CI: 83.54-91.37), 88.20 ppb (95%CI: 81.65-94.74), 86.38 (95%CI: 81.06-91.69), and 78.68 (95%CI: 74.03-83.32) respectively. This study also find significant difference (p<0.05) of CO levels especially in April when social distancing has been implemented. Hence, these findings illustrate the potential air pollutant reduction gained from implementing social distancing as can be seen in April.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0536.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: photocatalysis, co-catalysts, water splitting, metallic cluster
Online: 27 July 2018 (09:33:40 CEST)
Degussa P25 is a benchmark form of TiO2 used worldwide in photocatalysis studies. Currently no such benchmark exists for co-catalysts, which are essential for many photocatalytic reactions. Here, we present the preparation of Pt nanocluster co-catalysts on TiO2 using an unmodified commercial source and equipment that is commonly available. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the procedure produces TiO2 decorated with Pt atom and nanoclusters (1-5 atoms). Optical reflectance and X-ray diffraction measurements show that the procedure does not affect the TiO2 polymorph or UV-Vis absorbance. Gas phase photocatalytic splitting of heavy water (D2O) shows that the Pt nanocluster decorated TiO2 outperforms Pt nanoparticle (produced by photodeposition) decorated TiO2 in D2 production. Pt nanoclusters, produced directly from a commercial source, with high co-catalyst activity are prime candidates to be used in benchmark photocatalytic reactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0010.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: Bi2Te3; Thermoelectric properties; co-doping; n-type
Online: 2 October 2017 (15:33:35 CEST)
In order to understand the effect of Pb-CuI co-doping on the thermoelectric performance of Bi2Te3, n-type Bi2Te3 co-doped with x at% CuI and 1/2x at% Pb (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.10) were prepared via high temperature solid state reaction and consolidated using spark plasma sintering. Electron and thermal transport properties, i.e., electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, Hall mobility, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity, of CuI-Pb co-doped Bi2Te3 were measured in the temperature range from 300 K to 523 K and compared to corresponding x% of CuI-doped Bi2Te3 and undoped Bi2Te3. The addition of a small amount of Pb significantly decreased the carrier concentration, which could be attributed to the holes from Pb atoms, thus the CuI-Pb co-doped samples show a lower electrical conductivity and a higher Seebeck coefficient compared to CuI-doped samples with similar x values. The incorporation of Pb into CuI-doped Bi2Te3 rarely changed the power factor because of the trade-off relationship between the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient. The total thermal conductivity(κtot) of co-doped samples (κtot ~1.4 W/m∙K at 300 K) is slightly lower than that of 1% CuI-doped Bi2Te3 (κtot~1.5 W/m∙K at 300 K) and undoped Bi2Te3 (κtot ~1.6 W/m∙K at 300 K) due to the alloy scattering. The 1% CuI-Pb co-doped Bi2Te3 sample shows the highest ZT value of 0.96 at 370 K. All data on electrical and thermal transport properties suggest that the thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3 and its operating temperature can be controlled by co-doping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0208.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: aging; intestinal microbiota; dysbiosis; probiotics; microbial co-occurrences
Online: 17 February 2022 (10:59:55 CET)
Age-related alterations in the gut microbiome composition and its impacts on the host’s health have been well described; however, detailed analyses of the gut microbial structure defining ecological microbe-microbe interactions is limited. One of the ways to determine these interactions is by understanding microbial co-occurrence patterns. We previously showed promising abilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 on the aging gut microbiome and immune system. However, the potential of the DDS-1 strain to modulate microbial co-occurrence patterns is unknown. Hence, we aimed to investigate the ability of L. acidophilus DDS-1 to modulate the fecal, mucosal and cecal-related microbial co-occurrence networks in young and aging C57BL/6J mice. Our Kendall’s tau correlation measures of co-occurrence revealed age-related changes in the gut microbiome, which were characterized by reduced number of nodes and associations across sample types when compared to younger mice. After four-week supplementation, L. acidophilus DDS-1 differentially modulated the overall microbial community structure in fecal and mucosal samples as compared to cecal samples. Beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Akkermansia acted as connectors in aging networks in response to L. acidophilus DDS-1 supplementation. Our findings provided the first evidence of the DDS-1-induced gut microbial ecological interactions revealing the complex structure of microbial ecosystems with age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0571.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; plastid; co-maturation; post-transcriptional; Nanopore
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:48:48 CEST)
Plastid gene expression involves many post-transcriptional maturation steps resulting in a complex transcriptome composed of multiple isoforms. Although short read RNA-seq has considerably improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling these processes, it is unable to sequence full-length transcripts. This information is however crucial when it comes to understand the interplay between the various steps of plastid gene expression. Here, the study of the Arabidopsis leaf plastid transcriptome using Nanopore sequencing showed that many splicing and editing events were not independent but co-occurring. For a given transcript, maturation events also appeared to be chronologically ordered with splicing happening after most sites are edited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: female reproductive tract; organoid; co-culture; crosstalk; blastocyst
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:19:56 CEST)
Hormones must be balanced and dynamically controlled for the Female Reproductive Tract (FRT) to function correctly during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and delivery. Gamete selection and successful transfer to the uterus, where it implants and pregnancy occurs, is supported by the mucosal epithelial lining of the FRT ovaries, uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and vagina. Successful implantation and placentation in humans and other animals rely on complex interactions between the embryo and a receptive female reproductive system. The FRT's recent breakthroughs in three-dimensional (3D) organoid systems now provide critical experimental models that match the organ's physiological, functional, and anatomical characteristics in vitro. This article summarizes the current state of the art on organoids generated from various parts of the FRT. The current analysis examines recent developments in the creation of organoid models of reproductive organs, as well as their future directions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0143.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Co-infection; Drug resistance; Gut microbiota; Salmonellosis; Schistosoma
Online: 7 May 2021 (12:02:03 CEST)
Antibiotic inefficacy in treating bacterial infections is largely studied in the context of developing resistance mechanisms. However, little attention has been paid to combined diseases mechanisms, interspecies pathogenesis and the resulting impact on antimicrobial treatment. This review will consider the co-infections of Salmonella and Schistosoma mansoni. It summarises the protective mechanisms that the pathophysiology of the two infections confer, which leads to an antibiotic protection phenomenon. This review will elucidate the functional characteristics of the gut microbiota in the context of these co-infections, the pathogenicity of these infections in infected mice, and the efficacy of the antibiotics used in treatment of these co-infections over time. Salmonella-Schistosoma interactions and the mechanism for antibiotic protection are not well established. However, antimicrobial drug inefficacy is an existing phenomenon in these co-infections. The treatment of schistosomiasis to ensure the efficacy of antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections should be considered in co-infected patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0216.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; variants; co-circulation; dominance; vaccines
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:24:38 CEST)
Some emergent SARS-CoV-2 variants raise concerns due to their altered biological properties. For both B.1.1.7 and B.1351 variants, named as variants of concern (VOC), increased transmissibility was reported, whereas B.1.351 was more resistant to multiple monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), as well as convalescent and vaccination sera. To test this hypothesis, we examined the proportion of VOC over time across different geographic areas where the two VOC, B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, co-circulate. Our comparative analysis was based on the number of SARS-CoV-2 sequences on GISAID database. We report that B.1.1.7 dominates over B.1.351 in geographic areas where both variants co-circulate and the B.1.1.7 was the first variant introduced in the population. The only areas where B.1.351 was detected at higher proportion were South Africa and Mayotte in Africa, where this strain was associated with increased community transmission before the detection of B.1.1.7. The dominance of B.1.1.7 over B.1.351 could be important since B.1.351 was more resistant to certain mAbs, as well as heterologous convalescent and vaccination sera, thus suggesting that it may be transmitted more effectively in people with pre-existing immunity to other VOC. This scenario would lessen the effectiveness of vaccine and urge the need to update them with new strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0711.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: co-expression network; residual feed intake; RNA-Seq
Online: 30 July 2020 (09:39:36 CEST)
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) can regulate several aspects of gene expression, being associated with complex phenotypes in humans and livestock species. In taurine beef cattle, recent evidence points to the involvement of lncRNA in feed efficiency (FE), a proxy for increased productivity and sustainability. Here, we hypothesized specific regulatory roles of lncRNA in FE of indicine cattle. Using RNA-Seq data from liver, muscle, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland from Nellore bulls with divergent FE, we submitted new transcripts to a series of filters to confidently predict lncRNA. Then, we identified lncRNA that were differentially expressed (DE) and/or key regulators of FE. Finally, we explored lncRNA genomic location and interactions with miRNA and mRNA to infer potential function. We were able to identify 126 relevant lncRNA for FE in Bos indicus, some with high homology to previously identified lncRNA in Bos taurus and some possible specific regulators of FE in indicine cattle. Moreover, lncRNA identified here were linked to previously described mechanisms related to FE in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and are expected to help elucidate this complex phenotype. This study contributes to expanding the catalogue of lncRNA, particularly in indicine cattle, and identifies candidates for further studies in animal selection and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: co-infection; coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19; influenza
Online: 19 March 2020 (02:00:47 CET)
Background: On late December 2019, a viral pneumonia known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was originated from China and spread very rapidly in the world. Therefore, COVID-19 became a global concern and health problem. Methods: We presented four patients in this study. They were selected from patients who presented with pneumonia symptoms and were suspicious for COVID-19 and referred to the intended centers for COVID-19 diagnosis and management of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in the south of Iran. Two nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal throat swab samples were collected from each patient and tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection by real-time reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR), and also samples were sent for influenza viruses and all the respiratory panel. Results: In the present report, four patients were diagnosed in the starting days of COVID-19 disease in our center in south of Iran with co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus. Conclusions: This co-infection of COVID-19 and influenza highlights the importance of considering SARS-CoV-2 PCR assay regardless of other positive findings for other pathogens in the primary test during the epidemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0430.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Co-culture; Reduced-serum; Wound bed; Fibroblasts; Keratinocytes
Online: 12 March 2020 (13:24:46 CET)
Contact-based co-culture of fibroblasts and keratinocytes is important to study the structure and functions of the wound bed. Co-culture of these two cell types in direct contact with each other has been challenging, requiring high serum concentrations (up to 10%), feeder systems and a range of supplemental factors. These approaches are not only technically demanding, but also present scientific, cost and ethical limitations associated with high-serum concentrations. We have developed two reduced-serum approaches (1-2%) to support contact-based co-culture of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). The two approaches include (1) Specialized cell culture media for each cell type mixed in a 1:1 ratio (KGM+FGM), and (2) Minimal media supplemented with cell-specific growth factors (MEM+GF). Co-culture could be successfully achieved by co-seeding (two cell types were introduced simultaneously), or in a layered fashion (keratinocytes seeded on top of confluent fibroblasts). With wound scratch assays, the co-cultured platforms could demonstrate cell proliferation, migration and wound closure. The reduced-serum conditions developed are simple, easy to formulate and adopt, and based on commonly-available media components. These contact-based co-culture approaches can be leveraged for wound and skin studies, and tissue bioengineering applications, potentially reducing concerns with high-serum formulations.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: dengue; chikungunya; Leptospira; co-infection; Colombia; Latin America
Online: 12 November 2018 (03:21:38 CET)
Background: The febrile patient from tropical areas, in which emerging arboviruses are endemic, represent a diagnostic challenge and potential co-infections with other pathogens (i.e bacteria or parasites) are usually overlooked. Objectives: We present a case of an elderly woman diagnosed with dengue, chikungunya and Leptospira interrogans co-infection. Study Design: Case report. Results: An 87-year old woman from Colombia complained of upper abdominal pain, arthralgia, myalgia, hyporexia, malaise and intermittent fever accompanied with progressive jaundice. She had a medical history of chronic heart failure (Stage C, NYHA III), without documented cardiac murmurs, right bundle branch block, non-valvular atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and chronic venous disease. Her cardiac and pulmonary status quickly deteriorated after 24 hours of her admission without electrocardiographic changes and she required ventilatory and vasopressor support. In the next hours the patient evolved to pulseless electrical activity and then she died. Dengue IgM, NS1 ELISA, MAT for Leptospira interrogans and RT-PCR for chikungunya, were positive. Discussion: This case illustrates a multiple co-infection in a febrile patient from a tropical area of Latin America that evolved to death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0014.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: tin oxide pellets; doping; HRTEM analysis; CO; sensitivity
Online: 4 April 2017 (08:16:13 CEST)
In this work, we report synthesis of Cu, Pt and Pd doped SnO2 powders and their comparative CO gas sensing studies. Dopants were incorporated into SnO2 nanostructures using chemical and impregnation methods by using urea and ammonia as precipitation agents. The synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The presence of dopants within the SnO2 nanostructures was evidenced from HR-TEM. Doped powders utilizing chemical methods with urea as precipitation agent presented higher sensitivities compared to the remaining, which is due to the formation of uniform and homogeneous particles resulted from the temperature assisted synthesis. The particle sizes of doped SnO2 nanostructures were in the range of 40-100 nm. An enhanced sensitivity around 1783 was achieved with Cu doped SnO2 when compared with two other dopants i.e., Pt (1200) and Pd: SnO2(502). The high sensitivity of Cu: SnO2 is due to formation of CuO and its excellent association and dissociation in the presence of CO with adsorbed atmospheric oxygen at sensor operation temperatures resulted in high conductance. Cu: SnO2 may be an alternative and cost effective sensor for industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0123.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: co-management; livelihoods; conflicts; biodiversity conservation; sustainable development
Online: 24 November 2016 (11:25:34 CET)
Good governance in natural resource management (NRM) is one of the most challenging issues in developing countries that often inappropriately embedded in national policies and political agendas. It is, in fact, even more important for countries like Bangladesh with exceptionally high pressure and dependence on its natural resources for sustaining rural livelihoods. Globally, nowadays, good governance is considered as one of the key factor for achieving the goal of sustainable development and biodiversity conservation. Bangladesh, of late has responded to that global zeal by involving local communities in the management of country’s declining forest and other natural resources. The colonial legacy of the forestry sector of Bangladesh was planned and, managed as interim projects through donors’ prescriptions. Thus, institutions, management processes and conservation outcomes were problematic. The conventional approach adopted by colonial and post-colonial regimes for forest management also proved to be inefficient due to its top-down management system. The absolute dependency on donor support, and their prescription sometimes worsened the situation both ecologically and socially. Global, regional and local trends supported the need for a different dimension in the governance paradigms. The introduction of a pluralistic approach, known as co-management in protected areas (PAs) is an example of an attempt whereby shared governance mechanism are implemented to attain the desired goals of conservation that will also address the livelihoods and aspirations of communities living in and around PAs of the country. However, in designing future forest and PA regimes the concern of the external aid support and attached conditions remain a reality that needs to be addressed. Adequate attention should be given to our vanishing biodiversity, culture and community livelihoods through devising an appropriate governance mechanism recognizing and supporting local rights, access and participation in the environmental management. It is now time to mainstream the adhoc nature of governance according to our national conservation strategy and policy frameworks in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the Bangladesh NRM sector addressing the human and community right of people in the specific context of forest protected areas management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0101.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biodiversity conservation, livelihood, co-management, stakeholder, law enforcement
Online: 18 November 2016 (15:20:07 CET)
Despite of being an exceptionally biodiversity rich country, the forest coverage of Bangladesh is declining at an alarming rate. Declaration and management of protected areas in this regard is one of the efforts from government side to tackle the loss of biodiversity. The limited numbers of forest-protected areas (FPA), established to conserve the dwindling forest biodiversity of the country with high pressure on them for timber, non-timber forest products, and fuelwood - makes their management challenging. Moreover, most of the FPAs of the country declared only in the recent decades with very limited infrastructure, manpower and policy support for monitoring and governance. Some people-centred approaches for the management of FPAs and alternative livelihood and income generation subsidies although made available through a few project interventions, their number are still inadequate and performance remains less than satisfactory. This chapter provides a critical review of the FPAs of Bangladesh looking at their role in biodiversity conservation, management challenges, and key lessons from previous management interventions with recommendations for the future. It has been revealed that the FPA system of Bangladesh still poorly represents the diverse forest ecosystems with relatively small forest size and lack of corridors for the movement of wildlife. There are ample opportunities to render co-management of FPAs an effective strategy to minimize the conflicts in FPAs management in the country. It is, however, important to ensure the access of local forest-dependent people to different alternative income generating options that may adequately support their livelihoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0143.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Salmonella; novel antibacterial agents; cannabidiol; co-therapy; bacterial genetics
Online: 12 September 2022 (09:55:22 CEST)
New generation antibiotics are needed to combat the development of resistance to antimicrobials. One of the most promising new classes of antibiotics is cannabidiol (CBD). It is a non-toxic and low-resistance chemical that can be used to treat bacterial infections. The antibacterial activity of Cannabis sativa L. byproducts, specifically CBD, has been of growing interest in the field of novel therapeutics. As research continues to define and characterize the antibacterial activity that CBD possesses against a wide variety of bacterial species it is important to examine potential interaction between CBD and common therapeutics such as broad-spectrum antibiotics. Here, we show that CBD-antibiotic co-therapy can effectively fight S. typhimurium via membrane integrity disruption. This research serves to examine the potential synergy between CBD and three broad-spectrum antibiotics for potential antibiotic-CBD co-therapy. In this study, we reveal that Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) growth is inhibited at very low dosages of CBD-antibiotic. This interesting finding demonstrates that CBD and CBD-antibiotic co-therapies are viable novel alternatives to combating Salmonella typhimurium.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0530.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Resource recovery; circular economy; food waste; anaerobic co-digestion
Online: 31 August 2022 (03:10:30 CEST)
The emergence of the circular economy, and the evolving paradigms in the treatment and management of wastewater, have opened up an opportunity for co-digestion of organic waste (i.e., food waste) with sewage sludges to enhance resource recovery at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper reviewed the potential for anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludges, as well as alternative sustainable food waste handling systems in South Africa. The promotion of the circular economy by the latest national solid waste management strategy and the ongoing efforts for resource recovery by the wastewater sector suggests that anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge is possible in South Africa. Furthermore, an integrated food waste disposer (FWD) system was identified as a sustainable alternative for food waste handling. To formulate a roadmap for future food waste and sewage sludge co-digestion implementation, a multi-disciplinary investigation is required to bridge the literature gap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0282.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Project management; geothermal; co-benefits; sustainable development; innovation, operationalization
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:08:41 CET)
Despite knowledge concerning stakeholders and the economic advantages of consultation, collaboration and innovation, analysis of the sustainability implications of the geothermal industry has tended to take a high-level or systemic overview of national performance. This study seeks to begin to fill this gap in the academic and grey literature, investigating the following research question: how do projects in the Icelandic geothermal energy sector create co-benefits with stakeholders and reflect the integration of sustainable energy development (SED)? The focus of its analysis is on identifying who are the stakeholders, what are the sustainability benefits co-created with stakeholders, and when in the project lifecycle do these occur. Based on eleven semi-structured interviews with project managers in Iceland’s geothermal industry, the study identifies a broad array of stakeholders in the sector, including national and municipal governments and public sector institutions, businesses, the public, employees and landowners. The sustainability co-benefits of Iceland’s geothermal power projects are broad and cut cross all six themes of SED and multiple phases of the project lifecycle. Although the sustainability benefits are very apparent, trade-offs are reported between the pursuit of an economically efficient energy system and nature conservation. This relates to unsustainable utilization of the resources and the environmental externalities of power production and consumption. Efforts to mitigate these effects are ongoing and the further pursuit of SED is likely in Iceland given its recognition within the nation’s new energy policy and to meet ambitious greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets in the government’s climate action plan. These are issues that are prominent in other nations seeking to decarbonize energy systems through increased utilization of geothermal resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0319.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Waste water; Phosphate co-product; Adsorption; Red Acid 52
Online: 21 December 2021 (09:15:16 CET)
Water is essential for all living things however its pain has become serious. Many industrial activities cause its pollution by the release of polluting byproduct. Waste water treatment is hence necessary. In this context, the waste water of the textile industry containing Red Acid 52 was treated by the solid waste of the washed natural phosphate byproduct. Natural phosphate was also studied. The solid materials were first characterized by chemical analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The phosphate materials were after that, tested in the adsorption of the Red Acid 52. The experimental data indicated that the phosphate waste rock allowed the removal of Red Acid 52. Its maximum retention capacity attained 18.4 mg.g-1. Calcinations of materials inhibits the removal capacity found reduced by 60 to 70%. The adsorption kinetics of the Red Acid 52 on the material is well described by the pseudo second order model while the adsorption isotherms are identified by the Langmuir model. Hereafter, the thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic. Keywords: Waste water, Phosphate co-product, Adsorption, Red Acid 52.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0029.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: carbon nanomaterials; nitrogen doping; sulphur doping; co-doping; electrocatalysts
Online: 2 December 2021 (10:18:53 CET)
In recent years, hetero atom incorporated specially structured metal-free carbon nanomaterials have drawn huge attention among researchers. In comparison to the un-doped carbon nanomaterials, hetero atoms like nitrogen, sulphur, boron, phosphorous etc. incorporated nanomaterials become well-accepted as potential electrocatalysts in water splitting, supercapacitors and dye-sensitized solar cells. This review emphasizes on the mostly popular synthetic strategies utilized in last two decades and their excellent performance in electrocatalytic studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0085.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: allosteric ligands; AutoDock; cognate ligands; Tanimoto co-efficient; GPCRs
Online: 3 December 2020 (13:08:24 CET)
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are large protein families known to be important in many cellular processes. They are well known for their allosteric activation mechanisms. They are drug targets for several FDA-approved drugs. We have investigated the diversity of the ligand binding site for these class of proteins against their cognate ligands using computational docking, even if their structures are known in the ligand-complexed form. The cognate ligand of some of these receptors dock at allosteric binding site, with better score than the binding at the conservative site. Further, ligands obtained from GLASS database, which consists of experimentally verified GPCR ligands, also show allosteric binding to GPCRs. The allosteric binders show strong affinity to the binding site, though the residues at the binding site are not conserved across GPCR subfamilies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: co-infection; SARS-CoV-2; pike glycoprotein; stop mutations
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:33:59 CEST)
There is a rising global concern for the ongoing outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 due to its high transmission rate and unavailability of treatment. Through the binding of its spike glycoprotein with angiotensin type 2 (ACE2), SARS-CoV-2 can efficiently get in the cells of patients and start its pandemic cycle. Herein, the biological diversity of SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed in Babylon province of Iraq by investigating the possible genetic variations of the spike glycoprotein. A specific coding region of 795 bp within the viral spike (S) gene was amplified from 19 patients who suffered from obvious symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sequencing results identified fifteen novel nucleic acid variations with a variety of distributions within the investigated samples. The electropherograms of all the identified variations showed obvious co-infections with at least two different viral strains per sample. Within these co-infections, the majority of samples exhibited three nonsense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)s, p.301Cdel, p.380Ydel, and p.436del, which yielded three truncated SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins of 301, 380, and 436 amino acids length, respectively. The network and phylogenetic analyses indicated that for all viral infections were derived from multi-ancestral origins. Results inferred from the specific clade-based tree entailed that some viral strains were derived from European G-clade sequences. In conclusion, our data demonstrated the absence of any single strain infection among all investigated viral samples in the studied area, which may entail a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 in this country. Through the identified high frequency of truncated spike proteins, we suggest that defective SARS-CoV-2 may depend on helper strains having intact spikes in its infection. Alternatively, another putative ACE2-independent route of viral infection way also suggested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the co-infection of multiple strains of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0252.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: SARS-Co-V2; Paediatric hyperinflammation; MIS-C; PIMS-TS
Online: 12 July 2020 (12:09:35 CEST)
We describe the innate and adaptive immune system trajectory in Multi-system inflammatory syndrome of childhood (MIS-C), at acute(within 72 hours of hospitalization), resolution (at clinical improvement) and convalescent phase. In our cohort, in the acute phase, 68% of the children were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive, with hypercytokinenemia (high interleukin(IL)-1beta,IL-6,IL-8,IL-10,IL-17, interferon gamma), procoagulant state, myocardial dysfunction, activated neutrophils and monocytes; differential T and B cell subset lymphopenia; activated chemokine receptor type-7 positive and gamma-delta T cell subsets; antigen presenting cells had reduced HLA-DR expression; and B-cell class-switch responses occurred with illness resolution. MIS-C is an immunopathogenic illness associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections in children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; Indigenous Tribes; Co-morbidities; Corona Virus; Navaho
Online: 14 April 2020 (08:43:11 CEST)
Introduction The COVID-19 virus was initially reported in Dec 2019 as the causative agent of a pneumonia breakout in Wuhan China. This virus rapidly spread from China to Europe and the East Coast of the United States eventually reaching the South West United States and indigenous tribes in mid -March. Since, then the indigenous tribes have been devasted by the virus which the Governor of New Mexico has likened as an existential threat. Methodology A PubMed search was performed utilizing the words: Navajo Indian, Indigenous Indian, Wuhan Virus, COVID-19, SARs coronavirus, ACE2, S protein, virulence, clinical presentation, epidemiology, genome, treatment, structure, MERs, pathogenesis and/or pathology alone and in combination with other terms. Each paper was evaluated by three content experts for quality, reproducibility, credibility and reputation of the journal Results: Navajo’s and other indigenous peoples may have elevated levels of ACE2 receptors in their lungs and other tissues allowing greater susceptibility to the COVID-19 virus. Increased levels of diabetes and protein nutrition are directly related to increased morbidity and mortality in this group while obesity, COPD, and heart diseas are not. The increased morbidity and mortality is exasperated by an inability to test for COVID-19 Conclusion: The infectivity rate of Navaho’s on the reservation is 22 times higher than the national average with a death rate near 4%. Comorbidites account for some of the increased morbidity and mortality while lack of access to adequate health care unnecessarily magnifies the poor outcome. The threat to indigenous tribes in the Southwest of COVID-19 is dire.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0406.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Environmental chemistry; Oxyfuel Combustion; NO-CO reaction; Heterogeneous catalysis.
Online: 27 February 2020 (12:25:57 CET)
Carbon dioxide has become a global challenge, where the emissions have become more than what could be handled. In this regard, conversion of CO2 to value added chemicals and thus recycling CO2 became a viable option. One of these options is the use of a process in strong development: oxycombustion. However, the gases resulting from this process contain some traces of impurities that can hinder the recovery of CO2 such as NO and CO. This work has therefore focused on the study of the reaction of NO reduction by CO in an oxidizing medium, using catalytic materials based on various supported noble metals. These materials were extensively characterized by a variety of methods including BET surface area measurements, hydrogen chemisorption, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR). The obtained results show that the catalytic behaviour of M/Al2O3 catalysts in CO oxidation and NO reduction with CO in oxidative conditions depends mainly on the nature of the metal. The best result for these both reactions is obtained with Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. The Pt nanoparticles existing in the metallic form (Pt°) showed by TPR could explain the activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0299.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: European Parliament , Ordinary Legislative Procedure, Co-decision, Efficiency,Effectiveness
Online: 25 December 2018 (08:44:35 CET)
On the eve of the Brexit process, in the context of a rising Euroscepticism that fuels the modest confidence of European citizens in their national and European institutions, the article assesses the efficiency and effectiveness of the European Parliament within the framework of the ordinary legislative procedure (co-decision). After defining and formulating the main indicators, the paper analyses the micro- and macro-performance of the European Parliament within the decision-making process from a quantitative-qualitative and a qualitative-quantitative perspective, highlighting the relativizing factors and the responsiveness of the European decision-making process to the Europeans’ needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0298.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Ti doped ZnO, Thin film, Co-Sputtering, UV-Visible
Online: 25 December 2018 (08:40:43 CET)
ZnO films with Ti atoms incorporated (TZO) in a wide range (0-18 at. %) have been grown by reactive co-sputtering on silicon and glass substrates. The influence of the titanium incorporation in the ZnO matrix on the structural and optical characteristics of the samples has been determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the samples with low Ti content (< 4 at. %) exhibit the wurtzite-like structure, with the Ti+4 ions substitutionally incorporated into the ZnO structure, forming Ti-doped ZnO films. In particular, very low concentration of Ti (<0.9 at. %) leads to a significant increase of the crystallinity of the TZO samples. Higher Ti contents give rise to a progressive amorphization of the wurtzite-like structure so samples with high Ti content (≥18at. %), displays an amorphous structure indicating the XPS analysis a predominance of Ti-O-Zn mixed oxides. The energy gap, obtained from absorption spectrophotometry, increases from 3.2 eV for pure ZnO films to 3.6 eV for those with the highest Ti content. Ti incorporation in the ZnO samples below 0.9 at. % rises both, the blue (380 nm) and green (550 nm) bands of the photoluminescence (PL) emission, thereby indicating a significant improvement of PL efficiency of the samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0203.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Titanium dioxide nanotube, photoelectric properties, co-doping, magnetron sputtering
Online: 10 August 2018 (09:43:33 CEST)
Cu,N-TiO2 nanotube (Cu,N-TNT) is prepared through a novel magnetron sputtering and anodic oxidation method. Then the morphology, structure and physicochemical property of Cu,N-TNT was analyzed by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and UV-vis-DR. The results indicate that the evenly doped copper is beneficial to the transformation of the TNT from anatase to rutile and play a key role in the morphology of the Cu,N-TNT. The doped Cu and N in the TNT influence the growth orientation of the TiO2 crystals, which result in the lattice distortion and wider the interplanar spacing 60s-Cu,N-TNT has less band gap and stronger absorption intensity in visible region than other Cu,N-TNT samples, which make the combination rate of photogenerated electron and photogenerated hole decrease greatly, thus beneficial to its physicochemical property.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0021.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterials; cobalt ferrites; poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate); tissue engineering
Online: 3 July 2018 (05:12:53 CEST)
Polymer-based piezoelectric biomaterials have already proven their relevance for tissue engineering applications. Further, the morphology of the scaffolds plays also an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation. The present work reports on poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), a biocompatible, biodegradable and piezoelectric biopolymer that has been processed in different morphologies, including films, fibres, microspheres and 3D scaffolds. Further, the corresponding magnetically active PHBV-based composites were also produced. The effect of the morphology on physico-chemical, thermal, magnetic and mechanical properties of pristine and composites samples was evaluated, as well as their cytotoxicity. It was observed that the morphology does not strongly affect the properties of the pristine samples but the introduction of cobalt ferrites induces changes in the degree of crystallinity that could affect the applicability of prepared biomaterials. Young modulus is dependent of the morphology and also increases with the addition of cobalt ferrites. Both, pristine and PHBV/cobalt ferrite composite samples are no cytotoxic, indicating their suitability for tissue engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0132.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: subplinian eruption; co-occurrence matrix; wavelet transform; similarity metrics
Online: 8 June 2018 (12:33:49 CEST)
This paper presents a new methodology that provides the analysis of surface texture changes in areas adjacent to the volcano and its impact product of volcanic activity. To do this, algorithms from digital image processing such as the co-occurrence matrix and the wavelet transform are used. These methods are working on images taken by the Landsat satellite platform sensor 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM + sensor, and implemented with the purpose of evaluating superficial changes that can warn of surface movements of the volcano. The results were evaluated by similarity metrics for grayscale images, and validated in two different scenarios that have the same type of eruption, but differ, essentially, in climate and vegetation. Finally, the proposed algorithm is presented, setting the parameters and constraints for implementation and use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0165.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: infectious bronchitis virus; protection; co-expressing; subunit vaccine; challenge
Online: 10 May 2018 (12:02:08 CEST)
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis, which causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. It is imperative to develop safe and efficient candidate vaccines to control IBV infection. In the current study, recombinant baculoviruses co-expressing S1 and N proteins, mono-expressing S1 or N proteins alone of IBV were constructed and prepared into subunit vaccines rHBM-S1-N, rHBM-S1 and rHBM-N. The levels of immune protection of these subunit vaccines were evaluated by inoculating specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens at 14 days of age, boosting with the same dose 14 days later, and following challenge with a virulent GX-YL5 strain of IBV 14 days post-booster (dpb). The commercial vaccine strain H120 was used as a control. The IBV-specific antibody levels as well as the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were detected within 28 days post-vaccination (dpv). The morbidity, mortality, and re-isolation of virus from the tracheas and kidneys of challenged birds were evaluated at 5 days post-challenge (dpc). The results showed that the IBV-specific antibody levels and the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte in rHBM-S1-N group were higher than those of rHBM-S1 and rHBM-N groups, especially the cellular immunity response. At 5 dpc, the mortality, morbidity and virus re-isolation rate of rHBM-S1-N were slightly higher than those of H120 group, but were lower than those of rHBM-S1 group and rHBM-N group. The present study demonstrated that the protection of recombinant baculovirus co-expressing S1 and N proteins was better than that of recombinant baculoviruses mono-expressing S1 or N protein alone. Thus, the recombinant baculovirus co-expressing S1 and N proteins could serve as a potential IBV vaccine and this demonstrates that the bivalent subunit vaccine including the S1 and N proteins might be a strategy for the development of an IBV subunit vaccine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0014.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: pharmaceutical toxicants; recalcitrant pollutants; co-metabolic pathways; biostimulation; bioaug-mentation
Online: 1 June 2022 (10:29:47 CEST)
Pharmaceutically active compounds and organic pollutants are becoming a major environmental dispute possessing serious threat to the water bodies and terrestrial ecosystem. Microorganisms are capable of the self-purification process, and hence the microbial degradation is considered a lucrative method to counteract the therapeutic and recalcitrant pollutants. Pharmaceutical toxicants in aquatic system can be treated by conventional wastewater treatment, but slow sludge settling, presence of mixture of pharmaceuticals and recalcitrant compounds often pose a potential ecological risk. Some microbial strains are very effective in reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total dissolved solids (TDS), and turbidity in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater treatment. The natural microbial community has a significant role in the ecological processes of pharmaceutical and organic compounds, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, blood lipid regulators and other micropollutants. Specific bacterial isolates can act as biodegraders, and fungal treatment could offer protection to the ecosystem. These microorganisms use the pollutants as their sole carbon source and transform the contaminants by co-metabolic pathways. Natural attenuation by native microorganisms, biostimulation and bioaugmentation are the processes employed to degrade the target contaminant. Microorganisms may also be genetically engineered to improve the neutralization efficiency, which would assist in the mineralization of the pollutants. Thus, employing microorganisms to detoxify the pollutants probably enhances the sustainable potential biodegradability, improves water quality standards and ensures eco-friendly alternative bioremediation strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0123.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: wind energy; digitalisation; collaboration; co-innovation; machine learning; fault detection
Online: 10 May 2022 (03:05:25 CEST)
In the next decade, further digitalisation of the entire wind energy project lifecycle is expected to be a major driver for reducing project costs and risks. In this paper, a literature review on the challenges related to implementation of digitalisation in the wind energy industry is first carried out, showing that there is a strong need for new solutions that enable co-innovation within and between organisations. Therefore, a new collaboration method called the WeDoWind Ecosystem is developed and demonstrated. The method is centred around specific "challenges", which are defined by "challenge providers" within a topical "space" and made available to participants via a digital platform. The data required in order to solve a particular "challenge" is provided by the "challenge providers" under the confidentiality conditions they specify. The method is demonstrated via a case study, the EDP Wind Turbine Fault Detection Challenge. Six submitted solutions using diverse approaches are evaluated. Two of the methods perform significantly better than EDP’s existing method in terms of Total Prediction Costs (saving up to €120,000). The WeDoWind Ecosystem is found to be a promising solution for enabling co-innovation in wind energy, providing a number of tangible benefits for both challenge and solution providers.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0185.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: case fatality rate; co-infection; control; COVID-19; pandemic; policy; risk; vaccination
Online: 6 May 2022 (03:38:30 CEST)
There are two contrary opinions regarding the risk if mainland China (MC) moves away from its zero-COVID policy. Some experts think the risk shall be much lower than influenza as per MC’s own COVID-19 case fatality rate (CFR), while some other experts think the risk shall be much higher than influenza as per the COVID-19 CFRs of other regions. We elucidate here that this and multiple other striking differences in the CFR between various scenarios all support and substantially resulted from the view that good IDM is highly powerful to mitigate COVID-19, where IDM (isolation-disinfection-maintenance) means isolation of COVID-19 cases from other people, disinfection of their living environments, and health maintenance (e.g., rest, nutrition, breathing). The high effect of good IDM is also supported by the theoretic functions of IDM in minimizing co-infections and maintaining body functions, and the fact that all the 505 COVID-19 deaths reported in MC in 2022 before May 5 died directly of severe underlying diseases with COVID-19. Although it is tough for people in poverty to obtain good IDM, good IDM can be feasible at home for the most mild cases and in hospitals for the most severe cases. Therefore, good IDM can be crucial to mitigating COVID-19 worldwide. It also suggests that the risk for China to end its zero-COVID policy depends on China’s control policies or measures. Based on the effect of IDM, the cautious co-existence policy was proposed for COVID-19 control. This policy could reduce the whole death toll in MC because good IDM is non-specific and can reduce deaths of various other diseases. The cautious co-existence policy (non-specific) and the vaccination policy (specific) aid each other to mitigate COVID-19, and they cannot replace each other. Those who are qualified in health for vaccination should be vaccinated against COVID-19 timely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0165.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: HIV/TB co-infected Mortality; Residential Variations; Multilevel Logistic Regression
Online: 12 January 2022 (13:34:06 CET)
The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that affect the mortality among adult HIV/TB co-infected patients and to see the nutritional difference among mortality in residence level. Retrospective cohort studies of 417 patients which fulfill our criteria were included. Multilevel logistic regression models were used. MLwiN and SPSS software are used to estimate the parameter. The variance of the random factor in the empty model was significant which indicates that there were residential differences in TB-HIV co-infected mortality and it shows multilevel analysis was an appropriate approach for further analysis. The prevalence of HIV/TB co-infected patients' death was 12.9% in study time. Functional status, age of patients, WHO clinical stages, nutritional status, CD4 counts, regimen, and BMI were found to be significant determinants of HIV/TB co-infected mortality. In our study, patients with the bedridden category of functional status, the fourth stages of WHO clinical stages (stage IV), patients with higher age, patients whose treatments were second-line regimen and low CD4 cell counts were more at risk of death. The study also revealed that; poor nutritional status increased the risk of mortality among HIV/TB co-infected patients and it varies among the residence of the patients (rural area were more at risk).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0057.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: impacts; microplastics; marine environment; single-use plastics; co-management initiatives
Online: 4 October 2021 (12:23:39 CEST)
Threats emerging from microplastics pollution in the marine environment have received much global attention. This review assessed sources, fate, and impacts of microplastics in marine ecosystems and identified gaps. Most studies document ubiquity of microplastics and associated environmental effects. Effects include impacts to marine ecosystems, risks to biodiversity, and threats to human health. Microplastic leakage into marine ecosystems arises from plastic waste mismanagement and a lack of effective mitigative strategies. This review identified a scarcity of microplastics mitigation strategies across different stakeholders. Lack of community involvement in microplastic monitoring or ecosystem conservation exists due to limited existence of stakeholder co-management initiatives. Although some management strategies exist for controlling the effects of microplastics (often implemented by local and global environmental groups); a standardized management strategy to mitigate microplastics in coastal areas is urgently required. There is a need to identify focal causes of microplastic pollution in the marine environment through further environmental research. This would extend to creating more effective policies as well as harmonized and extended efforts of educational campaigns and incentives for counteraction and plastic waste reduction, while mandating stringent penalties for polluting the marine environment. This will help reduce microplastic leakage into the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: co-planar sensor; capacitive sensing; NDT techniques; FE modelling; defects
Online: 15 March 2021 (15:31:44 CET)
It was recently demonstrated that a co-planar capacitive sensor could be applied to the evaluation of materials without the disadvantages associated with the other techniques. This technique effectively detects changes in the dielectric properties of the materials due to, for instance, imperfections or variations in the internal structure, by moving a set of simple electrodes on the surface of the specimen. An AC voltage is applied to one or more electrodes and signals are detected by others. This is a promising inspection method for imaging the interior structure of the numerous materials, without the necessity to be in contact with the surface of the sample. In this paper, Finite Element (FE) modelling was employed to simulate the electric field distribution from a co-planar capacitive sensor and the way it interacts with a non-conducting sample. Physical experiments with a prototype capacitive sensor were also performed on a Plexiglas sample with sub-surface defects, to assess the imaging performance of the sensor. A good qualitative agreement was observed between the numerical simulation and experimental result.
Subject: Keywords: ODS steel; mechanical alloying; spark plasma sintering; zirconium; co-precipitation
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:10:06 CET)
Currently, one of the biggest issues when developing an ODS alloy is the competition established between the different oxide precursors during the precipitation of oxides which nature depends on their chemical composition. In the presence of various precursors, usually the one with the highest affinity to oxygen leads to the absence of the other oxides. In this work, a new process to equilibrate the local concentration of species and to decrease the competition among them is explained. A unique compound, containing the diverse oxide precursors as one complex oxide, is introduced in a prealloyed 14Cr Steel powder via mechanical alloying. Thus, generating environments enriched in Y, Ti and Zr which, after consolidation, refine the oxides precipitation improving the thermal stability of the alloy. SPS were used as consolidation technique to guarantee shorter sintering times and to maintain the nanostructure obtained. Mechanical properties were tested by tensile tests and Vickers microhardness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0258.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: co-infection; SARS-CoV-2; Covid-19; seasonal respiratory viruses
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:53:28 CET)
Background: Co-infections of SARS-CoV-2 with respiratory viruses, bacteria and fungi have been reported to cause a wide range of illness. Objectives: We asses s the prevalence of co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 with seasonal respiratory viruses, document the respiratory viruses detected among individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, and describe characteristics of individuals with respiratory virus co-infection detected. Methods: Specimens included in this study were submitted as part of routine clinical testing to Public Health Ontario Laboratory from individuals requiring testing for SARS-CoV-2 and/or seasonal respiratory viruses. Results: Co-infection was detected in a smaller proportion (2.5%) of individuals with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 than those with seasonal respiratory viruses (4.3%); this difference was not significant. Individuals with any respiratory virus co-infection were more likely to be younger than 65 years of age and male than those with single infection. Those with SARS-CoV-2 co-infection manifested mostly mild respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: Findings of this study may not support routine testing for seasonal respiratory viruses among all individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, as they were rare during the study period nor associated with severe disease. However, testing for seasonal respiratory viruses should be performed in severely ill individuals, in which detection of other viruses may assist with patient management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0386.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: reproduction number; disease-free equilibrium; co-existence equilibrium; Yersinia; gastroenteritis
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:40:09 CEST)
The complex interplay among pathogens, host factors, and the integrity and composition of the endogenous microbiome determine the course and outcome of gastrointestinal infections. The model organism Yersinia entercolitica (Ye) is one of the five top frequent causes of bacterial gastroenteritis based on the Epidemiological Bulletin of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) published on September 10, 2020. A fundamental challenge in predicting the course of an infection is to understand whether co-infection with two Yersinia strains differing only in their capacity to resist killing by the host immune system may decrease the overall virulence by competitive exclusion or increase it by acting cooperatively. Herein, we study the primary interactions among Ye, the host immune system and the microbiota, and their influence on Yersinia population dynamics. The employed model considers two host compartments, the intestinal mucosa and lumen, commensal bacteria, the co-existence of wild-type and mutant Yersinia strains, as well the host immune responses. We determine four possible equilibria: the disease-free, wild-type-free, mutant-free, and co-existence of wild-type and mutant equilibrium. We also calculate the reproduction number for each strain as a threshold parameter to determine if the population may either be eradicated or persist within the host. We conclude that the infection should disappear if the reproduction numbers for each strain fall below one, and the commensal bacteria’s growth rate exceeds the pathogens’ growth rates. These findings will help inform public health control strategies. The supplement includes MATLAB source script, Maple workbook, and figures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0013.v1
Subject: Keywords: MicroRNA Expression; Feature Selection; Cancer Diagnosis; Fuzzy Logic; Co-Learning
Online: 1 September 2020 (11:42:35 CEST)
MicroRNAs are used as biomarkers for classification of cancer subtypes since certain miRNAs are differentially expressed in normal and patient samples. Moreover, miRNAs target mRNAs and can heavily influence Gene Expressions. Thus, deregulation of miRNAs is linked to various disorders. Thus, miRNAs can be used for prognosis and developing personalized health solutions for patients. Given the importance of miRNAs, there has been substantial work done in the field. In this paper, recent works in the field of using miRNAs expressions of patients were considered. A total of 20 papers were surveyed which utilized feature selection ensembles, fuzzy logic as well as deep learning. 10 papers have been reported which offer insight into how miRNAs can be utilized for subtype-specific or generalized cancer diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0442.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-Co-V-2, Environment, Africa, Pandemic,Pollution
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:42:57 CEST)
Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has tremendously affected the African continent and the rest of the world. Most businesses have closed and a lot of people have lost their jobs. The aviation industry has been shaken to the core with airlines losing millions of dollars and flights being cancelled. The tourism industry has consequently been affected due to restricted travel of tourists, impacting wildlife conservation and livelihoods. Schools, colleges and universities have been closed. The virus has infected millions of people and hundreds of thousands of people have died globally putting strain on health systems especially those of hard hit countries. Various countries all over the world have put measures to control the spread of the virus through lockdowns and social distancing policies. The reduced economic activities and mobility of people has resulted in improved air quality, cleaner water and beaches in some countries. However there are also negative impacts such as challenges in waste management, increased pharmaceutical and household waste and discovery of the corona virus in wastewater, a potential threat to public health. A considerable amount of research has been done on the socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 in Africa but there is still limited research on its impact on the environment. This paper serves to highlight the observed and potential environmental impacts of COVID-19 in Africa.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: metabolic engineering; biohydrogen production; microbes; co-culture; metabolic network analysis
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:43:36 CEST)
Hydrogen is useful as a fuel and could be produced by a variety of means. One approach uses artificial photosynthesis where energy from sunlight powers the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. But, biological methods for producing hydrogen has emerged strongly over the past decades. In particular, specific microorganisms could use different substrates to produce hydrogen at differing yields. Such fundamental discoveries with industrial applications thus motivated the use of metabolic engineering approaches and methodologies in enhancing biological hydrogen production through a series of enzyme over-expression, pathway debottlenecking, and gene deletion. However, such approaches heavily rely on the selection of an appropriate microbial chassis for biohydrogen production. With the proper strain in hand, use of alternative substrates may engender greater hydrogen productivities. But learning from the bioprocessing field, co-culture of two compatible microorganisms have been sought after for improving biohydrogen production. In addition, thermophilic microbes may also be useful candidates for exploiting hydrogen production from composting. Future outlook in the field looks into filling our gaps in understanding of the metabolic network that feeds into hydrogen production in different organisms. But, more importantly, problems such as reduced growth rate in engineered microbes point to fundamental issues with using genetically engineered microorganisms for improved biohydrogen production, to which clever bioprocess engineering may yield solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0164.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: biofilm; co-culture; Staphylococcus aureus; SaOS-2; biomaterials; implanted devices
Online: 12 December 2019 (05:24:29 CET)
Biofilm-mediated infection is a major cause of bone prosthesis failure. The lack of molecules able to act in biofilms has driven research aimed at identifying new anti-biofilm agents via chemical screens. However, to be able to accommodate a large number of compounds, the testing conditions of these screenings end up being typically far from the clinical scenario. In this study, we assess the potential applicability of three anti-biofilm compounds (based on natural compounds) as part of implanted medical devices by testing them on in vitro systems that more faithfully resemble the clinical scenario. To that end, we used a competition model based on the co-culture of SaOS-2 mammalian cells and Staphylococcus aureus (collection and clinical strains) on a titanium surface. Additionally, we studied whether these derivatives of natural compounds enhance the previously proven protective effect of pre-incubating the titanium surface with SaOS-2 cells. Out of the three tested leads, one showed the highest potential, and can be regarded as a promising agent for incorporation into bone implants. This study emphasizes and demonstrates the importance of using meaningful experimental models, where potential antimicrobials ought to be tested for protection of biomaterials in translational applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: Co-B/SiC composite coatings; electrodeposition; hard coatings; wear volume
Online: 4 April 2019 (12:52:34 CEST)
In the present paper, Co-B/SiC composite coatings were obtained via electrodeposition from colloidal suspensions with different concentrations of SiC particles and subsequent heat treatments at 350 °C. The composition, morphology and structure of the Co-B/SiC composite coatings were analyzed using glow discharge spectrometry (GDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hardness and tribological properties were also studied. The results showed that an increase in the SiC concentration in the colloidal suspensions resulted in both an increase in the SiC content and a decrease in the B content in the obtained Co-B/SiC coatings. The Co-B/SiC coatings were adherent, glossy and soft and exhibited a homogeneous composition in all thicknesses. By contrast, an increase in the SiC particle content of the Co-B/SiC composite coating from 0 to 2.56 at.% SiC reduced the hardness of the film from 680 to 360 HV and decreased the wear volume values from 1180 to 23 mm3 N-1 m-1, respectively (that is, the wear resistance increased). Moreover, when the Co-B/SiC coatings with SiC content ranging from 0 to 2.56 at.% SiC were subjected to a heat treatment process, the obtained coating hardness values were in the range of 1200 to 1500 HV and the wear volume values were in the range of 382 to 19 mm3 N-1 m-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: CO/H2 production; intermediate temperature SOEC; SOEC modeling; performance analysis
Online: 24 July 2018 (10:20:27 CEST)
Renewable sources and electric distribution network can produce or make available a surplus of electric and thermal energies. The Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Electrolyzer (IT-SOE) fed by CO2-steam mixtures can store these electric and thermal energies producing CO-H2 mixtures with high conversion efficiency. Inside the IT-SOE, the CO2-steam mixtures are converted to CO-H2 mixtures and O2 through the cathode and anode electrochemical reactions and reverse water gas shift chemical reaction. In this article an IT-SOE stack fed by different types of steam mixtures was tested at different operating temperatures and the stack polarization and electric power curves were detected experimentally. At the highest hydrogen production operating temperature of the stack fed by steam mixtures, the experimental polarization and electric power curves of the stack fed by steam and CO2-steam mixtures were compared. A simulation model of the IT-SOE system (stack and furnace) fed by CO2-steam mixtures was formulated ad hoc and implemented in a Matlab environment and experimentally validated. At the highest hydrogen production stack operating temperature, the IT-SOE system thermal equilibrium current was evaluated through the simulation model. Moreover, the influence of this current on the IT-SOE system efficiency and the CO-H2 mixture degree of purity was highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0367.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: nanoparticles; poly lactic-co-glycolic acid; metformin; periodontal disease; inflammation
Online: 20 July 2018 (03:40:29 CEST)
The aim of this study was synthesize and evaluate the effects of Poly (D, L-Lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) Nanoparticles (NPs) of metformin (PLGA+ Met) on inflammation, and bone loss in a ligature-induced periodontitis rat model. The prepared NPs were characterized by mean diameter, size particle, polydispensity index and encapsulation efficiency by Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of 20 rats in each group, and given the following treatments for 10 days to evaluate in vivo activity: (1) Sham: no ligature + water; (2) Positive control: ligature + water (with Periodontal disease and Diabetes); (3) ligature + PLGA+ 10 mg/kg Met (With Periodontal disease and Diabetes); and (4) ligature + PLGA+ 100 mg/kg Met (with Periodontal disease and Diabetes). Water or PLGA + Met was administered orally by gavage. Maxillae were fixed and scanned using Micro-computed Tomography (μCT) to quantify linear of bone loss. Histopathological characteristics were assessed through immunohistochemical staining for Osteocalcin, Cathepsyn K, RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway. IL-1β and TNF-α from gingival tissues were analysed by Elisa immunoassay. Quantitative RT-PCR reaction was used to evaluate gene expression of AMPK, NF-κB p-65, Hmgb1 and TAK-1 from gingival tissues. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA at 5% significance. The mean diameter of MET-loaded PLGA nanoparticles was in a range of 457.1 ± 48.9 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.285, zeta potential: 8.16 ± 1.1 mV and entrapment efficiency (EE) was 70%. The results suggest that the addition of MET in the core slightly affected the particle sizes. Treatment with PLGA+ 10 mg/kg Met showed low inflammatory cells, decreased bone loss and integrity cement and levels of IL-1β, and TNF-α (p < 0.05) were significantly reduced. Additionally, weak staining was shown by RANKL, Cathepsyn K, OPG, and osteocalcin. Radiographically, linear measurements showed a statistically significant reduction in bone loss after treatment with PLGA+ 10 mg/kg Met compared to the positive control (p < 0.05). RT-PCR showed increased AMPK expression (p < 0.05) and decreased expression of NF-κB P65, HMGB1 and TAK-1 after PLGA+ 10 mg/kg Met (p < 0.05). The PLGA nanoparticle + 10 mg/kg Met decreased glucose levels and also decreased the inflammatory response, and bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0323.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Logistics, Supply Chain, Integrated, Fuzzy Vikor, Network, Iran Khodro Co
Online: 26 June 2018 (15:07:46 CEST)
Logistics Engineering has transcended over the decades into an approach for competitive benefits in organisational performance and logistics efficiency. Most industries are recognising that significant savings are available to companies that are able to ordinate and improve within their logistics operations. Companies today face great challenges because the successful supply of many products and services needs to the effective integration of logistics activities across a prolongation supply chain and an increasing geographical separation. Moreover, logistics integration approach involves both internal integration for an ordinated, unified process as well as relationships to react flexibly, changeability, and responsibility to customer's demands. In this study, by using of Fuzzy Vikor (F-Vikor), the best combination of RIR was selected and RIR Locating was done. The main aim of this paper is survey and design of the integrated operational logistics network (IOLN) and also, a proposed IOLN to integration of the Iran Khodro Co Supply Network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0269.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate); zinc phenylphosphonate; nanocomposites; crystallization; biodegradation
Online: 21 May 2018 (11:40:10 CEST)
Biocompatible and biodegradable poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA)/hexadecylamine-modified PPZn (m-PPZn) nanocomposites were prepared using a melt mixing process. Experimental results of wide-angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the stacking layers of the m-PPZn were partially intercalated and partially exfoliated into the PBSA polymer matrix. The isothermal crystallization kinetics of PBSA/m-PPZn nanocomposites were studied at the temperature range of 62−70 °C and the half-time for crystallization of 3 wt % PBSA/m-PPZn nanocomposite was reduced by 27−35% compared with that of pure PBSA. This finding suggests that the incorporation of m-PPZn might cause the heterogeneous nucleation and the subsequent crystallization growth, which enhances the isothermal crystallization rate of PBSA/m-PPZn nanocomposite. The biodegradation rates of PBSA using Lipase from Pseudomonas sp. increase as the contents of m-PPZn increase. The degradation behavior of the neat PBSA investigated using the change of weight-average molecular weight belongs to exo-type hydrolysis activity. It is necessary to point out that the change of degree of crystallinity and degradation rate are almost linearly proportional to the loading of hexadecylamine-modified PPZn. This finding would provide an important information for the manufacturing biodegradable PBSA nanocomposites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0048.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: stress; transcranial magnetic stimulation; spinal reflex; reaction time; co-contraction
Online: 10 April 2017 (05:59:46 CEST)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of psychological pressure on corticospinal excitability, the spinal reflex, lower limb muscular activity, and reaction times during a task involving dominant leg movements. Ten healthy participants performed a simple reaction time task by raising the heel of their dominant foot from a switch. After 20 practice trials, participants performed 20 non-pressure and 20 pressure trials in a counterbalanced order. Stress responses were successfully induced, as indexed by significant increases in state anxiety, mental effort, and heart rates under pressure. Significant increases in motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA) occurred under pressure. In terms of task-related EMG amplitude, the co-contraction rate between the soleus (SOL) and TA muscles significantly increased along with SOL and TA EMG amplitudes under pressure. Hoffmann reflexes for SOL and reaction times did not change under pressure. These results indicate that corticospinal excitability and leg muscle-related EMG activity increase homogeneously during lower limb movements that are performed under psychological pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0281.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanobelts; tin oxide; gas sensor; carbon monoxide; carbon dioxide; CO; CO2
Online: 16 August 2022 (07:43:01 CEST)
When present in specific amounts in the air, the colorless, odorless, and tasteless gases monoxide and carbon dioxide may either replace oxygen in red blood cells (CO) or increase the respiratory rate causing cardiac arrhythmias (CO2), leading to death. Commercial sensors take around 8 h to detect levels of CO (50 PPM), causing moderate poisoning. SnO2 presents controlled interactions with the atmosphere using conductance and vacancy adjustments to capture electrical properties. However, the selectivity of gas detection by SnO2 can still be improved, thus also increasing the application possibilities. The present study aimed to optimize the sensing of CO and CO2 in SnO2 using palladium functionalization. The vapor-liquid-solid method synthesized a network of SnO2 nanobelts decorated with palladium nanoparticles. The sensitivity of the sensors for CO and CO2 were evaluated, characterizing parameters such as response time, a wide range of CO and CO2 concentrations, and temperature. In the seventh measurement cycle, the sensor response for different concentrations of gases in consecutive cycles showed a sensitivity of up to 125% for CO in 60 s. Furthermore, we observed increased sensor sensitivity with material doping with nanoparticles from 130 ppm to 1360 ppm in 30 seconds to CO. Conclusion: The results provide a better understanding of the sensitivity of SnO2 in palladium-decorated nanoparticles, offering insights for detecting low CO concentrations quickly. The behavior of these doped nanosensors showed us the importance of considering them as a practical possibility for detecting these gases of importance to human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Co-generation system; Gas turbine control system; System efficiency; Heat balance
Online: 8 August 2022 (08:29:12 CEST)
The power utility, Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) is faced with challenges of supplying adequate power to the ever-increasing demand. To this end, this paper explores the installed Ubungo Gas Power Plant (UGP II) located in Dar es Salaam to find means of utilizing it in co-generation method. The study embarked on detailed modelling of the system and run simulations which indicated that the co-generation can result to power generation efficiency increase between 10.42 to 50.92%. It is recommended to change the UGP II to exploit this co-generation method. Further, the study could be improved by including more parameters of the gas and steam plant and verify them experimentally.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0038.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: dyadic data; co-occurrence data; expectation maximization (EM) algorithm; mixture model
Online: 2 November 2020 (12:06:26 CET)
Dyadic data which is also called co-occurrence data (COD) contains co-occurrences of objects. Searching for statistical models to represent dyadic data is necessary. Fortunately, finite mixture model is a solid statistical model to learn and make inference on dyadic data because mixture model is built smoothly and reliably by expectation maximization (EM) algorithm which is suitable to inherent spareness of dyadic data. This research summarizes mixture models for dyadic data. When each co-occurrence in dyadic data is associated with a value, there are many unaccomplished values because a lot of co-occurrences are inexistent. In this research, these unaccomplished values are estimated as mean (expectation) of random variable given partial probabilistic distributions inside dyadic mixture model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040077
Subject: Keywords: temperature; global warming; greenhouse gases; atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentration
Online: 20 October 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
It is common knowledge that increasing CO2 concentration plays a major role in enhancement of the greenhouse effect and contributes to global warming. The purpose of this study is to complement the conventional and established theory that increased CO2 concentration due to human emissions causes an increase of temperature, by considering the reverse causality. Since increased temperature causes an increase in CO2 concentration, the relationship of atmospheric CO2 and temperature may qualify as belonging to the category of “hen-or-egg” problems, where it is not always clear which of two interrelated events is the cause and which the effect. We examine the relationship of global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration at the monthly time step, covering the time interval 1980–2019, in which reliable instrumental measurements are available. While both causality directions exist, the results of our study support the hypothesis that the dominant direction is
T → CO2. Changes in CO2 follow changes in T by about six months on a monthly scale, or about one year on an annual scale. We attempt to interpret this mechanism by involving biochemical reactions, as at higher temperatures soil respiration, and hence CO2 emission, are increasing.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0701.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Challenges; coinfection; COVID-19; dengue fever; co-epidemic; health care facility
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:12:06 CEST)
The current global COVID-19 pandemic is compounding on populations susceptible to tropical illnesses like dengue in different developing countries like Bangladesh. The growing concern is that Bangladesh is a dengue-endemic zone and the peak transmission occurs in the monsoon season (June to October). In the most recent monsoon, a total of 354 dengue cases have been confirmed until 27th July 2020, data-driven from only 41 hospitals alone. A fifty-three-year-old male patient was found to be co-infected with COVID-19 and dengue fever. Concerns arise as hospitals are increasingly denying to admit the patients. Moreover, reports of the false-positive results in dengue screening tests recorded in different countries further exacerbate the issue. These conditions could postpone the early diagnosis of COVID-19 cases and aggravate the situation. In addition, the overwhelming wave of the dengue cases would be a challenge for the vulnerable health care system of the country which is already under strain due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Failure to establish and implement proper policies might lead to the dengue outbreak with the burdens of the concurrent COVID pandemic, resulting in the collapse of the health and social system, as well as the economic growth of the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0661.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Partial Information Decomposition; Information Delta; Synergy; Co-Information; Non-Pairwise Dependence
Online: 27 September 2020 (04:18:43 CEST)
Information theory provides robust measures of multivariable interdependence, but classically does little to characterize the multivariable relationships it detects. The Partial Information Decomposition (PID) characterizes the mutual information between variables by decomposing it into unique, redundant, and synergistic components. This has been usefully applied, particularly in neuroscience, but there is currently no generally accepted method for its computation. Independently, the Information Delta framework characterizes non-pairwise dependencies in genetic datasets. This framework has developed an intuitive geometric interpretation for how discrete functions encode information, but lacks some important generalizations. This paper shows that the PID and Delta frameworks are largely equivalent. We equate their key expressions, allowing for results in one framework to apply towards open questions in the other. For example, we find that the approach of Bertschinger et al. is useful for the open Information Delta question of how to deal with linkage disequilibrium. We also show how PID solutions can be mapped onto the space of delta measures. Using Bertschinger et al. as an example solution, we identify a specific plane in delta-space on which this approach’s optimization is constrained, and compute it for all possible three-variable discrete functions of a three-letter alphabet. This yields a clear geometric picture of how a given solution decomposes information
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0182.v1
Online: 12 April 2020 (04:52:44 CEST)
Within the past several decades, the emergence of new viral diseases with more severe health complications and mortality, primarily in older adults with comorbidities, is evidence of an age-dependent, compromised bodily response to abrupt stress with concomitant reduced immunity. The emergence of new infectious coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The result is increased morbidity and mortality in persons with underlying chronic diseases and among those with compromised defense mechanisms, regardless of age and among older adults who are more likely to fit these categories. COVID-19 appears to be primarily an upper respiratory disease. While SARS-CoV-2 is highly virulent, there is variability in the severity of the disease and its complications in humans. Severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), lung fibrosis, cardiac t complication, acute kidney injury, hospitalization, and high mortality have been reported in older adults with COVID-19, that result from pathogen-host interactions. Here, we review potential interactions of the coronavirus and host cellular responses in relation to hallmarks of aging including genomic instability, telomere attrition, impaired autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, innate immunosenescence, inflammation and inflammasomes, adaptive immunosenescence, and epigenetic alterations, that likely contribute to the increased pathophysiological responses to SARS-CoV-2 among older adults.
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: value co-creation; National Health Insurance; My Health Bank; Service Ecosystem
Online: 22 January 2020 (02:55:28 CET)
Objective: Taiwan Government’s organizations have endeavored to promote the applications of big data and open data. The “My Health Bank” is one of the measures promoted by the National Health Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare. This study proposes the perspective of the “value co-creation” with the attempt to extend the concept of service ecosystem and apply it on the platform of My Health Bank to examine whether people (patients, families, and caregivers) can promote their health literacy? Method: This cross-sectional study, with people that have registered at “My Health Bank” as subjects. Complying with the inclusion criteria, 401 questionnaires were delivered, with 391 valid ones, excluding those incompletely and inaccurately filled. Result: That the affecting factors of the co-creation of values: age, education level, annual income, and platform operation show to be significant ( p＜0.05); and gender, occupation, and resource exchange do not reach the significant level (p＞0.1). Conclusion: We found My Health Bank changed the inertia of “value creation” in the traditional medical value, it allows the traditional medical and healthcare industry to expose to the impacts of the mega trend of the internet, the transformation of the platform in a necessary trend.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0026.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: building information modelling; co-citation network; literature review; research visualization; scientometrics
Online: 9 July 2019 (03:42:40 CEST)
In the recent decade, Building Information Modelling (BIM) has widely been adopted in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry and completely upended the way we build. While BIM continues gain momentum in the industry, it has also attracted increasing attentions from researchers. However, most of the current study focuses on reviewing BIM for management, BIM for green building, BIM for infrastructure and BIM for Facilities Management (FM). There are few studies about Global BIM review and to discuss their complex inter-connections. In this study, we adopted a scientometric analysis method to review global BIM research from 2004-2019. A total of 1455 scholarly bibliographic records obtained from Web of Science Core Collection databased were established for the analysis. This study has identified the top productive and influential researchers, research institutes, regions/countries, subject categories and journals in the BIM field. In addition, 11 clusters of Global BIM research were also identified including construction project, green BIM, construction safety planning, automated IFC-based workflow and so on. Authors distinguished 11 clusters of global BIM research into 3 stages, namely formulating stage, accelerating stage and transforming stage. Furthermore, authors reviewed the BIM policy of Singapore and observed there is a co-production relationship between evolution of BIM policy and global BIM research. These findings provide valuable information for researchers, practitioners and policy makers by visualizing the current progress in the research field of BIM and highlighting future research needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0587.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Ti/Au/Co/Au; X-ray diffraction; MOSPR; sensitivity; polycarbonate plastics
Online: 30 July 2018 (11:55:48 CEST)
Magneto-optic surface plasmon resonance (MOSPR) based sensors are highly attractive as next generation biosensors. However, these sensors suffer from oxidation leading to degradation of performance, reproducibility of the sensor surface because of the difficulty of removing adsorbed materials, and degradation of sensor surface during surface cleaning, and these limit their applications. In this paper, I propose MOSPR-based biosensors with 0 to 15 nm thick inert polycarbonate laminate plastic as a protective layer and theoretically demonstrate the practicability of our approach in water-medium for three different probing samples: ethanol, propanol, and pentanol. I also investigate microstructure and magnetic properties. The chemical composition and layered information of the sensor are investigated using X-ray reflectivity and X-ray diffraction analyses and these show distinct fcc-Au (111) phases, as dominated by the higher density of conduction electrons in Au as compared to Co. The magnetic characterization measured with the in-plane magnetic field to the sensor surface for both the as-deposited and annealed multilayers showed isotropic easy axis magnetization parallel to the multilayer interface at a saturating magnetic field of <100 Oe. The sensor showed a maximum sensitivity of 5.5 × 104%/RIU for water-ethanol media and the highest detection level of 2.5 × 10−8 for water-pentanol media as the protective layer is increased from 0 to 15 nm.c
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0227.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Ensemble clustering; cluster stability; F-measure; co-association matrix; genetic algorithm
Online: 17 April 2018 (15:58:22 CEST)
Nowadays, we live in a world in which people are facing with a lot of data that should be stored or displayed. One of the key methods to control and manage this data refers to grouping and classifying them in clusters. Today, clustering has a critical role in information retrieval methods for organizing large collections inside a few significant clusters. One of the main motivations for the use of clustering is to determine and reveal the hidden and inherent structure of a set of data. Ensemble clustering algorithms combine multiple clustering algorithms to finally reach an overall clustering system. Ensemble clustering methods by lack of information fusing utilize several primary partitions of data to find better ways. Since various clustering algorithms look at the different data points, they can produce various partitions from such data. It is possible to create a partition with high performance by combining the partitions obtained from different algorithms, even if the clusters to be very dense from each other. Most studies in this area have examined all the initial clusters. In this study, a new method is used in which the most sustainable clusters are utilized instead of all primary produced clusters. Consensus function based on co-association matrixes used to select more stable clusters. The most stable clusters selection method is done by cluster stability criterion based on F-measure. Optimization functions are used to optimize the obtained final clusters. The genetic algorithm is the optimizer used in this article to find the ultimate clusters participated in a consensus. Experimental results on several datasets show that the output of proposed method is various clusters with high stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0226.v1
Subject: Keywords: Pushbroom; Georeferencing; Correction; Particle Image Velocimetry; Orientation; Hyperspectral; Co-Registration; Correlation
Online: 27 March 2018 (12:40:40 CEST)
Direct georeferencing of airborne pushbroom scanner data usually suffers from the limited precision of navigation sensors onboard of the aircraft. The bundle adjustment of images and orientation parameters, used to perform geocorrection of frame images during the post-processing phase, cannot be used for pushbroom cameras without difficulties: it relies on matching corresponding points between scan lines, which is not feasible in the absence of sufficient overlap and texture information. We address this georeferencing problem by equipping our aircraft with both a frame camera and a pushbroom scanner: the frame images and the navigation parameters measured by a couple GPS/Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) are input to a bundle adjustment algorithm; the output orientation parameters are used to project the scan lines on a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and on an orthophoto generated during the bundle adjustement step; using the image feature matching algorithm Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), corresponding points between the image formed by the projected scan lines and the orthophoto are matched, and through a least-squares method, the boresight between the two cameras is estimated and included in the calculation of the projection; finally, using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) on the gradient image, the projection is deformed into a final image that fits the geometry of the orthophoto. We apply this algorithm to five test acquisitions over Lake Geneva region (Switzerland) and Lake Baikal region (Russia). The results are quantified in terms of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between matching points of the RGB orthophoto and the pushbroom projection. From a first projection where the Interior Orientation Parameters (IOP) are known with limited precision and the RMSE goes up to 41 pixels, our geocorrection estimates IOP, boresight and Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOP) and produces a new projection which RMSE with the reference orthophoto is around two pixels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0188.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Co-composted Biochar; Nitrogen Uptake; Nitrogen Use Efficiency; Eutric Gleysol; Northern Ghana
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:02:22 CEST)
Inherent low soil fertility status limits productivity of rice in the lowland ecologies in Northern Ghana. Combining organic and inorganic N fertilizers could help to maintain the fertility of lowland soils for rice production. A screen house pot experiment was carried out to investigate the combined effect of biochar-compost and inorganic N fertilizer on the nitrogen uptake and agronomic performance of rice plants grown on Eutric Gleysol lowland soil. Inorganic N fertilizer alone and its combinations with different types of biochar-compost (based on the proportions of biochar and compost) were used as treatment. A control (unamended soil) was also included. The incorporation of biochar-compost and inorganic N fertilizer improved the growth parameters and yield components of rice plants. The combination of biochar-compost and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer was also found to improve nitrogen uptake and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in rice plants. This practice could be the most likely viable option for alleviating lowlands soil fertility issues and increasing rice productivity in Northern Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0331.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Concentration field; Spatial auto-correlation; Association rules; Apriori algorithm; Element co-occurrence
Online: 21 January 2022 (13:42:44 CET)
The spatial distribution of elements can be regarded as a numerical field of concentration values with a continuous spatial coverage. An active area of research is to discover geologically meaningful relationships among elements from their spatial distribution. To solve this problem, we propose an association rule mining method based on clustered events of spatial auto-correlation and applied it to the polymetallic deposits of the Chahanwusu River area, Qinghai Province, China. The elemental data for stream sediments were first clustered into HH (high-high), LL (low-low), HL (high-low), and LH (low-high) groups by using local Moran’s I clustering map (LMIC). Then the Apriori algorithm was used to mine the association rules among different elements in these clusters. More than 86% of the mined rule points are located within 1000 m of faults and near known ore occurrences, and occur in the upper reaches of the stream and catchment areas. In addition, we found that the Indosinian granodiorite is enriched in sulfophile elements, e.g., Zn, Ag and Cd, and the Variscan granite quartz diorite (P1γδο) coexists with Cu and associated elements. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is an effective method for mining co-existence patterns of elements and provides an insight into their enrichment mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0554.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; ORF10; Co-mutations; Intrinsic Protein Disorder; Ubiquitin Ligase Complex
Online: 26 July 2021 (09:07:38 CEST)
The devastating impact of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on public health, caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has made fighting of the COVID-19 pandemic is a top priority in medical research and pharmaceutical development. Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 mutations is essential for the comprehension of SARS-CoV-2 variant diversity and their impact on virulence and pathogenicity. The SARS-CoV-2 open reading frame 10 (ORF10) protein interacts with multiple human proteins CUL2, ELOB, ELOC, MAP7D1, PPT1, RBX1, THTPA, TIMM8B, and ZYG11B expressed in the lung tissues. Mutations and co-mutations in the emerging SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 variants are expected to impact the severity of the virus and its associated consequences. In this article, We highlight 128 single mutations and 35 co-mutations in the unique SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 variants in this article. The possible predicted effects of these mutations and co-mutations on the secondary structure of ORF10 variants and host protein interactomes are presented. The findings highlight the possible effects of mutations and co-mutations on the emerging 140 ORF10 unique variants from secondary structure and intrinsic protein disorder perspectives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0401.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: benzo[a]pyrene; biodegradation; co-metabolism; bioaugmentation; catabolic pathways; omics; functional metagenomics.
Online: 16 November 2020 (08:53:39 CET)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which consist of low-molecular-weight PAHs (LMW-PAHs) and high-molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs), form an important class of pollutants. Pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are the main pollutants belonging to HMW-PAHs, and their degradation by microorganisms remains an important strategy for their removal from the environments. Extensive studies have been carried out on the isolation and characterisation of microorganisms that actively degrade LMW-PAHs, and to a certain extent, the HMW-PAH pyrene. However, so far, limited work has been carried out on BaP biodegradation. BaP consists of five fused aromatic rings, which confers this compound a high stability, rendering it less amenable to biodegradation. The current review summarizes the emerging reports on BaP biodegradation. More specifically, work carried out on BaP bacterial degradation and current knowledge gaps that limit our understanding of BaP degradation are highlighted. Moreover, new avenues of research on BaP degradation are proposed, specifically in the context of the development of “omics” approaches
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0393.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: SARS-CoV2; RNA depended RNA polymerase; Valproic acid Co-A; drug repurposing
Online: 26 March 2020 (15:04:22 CET)
SARS-CoV2 RNA depended RNA polymerase is an essential enzyme for the survival of the virus in hosts as it helps in the replication of viral RNA. There are no human polymerases that share either sequence or structural homology with viral RNA depended RNA polymerase. These make it a good target for inhibitor discovery, as a specific inhibitor cannot cross-react with the human polymerases. We have used virtual screening, docking, binding energy calculation and simulation to show that valproic acid Co-A, a metabolite from prodrug valproic acid, forms stable interaction with nsP12 of CoV. Our results suggest valproic acid Co-A could be a potential inhibitor of nsP12 of SARS-CoV2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: co$_2$ sequestration; multifield analysis; unified pipe-network method; reactive portland cement
Online: 13 December 2019 (10:48:44 CET)
The underground injection and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is a promising approach for reducing the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. To mitigate the leakage of CO2 resulting from natural fracture networks in rock masses, the sequestration process is commonly accompanied by the injection of reactive Portland cement representing a coupled hydro-chemo-mechanical process. In this work, a numerical approach based on the unified pipe network method (UPM) is presented that considers the coupled permeation and diffusion processes with chemical precipitation. Most input parameters are derived from the published literature. The proposed approach is validated through a comparison with analytical solutions, which are applied to simulate the CO2 sequestration process in a fractured rock mass. The results indicate that the long-term sequestration effect, which is highly influenced by the fracture distribution, can be captured effectively by the model. Consequently, the presented approach can assist engineers in properly designing the arrangement of boreholes and determining the concentration of the grouting material.
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: gross domestic product; medical expenditures; Wavelet analysis; co-movement relationship; health insurance
Online: 7 November 2019 (04:09:11 CET)
The universal health insurance system in Taiwan was formed with good intentions to help vulnerable groups. However, the possibility of bankrupting the system due to wasted medical resources. In this study, using the medical expenditures of the Taiwanese Government and gross domestic product (GDP) as variables, the wavelet analysis method was used to empirically study the correlations and leading-lagging relationships in quarterly data in the period from 1996 to 2016. In addition, the dependent population of the insured was used as the control variable. This population had no income and had high medical demands. Results: After the dependent population was included as a control variable, there was a period of low-frequency (one to four years short-term) linkage correlation, as well as a period of high-frequency (four to eight years long-term) linkage correlation. In addition, for more than eight years, there was also a high degree of linkage correlation, indicating that the linkage between medical expenditures and GDP occurred over the long term. Moreover, since medical expenditures positively affected GDP, one-way causality was observed. However, after 2008, regardless of whether a long or short term was examined, there was almost no linkage correlation. Before 2008, the medical expenditures of the government were positively correlated with economic growth; i.e., they enhanced economic growth. But, after 2008, this effect had already disappeared. The universal health insurance system has long been denounced as a waste of medical resources, and the waste must be immediately stopped. The government urgently needs to find a new solution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0359.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: oncolytic virus; in situ autovaccination; cytokine; immune checkpoint inhibitor; immune co-stimulator
Online: 27 April 2018 (09:18:37 CEST)
With the progress of immunotherapy in cancer, oncolytic viruses (OVs) are getting more and more attention during the past decade. Due to their cancer-selective and immunogenic property, OVs are considered ideal candidates to be combined with immunotherapy to increase both specificity and efficacy in cancer treatment. OVs preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, generating pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger (damage)-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These signals trigger innate immune response to modulate the solid tumor microenvironment, resulting in in situ autovaccination leading to adaptive anti-virus and anti-tumor immunity. Here, we summarize the conceptual updates of oncolytic virotherapy, immunotherapy, and the strategies to enhance the virus-mediated anti-tumor immune response, including: 1. Arm OVs with cytokines to modulated innate and adaptive immunity; 2. Combine OVs with immune checkpoint inhibitors to release T cell inhibition; 3. Combine OVs with immune co-stimulators to enhance T cell activation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: Affordable Care Act; access to care; co-residence; labor supply; medical expenditure
Online: 12 March 2018 (08:36:46 CET)
This paper investigates the effects of Inter-generational co-residence on health care market, and labor market outcomes, to see whether or not living under the same roof with at least one parent matters in health care market, and labor market behaviors in post-Affordable-Care Act (ACA) USA. The adopted analytical strategy involves not only looking at the gender differences in co-residence, and its effects on outcomes in the two markets, but also accounting for co-residence endogeneity following the recent literature. Unlike the recent literature that relies on instrumental variables methods, this study adopts a switching regression approach, defining inter-generational co-residence as an endogenous selection process using a binary probit equation, and modeled jointly with the extensive margins and intensive margins in the two markets. This novel approach results in a recursive trivariate probit model for each market, and estimated using penalized maximum likelihood methods. The results suggest that ACA by reorganizing the US health care market, seems to have reduced significantly disparities in health care access among males and females based on race, region of residence, place of birth, and citizenship. However not only do we observe significant differences in inter-generational co-residence status between males and females, we also find significant inequalities in the effects of co-residence on health care market, and labor market outcomes. In fact, co-residence is found to increase health care expenditure by 56.7% among females, while this figure increases to 74.2% among males. In addition co-residing individuals, while spending 69.7% more on health care annually are 1.22 times more likely to access health care, but 31% less likely to use health care intensively during the year. In the labor market, co-residence is found to reduce significantly hours of weekly labor supplied by 41% for females, and 55.6% for males. Furthermore co-residing individuals, while not significantly different in their likelihood of labor force participation, are 1.52 times less likely to work full time once they decide to participate, and also spend about 55.4% less time working in the labor market in post-ACA USA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0190.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: mast cells; angiogenesis; endothelial cells; tube formation assay; co-culture; gap junction
Online: 31 October 2017 (03:51:50 CET)
Angiogenesis is a complex process that involves interactions between endothelial cells and various other cell types as well as the tissue microenvironment. Several previous studies have demonstrated that mast cells accumulate at angiogenic sites. In spite of the evidence suggesting a relationship between mast cells and angiogenesis, the association of mast cells and endothelial cells remains poorly understood. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between mast cells and endothelial cells during in vitro angiogenesis. When endothelial cells were co-cultured with mast cells, angiogenesis was stimulated. Furthermore, there was direct intercellular communication via gap junctions between the two cell types. In addition, the presence of mast cells stimulated endothelial cells to release angiogenic factors. Moreover, conditioned medium from the co-cultures also stimulated in vitro angiogenesis. The results from this investigation demonstrate that mast cells have both direct and indirect proangiogenic effects and provide new insights into the role of mast cells in angiogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0094.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: lithium-ion batteries; anode materials; MnO; co-precipitation; T-shaped microchannel reactor
Online: 11 May 2017 (07:49:10 CEST)
Porous MnO/C microspheres have been successfully fabricated by a fast co-precipitation method in a T-shaped microchannel reactor. The structures, compositions and electrochemical performances of the obtained MnO/C microspheres are characterized by X-ray diffraction, emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, charge-discharge testing, cyclic voltammograms, and electrochemical impedance spectra. Experimental results reveal that the as-prepared MnO/C, with a specific surface area of 96.66 m2·g–1 and average pore size of 24.37 nm, exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, with a discharge capacity of 655.4 mAh·g–1 after cycling 50 times at 1 C and capacities of 808.3, 743.7, 642.6, 450.1, and 803.1 mAh·g–1 at 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 0.2 C, respectively. Moreover, the controlled method of using a micro-channel reactor, which can produce larger specific surface area porous MnO/C with improved cycling performance by shortening lithium-ion diffusion distances, can be easily applied in real production on a large-scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: carbon intensity; coal consumption; co-integration test; Granger causality; error correction model
Online: 27 March 2017 (10:33:34 CEST)
Co-integration and Causality was built to conduct studies on causality relation between carbon intensity and coal consumption leading to providing important basis for the transition to a low carbon economy. The EG two-step method was performed to study the relation between carbon intensity and coal consumption of China during 1990-2015 and the co-integration and Granger test was constructed to build up the co-integration and error correction models for analysis of the interaction between carbon intensity and coal consumption. The results showed that in long term there is a stable co-integration relation and a positive correlation between carbon intensity and coal consumption; whereas fluctuations exist in short term and there is a one-way Granger causality of carbon intensity with respect to coal consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0550.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Interdisciplinary co-design; healthcare design; exercise; low-back pain; older adult patients; rehabilitation
Online: 30 August 2021 (15:12:45 CEST)
This study presents three forms of interdisciplinary expertise in the healthcare design context to approach a particular multifaceted problem around the current healthcare for older adult patients with chronic low-back pain (LBP). Using an interdisciplinary co-design framework, first, our design approach performs the role of an initiator to define the problem by exploring the current context of healthcare. Second, it facilitates the experiences of experts and patients to reach the roots of the problem by functioning as a mediator. Third, our approach fulfills the primary role of healthcare design in producing new meanings considering the principles of patient-centeredness. These roles significantly contributed to the design of healthcare innovations. Our framework transformed the distributed disciplinary knowledge developed while tackling the multifaceted problem into new forms of expertise for collaboration in healthcare innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0197.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: bibliometric analysis, IEEE Xplore, INSPEC Controlled Terms, keywords co-occurrence, research trends, Scopus
Online: 9 August 2021 (12:53:01 CEST)
The article is aimed at a brief comparison and analysis of the results of queries to IEEE Xplore and the leading abstract databases Scopus and Web of Science to identify research trends. Some errors in the Author Keywords in Web of Science have been revealed. Therefore, a more detailed analysis was conducted by comparing different types of key terms for IEEE Xplore and Scopus platforms only. I used IEEE Access journal metadata as indexed on both platforms. The sample match for IEEE Xplore and Scopus was achieved by comparing DOI. The IEEE Xplore metadata contains more types of key terms, which provides an advantage in analyzing research trends. Using NSPEC Controlled Terms from expert-compiled vocabulary provides a more stable data, which gives an advantage when considering the change of terms over time. Apriori, an algorithm for finding association rules, has been used to compare co-occurrence of terms for a more detailed description of sample subjects on both platforms. VOSviewer was used to analyze trends in scientific research based on IEEE Xplore data. The 2011-2021 ten-year period was divided into two sub-intervals for comparing the occurrence of Author Keywords, IEEE Terms, and NSPEC Controlled Terms. Using the IEEE conference proceedings bibliometric data, I illustrated the importance of context in estimating the rate of growth of publishing activity on a topic of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: climate proofing; spatial planning; climate change adaptation; framework; cross-regional; integral; co-benefits
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:21:27 CEST)
Spatial planning holds a key role in preventing or mitigating the impacts of climate change on both cities and rural areas, taking a forward-thinking and holistic approach to urban and regional development. As such, spatial planning deals with challenges occurring at different scales and across sectors. The international literature points out the need for horizontal and vertical cooperation to tackle climate change impacts. While there is abundant knowledge regarding the challenges related to climate change at different spatial levels, procedural integration into planning frameworks and practice is currently under-researched. This paper presents a novel theoretical framework that integrates various steps towards a holistic, integrative and adaptive climate proofing process. An iterative process was used for conceptual development, based on literature review followed by external feedback meetings and two workshops with the core team of planning experts responsible for exchange across federal states. By specifically addressing the challenges relating to cross-regional and cross-sectoral planning, this novel framework attempts to (i) facilitate a hierarchy of measures, (ii) maximise co-benefits for various adaptation purposes and climate change mitigation and (iii) foster the long-term institutionalisation of integrative processes across sectors, planning areas and policy levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0725.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: dry matter yield; nutrient uptake; soil nutrient reserves; co-application; grain yield; dryland
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:18:06 CEST)
Most smallscale farmers still use the traditional way of agricultural crop farming, and relay mostly use of chemical fertilizers (CF). Recently CF have become expensive and could in some way have a negative impact on soil quality after long term application. However, co-application of biogas slurry (BGS) with CF could help reduce farming costs while improving dry matter yields, grain yields, primary macronutrient uptake of (Nitrogen) N, (Phosphorus) P, (Potasium) K, (Calcium) Ca and (Magnesium) Mg and soil concentration of pH, (organic carbon) OC, N, P, K, Ca and Mg after crop harvest. The study was a field experiment conducted in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 growing seasons. The field experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The treatments were based on percentages of recommended N rates of 120 kg N ha-1 for maize production. The BGS/CF treatments were (i) 0/0, (ii) 0/120, (iii) 24/96, (iv) 48/72, (v) 72/48, (vi) 96/24, (vii) 120/0 kg N ha-1. The spreading of the combination of BGS/CF treatments was performed by hand and incorporated into the top soil (0-10 cm) in each experimental plots. BGS/CF (48/72) treatment resulted into higher dry matter yield in 2016-2017, which was higher than all other treatment combinations, while in the 2017-2018 season, treatment of (0/120) resulted into higher dry matter than all other treatment combinations. The 48/72 and 0/120 treatments resulted into similar grain yield in 2016-2017 season which were higher than all other treatments. Treatments of 48/72, 72/48 and 120/0 had higher N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake than 0/0, 0/120, 24/96 and 96/24 treatments in both seasons. Soil pH, total N, K, and Mg were high from the treatment of (120/0) than all other treatments in 2016-2017 while in the 2017-2018 season, treatment of (48/72) had higher OC, P and K after maize harvest. The findings of his study show that co-application of BGS/CF at 48/72 and 72/48 have maize yield benefits compared to the two resources, BGS/CF (120/0) and BGS/CF (0/120), applied separately in soil especially in the arid and semi-arid regions.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: culture; co-evolution; meme; altruism; natural selection; competitive equilibrium; Fermi Paradox: memetics; genetics
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:31:42 CET)
Abstract. Background: This paper investigates the propagation of behaviorally transmitted traits with negative effect on host fitness. Methods: We analyze equilibrium between genetically transmitted and behaviorally transmitted competing propagators and consider whether a behavioral propagator is linked to reproduction (e.g. vertical culture transmission), or not. We employ combined genetic and behavior-induced fitness components for hosts, while behavioral propagators have replication factors to distinguish from what’s good for the host (fitness). Results: A trait which spreads faster than its marginal host fitness contribution reduces population will establish itself. The often transient nature of laterally transmitted traits may be a defense against accumulation of deleterious traits. Laterally transmitted traits with high spreading rate often do not equalize with genetic traits, spreading outside natural selection of the hosts. Vertical transmission reduces replication rate and allows group selection against deleterious behaviorally transmitted traits. Competing mutually exclusive propagators contribute to inequality and altruism, but compete through adverse fitness since exclusivity assumes low conversion. Conclusion: Behaviorally transmitted traits, in some cases a tremendous advantage, may also be a significant problem in the development of societies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0756.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: STEM Education; Energy Efficiency; CO₂ Emissions; APEC databases; Cross-Border classes; Sustainable Development
Online: 30 December 2020 (14:37:12 CET)
Early education is critical for improving energy efficiency. The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of Interactive Cross-Border Classes to increase awareness of energy efficiency among middle school students. We designed and tested an Interactive Cross-Border class between Chilean and Peruvian 8th-grade classes. The classes were synchronously connected and all students answered open-ended questions on an online platform. Some of the questions were designed to check conceptual understanding while others asked for suggestions of how to develop their economies while keeping CO₂ air concentration at acceptable levels. In real-time, the teacher reviewed the students’ written answers and the concept maps that were automatically generated based on their responses. Students peer-reviewed their classmates’ suggestions. This is part of an Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) STEM Education project on Energy Efficiency using APEC databases. We found high levels of student engagement, where students discussed not only the cross-cutting nature of energy, but also its relation to socioeconomic development and CO₂ emissions, and the need to work together to improve energy efficiency. In conclusion, Interactive Cross-Border classes are a feasible educational alternative, with potential as a scalable public policy strategy for improving awareness of energy efficiency among the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: TAP1; transcriptional expression; methylation analysis; survival analysis; co-expression; pathway analysis; health informatics
Online: 14 August 2020 (11:17:29 CEST)
Transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP1) gene codes for a transporter protein, which is responsible for tumor antigen presentation in the MHC I or HLA complex. A defect in the gene results in an inadequate tumor tracking. TAP1 may also influence multi drug resistance, which is an extreme threat in providing treatment by drugs which are chemotherapeutic. The gene of TAP1 was analyzed bioinformatically. It gave us prognostic data as a confirmation of whether it should be used as a biomarker. The expression level and pattern analysis were conducted using ONCOMINE, GENT2 and GEPIA2 online platforms. Samples with different clinical outcomes were investigated for expression and promoter methylation analysis was done in cancer vs normal tissues using UALCAN. The copy number alteration and mutation frequency and expression in different cancer studies were analyzed using cBioPortal. The PrognoScan and KM plotter survival analysis of significant data (p-value<0.05) was representing graphically. Pathway and Gene ontology analysis of gene correlated to TAP1 gene was presented using bar charts. After arranging the data in a single panel and correlating expression to prognosis, understanding mutational and alterations and comparing pathways, TAP1 may be a potential novel target to evade a threat against chemotherapy and the study gives new aspects to consider for immunotherapy in human breast, lung, liver and ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0144.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; RNA-Seq; co-expression networks; influence genes; stress condition; causal genes
Online: 12 June 2020 (08:46:02 CEST)
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes caseous lymphadenitis, a disease that predominantly affects sheep, goat, cattle, buffalo, and horses, but has also been recognized in other animals. This bacterium generates a severe economic impact on countries producing meat. Gene expression studies using RNA-seq is one of the most commonly used techniques to perform transcriptional experiments. Computational analysis on such data through reverse-engineering algorithms leads to a better understanding of the genome-wide complexity of gene interactomes, enabling the identification of genes having the most significant functions inferred by the activated stress response pathways. In this study, we identified the influential or causal genes from four RNA-seq data-sets from different stress conditions (high iron, low iron, acid, osmosis, and PH) in C. pseudotuberculosis, using a consensus-based network inference algorithm called miRsig and identified the causal genes in the network using the miRinfluence tool, which is based on the influence diffusion model. We found that over 50\% of the genes identified as influential have some essential cellular functions in the genomes. In the strains analyzed, most of the causal genes have crucial roles or participate in processes associated with response to extracellular stresses, pathogenicity, membrane components, and essential genes. This research brings new insight into the understanding of virulence and infection by C. pseudotuberculosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0180.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Trojan Horse effect; B[a]P; nC60; co-exposure; Mussels; DNA damage; proteomics
Online: 15 May 2019 (09:57:16 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the ecotoxicological effects of the interaction of fullerene (C60) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) on the marine mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. The uptake of nC60, B[a]P and mixtures of nC60 and B[a]P into tissues was confirmed by GC-MS, LC-HRMS and ICP-MS. Biomarkers of DNA damage as well as proteomics analysis were applied to unravel the toxic effect of B[a]P and C60. Antagonistic responses were observed at the genotoxic and proteomic level. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were only identified in the B[a]P single exposure and the B[a]P mixture exposure groups containing 1 mg/L of C60, the majority of which were down-regulated (~52%). No DEPs were identified at any of the concentrations of nC60 (p < 0.05, 1% FDR). Using DEPs identified at a threshold of (p < 0.05; B[a]P and B[a]P mixture with nC60), gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that these proteins were enriched with a broad spectrum of biological processes and pathways, including those broadly associated with protein processing, cellular processes and environmental information processing. Among those significantly enriched pathways, the ribosome was consistently the top enriched term irrespective of treatment or concentration and plays an important role as the site of biological protein synthesis and translation. Our results demonstrate the complex multi-modal response to environmental stressors in M. galloprovincialis.