REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0528.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Pyrolysis; combustion emissions; improved cookstoves; advanced boilers; CO detectors; catalyst impregnation
Online: 10 October 2023 (02:45:18 CEST)
There is a growing notion that biomass are the best resource to replace the declining fossil fuels, yet both share the long lived human threat: toxic combustion emissions. Among the toxic combustion products is carbon monoxide (CO) that not only causes acute but also chronic ailments. This brief review discusses the solid fuel processing technologies from combustion, thermochemical and biochemical processing to kinetics and thermodynamics including the mechanism for release of CO. It further expounds on the burden that CO has caused England and Wales in the last 25 years. The main gist are the systems that have been developed to minimize human exposure to CO including cooking, heating, catalytic and detection systems. Finally, alternative technologies are discussed that work by changing the chemical nature of solid fuels as a way to minimize CO emissions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Participatory Design, Co-operative Inquiry, Design partners, Co-design
Online: 7 August 2023 (12:10:41 CEST)
The framework proposed by Alison Druin about 20 years ago, which defined the roles children play in technology design, has been widely adopted by the Child-Computer Interaction (CCI) community. While some studies have adopted relevant roles as presented in the framework, others have argued for extending the framework to include newly identified roles. Still, other studies argue that Druin's framework failed to account for roles children may take up as they interact with peers or with tools. Consequently, this systematic literature review examines children’s emerging and changing roles in the codesign of new technologies. Specifically, we answered the research question: What new roles emerge in research as children co-design new technologies? Our effort aims at providing evidence of new roles children have adopted in literature, which may help researchers in the CCI community make more informed decisions about participatory design approaches with children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0143.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: ocean; big-data; cite-space; co-authorship analysis; co-citation analysis; keywords co-occurrence analysis; visualization
Online: 11 February 2020 (09:41:17 CET)
Ocean big data is the scientific practice of using big data technology in the marine field. Data from satellites, manned spacecraft, space stations, airship, unmanned aerial vehicles, shore-based radar and observation stations, exploration platforms, buoys, underwater gliders, submersibles, and submarine observation networks are seamlessly combined into the ocean’s big data. Increasing numbers of scholars have tried to fully analyze the ocean’s big data. To explore the key research technology knowledge graphs related to ocean big data, articles between 1990 and 2020 were collected from the “Web of Science”. By comparing bibliometric software and using the visualization software Cite-Space, the pivotal literature related to ocean big data, as well as countries, institutions, categories, and keywords, were visualized and recognized. Journal co-citation analysis networks can help determine the national distribution of core journals. Co-citation analysis networks for documents show authors who are influential at key technical levels. Key co-occurrence analysis network keywords can determine research hot spots and research frontiers. The three supporting elements of marine big data research are shown in the co-citation network. These elements are author, institution, and country. By examining the co-occurrence of keywords, the key technology research directions for future marine big data were determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1341.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: SRDS; Co-infections; COVID-19 fatality; co-evolution of virulence
Online: 19 June 2023 (09:49:30 CEST)
The severe respiratory distress syndrome (SRDS) has been a significant clinical issue in modern respiratory medicine. Its role in COVID-19 pandemic is not well defined. Outside-the-hospital SRDS is usually community-acquired septic pneumonia; however, in-hospitals incidences are complicated by co-infections. While SRDS is genetically selected in European and African origins, these are not clear in Middle East, particularly in COVID-19 backgrounds. There is a severe paucity in high quality data on correlations between COVID-19, ARDS, co-infectome, and patient demographics. We have conducted a comprehensive investigation on 298 patients for associations of SRDS, coinfections, and patient demographics on COVID-19 patients’ outcomes. Of these, 9.4% (n=28) had SRDS, and the rest (90.6%) had not. 54% of those with SRDS died while 84% survived; SRDS fatality was highly significant (Chi-square test P-value = 0.00000246). Irrespective of gender, the age of patients was significantly associated with SRDS (72.9 +/-8.9) compared to those without it (56.2 +/-15.1). However, there was no significant difference neither in the age of admitted patients before COVID-19 (58.5 +/-15.3) and during COVID-19 (57.2 +/-15.5) nor in the gender and COVID-19 fatality (Fisher Exact test 2-sided 1.000, 1-sided .546) ruling out that SRDS age-specificity were selected by virus susceptibility. A 100% of SRDS patients without bacterial co-infections survived while only 25% of those with co- infectome did not; this association was highly significant (P value= 0.00041). Co-infections alone without underlying SRDS was also associated with high fatality among patients (P value= 0.00000000076). Almost all COVID-19 patients without co-infectome (99.2%) survived while 28% of those with bacterial co-infection died. The major bacterial pathogens that potentially predisposed to SRDS, were Acinetobacter baumannii, and Escherichia coli either alone or in a mixed infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae were predominant species identified during SRDS attack. Thus, Gram-negative co-infectome potentially induced fatal SRDS aggravating COVID-19 outcome. These findings have significant clinical implications in specific differential diagnosis of SRDS syndromes for subsequent empiric therapy and patient management strategies. Future vertical investigation for similar mechanisms of cytokine-induced SRDS by Gram negative pathogens is imperative since hypervirulent strains are rapidly circulating in the region. The study is limited by a single center study confined to Ha’il hospitals; large scale investigation in major national hospitals would gain more insights.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Leishmania; co-infections; mixed infections; co-culture; hybrid; intercellular communication
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:20:49 CEST)
Leishmania parasites present astonishing adaptative abilities that represent a matter of life or death within disparate environments during the heteroxenous parasite life cycle. From an evolutionary perspective, organisms develop methods of overcoming such challenges. Strategies that extend beyond the genetic diversity have been discussed and include variability between parasite cells during the infections of their hosts. The occurrence of Leishmania subpopulation fluctuations with variable structural genomic contents demonstrates that a single strain might shelter the variability required to overcome inconsistent environments. Such intrastrain variability provides parasites with an extraordinary ability to adapt and thus survive and propagate. However, different perspectives on this evolution have been proposed. Strains or species living in the same environment can cooperate but also compete. These interactions might increase the replication rate of some parasites but cause the loss of more aggressive competitors for others. Adaptive responses to intra- and interspecific competition can evolve as a fixed strategy (replication is adapted to the average genetic complexity of infections) or an optional strategy (replication varies according to the genetic complexity of the current infection). This review highlights the complexity of interspecies and intrastrain interactions among Leishmania parasites as well as the different factors that influence this interplay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Degree, Coloring, Co-degree
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:24:32 CET)
New setting is introduced to study types of coloring numbers, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges in neutrosophic hypergraphs. Different types of procedures including neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs are proposed in this way, some results are obtained. General classes of neutrosophic hypergraphs are used to obtain chromatic number, the representatives of the colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges in neutrosophic hypergraphs. Using colors to assign to the vertices of neutrosophic hypergraphs and characterizing representatives of the colors are applied in neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs. Some questions and problems are posed concerning ways to do further studies on this topic. Using different ways of study on neutrosophic hypergraphs to get new results about number, degree and co-degree in the way that some number, degree and co-degree get understandable perspective. Neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs are studied to investigate about the notions, coloring, the representatives of the colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges in neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs. In this way, sets of representatives of colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges have key points to get new results but in some cases, there are usages of sets and numbers instead of optimal ones. Simultaneously, notions chromatic number, the representatives of the colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges are applied into neutrosophic hypergraphs, especially, neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs to get sensible results about their structures. Basic familiarities with neutrosophic hypergraphs theory and hypergraph theory are proposed for this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1675.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: High velocity oxy-fuel; WC-Co; Co-28Cr; microhardness; erosion; T22 steel
Online: 26 July 2023 (02:26:43 CEST)
At Mae-Moh power plant, Thailand, superheater tubes, which are exposed in fly ash environ-ment, often degrade due to solid particle erosion. To extend the service lifetime of the superheater tubes, the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray technique is used to deposit a protective coating on the material, SA213-T22 steel. In this work, the solid particle erosion of the Co-28Cr and WC-12Co coatings was investigated using erodent particle impingement at the angles of 30o and 90o with an average particle size of 60 μm. The erosion behavior of SA213-T22 with and without Co-28Cr and WC-12Co coatings was explained using ductile and brittle erosion modes. The erosion test resulted in the brittle mode for both Co-28Cr and WC-12Co coatings, while SA213-T22 without coating indicated the ductile mode. On the investigation of surface morphology, the Co-28Cr coating showed mostly microcracks in contrast with the WC-12Co coating, fracture, de-bonding and deep cavities were also observed. Erosion resistance of the Co-28Cr coating was significantly higher than the WC-12Co coating, due to high hardness, low porosity and high density of the coating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0069.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Network Visualization; Term co-occurrence; Keyword co-occurrence; Artificial Intelligence; ChatGPT; Bibliometrics
Online: 6 April 2023 (03:46:00 CEST)
The main objective of this paper is to identify the major research areas of ChatGPT through term and keyword co-occurrence network mapping techniques. For conducting the present study, total of 577 publications were retrieved from the Lens database for the network visualization. The findings of the study showed that “chatgpt” occurrence in maximum number of times followed by its related terms such as artificial intelligence, large language model, gpt, study etc. This study will be helpful to library and information science as well as computer or information technology professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0874.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: online frailty check application; older adults; co-design; co-development; reliability; participatory action research
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:25:59 CEST)
Frailty, an age-related decline in homeostatic reserves, markedly proceeded during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To continuously assess frailty status, a remote system is urgently required. We aimed to co-design/co-develop an online frailty check (FC) application alongside FC supporters who were facilitators in a pre-existing onsite FC program. The online FC included a screening measurement for sarcopenia and an 11-item questionnaire covering dietary, physical, and social behaviors. Using prototype applications, 55 opinions obtained from 32 FC supporters (median 74.0 years) were categorized and reflected refinement. Regarding the self-efficacy of FC supporters, a significant increase in social positioning was seen after the mock test (P=.031). For FC supporters and participants, the average system usability scale (SUS) score was 70.2±10.3 points, which was “marginally high” for acceptability and “good” for the adjective range. Multiple regression analysis showed that the SUS score was significantly correlated with online-onsite reliability but not online communication, even after adjusting by age, sex, education level, and ICT proficiency (b=0.400, 95% CI: 0.243-1.951, P=.013). Additionally, a significant association between onsite and online FC scores was observed (R=0.670, P=.001). Our online FC application was evaluated to be a valuable tool to practically assess frailty status remotely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0040.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Value co-creation; Shared decision making; Stakeholder theory; Service-dominant logic; Co-created decision making
Online: 5 October 2022 (12:19:01 CEST)
Rare diseases are characterized by a wide diversity of signs and symptoms and vary not only from disease to disease, but also from person to person, and living with a disease leads patients to peculiar experiences and treatments, without limits of time and space, as they extend to various environments and relationships of their lives. The objective of this study is the theoretical interaction between Value Co-creation (VC) and the Stakeholder Theory (ST) with the Shared Decision Making (SDM) health care theory. It is configured as a multiparadigmatic proposal by enabling the analysis of multiple perspectives of different stakeholders in health care. Thus, Co-created Decision Making (CDM) emerges in a logic dominated by service, with emphasis on intangible aspects and the interactivity of the relationships. It goes beyond the clinical office and the doctor-patient relationships, as studied in SDM, extending to all environments and interactions that add value to the patient's treatment. It was concluded that the essence of this new theory proposed here is neither in patient-centered care nor in patient self-care, but in co-created relationships with and between stakeholders in both directions, including non-health care environments that are important to the patient, such as relationships with friends, family, other patients with the same disease, social media, public policies, and the practice of pleasurable activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Fuzzy implications; (S,N) implication; residuum t-norm; (T,N) co-implication; residual co-implication
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:29:47 CEST)
Recently, many authors have been interested to introduce fuzzy implications over t-norms and t-conorms. In this paper, we introduce (S,N) and residuum fuzzy implication for Dubois t-norm and Hamacher's t-norm. Also, new concepts so-called (T,N) and residual fuzzy co-implication in dual Heyting Algebra are investigated. Some examples as well as application are discussed as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0632.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Co-crosslinking; Tribology; Water lubrication; Rubber
Online: 10 October 2023 (16:26:55 CEST)
As one of the important components of underwater propulsion systems, water lubricated bearings are often failure due to mechanical wearing and vibrating, especially under high loads and prolonged friction. In this paper, a dual-network co-crosslinking strategy based on HNBR is proposed, in which the epoxy network connects with the rubber network through Epoxidized Eommia ulmoides gum. The damping, tribological and mechanical properties of the prepared composite are systematically investigated. The results show that this material has excellent friction and vibration damping properties, with a water-lubricated coefficient of friction as low as 0.022 and a wear resistance as high as 3.87 × 10-6mm3/Nm. Preparing HNBR-based composite by dual network co-crosslinked is proved being a feasible solution to improve the reliability and service life of water-lubricated bearings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: children; influenza; co-infections; risks; vaccine.
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:13:17 CEST)
The 2022-2023 influenza season in Romania was characterized by high pediatric hospitalization rates, predominated by influenza A subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. Lowered population immunity to influenza after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and subsequent stoppage of influenza circulation, particularly in children who had limited pre-pandemic exposures, influenced hospitalization among children immunosuppressed, and patients with concurrent medical conditions who are at increased risk for developing severe forms of influenza. This study focused on the characteristics of influenza issues among paediatric patients, as well as the relationship between different influenza virus types and viral and bacterial coinfections and illness severity in the 2022-2023 season after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We conducted a retrospective clinical analysis on 301 cases of influenza in pediatric inpatients (age ≤ 18 years), hospitalized at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr. Matei Balș" IX Pediatric Infectious Diseases Clinical Section between October 2022 and February 2023. The most significant age group was 57.8% representing children between one to four years old and female. The average clinical forms were found in 61.7%, whereas severe versions represented 18.2% of cases. Most of the complications were respiratory (acute interstitial pneumonia, 76.1%), hematological (72.1%), represented by intra-infectious and deficiency anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia), 33.6% were digestive, such as diarrheal disease, liver cytolysis syndrome, and the acute dehydration syndrome associated with electrolyte imbalance (71.4%). Severe complications were associated with a risk of unfavorable evolution: acute respiratory failure and neurological complications (convulsions, encephalitis). No deaths were reported. We noticed that the flu season 2022-2023 was characterized by the association of co-infections (viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic) more frequent than in previous years (26.2% vs. 16%), which evolved more severely, with prolonged hospitalization and more complications (p<0.05), and time of use of oxygen therapy was statistically significant (p > 0.05); influenza vaccination in this group was zero. In conclusion, coinfections with respiratory viruses increase the severity of the pediatric population's immunity to influenza, especially among young children who are more vulnerable to developing a serious illness. All people above the age of six months should get vaccinated against influenza to prevent the illness and its severe complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Cement; Co-process; Waste; Incineration; Landfill
Online: 12 July 2022 (04:32:38 CEST)
Recently, the amount of waste generated has been rapidly increasing, there have been difficulties disposing of waste in Korea. As a solution to this, treating waste using a cement kiln has suggested, but the environmental and economic effects have not been specifically studied. In this study, the effects of alternative resources, and reducing the social costs(Installation and Operation) associated with waste treatment facilities were analyzed. Through a co-processing method, a reduction of approximately 53kg of CO2 can be realized during the production of one ton of cement, and cost savings of about 3,815 milion USD. Another effect is an extension of the expiration date for landfills by 7.55 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0100.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Quasi-Co-Degree; Quasi-Degree; Vertex
Online: 7 February 2022 (16:23:20 CET)
New setting is introduced to study quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree arising from co-neighborhood. quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree is about a vertex which are applied into the setting of neutrosophic graphs. . The structure of set is studied and general results are obtained. Also, some classes of neutrosophic graphs namely path-neutrosophic graphs, cycle-neutrosophic graphs, complete-neutrosophic graphs and star-neutrosophic graphs, complete-bipartite-neutrosophic graphs and complete-multipartite-neutrosophic graphs are investigated in the terms of a vertex which is called either quasi-degree or quasi-co-degree. Neutrosophic number is reused in this way. It’s applied to use the type of neutrosophic number in the way that, three values of a vertex are used and they’ve same share to construct this number to compare with other vertices. Summation of three values of vertex makes one number and applying it to a comparison. This approach facilitates identifying vertices which form quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree. Quasi-degree is a value of a vertex which is maximum amid all values of vertices which are neighbors to a fixed vertex. Quasi-co-degree is a value of an edge which is maximum amid all values of edges which are neighbors to a fixed vertex but corresponded vertex is representative for this notion. Using different values which are related to a vertex inspire us to focus on edge and vertices which are corresponded to a fixed vertex. The notion of neighborhood is used to collect either vertices are titled neighbors or edges are incident to fixed vertex. In both settings, some classes of well-known neutrosophic graphs are studied. Some clarifications for each result and each definitions are provided. Using fixed vertex has key role to have these notions in the form of vertex or edge. The value of an edge has eligibility to call quasi-co-degree but the value of a vertex has eligibility to call quasi-degree. Some results get more frameworks and perspective about these definitions. The way in that, two vertices have connection together, open the way to define neighborhood and co-neighborhood. The maximum values in neighborhood and co-neighborhood introduces quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree, respectively. New name is chosen from degree. Since amid all vertices with different degrees, one vertex is chosen. In other words, one vertex is fixed and its degree turns out quasi-degree where two degrees could be assigned to a vertex. Degree of edges and degree of vertices. The number of edges which are incident to the vertex and the number of vertices which are neighbors to the vertex. Degree and co-degree are the notions which are transformed to use in quasi-style. Two neutrosophic values introduce two neutrosophic vertices separately in each settings. These notions are applied into neutrosophic graphs as individuals but not family of them as drawbacks for these notions. Finding special neutrosophic graphs which are well-known, is an open way to purse this study. Some problems are proposed to pursue this study. Basic familiarities with graph theory and neutrosophic graph theory are proposed for this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0586.v1
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:49:51 CEST)
Potential of co-digestion mixing thickened secondary sludge (TS) from extended aeration wastewater treatment plant and locally available substrates (whey, grease and septage) has been studied using three steps. The first step was a batch test to determine biological methane potential (BMP) of different mixtures of the three co-substrates with TS. The second step has been carried out with lab-scale reactors (20 L) simulating anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors fed by three mixtures of co-substrates determined according to previous step results. Modelling using ADM1 as a mechanistic model was applied in the third step to help understanding the co-digestion process. According to BMP step, septage used as co-substrate has a negative effect on performance and addition of 10 to 30% grease or 10% whey would lead to a higher production of biogas and with an increase of the methane content. The results from the reactor showed less evi-dence of the positive effects observed with the BMP assay. Protein and lipid fractions of particu-late biodegradable COD are important variables for digester stability and methane production as predicted by modelling. Results of simulations with ADM1 model adapted to co-digestion confirmed that this model is a powerful tool to optimize the process of biogas production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: TRβ; tumor suppression; co-regulators; therapeutics
Online: 23 July 2021 (15:14:12 CEST)
There is compelling evidence that the nuclear receptor TRβ, a member of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) family, is a tumor suppressor in thyroid, breast and other solid tumors. Cell-based and animal studies reveal that the liganded TRβ induces apoptosis, reduces an aggressive phenotype, decreases stem cell populations, and slows tumor growth through modulation of a complex interplay of transcriptional networks. TRβ-driven tumor suppressive transcriptomic signatures include repression of known drivers of proliferation such as PI3K/Akt pathway and activation of novel signaling (JAK1/STAT1) and metabolic reprogramming in both thyroid and breast cancers. The presence of TRβ is also correlated with a positive prognosis and response to therapeutics in BRCA+ and triple-negative breast cancers respectively. Ligand activation of TRβ enhances sensitivity to chemotherapeutics. TRβ co-regulators and bromodomain-containing chromatin remodeling proteins are emergent therapeutic targets. This review considers TRβ as a potential biomolecular diagnostic and therapeutic target.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: critical pedagogy; experiential learning; co-production
Online: 5 July 2021 (10:35:42 CEST)
The sense of uncertainty and fragility due to the effects and magnitude of global challenges we are facing (from pandemic circumstances to climate change impacts) requires – much more than in the past – the capacity to generate a visionary and forefront design approach in the young gen-erations aiming at stimulating their reaction attitude rather than providing consolidated tools from past conditions that no longer exist or will rapidly evolve. Within this general framework, we have investigated the effectiveness and impacts of experienced-based methods of learning and innovative educational tools in architecture aimed at shaping expertise in which the environ-mental dimension and the climate-change challenge dialogues with the context's complexity in terms of socio-cultural dynamics, real potentialities and constrains, addressing their transdisci-plinary trajectories. The paper analyses 5 international pioneering teaching experiences that provide the opportunity to understand the outcomes of collaborative and experiential learning processes in which the educational activities leverage a dialogue between diverse communities (academia-citizens-policymakers-practitioners). The study outcomes show that shifting the pedagogical paradigm towards in-field-experience-based models can improve the awareness of future practitioners for climate implications of architectural design, implement their analysis and project skills while triggering processes of knowledge transfer and co-production at community level, and allow them to better address the societal and cultural issues involved within decision making.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0608.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: co-production; knowledge production; public services
Online: 22 April 2021 (13:23:35 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to explore conceptual approaches in co-production studies and to examine current research trends of the study. The conceptual paper includes research articles related to co-production in public administration field. By thoroughly scrutinizing 32 research works of co-production, this study highlights major loopholes in the field of the study. The contributions of the study are: (1) identifying two common characteristics of co-production, (2) categorising three types of co-producing by end-users, and (3) finding that goals and success of co-production are more beneficial for service providers though its initial approach is citizen-centric approach. We suggest that future studies should be (1) to focus on reasons for co-production failures or success, (2) to discover further hindrances for co-production in service production, (3) to examine influencing factors on service providers as well as institutional impacts on co-production process, and (4) to include practical assessment in co-production study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0084.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: antimony; ferrihydrite; silica; adsorption; co-precipitation
Online: 10 January 2018 (07:02:42 CET)
Elevated antimony concentrations in aqueous environments from anthropogenic sources is becoming of global concern, here iron oxides are known to strongly adsorb aqueous antimony species with different oxidation states, but the effect of silica on the removal characteristics is not well understood despite being a common component in the environment. In this study, ferrihydrite was synthesized at various Si/Fe molar ratios to investigate its adsorption and co-precipitation behaviors with aqueous antimony anionic species, Sb(III) and Sb(V). The XRD analyses of the precipitates showed two broad diffraction features at approximately 35° and 62° 2θ, which are characteristic of 2-line ferrihydrite, no significant shifts in peak positions in the ferrihydrite regardless of the Si/Fe ratios. The infrared spectra showed a sharp band at ~990 cm−1, corresponding to asymmetric stretching vibrations of Si-O-Fe bonds which increased in intensity with increasing Si/Fe molar ratios. Further, the surface charge on the precipitates became more negative with increasing Si/Fe molar ratios. The adsorption experiments indicated that Sb(V) was preferentially adsorbed at acidic conditions and decreased dramatically with increasing pH while the adsorption rate of Sb(III) ions was independent of pH, however, the presence of silica suppressed the adsorption of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) ions. The results showed that Sb(III) and Sb(V) ions were significantly inhibited by co-precipitation with ferrihydrite even in the presence of silica by isomorphous substitution in the ferrihydrite crystal structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: stroke; antioxidant; co-drug; animal model
Online: 20 October 2016 (08:46:38 CEST)
Background: Previously, our laboratory has provided evidence that pre-administration of the antioxidant, lipoic acid covalently bonded to various naturally occurring antioxidants, enhanced neuroprotective capacity compared to the administration of lipoic acid on its own. The naturally occurring compound scopoletin, a coumarin derivative, has been shown in various in vitro studies to have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanism of actions. To date, the effect of scopoletin on neuronal cell death in an in vivo model of ischemia or ischemia-reperfusion has not been investigated. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to determine if scopoletin on its own, or a co-drug consisting of lipoic acid and scopoletin covalent bond, named UPEI-400, would be capable of demonstrating a similar neuroprotective efficacy. Methods: Using a rodent model of stroke in male rats (anesthetized with Inactin®; 100 mg/kg, iv), the middle cerebral artery was permanently occluded for 6 hours (pMCAO), or in separate animals, occluded for 30 min followed by 5.5 hrs of reperfusion (ischemia/reperfusion; I/R). Results: Pre-administration of either scopoletin or UPEI-400 significantly decreased infarct volume in the I/R model (p<0.05), but not in the pMCAO model of stroke. However, UPEI-400 was ~1000 times more potent as compared to scopoletin on its own. The optimal dose of UPEI-400 was then injected during the occlusion and at several time points during reperfusion and significant neuroprotection was observed for up to 150 mins following the start of reperfusion (p<0.05). Conclusion: The data suggest that synthetic combination of scopoletin with lipoic acid (UPEI-400) is a more effective neuroprotectant that either compound on their own. Also, since UPEI-400 was only effective in a model of I/R, it is possible that it may act to enhance neuronal antioxidant capacity and/or upregulate anti-inflammatory pathways to prevent the neuronal cell death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0267.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: adsorption; coatings; poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate); corrosion tests; atomic force microscopy
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:00:55 CET)
Poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) named further PVBA was investigated as protective coating for copper corrosion in 0.9 % NaCl solution using electrochemical measurements such as, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization associated with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The PVBA coating on the copper surface (Cu-PVBA) was modeled in methanol containing PVBA. Its inhibitory properties against corrosion was comparatively discussed with those of the copper sample treated in methanol without polymer (Cu-Me) and of untreated sample (standard copper). A protective performance of PVBA coating of 80 % was computed from electrochemical measurements, for copper corrosion in NaCl solution. Also, AFM images designed a specific surface morphology of coated surface with PVBA, clearly highlighting a polymer film adsorbed on the copper surface, which presents certain deterioration after corrosion, but metal surface was not significantly affected compared to those of untreated samples or treated in methanol, in the absence of PVBA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0248.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Neutrosophic Quasi-Order; Neutrosophic Quasi-Size; Neutrosophic Quasi-Number; Neutrosophic Quasi-Co-Number; Neutrosophic Co-t-Neighborhood
Online: 17 March 2022 (08:48:38 CET)
New setting is introduced to study co-neighborhood, neutrosophic t-neighborhood, neutrosophic quasi-vertex set, neutrosophic quasi-order, neutrosophic neighborhood, neutrosophic co-t-neighborhood, neutrosophic quasi-edge set, neutrosophic quasi-size, Neutrosophic number, neutrosophic co-neighborhood, co-neutrosophic number, quasi-number and quasi-co-number. Some classes of neutrosophic graphs are investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0659.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: co-crystallization; encapsulation; phenolic extract; pomegranate peel
Online: 11 July 2023 (05:24:28 CEST)
Recently, there has been a lot of interest in the phenolics of pomegranate peels because of their health-promoting effects. The incorporation of encapsulated phenolic extracts in functional foods, beverages, and dietary supplements can enhance their nutritional and health benefits. This paper aims to provide an overview of the encapsulation of pomegranate peel phenolic extract by co-crystallization, focusing on the properties of the encapsulated extract. Pomegranate peel extract encapsulated in sucrose by co-crystallization at conditions determined in our previous work is characterized by evaluating its properties; moisture content, bulk density, solubility, hygroscopicity, color, degree of encapsulation by thermograms, crystallinity by X-ray scattering, microstructure by scanning electron microscope, and storage stability in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The co-crystallized powder had a low moisture content (0.59%) and hygroscopicity (0.011%) and a high bulk density (0.803 g/cm3) and solubility (61 s). Its total phenolic content decreased by only 0.56% after storage at 60oC for 45 days, whereas its antioxidant activity was maintained at levels higher than 84%. The differential scanning calorimetry and the X-ray scattering techniques proved the successful encapsulation in the sucrose matrix and the fact that the extract remained liquid inside the porosity of the sucrose crystals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0848.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: bibliometric analysis; Sustainability; co-occurrence; thematic map
Online: 24 April 2023 (10:16:05 CEST)
This paper presents a bibliometric analysis of highly cited papers published in the journal Sustainability between 2009 and 2023. The aim is to identify influential countries, authors, and papers, as well as patterns in authorship and citation trends. The analysis focuses on frequently cited sources, the most cited research papers and references within the journal, and trends in author keywords. The analysis shows that Sustainability is a leading publication in sustainability research, with an annual growth rate of 53.57%. The selected papers, published between 2013 and 2022, have an average age of 2.11 years and an average of 88.12 citations each. The study highlights the most influential countries in sustainability research published in Sustainability, with China leading, followed by the United States and Germany. The most prolific authors are from China, Spain, and Italy. Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential to address complex sustainability challenges, as shown in the papers published in Sustainability. The study emphasizes the importance of staying informed about emerging trends and research directions in the field of sustainability published in this journal Sustainability. It underscores the significance of fostering international collaborations and partnerships to address complex sustainability challenges facing our world today, as evidenced by the papers published in Sustainability. Overall, this bibliometric analysis provides valuable insights into the current state of sustainability research published in Sustainability and its implications for policy and practice. It highlights key areas for future research and underscores the need for interdisciplinary collaboration to address complex sustainability challenges, as demonstrated by the papers published in Sustainability. These findings have important implications for policymakers, researchers, and practitioners interested in promoting sustainable development in the field of sustainability., as published in Sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: cannabis; tobacco; co-use; simultaneous use; mixing
Online: 14 December 2022 (06:30:42 CET)
Introduction: Increasing cannabis legalization raises concerns that tobacco use, frequently used with cannabis, will also increase. This study investigated the association between legal status of cannabis in place of residence and prevalence of cannabis and tobacco co-use, simultaneous use, and mixing by comparing the prevalence among adults in Canada (prior to cannabis legalization) vs. adults in US states that had legalized recreational cannabis vs. US states that had not as of September 2018. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2018 International Cannabis Policy Study, conducted with respondents aged 16-65 in Canada and the US recruited from non-probability consumer panels. Differences in the prevalence of co-use, simultaneous use, and mixing between tobacco and different cannabis products were examined using logistic regression models by legal status of place of residence among past 12-month cannabis consumers (N=6744). Results: Co-use and simultaneous use in the past 12 months were most common among respondents in US legal states. Among cannabis consumers, co-use and simultaneous use were less common in US legal states, while mixing was less frequent in US states with both legal and illegal cannabis compared to Canada. Use of edibles was associated with lower odds of all three outcomes, while smoking dried herb or hash was associated with higher odds. Conclusions: The proportion of cannabis consumers who used tobacco was lower in legal jurisdictions despite higher prevalence of cannabis use. Edible use was inversely associated with co-use suggesting that edible use does not appear to be associated with increased tobacco use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0130.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: crowdsourcing; value co-creation; business sustainability; stakeholder
Online: 8 August 2022 (04:09:12 CEST)
As a typical form of value co-creation, crowdsourcing has been increasingly applied by firms to generate business value. By engaging a crowd, a platform, and other stakeholders, a crowdsourcer can foster the co-creation of a portfolio of value for diverse stakeholders. In analyzing the value co-creation in crowdsourcing, we propose a framework by combining the theories and frameworks in value co-creation and crowdsourcing. The framework examines the key stakeholders, joint purpose, engaged value co-creation processes, contributions, bidirectional relationships of the engagement, and perceived value, exhibiting a holistic view of the value co-creation in a crowdsourcing project. Results of the analysis reveal the business performance of the crowdsourcing project and identify areas of improvement regarding business sustainability. This is a major theoretical contribution of this study. The research design applied a case study approach to empirically investigate a crowdsourcing project. Both the theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Co-composted biochar; drought; NUE; PUE; salinity
Online: 24 January 2022 (09:41:10 CET)
This pot-based study investigated the influence of co-composted wood-derived biochar on lettuce growth performance under salinity and drought stress conditions. Biochar of two particle sizes; > 2 mm and < 1 mm were co-composted with the mixture (1:1 ratio of dry weight) of cow and poultry manures. Co-composted biochars were applied at 5% and 7% rates in soil. Control treatments included the amendment of mixture of biochar with manure in soil. Pots were subjected to slight drought (48-55% water filled pore space (WFPS) of soil) and non-drought conditions (60% WFPS) and under 0 and 1.3 dS m-1 salinity. Results revealed that plants growth performance was significantly better under treatments of co-composted biochar and no salt stress conditions, than when mixture of biochar and manure was applied to soil as non-composted fertilizer. Under no stress condition, small particle-sized co-composted biochar increased root biomass by 786.2% than the large particle-sized co-composted biochar at same application rate. As compared to large-sized co-composted biochar, small sized co-composted biochar at high application rates increased root biomass by 167 – 245% but not leaf biomass under both stress conditions. Small particle-sized co-composted biochar amendment also increased the phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) of lettuce leaves than large particle-sized co-composted biochar under no stress condition. The amendment of small-sized co-composted biochar also increased significantly the concentration of Olsen phosphorus in soil than the amendment of large-particle-sized co-composted biochar. In conclusion, amendment of small particle-sized co-composted biochar has the potential of attenuating salinity and drought stress in lettuce and promoting P cycling in soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0053.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Co-scheduling; HPC; scheduling theory; stochastic optimization
Online: 3 September 2021 (10:14:03 CEST)
Applications in high-performance computing (HPC) may not use all available computational resources, leaving some of them underutilized. By co-scheduling, i.e. running more than one application on the same computational node, it is possible to improve resource utilization and overall throughput. Some applications may have conflicting requirements on resources and co-scheduling may cause performance degradation, so it is important to take it into account in scheduling decisions. In this paper, we formalized co-scheduling problem and proposed multiple scheduling strategies to solve it: an optimal strategy, an online strategy and heuristic strategies. These strategies vary in terms of the optimality of the solution they produce and a priori information about the system they require. We showed theoretically that the online strategy provides schedules with a competitive ratio that has a constant upper limit. This allowed us to solve the co-scheduling problem using heuristic strategies that approximate this online strategy. Numerical simulations showed how heuristic strategies compare to the optimal strategy for different input systems. We proposed a method for measuring input parameters of the model in practice and evaluated this method on HPC benchmark applications. We showed high accuracy of measurement method, which allows to apply proposed scheduling strategies in scheduler implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0483.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: city; CO; COVID 19; emission; social distancing
Online: 28 April 2020 (07:36:53 CEST)
The social distancing as a response to COVID 19 pandemic has led to the exceptional reductions of daily routine people activities and vehicle uses mainly in city. This same situation was also experienced by several busy, large, and populous cities in Southeast Asia (SA) countries. Correspondingly, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that the social distancing implementation period has increased the air quality in the term of carbon monoxide (CO) emission reduction as drawn from Jakarta city as an example of the one of populated cities in SA region. The CO was measured in parts per billions (ppb) and monitored on the daily basis employing remote sensor platform. The monitor periods were started from January, February, March, and April 2020 with 10 measurement days for each month. The social distancing was implemented from mid of March to the recent April. The CO measurement data were statistically tested to justify the significant effects of social distancing on the CO levels. Based on the CO data analysis, the order of CO mean by months is February > January > March > April. The CO levels for January, February, March, and April were 87.46 ppb (95%CI: 83.54-91.37), 88.20 ppb (95%CI: 81.65-94.74), 86.38 (95%CI: 81.06-91.69), and 78.68 (95%CI: 74.03-83.32) respectively. This study also find significant difference (p<0.05) of CO levels especially in April when social distancing has been implemented. Hence, these findings illustrate the potential air pollutant reduction gained from implementing social distancing as can be seen in April.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0536.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: photocatalysis, co-catalysts, water splitting, metallic cluster
Online: 27 July 2018 (09:33:40 CEST)
Degussa P25 is a benchmark form of TiO2 used worldwide in photocatalysis studies. Currently no such benchmark exists for co-catalysts, which are essential for many photocatalytic reactions. Here, we present the preparation of Pt nanocluster co-catalysts on TiO2 using an unmodified commercial source and equipment that is commonly available. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the procedure produces TiO2 decorated with Pt atom and nanoclusters (1-5 atoms). Optical reflectance and X-ray diffraction measurements show that the procedure does not affect the TiO2 polymorph or UV-Vis absorbance. Gas phase photocatalytic splitting of heavy water (D2O) shows that the Pt nanocluster decorated TiO2 outperforms Pt nanoparticle (produced by photodeposition) decorated TiO2 in D2 production. Pt nanoclusters, produced directly from a commercial source, with high co-catalyst activity are prime candidates to be used in benchmark photocatalytic reactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0010.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: Bi2Te3; Thermoelectric properties; co-doping; n-type
Online: 2 October 2017 (15:33:35 CEST)
In order to understand the effect of Pb-CuI co-doping on the thermoelectric performance of Bi2Te3, n-type Bi2Te3 co-doped with x at% CuI and 1/2x at% Pb (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.10) were prepared via high temperature solid state reaction and consolidated using spark plasma sintering. Electron and thermal transport properties, i.e., electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, Hall mobility, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity, of CuI-Pb co-doped Bi2Te3 were measured in the temperature range from 300 K to 523 K and compared to corresponding x% of CuI-doped Bi2Te3 and undoped Bi2Te3. The addition of a small amount of Pb significantly decreased the carrier concentration, which could be attributed to the holes from Pb atoms, thus the CuI-Pb co-doped samples show a lower electrical conductivity and a higher Seebeck coefficient compared to CuI-doped samples with similar x values. The incorporation of Pb into CuI-doped Bi2Te3 rarely changed the power factor because of the trade-off relationship between the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient. The total thermal conductivity(κtot) of co-doped samples (κtot ~1.4 W/m∙K at 300 K) is slightly lower than that of 1% CuI-doped Bi2Te3 (κtot~1.5 W/m∙K at 300 K) and undoped Bi2Te3 (κtot ~1.6 W/m∙K at 300 K) due to the alloy scattering. The 1% CuI-Pb co-doped Bi2Te3 sample shows the highest ZT value of 0.96 at 370 K. All data on electrical and thermal transport properties suggest that the thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3 and its operating temperature can be controlled by co-doping.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1035.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: CO2 conversion; CO; reverse water gas conversion reaction
Online: 17 October 2023 (09:35:00 CEST)
The increase in carbon dioxide emissions has a significant impact on human society and the global environment. As the most abundant and cheap C1 resource, the conversion and utilization of carbon dioxide has received extensive attention from researchers. In many methods of carbon dioxide conversion and utilization, the reverse water gas conversion reaction is considered to be one of the most effective ways. In this paper, the research progress of reverse water gas conversion reaction in recent years is introduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: rubella vaccine; rhogam co-inoculation; post partum vaccination
Online: 19 July 2023 (03:21:40 CEST)
Abstract Congenital rubella syndrome is a constellation of birth defects that can have devastating consequences, impacting approximately 100,000 births worldwide each year. The incidence is much lower in countries that routinely vaccinate their population. In the US, postnatal immunization of susceptible women is an important epidemiological strategy for the prevention of rubella. However, concerns that co-administration of Rubella vaccine with other immunoglobins (i.e., Rhogam) could comprise vaccine efficacy has produced warnings that can delay the administration of Rubella vaccination postpartum, leaving women susceptible in a subsequent pregnancy. We aimed to address whether co-administration of Rubella vaccine and Rhogam decreased antibody responses as compared to those receiving only Rubella vaccination. This retrospective cohort study utilized clinical data from 80 subjects who received Rubella vaccine and Rhogam after delivery and 43 subjects received Rubella vaccine alone. Maternal demographics, pregnancy complications and rubella status at the start of a subsequent pregnancy were recorded for analysis. Overall, the two cohorts had similar baseline characteristics; however, lower parity was noted in the participants having both Rubella vaccination and Rhogam. Based on maternal antibody IgG index for rubella during the next pregnancy, we observed that 88% of the Rhogam + Rubella vaccine group had positive titers, which was not significantly different than the 81% in the Rubella vaccine only cohort (p=0.36). In conclusion, no differences in the rubella immunity status in a subsequent pregnancy were observed in those mothers administered both Rubella vaccine and Rhogam concurrently. Given these findings, warnings against co-administration of Rubella vaccine in combination with other immunoglobulins should be discontinued.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0396.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CRCLM; vessel co-option; angiogenesis; neutrophil; TGFβ1; apoptosis
Online: 6 May 2023 (08:51:29 CEST)
Vessel co-option correlates with resistance against anti-angiogenic agents and chemotherapy in colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM). We previously identified higher intensity of neutrophils in the tumour microenvironment of vessel co-opting CRCLM lesions compared to their angiogenic counterparts. Herein, we demonstrated that over 50% of the neutrophils in vessel co-opting lesions are expressing pro-apoptotic markers including cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Our previous publications suggested upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ1) in the microenvironment of vessel co-option CRCLM. Therefore, we examined the effect of TGFβ1 on the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP-1 in neutrophils in vitro. Significantly, we noticed the upregulation of pro-apoptotic markers upon exposure to TGFβ1. This finding might pave the way to determine the role of neutrophils in developing vessel co-option in CRCLM in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0244.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: WC-Co composite; Additive Manufacturing; Transversal Rupture Strength
Online: 4 May 2023 (09:03:20 CEST)
This study is focused on the mechanical properties of WC-Co composites obtained via Selective Laser Sintering using PA12 as a binder. The as-printed samples were thermally debonded, and sintered, first in vacuum, and then sinter-HIPed at 1400oC, using 50 bar Ar, which has led to relative densities up to 66 %. Optical metallographic images show a microstructure consisting of WC, with an average grain size in the range of 1.4 – 2.0 µm, with isolated large grains, in a well-distributed Co matrix. The shrinkage of the samples was 43 %, with no significant shape distortion. The printing direction of the samples has a great impact on the transversal rupture strength (TRS). Nevertheless, the bending strength was low, with a measured maximum of 612 MPa. SEM images of the fracture surface of TRS samples show the presence of defects that constitute the cause of the low measured values. The hardness values position the obtained composites in the range of medium coarse classical cemented carbides. The results were also related to the amount of free Co after sintering, close to the initial one, as assessed by magnetic measurements, indicating a low degree of interaction with PA12 decomposition products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0208.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: aging; intestinal microbiota; dysbiosis; probiotics; microbial co-occurrences
Online: 17 February 2022 (10:59:55 CET)
Age-related alterations in the gut microbiome composition and its impacts on the host’s health have been well described; however, detailed analyses of the gut microbial structure defining ecological microbe-microbe interactions is limited. One of the ways to determine these interactions is by understanding microbial co-occurrence patterns. We previously showed promising abilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 on the aging gut microbiome and immune system. However, the potential of the DDS-1 strain to modulate microbial co-occurrence patterns is unknown. Hence, we aimed to investigate the ability of L. acidophilus DDS-1 to modulate the fecal, mucosal and cecal-related microbial co-occurrence networks in young and aging C57BL/6J mice. Our Kendall’s tau correlation measures of co-occurrence revealed age-related changes in the gut microbiome, which were characterized by reduced number of nodes and associations across sample types when compared to younger mice. After four-week supplementation, L. acidophilus DDS-1 differentially modulated the overall microbial community structure in fecal and mucosal samples as compared to cecal samples. Beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Akkermansia acted as connectors in aging networks in response to L. acidophilus DDS-1 supplementation. Our findings provided the first evidence of the DDS-1-induced gut microbial ecological interactions revealing the complex structure of microbial ecosystems with age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0571.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; plastid; co-maturation; post-transcriptional; Nanopore
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:48:48 CEST)
Plastid gene expression involves many post-transcriptional maturation steps resulting in a complex transcriptome composed of multiple isoforms. Although short read RNA-seq has considerably improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling these processes, it is unable to sequence full-length transcripts. This information is however crucial when it comes to understand the interplay between the various steps of plastid gene expression. Here, the study of the Arabidopsis leaf plastid transcriptome using Nanopore sequencing showed that many splicing and editing events were not independent but co-occurring. For a given transcript, maturation events also appeared to be chronologically ordered with splicing happening after most sites are edited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: female reproductive tract; organoid; co-culture; crosstalk; blastocyst
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:19:56 CEST)
Hormones must be balanced and dynamically controlled for the Female Reproductive Tract (FRT) to function correctly during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and delivery. Gamete selection and successful transfer to the uterus, where it implants and pregnancy occurs, is supported by the mucosal epithelial lining of the FRT ovaries, uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and vagina. Successful implantation and placentation in humans and other animals rely on complex interactions between the embryo and a receptive female reproductive system. The FRT's recent breakthroughs in three-dimensional (3D) organoid systems now provide critical experimental models that match the organ's physiological, functional, and anatomical characteristics in vitro. This article summarizes the current state of the art on organoids generated from various parts of the FRT. The current analysis examines recent developments in the creation of organoid models of reproductive organs, as well as their future directions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0143.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Co-infection; Drug resistance; Gut microbiota; Salmonellosis; Schistosoma
Online: 7 May 2021 (12:02:03 CEST)
Antibiotic inefficacy in treating bacterial infections is largely studied in the context of developing resistance mechanisms. However, little attention has been paid to combined diseases mechanisms, interspecies pathogenesis and the resulting impact on antimicrobial treatment. This review will consider the co-infections of Salmonella and Schistosoma mansoni. It summarises the protective mechanisms that the pathophysiology of the two infections confer, which leads to an antibiotic protection phenomenon. This review will elucidate the functional characteristics of the gut microbiota in the context of these co-infections, the pathogenicity of these infections in infected mice, and the efficacy of the antibiotics used in treatment of these co-infections over time. Salmonella-Schistosoma interactions and the mechanism for antibiotic protection are not well established. However, antimicrobial drug inefficacy is an existing phenomenon in these co-infections. The treatment of schistosomiasis to ensure the efficacy of antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections should be considered in co-infected patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0216.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; variants; co-circulation; dominance; vaccines
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:24:38 CEST)
Some emergent SARS-CoV-2 variants raise concerns due to their altered biological properties. For both B.1.1.7 and B.1351 variants, named as variants of concern (VOC), increased transmissibility was reported, whereas B.1.351 was more resistant to multiple monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), as well as convalescent and vaccination sera. To test this hypothesis, we examined the proportion of VOC over time across different geographic areas where the two VOC, B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, co-circulate. Our comparative analysis was based on the number of SARS-CoV-2 sequences on GISAID database. We report that B.1.1.7 dominates over B.1.351 in geographic areas where both variants co-circulate and the B.1.1.7 was the first variant introduced in the population. The only areas where B.1.351 was detected at higher proportion were South Africa and Mayotte in Africa, where this strain was associated with increased community transmission before the detection of B.1.1.7. The dominance of B.1.1.7 over B.1.351 could be important since B.1.351 was more resistant to certain mAbs, as well as heterologous convalescent and vaccination sera, thus suggesting that it may be transmitted more effectively in people with pre-existing immunity to other VOC. This scenario would lessen the effectiveness of vaccine and urge the need to update them with new strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0711.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: co-expression network; residual feed intake; RNA-Seq
Online: 30 July 2020 (09:39:36 CEST)
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) can regulate several aspects of gene expression, being associated with complex phenotypes in humans and livestock species. In taurine beef cattle, recent evidence points to the involvement of lncRNA in feed efficiency (FE), a proxy for increased productivity and sustainability. Here, we hypothesized specific regulatory roles of lncRNA in FE of indicine cattle. Using RNA-Seq data from liver, muscle, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland from Nellore bulls with divergent FE, we submitted new transcripts to a series of filters to confidently predict lncRNA. Then, we identified lncRNA that were differentially expressed (DE) and/or key regulators of FE. Finally, we explored lncRNA genomic location and interactions with miRNA and mRNA to infer potential function. We were able to identify 126 relevant lncRNA for FE in Bos indicus, some with high homology to previously identified lncRNA in Bos taurus and some possible specific regulators of FE in indicine cattle. Moreover, lncRNA identified here were linked to previously described mechanisms related to FE in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and are expected to help elucidate this complex phenotype. This study contributes to expanding the catalogue of lncRNA, particularly in indicine cattle, and identifies candidates for further studies in animal selection and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: co-infection; coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19; influenza
Online: 19 March 2020 (02:00:47 CET)
Background: On late December 2019, a viral pneumonia known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was originated from China and spread very rapidly in the world. Therefore, COVID-19 became a global concern and health problem. Methods: We presented four patients in this study. They were selected from patients who presented with pneumonia symptoms and were suspicious for COVID-19 and referred to the intended centers for COVID-19 diagnosis and management of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in the south of Iran. Two nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal throat swab samples were collected from each patient and tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection by real-time reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR), and also samples were sent for influenza viruses and all the respiratory panel. Results: In the present report, four patients were diagnosed in the starting days of COVID-19 disease in our center in south of Iran with co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus. Conclusions: This co-infection of COVID-19 and influenza highlights the importance of considering SARS-CoV-2 PCR assay regardless of other positive findings for other pathogens in the primary test during the epidemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0430.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Co-culture; Reduced-serum; Wound bed; Fibroblasts; Keratinocytes
Online: 12 March 2020 (13:24:46 CET)
Contact-based co-culture of fibroblasts and keratinocytes is important to study the structure and functions of the wound bed. Co-culture of these two cell types in direct contact with each other has been challenging, requiring high serum concentrations (up to 10%), feeder systems and a range of supplemental factors. These approaches are not only technically demanding, but also present scientific, cost and ethical limitations associated with high-serum concentrations. We have developed two reduced-serum approaches (1-2%) to support contact-based co-culture of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). The two approaches include (1) Specialized cell culture media for each cell type mixed in a 1:1 ratio (KGM+FGM), and (2) Minimal media supplemented with cell-specific growth factors (MEM+GF). Co-culture could be successfully achieved by co-seeding (two cell types were introduced simultaneously), or in a layered fashion (keratinocytes seeded on top of confluent fibroblasts). With wound scratch assays, the co-cultured platforms could demonstrate cell proliferation, migration and wound closure. The reduced-serum conditions developed are simple, easy to formulate and adopt, and based on commonly-available media components. These contact-based co-culture approaches can be leveraged for wound and skin studies, and tissue bioengineering applications, potentially reducing concerns with high-serum formulations.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: dengue; chikungunya; Leptospira; co-infection; Colombia; Latin America
Online: 12 November 2018 (03:21:38 CET)
Background: The febrile patient from tropical areas, in which emerging arboviruses are endemic, represent a diagnostic challenge and potential co-infections with other pathogens (i.e bacteria or parasites) are usually overlooked. Objectives: We present a case of an elderly woman diagnosed with dengue, chikungunya and Leptospira interrogans co-infection. Study Design: Case report. Results: An 87-year old woman from Colombia complained of upper abdominal pain, arthralgia, myalgia, hyporexia, malaise and intermittent fever accompanied with progressive jaundice. She had a medical history of chronic heart failure (Stage C, NYHA III), without documented cardiac murmurs, right bundle branch block, non-valvular atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and chronic venous disease. Her cardiac and pulmonary status quickly deteriorated after 24 hours of her admission without electrocardiographic changes and she required ventilatory and vasopressor support. In the next hours the patient evolved to pulseless electrical activity and then she died. Dengue IgM, NS1 ELISA, MAT for Leptospira interrogans and RT-PCR for chikungunya, were positive. Discussion: This case illustrates a multiple co-infection in a febrile patient from a tropical area of Latin America that evolved to death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0014.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: tin oxide pellets; doping; HRTEM analysis; CO; sensitivity
Online: 4 April 2017 (08:16:13 CEST)
In this work, we report synthesis of Cu, Pt and Pd doped SnO2 powders and their comparative CO gas sensing studies. Dopants were incorporated into SnO2 nanostructures using chemical and impregnation methods by using urea and ammonia as precipitation agents. The synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The presence of dopants within the SnO2 nanostructures was evidenced from HR-TEM. Doped powders utilizing chemical methods with urea as precipitation agent presented higher sensitivities compared to the remaining, which is due to the formation of uniform and homogeneous particles resulted from the temperature assisted synthesis. The particle sizes of doped SnO2 nanostructures were in the range of 40-100 nm. An enhanced sensitivity around 1783 was achieved with Cu doped SnO2 when compared with two other dopants i.e., Pt (1200) and Pd: SnO2(502). The high sensitivity of Cu: SnO2 is due to formation of CuO and its excellent association and dissociation in the presence of CO with adsorbed atmospheric oxygen at sensor operation temperatures resulted in high conductance. Cu: SnO2 may be an alternative and cost effective sensor for industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: co-management; livelihoods; conflicts; biodiversity conservation; sustainable development
Online: 24 November 2016 (11:25:34 CET)
Good governance in natural resource management (NRM) is one of the most challenging issues in developing countries that often inappropriately embedded in national policies and political agendas. It is, in fact, even more important for countries like Bangladesh with exceptionally high pressure and dependence on its natural resources for sustaining rural livelihoods. Globally, nowadays, good governance is considered as one of the key factor for achieving the goal of sustainable development and biodiversity conservation. Bangladesh, of late has responded to that global zeal by involving local communities in the management of country’s declining forest and other natural resources. The colonial legacy of the forestry sector of Bangladesh was planned and, managed as interim projects through donors’ prescriptions. Thus, institutions, management processes and conservation outcomes were problematic. The conventional approach adopted by colonial and post-colonial regimes for forest management also proved to be inefficient due to its top-down management system. The absolute dependency on donor support, and their prescription sometimes worsened the situation both ecologically and socially. Global, regional and local trends supported the need for a different dimension in the governance paradigms. The introduction of a pluralistic approach, known as co-management in protected areas (PAs) is an example of an attempt whereby shared governance mechanism are implemented to attain the desired goals of conservation that will also address the livelihoods and aspirations of communities living in and around PAs of the country. However, in designing future forest and PA regimes the concern of the external aid support and attached conditions remain a reality that needs to be addressed. Adequate attention should be given to our vanishing biodiversity, culture and community livelihoods through devising an appropriate governance mechanism recognizing and supporting local rights, access and participation in the environmental management. It is now time to mainstream the adhoc nature of governance according to our national conservation strategy and policy frameworks in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the Bangladesh NRM sector addressing the human and community right of people in the specific context of forest protected areas management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0101.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: biodiversity conservation, livelihood, co-management, stakeholder, law enforcement
Online: 18 November 2016 (15:20:07 CET)
Despite of being an exceptionally biodiversity rich country, the forest coverage of Bangladesh is declining at an alarming rate. Declaration and management of protected areas in this regard is one of the efforts from government side to tackle the loss of biodiversity. The limited numbers of forest-protected areas (FPA), established to conserve the dwindling forest biodiversity of the country with high pressure on them for timber, non-timber forest products, and fuelwood - makes their management challenging. Moreover, most of the FPAs of the country declared only in the recent decades with very limited infrastructure, manpower and policy support for monitoring and governance. Some people-centred approaches for the management of FPAs and alternative livelihood and income generation subsidies although made available through a few project interventions, their number are still inadequate and performance remains less than satisfactory. This chapter provides a critical review of the FPAs of Bangladesh looking at their role in biodiversity conservation, management challenges, and key lessons from previous management interventions with recommendations for the future. It has been revealed that the FPA system of Bangladesh still poorly represents the diverse forest ecosystems with relatively small forest size and lack of corridors for the movement of wildlife. There are ample opportunities to render co-management of FPAs an effective strategy to minimize the conflicts in FPAs management in the country. It is, however, important to ensure the access of local forest-dependent people to different alternative income generating options that may adequately support their livelihoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0579.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Alkali-activated materials; geopolymer; metakaolin; well cement; co-binder
Online: 9 November 2023 (07:48:59 CET)
Alkali-activated materials, sometimes called geopolymers, can be used as alternative cementitious materials to conventional Portland cement. There is a significant current interest in these materials due to their low CO2 footprint. Typical applications of alkali-activated materials are within civil engineering, however, potential applications as well cementing material within oil & gas are also being studied with emerging interest. This paper presents a systematic study of compressive strength development from 1 to 28 days for metakaolin-based alkali-activated cement. The results show that compressive strength is highly dependent upon the initial Si/Al ratio in the mix design, as well as the concentration of the activator solution. Furthermore, due to the relatively low initial reactivity of the used metakaolin material, different types of co-binders were included in the slurry composition to improve early strength development. The two different co-binders tested were another, more reactive metakaolin material and Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS). It was found that both these co-binders performed as intended, by ensuring early strength development via precipitation of K-A-S-H and C-A-S-H gels, respectively, and also by enabling subsequent strength development due to improved dissolution of the low-reactive metakaolin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2027.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: central nervous system tumor; co-expression network; drug repurposing
Online: 30 August 2023 (09:04:04 CEST)
Primary central nervous system and brain tumors are one of the global burdens that are continuously increasing in cases and requiring more treatment options. Surgery has been the leading treatment option for tumors, however, the localization of the tumor and its infiltrating nature make this option challenging. DNA microarray expression profiles of different CNS tumors provide insight into potential biomarkers for identifying different tumor types and subtypes. Here, we utilized the differentially expressed genes common in four expression profiles, GSE66354, GSE68848, GSE74195, and GSE43290 to reconstruct the gene co-expression network. In this study, we were able to identify preserved cluster genes, hub genes, co-regulating transcription factors, miRNA families, and candidate repurposed drugs. Fourteen identified hub genes, which were, CACNA1A, DNM1, GABRA1, GRIA2, MAPT, SLC17A7, SNAP25, SNAP91, STXBP1, SYT1, COL1A1, COL6A2, FBN2, and FN1 appeared to play a role in tumor progression and may serve as drug targets. We also reported the DEGs in each tumor type, which were ATRT, EPN, PA, MED, PNET, MEN, ACM, ODG, and GBM. Five identified miRNA families, which were, let-7 family, mir-124 family, mir-1 family, mir-103 family, and mir-27 family described in the literature to have tumor-suppressing characteristics. Drug-gene and drug-transcription factor network revealed 32 candidate repurposed drugs and 13 were validated through connectivity map analysis. Here, two main repurposed drugs fit the regulatory requirement for gene interaction, these were, quercetin and vorinostat. Future validation in experimental studies may utilize the future use of the candidate repurposed drugs. Our study provides insights into drug repurposing prospects and understanding tumor expressions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1803.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: freshwater ecosystems; pollution; bioinvasion; co-invasion; establishment; ensemble model
Online: 28 August 2023 (03:48:06 CEST)
In the present study, we implemented species distribution models (SDMs) to determine the potential invasive distribution range of a cichlid fish, Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in a very sensitive inland water system in the southeastern Arabian Peninsula where it is now established and spreading. By using the “Biomod2” package, and the latest CMIP6 climate data, four single species distribution models and EM were built, and the results were evaluated by operating characteristic (ROC) and the true skill statistic (TSS). Based on the relative importance of climate factor analysis the mean diurnal range and precipitation seasonality were useful predictors of habitat suitability for O. niloticus. The response curve analysis indicated that the presence probability of O. niloticus decreased with increasing mean diurnal range and decreasing precipitation seasonality. The suitable distribution ranges for O. niloticus in the studied area were mainly distributed in the northeast of this region. The ensemble model results specified a significant impact of climate change on O. niloticus distribution, so highly suitable areas for this species will be reduced, while areas with low to moderate suitability increase slightly or remain unchanged. Based on the available data, Nile tilapia fulfills all four criteria to be considered as an invasive species: colonization in a new area, direct or indirect impacts of anthropological activity on its distribution range, geographical discontinuity between its native area (Africa) and the Arabian Peninsula (remote dispersal), and finally, its successful breeding in situ without human assistance resulting establishment of this biopollutant. Species distribution modeling provides insights into the factors that can reduce the risks and negative impacts of this biological pollutant on aquatic ecosystems of the southeastern Arabian Peninsula which harbors about 22 recognized fish species in 16 genera, 10 families, seven orders, and a class including 20 natives (seven endemic) species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1740.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: innovation; open innovation; co-creation; knowledge economy; joint ownership
Online: 24 August 2023 (10:12:25 CEST)
Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) is a well-established and widely used approach for defining the readiness of new technology. To this extent, it assesses technology maturity against specific benchmarks, ranging from 1 (concept) to 9 (market solution). Although this is a useful classification service, allowing us to establish a common language, there are cases where we find that this conceptual approach fails to adequately highlight the maturity of certain innovative endeavors and effectively steer their development to higher TR levels. We will present an empirical case where the TRL approach presented a critical shortcoming in highlighting the true and effective readiness of a specific technological development and could not suggest the next natural step in ascending the maturity ladder. We will seek to generalize for the case of co-creation at large, analyze why co-creation may be poorly serviced by the current TRL model and suggest an amendment that would allow the observed shortcoming of the traditional TRL approach to be overcome and its use extended also in such co-creative settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0481.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Camellia sinensis; Discula theae-sinensis; Colletotrichum; pathogenicity; Co-inoculation
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:01:17 CEST)
Anthracnose is one of primary diseases in tea plants that affects tea yield and quality. The geographical distribution, occurrence regularity, and agronomic measures of tea plants with anthracnose have been researched for decades. However, the pathogenic cause of anthracnose in tea plants is diverse in different regions of the world. Identifying the specific pathogenic fungi causing tea anthracnose is an essential control measure to mitigate this disease. In this study, 88 Diaporthales and 45 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from 3 different types of diseased tea leaves. Based on multilocus phylogenetic and morphological analysis, 3 known species, including Discula theae-sinensis, Diaporthe ueckerae, Diaporthe lithocarpus, and 3 indistinguishable species of Diaporthales were identified. In adddition, 8 known species of Colletotrichum, C. fructicola, C. camelliae, C. aenigma, C. siamense, C. henanense, C. karstii, C. tropicicola, C. gigasporum, were identified. This study is the first to report C. tropicicola and C. gigasporum in tea plant in China. Discula theae-sinensis was the most common species in this study and caused disease lesions around wounded areas of tea leaves. The dual trials in vitro indicated Discula theae-sinensis and Colletotrichum were slight inhibition. Co-inoculating Discula theae-sinensis and C. fructicola was superior to single inoculation at low concentration.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0247.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: barbiturate; co-crystal; crystal structure; hydrogen bonding; opiate; pharmaceuticals
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:21:53 CEST)
The two-component compound formed by codeine and cyclopentobarbital was produced by grinding techniques and by evaporation from alcoholic solutions. The cocrystal nature of this phase was established unequivocally by single crystal X-ray structure determination. The asym-metric unit contains one formula unit. In the cyclopentobarbital molecule, the cyclopentenyl ring is disordered over two positions related by a rotation of approximately 180° about its C‒C bond to the pyrimidine ring. The two NH groups of the cyclopentobarbital molecule form N—H···N and N—H···O bonds to piperidine and hydroxyl groups, respectively, belonging to different codeine molecules. In addition, the hydroxyl and methoxy groups of neighboring codeine molecules are linked by O—H···O interactions, resulting H-bonded framework structure of codeine and cyclo-pentobarbital molecules. The cocrystal was also characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and IR spectroscopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0901.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Fusagravirus; Partitivirus; Co-infection; Transcapsidation; Polysomal encapsulation; Diplodia fraxini
Online: 13 July 2023 (08:31:06 CEST)
Two novel dsRNA mycoviruses were found in different isolates of Diplodia fraxini, NW FVA 1581 and NW FVA 1706, which were isolated from a root, associated with stem collar necrosis of Fraxinus excelsior L. Both mycelia are infected by a novel fusagravirus, which was named Diplodia fraxini fusagravirus 1 (DfFV1), and isolate NW FVA 1706 is additionally infected by a novel partitivirus, which was denominated as Diplodia fraxini partitivirus 1 (DfPV1). The one-segmented, bicistronic genome of DfFV1 is composed of about 8,500 bp. Their ORFs are connected by a 1 slippery heptamer sequence and the 3’ terminal ORF is coding for the viral RdRp. The genome of DfPV1 is composed of three, monocistronic dsRNA segments ranging from 1,755 bp (dsRNA 1) over 1,588 bp (dsRNA 2) to 1,233 bp (dsRNA 3). Based on genome organization and phylogenetic positions, DfFV1 was assigned to the proposed family of “Fusagraviridae” and DfPV1 to the genus Gammapartitivirus within the family of Partitiviridae. Ultra-structural analysis showed that polysomal structures were stabilized in the single infection and none of these structures could be isolated in the double infection. It is assumed that DfFV1 has an opportunistic lifestyle, being either protected by ribosomes or by transcapsidation from particles of DfPV1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0095.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Low frequency; Co3O4/CC; Co-MOFs/CC; thinner thickness
Online: 1 June 2023 (13:35:25 CEST)
With the rapid development of electronic and communication technology in military radar, the demand for microwave absorbing materials in low-frequency with thin layer is growing increasingly. In this study, flexible Co3O4/CC (carbon cloth) composites derives from Co-MOFs (metal-organic frameworks)/CC are prepared by hydrothermal and thermal treatment processes. The flexible precursors of Co-MOFs/CC are calcined with different calcination temperatures, which the material structure, dielectric properties and microwave absorption performance are changed. With the increase of calcination temperature, the minimum reflection loss of the corresponding Co3O4/CC composites gradually moves to the lower frequency with thinner thickness. In addition, the Co3O4/CC composites with 25 wt% filler loading ratio exhibit the minimum reflection loss (RL) of -46.59 dB at 6.24 GHz with 4.2 mm thickness. When the thickness is 3.70 mm, the effective absorption bandwidth is 3.04 GHz from 5.84 to 8.88 GHz. This study not only proves that the composite Co3O4/CC is a kind of outstanding microwave absorbing material with better flexibility, but also provides a useful inspiration for the low frequency and broadband microwave absorbing material.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0738.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Heart failure; Sodium-glucose co-transporter; diabetes; cardiovascular outcomes.
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:13:59 CEST)
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, originally used for diabetes mellitus, are gaining more popularity for other indications owing to their positive cardiovascular and renal effects. Initially, SGLT2 inhibitors were shown to reduce heart failure (HF) hospitalization and improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Later, SGLT2 inhibitors were evaluated in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) and had beneficial effects independent of the presence of diabetes. Recently, reduction in cardiovascular outcomes were also observed in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). SGLT2 inhibitors also reduced renal outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Overall, these drugs have an excellent safety profile with a negligible risk of genitourinary tract infections and ketoacidosis. In this review, we discuss the current data regarding SGLT2 inhibitors in special populations including acute myocardial infarction, acute HF, right ventricular (RV) failure, patients with left ventricular assist device (LVAD), and patients with type1 diabetes. We also discuss the potential mechanisms behind the cardiovascular benefits of these drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0304.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Mitochondria; Co-translational import; BioID; Protein identification; Mass spectrometry
Online: 21 April 2023 (09:03:58 CEST)
Biotin-based proximity labeling approaches, such as BioID, have demonstrated their use for the study of mitochondria proteomes in living cells. The use of genetically engineered BioID cell lines enables the detailed characterization of poorly characterized processes such as mitochondrial co-translational import. In this process, translation is coupled to the translocation of the mitochon-drial proteins, alleviating the energy cost typically associated with the post-translational import relying on chaperone systems. However, the mechanisms are still unclear with only few actors identified but none that have been described in mammals yet. We thus profiled the TOM20 prox-isome using BioID, assuming that some of identified proteins could be molecular actors of the co-translational import in human cells. The obtained results showed a high enrichment of RNA bind-ing proteins close to the TOM complex. However, for the few selected candidates, we could not demonstrate a role in the mitochondrial co-translational import process. Nonetheless, we were able to demonstrate additional uses of our BioID cell line. Indeed, the experimental approach used in this study is thus proposed for the identification of mitochondrial co-translational import effec-tors and for the monitoring of protein entry inside mitochondria with a potential application in the prediction of mitochondrial protein half-life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0684.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: modified bitumen; co pyrolysis; char; viscosity; storage stability; wastes
Online: 21 April 2023 (08:19:13 CEST)
By enhancing the bitumen properties with the additives produced from wastes not only can be improved the performance of flexible pavements but also can be contributed to the environment. This research aims to produce a novel pyrolytic char from different wastes and to investigate the usability of this char as an additive in bitumen. In this study, firstly, the pyrolytic char was produced from co-pyrolysis of three different wastes including waste paper cups, polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) wastes. Properties of the char were determined by using CHN (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The high temperature rheological properties of binders were evaluated by using DSR (dynamic shear rheometer), RV (rotational viscometer), softening point and penetration tests. Additionally, specific gravity, storage stability, high temperature performance grades (PG) and temperature susceptibilities of binders were determined. Test results showed that this pyrolytic char enhanced the high temperature properties of neat bitumen by increasing softening point, viscosity, rutting resistance and high temperature PG. And, it can be said that the bituminous binder modified with this pyrolytic char had a good storage stability when it was used at 8% ratio in neat bitumen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Flotation; High-sulfur residue; Diethyldithiocarbamate; DFT; Co-adsorption model
Online: 7 April 2023 (03:44:03 CEST)
Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) has been employed in the sulfide ore flotation process, due to its excellent collection performance. Herein, we investigated the interfacial adsorption behavior of DDTC on four mineral phases of high-sulfur residue — sulfur, pyrite, sphalerite and lead sulfate. The adsorption behavior — adsorption structure and energy and electron localization function cross section — of DDTC and H2O were explored using density function theory calculation. The result was helpful to construct a co-adsorption model of DDTC and H2O, which was validated by the pure minerals flotation operation and the characterization of fourier transform infrared spectra. The co-adsorption model indicated that the DDTC adsorption on the sulfur, sphalerite and lead sulfate was weak with physical bonding, while its adsorption on the pyrite was strong with chemical bonding. Practical bench-scale operation of high-sulfur residue flotation was performed, whose result was different from that obtained from the pure mineral flotation. To explain the difference, our developed model predictions and the mineral fugacity pattern analysis on the high-sulfur residue flotation were synergistically used. Overall, this work first proposed the co-adsorption model of DDTC and H2O and provided important insights into the interfacial adsorption in the high-sulfur residue flotation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Microsporidia, Metchnikovellida, hyperparasites, co-occurring infections, host-parasite relationships
Online: 13 December 2022 (09:48:50 CET)
Metchnikovellids (Microsporidia: Metchnikovellida) are poorly studied hyperparasitic micro-sporidia that live in gregarines inhabiting the intestines of marine invertebrates, mostly poly-chaetes. Our recent studies showed that the diversity of the metchnikovellids might be signifi-cantly higher than previously thought, even within a single host. Four species of metchnikovellids were found in the gregarines inhabiting the gut of the polychaete Pygospio elegans from littoral populations of the White and Barents Seas: the eugregarine Polyrhabdina pygospionis is the host for Metchnikovella incurvata and M. spiralis, while the archigregarine Selenidium pygospionis is the host for M. dogieli and M. dobrovolskiji. The most common species in the White Sea is M. in-curvata, while M. dobrovolskiji prevails in the Barents Sea. The gregarines within a single worm could be infected with different metchnikovellid species. However, co-infection of one and the same gregarine with several species of metchnikovellids has never been observed. The difference in prevalence and intensity of metchnikovellid invasion apparently depends on the features of the life cycle and on the development strategies of individual species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0143.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Salmonella; novel antibacterial agents; cannabidiol; co-therapy; bacterial genetics
Online: 12 September 2022 (09:55:22 CEST)
New generation antibiotics are needed to combat the development of resistance to antimicrobials. One of the most promising new classes of antibiotics is cannabidiol (CBD). It is a non-toxic and low-resistance chemical that can be used to treat bacterial infections. The antibacterial activity of Cannabis sativa L. byproducts, specifically CBD, has been of growing interest in the field of novel therapeutics. As research continues to define and characterize the antibacterial activity that CBD possesses against a wide variety of bacterial species it is important to examine potential interaction between CBD and common therapeutics such as broad-spectrum antibiotics. Here, we show that CBD-antibiotic co-therapy can effectively fight S. typhimurium via membrane integrity disruption. This research serves to examine the potential synergy between CBD and three broad-spectrum antibiotics for potential antibiotic-CBD co-therapy. In this study, we reveal that Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) growth is inhibited at very low dosages of CBD-antibiotic. This interesting finding demonstrates that CBD and CBD-antibiotic co-therapies are viable novel alternatives to combating Salmonella typhimurium.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0530.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Resource recovery; circular economy; food waste; anaerobic co-digestion
Online: 31 August 2022 (03:10:30 CEST)
The emergence of the circular economy, and the evolving paradigms in the treatment and management of wastewater, have opened up an opportunity for co-digestion of organic waste (i.e., food waste) with sewage sludges to enhance resource recovery at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper reviewed the potential for anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludges, as well as alternative sustainable food waste handling systems in South Africa. The promotion of the circular economy by the latest national solid waste management strategy and the ongoing efforts for resource recovery by the wastewater sector suggests that anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge is possible in South Africa. Furthermore, an integrated food waste disposer (FWD) system was identified as a sustainable alternative for food waste handling. To formulate a roadmap for future food waste and sewage sludge co-digestion implementation, a multi-disciplinary investigation is required to bridge the literature gap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0282.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Project management; geothermal; co-benefits; sustainable development; innovation, operationalization
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:08:41 CET)
Despite knowledge concerning stakeholders and the economic advantages of consultation, collaboration and innovation, analysis of the sustainability implications of the geothermal industry has tended to take a high-level or systemic overview of national performance. This study seeks to begin to fill this gap in the academic and grey literature, investigating the following research question: how do projects in the Icelandic geothermal energy sector create co-benefits with stakeholders and reflect the integration of sustainable energy development (SED)? The focus of its analysis is on identifying who are the stakeholders, what are the sustainability benefits co-created with stakeholders, and when in the project lifecycle do these occur. Based on eleven semi-structured interviews with project managers in Iceland’s geothermal industry, the study identifies a broad array of stakeholders in the sector, including national and municipal governments and public sector institutions, businesses, the public, employees and landowners. The sustainability co-benefits of Iceland’s geothermal power projects are broad and cut cross all six themes of SED and multiple phases of the project lifecycle. Although the sustainability benefits are very apparent, trade-offs are reported between the pursuit of an economically efficient energy system and nature conservation. This relates to unsustainable utilization of the resources and the environmental externalities of power production and consumption. Efforts to mitigate these effects are ongoing and the further pursuit of SED is likely in Iceland given its recognition within the nation’s new energy policy and to meet ambitious greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets in the government’s climate action plan. These are issues that are prominent in other nations seeking to decarbonize energy systems through increased utilization of geothermal resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0319.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Waste water; Phosphate co-product; Adsorption; Red Acid 52
Online: 21 December 2021 (09:15:16 CET)
Water is essential for all living things however its pain has become serious. Many industrial activities cause its pollution by the release of polluting byproduct. Waste water treatment is hence necessary. In this context, the waste water of the textile industry containing Red Acid 52 was treated by the solid waste of the washed natural phosphate byproduct. Natural phosphate was also studied. The solid materials were first characterized by chemical analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The phosphate materials were after that, tested in the adsorption of the Red Acid 52. The experimental data indicated that the phosphate waste rock allowed the removal of Red Acid 52. Its maximum retention capacity attained 18.4 mg.g-1. Calcinations of materials inhibits the removal capacity found reduced by 60 to 70%. The adsorption kinetics of the Red Acid 52 on the material is well described by the pseudo second order model while the adsorption isotherms are identified by the Langmuir model. Hereafter, the thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic. Keywords: Waste water, Phosphate co-product, Adsorption, Red Acid 52.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0029.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: carbon nanomaterials; nitrogen doping; sulphur doping; co-doping; electrocatalysts
Online: 2 December 2021 (10:18:53 CET)
In recent years, hetero atom incorporated specially structured metal-free carbon nanomaterials have drawn huge attention among researchers. In comparison to the un-doped carbon nanomaterials, hetero atoms like nitrogen, sulphur, boron, phosphorous etc. incorporated nanomaterials become well-accepted as potential electrocatalysts in water splitting, supercapacitors and dye-sensitized solar cells. This review emphasizes on the mostly popular synthetic strategies utilized in last two decades and their excellent performance in electrocatalytic studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0085.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: allosteric ligands; AutoDock; cognate ligands; Tanimoto co-efficient; GPCRs
Online: 3 December 2020 (13:08:24 CET)
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are large protein families known to be important in many cellular processes. They are well known for their allosteric activation mechanisms. They are drug targets for several FDA-approved drugs. We have investigated the diversity of the ligand binding site for these class of proteins against their cognate ligands using computational docking, even if their structures are known in the ligand-complexed form. The cognate ligand of some of these receptors dock at allosteric binding site, with better score than the binding at the conservative site. Further, ligands obtained from GLASS database, which consists of experimentally verified GPCR ligands, also show allosteric binding to GPCRs. The allosteric binders show strong affinity to the binding site, though the residues at the binding site are not conserved across GPCR subfamilies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: co-infection; SARS-CoV-2; pike glycoprotein; stop mutations
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:33:59 CEST)
There is a rising global concern for the ongoing outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 due to its high transmission rate and unavailability of treatment. Through the binding of its spike glycoprotein with angiotensin type 2 (ACE2), SARS-CoV-2 can efficiently get in the cells of patients and start its pandemic cycle. Herein, the biological diversity of SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed in Babylon province of Iraq by investigating the possible genetic variations of the spike glycoprotein. A specific coding region of 795 bp within the viral spike (S) gene was amplified from 19 patients who suffered from obvious symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sequencing results identified fifteen novel nucleic acid variations with a variety of distributions within the investigated samples. The electropherograms of all the identified variations showed obvious co-infections with at least two different viral strains per sample. Within these co-infections, the majority of samples exhibited three nonsense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)s, p.301Cdel, p.380Ydel, and p.436del, which yielded three truncated SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins of 301, 380, and 436 amino acids length, respectively. The network and phylogenetic analyses indicated that for all viral infections were derived from multi-ancestral origins. Results inferred from the specific clade-based tree entailed that some viral strains were derived from European G-clade sequences. In conclusion, our data demonstrated the absence of any single strain infection among all investigated viral samples in the studied area, which may entail a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 in this country. Through the identified high frequency of truncated spike proteins, we suggest that defective SARS-CoV-2 may depend on helper strains having intact spikes in its infection. Alternatively, another putative ACE2-independent route of viral infection way also suggested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the co-infection of multiple strains of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-Co-V2; Paediatric hyperinflammation; MIS-C; PIMS-TS
Online: 12 July 2020 (12:09:35 CEST)
We describe the innate and adaptive immune system trajectory in Multi-system inflammatory syndrome of childhood (MIS-C), at acute(within 72 hours of hospitalization), resolution (at clinical improvement) and convalescent phase. In our cohort, in the acute phase, 68% of the children were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive, with hypercytokinenemia (high interleukin(IL)-1beta,IL-6,IL-8,IL-10,IL-17, interferon gamma), procoagulant state, myocardial dysfunction, activated neutrophils and monocytes; differential T and B cell subset lymphopenia; activated chemokine receptor type-7 positive and gamma-delta T cell subsets; antigen presenting cells had reduced HLA-DR expression; and B-cell class-switch responses occurred with illness resolution. MIS-C is an immunopathogenic illness associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections in children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Indigenous Tribes; Co-morbidities; Corona Virus; Navaho
Online: 14 April 2020 (08:43:11 CEST)
Introduction The COVID-19 virus was initially reported in Dec 2019 as the causative agent of a pneumonia breakout in Wuhan China. This virus rapidly spread from China to Europe and the East Coast of the United States eventually reaching the South West United States and indigenous tribes in mid -March. Since, then the indigenous tribes have been devasted by the virus which the Governor of New Mexico has likened as an existential threat. Methodology A PubMed search was performed utilizing the words: Navajo Indian, Indigenous Indian, Wuhan Virus, COVID-19, SARs coronavirus, ACE2, S protein, virulence, clinical presentation, epidemiology, genome, treatment, structure, MERs, pathogenesis and/or pathology alone and in combination with other terms. Each paper was evaluated by three content experts for quality, reproducibility, credibility and reputation of the journal Results: Navajo’s and other indigenous peoples may have elevated levels of ACE2 receptors in their lungs and other tissues allowing greater susceptibility to the COVID-19 virus. Increased levels of diabetes and protein nutrition are directly related to increased morbidity and mortality in this group while obesity, COPD, and heart diseas are not. The increased morbidity and mortality is exasperated by an inability to test for COVID-19 Conclusion: The infectivity rate of Navaho’s on the reservation is 22 times higher than the national average with a death rate near 4%. Comorbidites account for some of the increased morbidity and mortality while lack of access to adequate health care unnecessarily magnifies the poor outcome. The threat to indigenous tribes in the Southwest of COVID-19 is dire.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0406.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Environmental chemistry; Oxyfuel Combustion; NO-CO reaction; Heterogeneous catalysis.
Online: 27 February 2020 (12:25:57 CET)
Carbon dioxide has become a global challenge, where the emissions have become more than what could be handled. In this regard, conversion of CO2 to value added chemicals and thus recycling CO2 became a viable option. One of these options is the use of a process in strong development: oxycombustion. However, the gases resulting from this process contain some traces of impurities that can hinder the recovery of CO2 such as NO and CO. This work has therefore focused on the study of the reaction of NO reduction by CO in an oxidizing medium, using catalytic materials based on various supported noble metals. These materials were extensively characterized by a variety of methods including BET surface area measurements, hydrogen chemisorption, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR). The obtained results show that the catalytic behaviour of M/Al2O3 catalysts in CO oxidation and NO reduction with CO in oxidative conditions depends mainly on the nature of the metal. The best result for these both reactions is obtained with Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. The Pt nanoparticles existing in the metallic form (Pt°) showed by TPR could explain the activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0299.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: European Parliament , Ordinary Legislative Procedure, Co-decision, Efficiency,Effectiveness
Online: 25 December 2018 (08:44:35 CET)
On the eve of the Brexit process, in the context of a rising Euroscepticism that fuels the modest confidence of European citizens in their national and European institutions, the article assesses the efficiency and effectiveness of the European Parliament within the framework of the ordinary legislative procedure (co-decision). After defining and formulating the main indicators, the paper analyses the micro- and macro-performance of the European Parliament within the decision-making process from a quantitative-qualitative and a qualitative-quantitative perspective, highlighting the relativizing factors and the responsiveness of the European decision-making process to the Europeans’ needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0298.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Ti doped ZnO, Thin film, Co-Sputtering, UV-Visible
Online: 25 December 2018 (08:40:43 CET)
ZnO films with Ti atoms incorporated (TZO) in a wide range (0-18 at. %) have been grown by reactive co-sputtering on silicon and glass substrates. The influence of the titanium incorporation in the ZnO matrix on the structural and optical characteristics of the samples has been determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the samples with low Ti content (< 4 at. %) exhibit the wurtzite-like structure, with the Ti+4 ions substitutionally incorporated into the ZnO structure, forming Ti-doped ZnO films. In particular, very low concentration of Ti (<0.9 at. %) leads to a significant increase of the crystallinity of the TZO samples. Higher Ti contents give rise to a progressive amorphization of the wurtzite-like structure so samples with high Ti content (≥18at. %), displays an amorphous structure indicating the XPS analysis a predominance of Ti-O-Zn mixed oxides. The energy gap, obtained from absorption spectrophotometry, increases from 3.2 eV for pure ZnO films to 3.6 eV for those with the highest Ti content. Ti incorporation in the ZnO samples below 0.9 at. % rises both, the blue (380 nm) and green (550 nm) bands of the photoluminescence (PL) emission, thereby indicating a significant improvement of PL efficiency of the samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0203.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Titanium dioxide nanotube, photoelectric properties, co-doping, magnetron sputtering
Online: 10 August 2018 (09:43:33 CEST)
Cu,N-TiO2 nanotube (Cu,N-TNT) is prepared through a novel magnetron sputtering and anodic oxidation method. Then the morphology, structure and physicochemical property of Cu,N-TNT was analyzed by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and UV-vis-DR. The results indicate that the evenly doped copper is beneficial to the transformation of the TNT from anatase to rutile and play a key role in the morphology of the Cu,N-TNT. The doped Cu and N in the TNT influence the growth orientation of the TiO2 crystals, which result in the lattice distortion and wider the interplanar spacing 60s-Cu,N-TNT has less band gap and stronger absorption intensity in visible region than other Cu,N-TNT samples, which make the combination rate of photogenerated electron and photogenerated hole decrease greatly, thus beneficial to its physicochemical property.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0021.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterials; cobalt ferrites; poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate); tissue engineering
Online: 3 July 2018 (05:12:53 CEST)
Polymer-based piezoelectric biomaterials have already proven their relevance for tissue engineering applications. Further, the morphology of the scaffolds plays also an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation. The present work reports on poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), a biocompatible, biodegradable and piezoelectric biopolymer that has been processed in different morphologies, including films, fibres, microspheres and 3D scaffolds. Further, the corresponding magnetically active PHBV-based composites were also produced. The effect of the morphology on physico-chemical, thermal, magnetic and mechanical properties of pristine and composites samples was evaluated, as well as their cytotoxicity. It was observed that the morphology does not strongly affect the properties of the pristine samples but the introduction of cobalt ferrites induces changes in the degree of crystallinity that could affect the applicability of prepared biomaterials. Young modulus is dependent of the morphology and also increases with the addition of cobalt ferrites. Both, pristine and PHBV/cobalt ferrite composite samples are no cytotoxic, indicating their suitability for tissue engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0132.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: subplinian eruption; co-occurrence matrix; wavelet transform; similarity metrics
Online: 8 June 2018 (12:33:49 CEST)
This paper presents a new methodology that provides the analysis of surface texture changes in areas adjacent to the volcano and its impact product of volcanic activity. To do this, algorithms from digital image processing such as the co-occurrence matrix and the wavelet transform are used. These methods are working on images taken by the Landsat satellite platform sensor 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM + sensor, and implemented with the purpose of evaluating superficial changes that can warn of surface movements of the volcano. The results were evaluated by similarity metrics for grayscale images, and validated in two different scenarios that have the same type of eruption, but differ, essentially, in climate and vegetation. Finally, the proposed algorithm is presented, setting the parameters and constraints for implementation and use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0165.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: infectious bronchitis virus; protection; co-expressing; subunit vaccine; challenge
Online: 10 May 2018 (12:02:08 CEST)
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis, which causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. It is imperative to develop safe and efficient candidate vaccines to control IBV infection. In the current study, recombinant baculoviruses co-expressing S1 and N proteins, mono-expressing S1 or N proteins alone of IBV were constructed and prepared into subunit vaccines rHBM-S1-N, rHBM-S1 and rHBM-N. The levels of immune protection of these subunit vaccines were evaluated by inoculating specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens at 14 days of age, boosting with the same dose 14 days later, and following challenge with a virulent GX-YL5 strain of IBV 14 days post-booster (dpb). The commercial vaccine strain H120 was used as a control. The IBV-specific antibody levels as well as the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were detected within 28 days post-vaccination (dpv). The morbidity, mortality, and re-isolation of virus from the tracheas and kidneys of challenged birds were evaluated at 5 days post-challenge (dpc). The results showed that the IBV-specific antibody levels and the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte in rHBM-S1-N group were higher than those of rHBM-S1 and rHBM-N groups, especially the cellular immunity response. At 5 dpc, the mortality, morbidity and virus re-isolation rate of rHBM-S1-N were slightly higher than those of H120 group, but were lower than those of rHBM-S1 group and rHBM-N group. The present study demonstrated that the protection of recombinant baculovirus co-expressing S1 and N proteins was better than that of recombinant baculoviruses mono-expressing S1 or N protein alone. Thus, the recombinant baculovirus co-expressing S1 and N proteins could serve as a potential IBV vaccine and this demonstrates that the bivalent subunit vaccine including the S1 and N proteins might be a strategy for the development of an IBV subunit vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0856.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: air mobility; efuel; hydrogen; battery electric; CO2
Online: 14 November 2023 (16:54:19 CET)
Despite significant technical progress, the aviation industry carbon footprint keeps growing. Recent articles demonstrate that the decarbonization of air mobility will almost exclusively rely on the decarbonization of its energy. While biofuels will play an important role in the near and long-term, low carbon electricity is now considered, either with direct electrification, or using energy vectors such as hydrogen or efuels. In this study we compare each energy vector using the well to rotor methodology applied to a standard air mobility mission to capture the different conversions losses and the integration effects on the carrier. The energy required is first expressed in the unit of the energy vector before being translated into kWh at the well, the electricity grid in our central scenario. The results are than translated in CO2 emissions and direct energy cost. Based on the assumptions in this study, the electricity carbon intensity and price can significantly impact the results. While liquid H2 has the highest cost and CO2 emissions in most scenarios, the results indicate that when electricity carbon intensity is below 35 gCO2/kWh, efuel can have lower CO2 emissions than battery electrification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1867.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: plasma beam spraying method; co-addition; CeO2; microstructure; wear performance
Online: 30 October 2023 (10:24:04 CET)
The effects of co-addition CeO2 and SiC particles on the morphology, surface cracks, microstructure, precipitated phases and wear property of plasma beam spraying Fe55-based coatings on 1025 steel were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), ultra-deep field microscope and wet sand rubber wheel friction tester, respectively. The results showed that the dendrite exhibited a directional growth pattern perpendicular to the substrate and the transitional states of microstructure with the co-addition CeO2 and SiC particles. With addition of CeO2 or SiC affected the flowability of molten steel at macro level, leading to a reduction in the liquid phase diffusion coefficient DL of Cr and C and resulted in a decrease in the G/R ratio. The dendrites changed into equiaxed grains. The main phase composition of Fe55 welding layer is Cr7C3, γ-Fe. The grain boundaries consisted mainly of a reticular eutectic structure. The worn-out uniformly surface of the Fe55+1.5 wt% SiC+0.01wt% CeO2 with Ra was 0.28 μm was smoother than that of other samples. The sub-wear mechanisms during the friction process were microploughing and microcutting. The hardness and toughness of Fe55+1.5 wt% SiC+0.01wt% CeO2 were well-matched, avoiding excessive microcutting and microplastic deformation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0204.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: copper (I); triazine, phosphine, crystal structure, theoretical calculations, co-sensitized.
Online: 4 September 2023 (14:59:22 CEST)
A new copper(I) complex, [Cu2(L)2dppm](PF6)2 (1) [L = 3-(2-Pyridyl)-5,6-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazine and dppm: Bis(diphenylphosphino)methane] was prepared and characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 31P-NMR spectroscopy, elemental and thermogravimetric analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Complex 1 is a dinuclear compound, showing that L and dppm act as tridentate and bidentate chelating ligands, respectively. The two Cu(I) atoms exhibit a distorted tetrahedral coordination sphere embedded in N3P environments. The supramolecular interactions in the solid-state structure are characterized by C−H···N, C−H···F, C-H···π and π···π intermolecular interactions that were analyzed by inspection of the Hirshfeld surface and fingerprint plots. Additionally, the complex was studied experimentally in solution by UV–Vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry; also, theoretical studies with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) were performed. Moreover, the optical and electrochemical properties have been studied, focusing on the band gap. Compound 1 has been used as a co-sensitizer in a dye-sensitized solar cell, showing good activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1577.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene; Electrospinning; Nanofibers; Hydrophobic membrane; Membrane distillation
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:06:09 CEST)
The major challenge for membrane distillation (MD) is membrane wetting resistance induced by pollutants in the feed solution. The proposed solution for this issue was to fabricate membranes with hydrophobic properties. Hydrophobic electrospun Poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) nanofibers membranes were produced for brine treatment using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) technique. These nanofibers membranes were prepared from three different polymeric solution compositions to study the effect of solvent composition in the electrospinning process. Further, the effect of the polymer concentration was investigated by preparing polymeric solutions with three different polymer percentages: 6, 8, and 10%. All nanofibers membranes obtained from electrospinning were post-treated at varying temperatures. The effects of thickness, porosity, pore size, and LEP were studied. The hydrophobicity was determined by contact angle measurements, which were investigated by optical contact angle goniometry. The crystallinity and thermal properties were studied by DCS and XRD, while the functional groups were studied by FTIR. The morphological study was performed by AMF and described the roughness of nanofibers membranes. Finally, all nanofibers membranes have enough of a hydrophobic nature to be used in DCMD. PVDF membrane filter disc and all nanofibers membranes were applied in DCMD to treat brine water. The resulting water flux and permeate water quality were compared, and it was discovered that all produced nanofibers membranes showed good behavior with varying water flux, but the salt rejection was greater than 90%. A membrane prepared from DMF/acetone 5-5 with 10% PVDF-HFP provided perfect performance, with an average water flux of 44 kg.m-2.h-1 and salt rejection of 99.8%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1442.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; co-infection; secondary infection; multidrug resistance; alternative strategies
Online: 19 May 2023 (12:02:20 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a potentially serious acute respiratory infection caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, the virus has spread to more than 200 countries with more than 500 million cases and more than 6 million deaths reported globally. It has long been known that viral respiratory tract infections predispose patients to bacterial infections and that these co-infections often have an unfavourable clinical outcome. Moreover, nosocomial infections, also known as health care-associated infections (HAIs), are those infections that are absent at the time of admission and acquired after hospitalization. However, the impact of coinfections or secondary infections on the progression of COVID-19 disease and its lethal outcome is still debated. The aim of this review was to assess the literature on the incidence of bacterial co-infections and superinfections in patients with COVID-19. The review also highlights the importance of the rational use of antibiotics in patients with COVID-19 and the need to implement antimicrobial stewardship principles to prevent the transmission of drug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings. Finally, alternative antimicrobial agents to counter the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections in COVID-19 patients will also be discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0646.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: DRAR, Co-DRAR, Relay nodes; Cooperation; Energy efficiency; Routing protocol
Online: 20 April 2023 (10:08:29 CEST)
The reliability of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) is measured in terms of energy consumption (EC), end-to-end delay(E2E) and packet delivery ratio (PDR). The adverse effects of channel may cause data loss. Reducing delay up to possible extend improves the reliability of the network, also increasing the number of nodes in a particular network increase reliability. Besides, increasing the number of nodes improve reliability but also increase power consumption. In order to overcome these shortcomings, the two routing protocols are proposed in this paper, namely Delay and Reliability Aware Routing (DRAR) protocol and Cooperative Delay and Reliability Aware Routing (Co-DRAR) protocol for UWSNs. In DRAR protocol, network is divided into two equal regions where two sink nodes(SNs) are positioned at upper region of the network and two SNs are placed at the mid region of the network. The protocol choose the relay node based on residual energy (RE), distance and Bit Error Rate (BER). These parameters protect the data packets from corruption and also provide stable path (where nodes remain active for longer period and do not die quickly). The protocol uses single link and may get worse sometimes while changing channel circumstances. To address this problem, cooperative routing scheme is added to DRAR protocol in order to developed its enhanced version known as Co-DRAR protocol. The protocol works by allowing the destination to receive multiple copies of data packets in order to decide the quality of packets. The proposed protocols DRAR and Co-DRAR perform routing irrespective to geographical position of sensors nodes conversely to the some of conventional routing protocols that's way our propose protocol better perform than the well-known protocol i.e. Depth base routing (DBR) in terms of EC, E2E, PDR, dead nodes, packet drop ratio and number of alive nodes (ANs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0107.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: green infrastructure; transdisciplinary; water systems; Costa Rica; co-design; prototype
Online: 27 December 2022 (01:55:16 CET)
The management of urban water has evolved from single-function systems to more sustainable designs promoting society and nature as inputs to engineer novel infrastructure. In transdisciplinary research, co-design refers to a design thinking strategy in which people jointly frame a problem-solution. This article presents a conceptual framework to assess a case study focusing on the process of co-design and implementation of green infrastructure as a prototype for stormwater management. The evaluation is carried out from a self-reflective post-implementation perspective. Research activities are translated into the framework to evaluate conditions shaping the trajectory of the prototype. As a result, key aspects driving the research regarding levels of stakeholder participation and dimensions of power are identified. Planning resilient co-design strategies to retrofit urban spaces is necessary to avoid unintended consequences, especially at the initial experimental stages. This study aims to contribute to the continuous improvement of pilot strategies in urban spaces by providing a framework for a structured evaluation of research experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: mHealth; pregnancy; app; first 1000 days; co-design; expectant parents
Online: 5 December 2022 (14:43:03 CET)
Background. To improve maternal and child health, it is essential to adhere to health-promoting and preventive measures. However, reliable information as well as effective tools are not easy to identify in this field. Our cross-sectional study investigated the needs and expectations of expectant and new mothers and fathers -primary users of an app supporting the first 1000 days of life. Methods. Between May and August 2022, we recruited expectant and new parents by administering a 71-item 5-point Likert scale questionnaire related to content, functionalities, and technical features of a hypothetical app. We stratified responses by sociodemographic characteristics and then performed ward hierarchical clustering. Results. The 94 women and 69 men involved in our study generally agreed with the proposed content, but expressed low interest in certain app functionalities, especially those related to interaction mechanism and interactivity. Women were generally more demanding than men, and family income declined as the needs and expectations increased. Conclusions. Our findings, resulting from the engagement of end-users, may be useful for designers and technology providers to implement mHealth solutions that, in addition to conveying reliable information, are tailored to the needs and preferences of end-users in the first 1000 days of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: pharmaceutical toxicants; recalcitrant pollutants; co-metabolic pathways; biostimulation; bioaug-mentation
Online: 1 June 2022 (10:29:47 CEST)
Pharmaceutically active compounds and organic pollutants are becoming a major environmental dispute possessing serious threat to the water bodies and terrestrial ecosystem. Microorganisms are capable of the self-purification process, and hence the microbial degradation is considered a lucrative method to counteract the therapeutic and recalcitrant pollutants. Pharmaceutical toxicants in aquatic system can be treated by conventional wastewater treatment, but slow sludge settling, presence of mixture of pharmaceuticals and recalcitrant compounds often pose a potential ecological risk. Some microbial strains are very effective in reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total dissolved solids (TDS), and turbidity in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater treatment. The natural microbial community has a significant role in the ecological processes of pharmaceutical and organic compounds, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, blood lipid regulators and other micropollutants. Specific bacterial isolates can act as biodegraders, and fungal treatment could offer protection to the ecosystem. These microorganisms use the pollutants as their sole carbon source and transform the contaminants by co-metabolic pathways. Natural attenuation by native microorganisms, biostimulation and bioaugmentation are the processes employed to degrade the target contaminant. Microorganisms may also be genetically engineered to improve the neutralization efficiency, which would assist in the mineralization of the pollutants. Thus, employing microorganisms to detoxify the pollutants probably enhances the sustainable potential biodegradability, improves water quality standards and ensures eco-friendly alternative bioremediation strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0123.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind energy; digitalisation; collaboration; co-innovation; machine learning; fault detection
Online: 10 May 2022 (03:05:25 CEST)
In the next decade, further digitalisation of the entire wind energy project lifecycle is expected to be a major driver for reducing project costs and risks. In this paper, a literature review on the challenges related to implementation of digitalisation in the wind energy industry is first carried out, showing that there is a strong need for new solutions that enable co-innovation within and between organisations. Therefore, a new collaboration method called the WeDoWind Ecosystem is developed and demonstrated. The method is centred around specific "challenges", which are defined by "challenge providers" within a topical "space" and made available to participants via a digital platform. The data required in order to solve a particular "challenge" is provided by the "challenge providers" under the confidentiality conditions they specify. The method is demonstrated via a case study, the EDP Wind Turbine Fault Detection Challenge. Six submitted solutions using diverse approaches are evaluated. Two of the methods perform significantly better than EDP’s existing method in terms of Total Prediction Costs (saving up to €120,000). The WeDoWind Ecosystem is found to be a promising solution for enabling co-innovation in wind energy, providing a number of tangible benefits for both challenge and solution providers.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0185.v3
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: case fatality rate; co-infection; control; COVID-19; pandemic; policy; risk; vaccination
Online: 6 May 2022 (03:38:30 CEST)
There are two contrary opinions regarding the risk if mainland China (MC) moves away from its zero-COVID policy. Some experts think the risk shall be much lower than influenza as per MC’s own COVID-19 case fatality rate (CFR), while some other experts think the risk shall be much higher than influenza as per the COVID-19 CFRs of other regions. We elucidate here that this and multiple other striking differences in the CFR between various scenarios all support and substantially resulted from the view that good IDM is highly powerful to mitigate COVID-19, where IDM (isolation-disinfection-maintenance) means isolation of COVID-19 cases from other people, disinfection of their living environments, and health maintenance (e.g., rest, nutrition, breathing). The high effect of good IDM is also supported by the theoretic functions of IDM in minimizing co-infections and maintaining body functions, and the fact that all the 505 COVID-19 deaths reported in MC in 2022 before May 5 died directly of severe underlying diseases with COVID-19. Although it is tough for people in poverty to obtain good IDM, good IDM can be feasible at home for the most mild cases and in hospitals for the most severe cases. Therefore, good IDM can be crucial to mitigating COVID-19 worldwide. It also suggests that the risk for China to end its zero-COVID policy depends on China’s control policies or measures. Based on the effect of IDM, the cautious co-existence policy was proposed for COVID-19 control. This policy could reduce the whole death toll in MC because good IDM is non-specific and can reduce deaths of various other diseases. The cautious co-existence policy (non-specific) and the vaccination policy (specific) aid each other to mitigate COVID-19, and they cannot replace each other. Those who are qualified in health for vaccination should be vaccinated against COVID-19 timely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0165.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: HIV/TB co-infected Mortality; Residential Variations; Multilevel Logistic Regression
Online: 12 January 2022 (13:34:06 CET)
The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that affect the mortality among adult HIV/TB co-infected patients and to see the nutritional difference among mortality in residence level. Retrospective cohort studies of 417 patients which fulfill our criteria were included. Multilevel logistic regression models were used. MLwiN and SPSS software are used to estimate the parameter. The variance of the random factor in the empty model was significant which indicates that there were residential differences in TB-HIV co-infected mortality and it shows multilevel analysis was an appropriate approach for further analysis. The prevalence of HIV/TB co-infected patients' death was 12.9% in study time. Functional status, age of patients, WHO clinical stages, nutritional status, CD4 counts, regimen, and BMI were found to be significant determinants of HIV/TB co-infected mortality. In our study, patients with the bedridden category of functional status, the fourth stages of WHO clinical stages (stage IV), patients with higher age, patients whose treatments were second-line regimen and low CD4 cell counts were more at risk of death. The study also revealed that; poor nutritional status increased the risk of mortality among HIV/TB co-infected patients and it varies among the residence of the patients (rural area were more at risk).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0057.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: impacts; microplastics; marine environment; single-use plastics; co-management initiatives
Online: 4 October 2021 (12:23:39 CEST)
Threats emerging from microplastics pollution in the marine environment have received much global attention. This review assessed sources, fate, and impacts of microplastics in marine ecosystems and identified gaps. Most studies document ubiquity of microplastics and associated environmental effects. Effects include impacts to marine ecosystems, risks to biodiversity, and threats to human health. Microplastic leakage into marine ecosystems arises from plastic waste mismanagement and a lack of effective mitigative strategies. This review identified a scarcity of microplastics mitigation strategies across different stakeholders. Lack of community involvement in microplastic monitoring or ecosystem conservation exists due to limited existence of stakeholder co-management initiatives. Although some management strategies exist for controlling the effects of microplastics (often implemented by local and global environmental groups); a standardized management strategy to mitigate microplastics in coastal areas is urgently required. There is a need to identify focal causes of microplastic pollution in the marine environment through further environmental research. This would extend to creating more effective policies as well as harmonized and extended efforts of educational campaigns and incentives for counteraction and plastic waste reduction, while mandating stringent penalties for polluting the marine environment. This will help reduce microplastic leakage into the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: co-planar sensor; capacitive sensing; NDT techniques; FE modelling; defects
Online: 15 March 2021 (15:31:44 CET)
It was recently demonstrated that a co-planar capacitive sensor could be applied to the evaluation of materials without the disadvantages associated with the other techniques. This technique effectively detects changes in the dielectric properties of the materials due to, for instance, imperfections or variations in the internal structure, by moving a set of simple electrodes on the surface of the specimen. An AC voltage is applied to one or more electrodes and signals are detected by others. This is a promising inspection method for imaging the interior structure of the numerous materials, without the necessity to be in contact with the surface of the sample. In this paper, Finite Element (FE) modelling was employed to simulate the electric field distribution from a co-planar capacitive sensor and the way it interacts with a non-conducting sample. Physical experiments with a prototype capacitive sensor were also performed on a Plexiglas sample with sub-surface defects, to assess the imaging performance of the sensor. A good qualitative agreement was observed between the numerical simulation and experimental result.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: ODS steel; mechanical alloying; spark plasma sintering; zirconium; co-precipitation
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:10:06 CET)
Currently, one of the biggest issues when developing an ODS alloy is the competition established between the different oxide precursors during the precipitation of oxides which nature depends on their chemical composition. In the presence of various precursors, usually the one with the highest affinity to oxygen leads to the absence of the other oxides. In this work, a new process to equilibrate the local concentration of species and to decrease the competition among them is explained. A unique compound, containing the diverse oxide precursors as one complex oxide, is introduced in a prealloyed 14Cr Steel powder via mechanical alloying. Thus, generating environments enriched in Y, Ti and Zr which, after consolidation, refine the oxides precipitation improving the thermal stability of the alloy. SPS were used as consolidation technique to guarantee shorter sintering times and to maintain the nanostructure obtained. Mechanical properties were tested by tensile tests and Vickers microhardness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: co-infection; SARS-CoV-2; Covid-19; seasonal respiratory viruses
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:53:28 CET)
Background: Co-infections of SARS-CoV-2 with respiratory viruses, bacteria and fungi have been reported to cause a wide range of illness. Objectives: We asses s the prevalence of co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 with seasonal respiratory viruses, document the respiratory viruses detected among individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, and describe characteristics of individuals with respiratory virus co-infection detected. Methods: Specimens included in this study were submitted as part of routine clinical testing to Public Health Ontario Laboratory from individuals requiring testing for SARS-CoV-2 and/or seasonal respiratory viruses. Results: Co-infection was detected in a smaller proportion (2.5%) of individuals with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 than those with seasonal respiratory viruses (4.3%); this difference was not significant. Individuals with any respiratory virus co-infection were more likely to be younger than 65 years of age and male than those with single infection. Those with SARS-CoV-2 co-infection manifested mostly mild respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: Findings of this study may not support routine testing for seasonal respiratory viruses among all individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, as they were rare during the study period nor associated with severe disease. However, testing for seasonal respiratory viruses should be performed in severely ill individuals, in which detection of other viruses may assist with patient management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0386.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: reproduction number; disease-free equilibrium; co-existence equilibrium; Yersinia; gastroenteritis
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:40:09 CEST)
The complex interplay among pathogens, host factors, and the integrity and composition of the endogenous microbiome determine the course and outcome of gastrointestinal infections. The model organism Yersinia entercolitica (Ye) is one of the five top frequent causes of bacterial gastroenteritis based on the Epidemiological Bulletin of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) published on September 10, 2020. A fundamental challenge in predicting the course of an infection is to understand whether co-infection with two Yersinia strains differing only in their capacity to resist killing by the host immune system may decrease the overall virulence by competitive exclusion or increase it by acting cooperatively. Herein, we study the primary interactions among Ye, the host immune system and the microbiota, and their influence on Yersinia population dynamics. The employed model considers two host compartments, the intestinal mucosa and lumen, commensal bacteria, the co-existence of wild-type and mutant Yersinia strains, as well the host immune responses. We determine four possible equilibria: the disease-free, wild-type-free, mutant-free, and co-existence of wild-type and mutant equilibrium. We also calculate the reproduction number for each strain as a threshold parameter to determine if the population may either be eradicated or persist within the host. We conclude that the infection should disappear if the reproduction numbers for each strain fall below one, and the commensal bacteria’s growth rate exceeds the pathogens’ growth rates. These findings will help inform public health control strategies. The supplement includes MATLAB source script, Maple workbook, and figures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: MicroRNA Expression; Feature Selection; Cancer Diagnosis; Fuzzy Logic; Co-Learning
Online: 1 September 2020 (11:42:35 CEST)
MicroRNAs are used as biomarkers for classification of cancer subtypes since certain miRNAs are differentially expressed in normal and patient samples. Moreover, miRNAs target mRNAs and can heavily influence Gene Expressions. Thus, deregulation of miRNAs is linked to various disorders. Thus, miRNAs can be used for prognosis and developing personalized health solutions for patients. Given the importance of miRNAs, there has been substantial work done in the field. In this paper, recent works in the field of using miRNAs expressions of patients were considered. A total of 20 papers were surveyed which utilized feature selection ensembles, fuzzy logic as well as deep learning. 10 papers have been reported which offer insight into how miRNAs can be utilized for subtype-specific or generalized cancer diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0442.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-Co-V-2, Environment, Africa, Pandemic,Pollution
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:42:57 CEST)
Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has tremendously affected the African continent and the rest of the world. Most businesses have closed and a lot of people have lost their jobs. The aviation industry has been shaken to the core with airlines losing millions of dollars and flights being cancelled. The tourism industry has consequently been affected due to restricted travel of tourists, impacting wildlife conservation and livelihoods. Schools, colleges and universities have been closed. The virus has infected millions of people and hundreds of thousands of people have died globally putting strain on health systems especially those of hard hit countries. Various countries all over the world have put measures to control the spread of the virus through lockdowns and social distancing policies. The reduced economic activities and mobility of people has resulted in improved air quality, cleaner water and beaches in some countries. However there are also negative impacts such as challenges in waste management, increased pharmaceutical and household waste and discovery of the corona virus in wastewater, a potential threat to public health. A considerable amount of research has been done on the socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 in Africa but there is still limited research on its impact on the environment. This paper serves to highlight the observed and potential environmental impacts of COVID-19 in Africa.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: metabolic engineering; biohydrogen production; microbes; co-culture; metabolic network analysis
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:43:36 CEST)
Hydrogen is useful as a fuel and could be produced by a variety of means. One approach uses artificial photosynthesis where energy from sunlight powers the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. But, biological methods for producing hydrogen has emerged strongly over the past decades. In particular, specific microorganisms could use different substrates to produce hydrogen at differing yields. Such fundamental discoveries with industrial applications thus motivated the use of metabolic engineering approaches and methodologies in enhancing biological hydrogen production through a series of enzyme over-expression, pathway debottlenecking, and gene deletion. However, such approaches heavily rely on the selection of an appropriate microbial chassis for biohydrogen production. With the proper strain in hand, use of alternative substrates may engender greater hydrogen productivities. But learning from the bioprocessing field, co-culture of two compatible microorganisms have been sought after for improving biohydrogen production. In addition, thermophilic microbes may also be useful candidates for exploiting hydrogen production from composting. Future outlook in the field looks into filling our gaps in understanding of the metabolic network that feeds into hydrogen production in different organisms. But, more importantly, problems such as reduced growth rate in engineered microbes point to fundamental issues with using genetically engineered microorganisms for improved biohydrogen production, to which clever bioprocess engineering may yield solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0164.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: biofilm; co-culture; Staphylococcus aureus; SaOS-2; biomaterials; implanted devices
Online: 12 December 2019 (05:24:29 CET)
Biofilm-mediated infection is a major cause of bone prosthesis failure. The lack of molecules able to act in biofilms has driven research aimed at identifying new anti-biofilm agents via chemical screens. However, to be able to accommodate a large number of compounds, the testing conditions of these screenings end up being typically far from the clinical scenario. In this study, we assess the potential applicability of three anti-biofilm compounds (based on natural compounds) as part of implanted medical devices by testing them on in vitro systems that more faithfully resemble the clinical scenario. To that end, we used a competition model based on the co-culture of SaOS-2 mammalian cells and Staphylococcus aureus (collection and clinical strains) on a titanium surface. Additionally, we studied whether these derivatives of natural compounds enhance the previously proven protective effect of pre-incubating the titanium surface with SaOS-2 cells. Out of the three tested leads, one showed the highest potential, and can be regarded as a promising agent for incorporation into bone implants. This study emphasizes and demonstrates the importance of using meaningful experimental models, where potential antimicrobials ought to be tested for protection of biomaterials in translational applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: Co-B/SiC composite coatings; electrodeposition; hard coatings; wear volume
Online: 4 April 2019 (12:52:34 CEST)
In the present paper, Co-B/SiC composite coatings were obtained via electrodeposition from colloidal suspensions with different concentrations of SiC particles and subsequent heat treatments at 350 °C. The composition, morphology and structure of the Co-B/SiC composite coatings were analyzed using glow discharge spectrometry (GDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hardness and tribological properties were also studied. The results showed that an increase in the SiC concentration in the colloidal suspensions resulted in both an increase in the SiC content and a decrease in the B content in the obtained Co-B/SiC coatings. The Co-B/SiC coatings were adherent, glossy and soft and exhibited a homogeneous composition in all thicknesses. By contrast, an increase in the SiC particle content of the Co-B/SiC composite coating from 0 to 2.56 at.% SiC reduced the hardness of the film from 680 to 360 HV and decreased the wear volume values from 1180 to 23 mm3 N-1 m-1, respectively (that is, the wear resistance increased). Moreover, when the Co-B/SiC coatings with SiC content ranging from 0 to 2.56 at.% SiC were subjected to a heat treatment process, the obtained coating hardness values were in the range of 1200 to 1500 HV and the wear volume values were in the range of 382 to 19 mm3 N-1 m-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: CO/H2 production; intermediate temperature SOEC; SOEC modeling; performance analysis
Online: 24 July 2018 (10:20:27 CEST)
Renewable sources and electric distribution network can produce or make available a surplus of electric and thermal energies. The Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Electrolyzer (IT-SOE) fed by CO2-steam mixtures can store these electric and thermal energies producing CO-H2 mixtures with high conversion efficiency. Inside the IT-SOE, the CO2-steam mixtures are converted to CO-H2 mixtures and O2 through the cathode and anode electrochemical reactions and reverse water gas shift chemical reaction. In this article an IT-SOE stack fed by different types of steam mixtures was tested at different operating temperatures and the stack polarization and electric power curves were detected experimentally. At the highest hydrogen production operating temperature of the stack fed by steam mixtures, the experimental polarization and electric power curves of the stack fed by steam and CO2-steam mixtures were compared. A simulation model of the IT-SOE system (stack and furnace) fed by CO2-steam mixtures was formulated ad hoc and implemented in a Matlab environment and experimentally validated. At the highest hydrogen production stack operating temperature, the IT-SOE system thermal equilibrium current was evaluated through the simulation model. Moreover, the influence of this current on the IT-SOE system efficiency and the CO-H2 mixture degree of purity was highlighted.