ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0512.v1
Online: 21 June 2021 (12:52:10 CEST)
This paper presents an analysis of linear viscous stress Favre-Averaged turbulence models for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of fully turbulent round jets with a long straight tube geometry in the near field. Although similar work has been performed in the past with very relevant solutions, considerations were not given for the issues and limitations involved with coupling between an Eulerian and Lagrangian phase, such as in fully two-way coupled CFD-DEM. These issues include limitations on solution domain, mesh cell size, wall modelling, and momentum coupling between the two phases in relation to the particles size. Therefore, within these considerations, solutions are provided to the Navier-Stokes equations with various turbulence models using a three-dimensional wedge long straight tube geometry for fully developed turbulence flow. Simulations are performed with a Reynolds number of 15000 and 50000 using two different tube diameters. It is found that a modified k−ε turbulence model achieved the most agreeable results for both the velocity and turbulent flow fields between these two flow regimes, while a modified k−ω SST/BSL also provided suitable results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0500.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CFD-DEM; Particle-particle interaction; Upper airway; DE; Spring constant
Online: 28 November 2022 (07:29:49 CET)
The fluid flow field at the upper airways is highly complex due to the complex structure of the airway. The inhaled particle flow, the air streamline and the interaction of the continuum and discrete phase could significantly affect the transport behaviour of the inhaled particles. A range of analytical, mathematical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models analyzed the airflow and particle transport in different idealized and asymmetric airway models. A precise understanding of the continuum and discrete phase interaction in realistic human airways is missing, and this study aims to develop a CFD-DEM model for particle transport in realistic airways. This study uses the CFD model for the continuum phase and the discrete element method (DEM) for the discrete phase. A soft sphere approach is used for the interaction of the discrete phase. Proper validation is performed for particle transport efficiency. The CFD-DEM model analyzed the particle transport in an idealized and realistic airway model, and different methods are used to analyze the transport behaviour. During the particle-particle interaction, a stagnation point and a high-pressure zone are observed at the airway model's carinal angle. The numerical results report higher deposition efficiency (DE) for particle-particle interaction than without interaction. The flow field becomes highly complex with the spring constant values, and higher DE is found for high spring constant values. The spring dashpot friction-dshf method shows higher deposition at the upper part of the airways than other interaction methods. The findings of this study and more case-specific analysis would improve the knowledge of aerosol transport in airways and the health risk assessment of the patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0236.v1
Online: 15 July 2022 (14:51:20 CEST)
With the renewed interest for lunar surface exploration, the European Space Agency envisions to stimulate the creation of lunar communications and navigation services (LCNS) to enable, among others, autonomous navigation capabilities for lunar rovers. As the number of satellites foreseen in such a service is much smaller compared to Earth based global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), different complementary technologies are pursued to improve the attainable navigation accuracy for lunar rovers. One way to improve the position accuracy provided by the LCNS satellites is to constrain the vertical position using a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM). This article presents the results of a variance covariance analysis of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) implementation in which the LCNS ranging measurements are used together with DEM from the LRO LOLA instrument. Assuming a realistic orbit determination and time synchronization (ODTS) accuracy of the LCNS satellites, the usage of a navigation grade IMU and an oven controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO), a 3-sigma position accuracy of less than 10 meters can be obtained. Furthermore, the availability is substantially improved as the DEM aided solution enables a position solution in case of only 3 visible satellites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0081.v1
Online: 24 August 2017 (15:51:17 CEST)
The digital elevation model (DEM) is one of the key geospatial datasets used in many fields of engineering and science for countless applications. In this contribution, we assess the vertical accuracy of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) World 3D-30m (AW3D30) DEM using the runway method (RWYM). The RWYM utilizes the longitudinal profiles of runways which are reliable and ubiquitous reference data. A reference dataset used in this project consists of 36 runways located at various points throughout the world. The same dataset was previously used to test the accuracy of WorldDEMTM. Our study indicates that AW3D30 has a remarkably high RMSE of 1.78 m (one σ). However, while analyzing the results, it has become apparent that it also contains a widespread elevation anomaly. We conclude that this anomaly is the result of uncompensated sensor noise and the data processing algorithm (downsampling of the higher resolution data). We believe that this issue should be communicated to the user community. Also, we would like to note that the traditional accuracy assessment of a DEM, e.g., statistical assessment of the elevation differences = model – reference, does not allow for identification of these type of anomalies in a DEM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0381.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Cartosat-1; CartoDEM; Digital Elevation Model; DEM interpolation; DEM simulation; Machine Learning; ICESat-2
Online: 23 January 2023 (01:26:40 CET)
Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a representation of elevation data that represent terrain with or without overlaying objects of the Earth. It is the ideal and most widely used method for determining topography. DEMs are generated from various techniques such as traditional Surveying, Photogrammetry, InSAR, LiDAR, Clinometry and radargrammetry. It has been observed that mostly LiDAR-generated DEMs provide the best accuracy. The unavailability of LiDAR data in most of the region restricts global researchers from high-resolution and accurate DEMs. The recent launch of ICESat-2 with a 13m beam footprint and 0.7m pulse interval, promises elevations at high orbital precision. Its accuracy is of the order of few centimeters in complex topography, because of this ICESat-2 proves to be a good source to generate high-accuracy DEMs. ICESat-2 provides discrete photon data with elevations of points on the Earth’s surface. Traditional interpolation techniques tend to over-smooth the estimated space and still are unable to justify the complicated continuity in the topographical data. Machine learning algorithms are widely being used to extract patterns and spatial extent in geographic data. To estimate a DEM from ICESat-2 LiDAR point data, machine learning regression algorithms are implemented in this study. The present study has been performed for a plain region of Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Studies have shown that Cartosat-1 DEM V3 R1 product provides an accuracy of the order of 2m in predominantly plain regions, hence taken for this region. Current work focuses on comparing various regression-based machine-learning techniques to interpolate DEM from ICESat-2 data The RMSE of the interpolated DEM resulted from the Gradient Boosting Regressor, Random Forest Regressor, Decision Tree Regressor, and Multi-Layer Perceptron Regressor was 7.13m, 7.01m, 7.15m, and 3.76m, respectively when evaluated against the TANDEM-X DEM of the same region. The MLP Regressor is found to perform the best among the four algorithms tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0013.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: SAR Interferometry (InSAR); Digital Elevation Models (DEM); Neural Networks; DEM Fusion; ICESat-2 spaceborne altimetry
Online: 1 June 2022 (10:11:48 CEST)
Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is an advanced remote sensing technique for studying the earth's surface topography and deformations. It is used to generate high-quality Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEMs are a crucial and primary input to various topographical quantification and modelling applications. The quality of input DEMs can be further improved using fusion methods, which combine multi-sensor or multi-temporal datasets intelligently to retrieve the best information amongst the input data. This research study is based on developing a Neural Network based fusion approach for improving InSAR based DEMs in plain and hilly terrains. The study areas comprise of relatively plain terrain from Ghaziabad and hilly terrain of Dehradun and their surrounding regions. The training dataset consists of DEM elevations and derived topographic attributes like slope, aspect, topographic position index (TPI), terrain ruggedness index (TRI), and vector roughness measure (VRM) in different land use land cover classes of the study areas. The spaceborne altimetry ICESat-2 ATL08 photon data is used as a reference elevation. A Feed Forward Neural Network with backpropagation algorithm is trained based on the prepared training samples. The trained model produces fused DEMs by learning the relationship between the input and target samples. This is used to predict elevations in the test areas. The accuracy of results from the models are assessed with TanDEM-X 90 m DEM. The fused DEMs show significant improvement in terms of RMSE over the input DEMs with improvement factor of 94.65 % in plain area and 82.62 % in hilly area. The study concludes that the ANN with its universal approximation property is able to significantly improve the fused DEM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0005.v1
Online: 1 December 2017 (10:33:45 CET)
Cloudburst is one of the most devastating and frequently occurring natural hazardous events in Indian Himalayan region. Localized deep cumulus convective clouds have a capability of giving enormous amount of rainfall over a limited horizontal area, within a short span of time. Whenever, such events occur, lead to flash floods causing landslides, house collapses, dislocation of traffic, and human casualties on a large scale. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the cloudburst inundation zones accurately to avoid damage associated with them. For this, high resolution Digital Elevation Model generated from CartoSat-1 (Stereo pair) were integrated in MIKE 11 Hydrodynamic 1D model to generate longitudinal profile of the study area and to find water level, peak discharge, flow velocity, flow width at different reaches along the Asi ganga and Bhagirathi river, to know the Cloudburst flood inundation scenario. On 3rd August 2012 one of the major Cloudburst event occurred in Asi Ganga Valley in Indian Himalayan region which was considered for simulation of hydrodynamic model. For a Cloudburst event, 100 mm/hr rainfall was considered for the simulation of the hydrodynamic model. It is observed that the discharge rise from 50 m3/s to 549.164 m3/s (an abrupt increase of about 10 times) within 1 hr at Sangamchetty in Asiganga river and at Joshiyara area rise from 600 m3/s to 3378.69 m3/s (an abrupt increase of about 5 times) within 4 hr in Bhagirathi river. Similarly the water level rises around 3 m and 6m in Asi Ganga and Bhagirathi rivers respectively. Flash Flood inundation areas due to Cloudburst on 3rd August 2012 were demarcated from the simulation results in GIS environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0389.v1
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:53:16 CEST)
The TanDEM-X mission is acquiring a new dataset to provide a temporally independent DEM, called "TanDEM-X Change DEM". This set of acquisitions taken between 2017 and 2020 has a clear temporal separation to the TanDEM-X global DEM data which were acquired between 2010 and 2015. Therefore, this new DEM aims to enable the characterization of terrain changes. Improvements in the acquisition planning and the data processing were necessary to generate this Change DEM with fewer acquisitions but still very high accuracy. For this, the use of an edited TanDEM-X DEM as a "starting point" for the interferometric processing is mandatory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0113.v1
Online: 18 December 2017 (06:54:15 CET)
In this work the efficiency of a new μ-mixer design is investigated. As in this type of devices the Reynolds number is low, mixing is diffusion dominated and it can be enhanced by creating secondary flows. In this study we propose the introduction of helical inserts into a straight tube to create swirling flow. The influence of the insert’s geometrical parameters (pitch and length of the propeller blades) and of the Reynolds number on the mixing efficiency and on the pressure drop are numerically investigated. The mixing efficiency of the device is assessed by calculating a number, i.e. the Index of Mixing Efficiency that quantifies the uniformity of concentration at the outlet of the device. The influence of the design parameters on the mixing efficiency is assessed by performing a series of “computational” experiments, in which the values of the parameter are selected using DOE methodology. Finally using the numerical data, appropriate design equations are formulated, which, for given values of the design parameters, can estimate with reasonable accuracy both the mixing efficiency and the pressure drop of the proposed mixing device.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0175.v1
Online: 9 August 2018 (00:33:34 CEST)
Over the last few decades, ocean research and exploration have made underwater mechanical systems a necessity. Underwater vehicles provide a new kind of marine platforms that could represent a great necessity in many areas of oceanographic research. Until now, the underwater vehicles come in a verity of shapes, sizes and means of propulsion. Depending on these characteristics, the type and mission of the vehicle are also determined. The underwater robots are used for different inspection and intervention missions in e.g. the oil and gas industry, ocean science research. Due to multiple applications to which the vehicle can participate, it can be successfully used and to determine methods of re-use of marine energy. Environmental mapping provides accurate information about the main areas of interest of the energy, as well as the exploitation possibilities of that. Most of the time, biomimetic robots were inspired their senso structure, from different kind of animals, such as insects, fish and birds. Nowadays, the concept of a underwater robotic vehicles capable to move independently, autonomously or remotely, has a great potential and a large application. This is the reason that the last studies have been directed on biomimetic robots. The fish and other underwater animals have evolved superior swimming capabilities in many ways and represent a starting point to explain the fluid-mechanical principles. Furthermore, the underwater animals develop and achieve extraordinary propulsion efficiencies, acceleration and maneuverability. They can also achieve high speed under water. Implanting and creating a vehicle through a biomimetic approach reduces the energy used to maneuver the vehicle as it can automatically correct its position and displacement. The paper presents an examination of the state of biomimetic robotic fishes, underlining the reason why bio-inspiration can help us in the underwater locomotion technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0635.v1
Online: 26 October 2018 (15:26:12 CEST)
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are widely used in geographic and environmental studies. In the current work, the fusion of multi-source DEMs is investigated to improve the overall accuracy of public domain DEMs. Multi-scale decomposition is an important analytical method in data fusion. Three multi-scale decomposition methods – the wavelet transform (WT), bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) and nonlinear adaptive multi-scale decomposition (N-AMD) - are applied to the 1-arc-second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Global digital elevation model (SRTM-1 DEM) and the Advanced Land Observing Satellite World 3D – 30 m digital surface model (AW3D30 DSM) in China. Of these, the WT and BEMD are popular image fusion methods. A new approach for DEM fusion is developed using N-AMD (which is originally invented to remove the cycle from sunspots). Subsequently, a window-based rule is proposed for the fusion of corresponding frequency components obtained by these methods. Quantitative results show that N-AMD is more suitable for multi-scale fusion of multi-source DEMs, taking the ice cloud and land elevation satellite (ICESat) global land surface altimetry data as a reference. The vertical accuracy of the fused DEM shows significant improvements of 29.6% and 19.3% in a mountainous region and 27.4% and 15.5% in a low-relief region, compared to the SRTM-1 and AW3D30 respectively. Furthermore, a slope position-based linear regression method is developed to calibrate the fused DEM for different slope position classes, by investigating the distribution of the fused DEM error with topography. The results indicate that the accuracy of the DEM calibrated by this method is improved by 16% and 13.6%, compared to the fused DEM in the mountainous region and low-relief region respectively, proving that it is a practical and simple means of further increasing the accuracy of the fused DEM.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0434.v1
Online: 20 August 2020 (06:03:08 CEST)
In this paper, we analyzed the live fish trajectory recorded from an experiment in an experimental vertical slot fishway. Combined with a numerical simulation, we demonstrated that randomness shown in fish trajectory might not merely be attributed to fish's random choices in its swimming, also could be an adaption consequence to the bulk unsteady turbulent flow structure. Simple superposing the fish trajectory on the time-averaged flow field obtained either by interpolating on discrete point measurements or numerical simulation is not an ideal method for fish movement description in fishway engineering. How to model the fish paths in transient flow and the necessity of simultaneous recording of the flow field and the fish locomotion are challenging topics. The suggested spectrum analysis of the flow field may provide a new general method to reproduce the fish trajectory in a complex turbulent flow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0161.v1
Online: 16 September 2019 (10:51:10 CEST)
Among the different applicable irrigants for root canal disinfection, sodium hypochlorite 5.25% is one of the most attractive ones. The quality of root canal disinfection is dependent on some factors such as the employed approach, type of flow rate of irrigant and the size of needle. The majority of studies in the field of root canal disinfection are experimentally carried out. In the current article, Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is used for modeling the antimicrobial liquid flow in the root canal and evaluate the effects of needle size and flow rate. Two needles, G28 and G30, are used for irrigation in three volumetric rates of flow including 0.10 mL⁄s , 0.20 mL⁄s and 0.30 mL⁄s. The results of numerical simulations revealed the improved quality of root canal disinfection by augmentation in the rate of flow and decrease in the inner diameter of the needle. According to the outcomes of the modeling, the highest average wall shear stress obtained in the case of using G28 needle and 30 mL⁄s flow rate, which was approximately 10.21 Pa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0548.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: CFD, Pipeline, Liquid-liquid Mixing
Online: 27 July 2018 (16:43:20 CEST)
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has, in the last decade, being an essential problem solving tool in industries such as pharmaceutical, pulp, petrochemical as well as Oil and Gas processing. The use of CFD for mixer design is unpopular in many countries in Africa. Therefore, this study investigates the characteristics of Brine-Surfactant mixing in a horizontal pipeline using CFD. The CFD is conducted by AnsysFluent software (licensed). A T-junction pipe is created and meshed with unstructured tetrahedral elements using design modeler. Discretization is done by Finite Volume Method (FVM), cell-centered scheme with Second-Order Upwind Scheme. The pressure term is introduced into the continuity equation by SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations) algorithm. The kinetic epsilon model, also known as k-e model is administered to define the properties of the fluid and geometry, such as velocity, species mole fraction, pipe diameter. The boundary conditions is selected based on filed data. The rate of fluid flow in the primary region is 650 bbl/day at 400psi in 4in diameter pipeline, which is 100m long. The numerical simulation was based upon the governing equations such s continuity, Navier’s stoke, energy as well as specie transport equations. The findings shows that higher concentration results in increased mixing time, while 2% conc. of surfactant reaches homogeneity in 20 minutes at 72 meters of the pipe length. The result validated with field detail and the empirical result from literature, and is consistent. This study provide insight on industrial mixer design, chemical injection system, as well as gas pipeline design and optimization, especially in multiphase scale transport.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0021.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: spaceborbe DEM; SRTM; TanDEM; AW3D30m; runway method; Zonguldak; suitability assessment
Online: 2 August 2019 (09:01:43 CEST)
In this case study, an active runway of a civilian airport in Zonguldak, Turkey, is used to assess the suitability of spaceborne digital elevation models (DEMs) to model an anthropogenic structure. The tested DEMs include the ASTER, the AW3D30 m, the SRTM-1”, the SRTM-3”, the SRTM-X, the TanDEM-3”, and the WorldDEMTM. A photogrammetric high accuracy DEM was also available for the tests. As a reference dataset, a line leveling survey of the runway using a Leica Sprinter 150/150M instrument was performed. The selection of a runway as a testbed for this type of investigation is justified by its unique characteristics, including its flat surface, homogenous surface material, and availability for a ground survey. These characteristics are significant because DEMs over similar structures are free from environment- and target-induced error sources. The most accurate DEM is the WorldDEMTM followed by the SRTM-3” and TanDEM-3”, with vertical errors (LE90) equal to 1.291 m, 1.542 m, and 1.56 m, respectively. This investigation uses a method for identifying the vertical errors in DEMs that is known as the runway method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0192.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: DEM resolution; runoff; sensitivity analysis; SWAT; SWAT-CUP; SUFI-2
Online: 20 January 2019 (09:38:28 CET)
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are essential in watershed delineation, but the sensitivity of simulated runoff to DEM resolution is poorly understood. This study investigates the impact of DEM resolution on topological attributes and simulated runoff in the Mahabad Dam watershed, Iran. To delineate the watershed, DEMs with 12.5 m, 30 m, and 90 m resolutions were acquired from the ALOS PALSAR, Space Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and ASTER global DEM data source, respectively. Watershed and streamlines were delineated in ArcGIS, with hydrologic analyses performed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Sensitivity analysis on parameters contributing to runoff was done using Sequential Uncertainties Fitting Ver-2 (SUFI-2) Algorithm, in SWAT Calibration and Uncertainty Procedures (SWAT-CUP) software. Results showed the watershed area, reach lengths, and elevations in the watershed varied due to DEM resolutions. Higher amounts of runoff were generated when DEMs with finer resolutions were implemented. The 12.5 m DEM generated 3.48% and 0.42% more runoff compared with 90 m and 30 m DEMs, respectively. SWAT-CUP results showed the sensitivity of parameters contributing to runoff changes under different DEM resolutions. Regardless of DEM resolution, surface properties, available water capacity, and moisture levels in the soil are the most sensitive parameters. As the distribution of slope changes in different DEM resolutions, surface parameters are most affected. The findings indicate to reduce computation time and speed up computation procedures, researchers may use DEMs with coarser resolutions at the expense of minor decreases in accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0218.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: bearing; lubrication; CFD; OpenFOAM®; meshing
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:55:48 CEST)
Efficiency improvement is the new challenge in all fields of design. In this scenario the reduction of power losses is becoming more and more a main concern also in the design of power transmissions. Appropriate models to predict power losses are therefore from the earliest stages of the design phase. The aim of the project is to carry on lubrication simulations of several variants of a cylindrical-roller-bearing to understand the lubricant distribution and the related churning power losses. Several strategies to reduce the computational effort have been used. Among them the sectorial symmetry and three innovative meshing strategies (purely analytical with and without interfaces and analytical/subtractive) that have been implemented in the OpenFOAM® environment. The results of the different approaches were compared among them and with experimental observations showing good agreement and reasonable savings in terms of computational effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0358.v1
Online: 31 December 2018 (05:55:50 CET)
This manuscript discusses a novel method to map pressure results from one 3D surface shell mesh onto another. This technique is especially important when transferring results from one numerical analysis to another. This method works independent of the actual pressures, and only focuses on ensuring the surface areas consistently match. By utilizing this approach, the cumulative forces consistently match for all input pressures. This method is demonstrated to work for pressure profiles with precipitous changes in pressures, and with small quadrangular source elements being applied to a mix of large quadrangular and triangular target elements, and the forces at all pressure profiles match remarkably.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: aerodynamics; BEM; CFD; simulation; wind turbine
Online: 12 October 2018 (08:05:56 CEST)
The present studies deliver the computational investigations of a 10 MW turbine with a diameter of 205.8 m developed within the framework of the AVATAR (Advanced Aerodynamic Tools for Large Rotors) project. The simulations were carried out using two methods with different fidelity levels, namely the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and blade element and momentum (BEM) approaches. For this purpose, a new BEM code namely B-GO was developed employing several correction terms and three different polar and spatial interpolation options. Several flow conditions were considered in the simulations, ranging from the design condition to the off-design condition where massive flow separation takes place, challenging the validity of the BEM approach. An excellent agreement is obtained between the BEM computations and the 3D CFD results for all blade regions, even when massive flow separation occurs on the blade inboard area. The results demonstrate that the selection of the polar data can influence the accuracy of the BEM results significantly, where the 3D polar datasets extracted from the CFD simulations are considered the best. The BEM prediction depends on the interpolation order and the blade segment discretization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0565.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Isotropic material; CFD; hydrodynamics; gas flow
Online: 28 September 2018 (11:58:04 CEST)
Simulation programs contain Computational Fluid Dynamics - CFD codes and are a useful tool used for gas flow through porous materials. Conducting numerical simulations allows for detailed analysis of hydrodynamic phenomena. The results of numerical modeling should always be verifiable based on experimental data. Only their compliance with the results of experimental tests is a determinant of the correctness of the applied method. As part of the work, experimental studies of hydrodynamics of gas flow through an isotropic porous material were carried out and numerical simulation for material of the same shape was used. In the CFD modeling Kolmogorov's hypothesis for the transport of kinetic energy of turbulence k and transport of dissipation rate of kinetic energy of turbulence ε was used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: turbulence; CFD; incompressible flow; velocity profiles
Online: 3 May 2018 (12:44:14 CEST)
In this paper, we studied and analyzed the behavior of velocity profiles and the distribution of pressures in a pipe connected to an accessory. In this case, it was a 90º elbow fitting in which water flows as an incompressible flow. This study was developed numerically through the fluent program of ANSYS. It is of practical interest in engineering because it is based on results regarding the internal structure of a model of incompressible flows. In the same way, it provides a basis for the proper design and implementation of velocity profiles within an elbow.In the agricultural industry, suitable systems can be implemented for crop irrigation in this way with the results obtained to improve the design in the fluid distribution system.We used a feasible κ-ε turbulence model because this model causes less turbulence than the standard κ-ε model. A mesh independence study was developed, in which it was observed that combining different densities of meshes for the same geometry causes some variables, so a fine meshing was used to carry out the study so that the results are as close to reality as possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0081.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Powder compaction; Discrete element method (DEM); Cohesive contact models; LIGGGHTS; EDEM
Online: 4 October 2018 (15:02:44 CEST)
The purpose of this work was analysing the compaction of a cohesive material using different DEM simulators to determine the equivalent contact models and identify how some parameters of the simulations affect the compaction results (maximum force and compacts appearance) and computational costs. For that purpose, three cohesion contact models were tested (‘linear cohesion’ in EDEM; ‘SJKR’ and ‘SJKR2’ in LIGGGHTS). The influence of the particle size distribution (PSD) on the results was also investigated. Further assessments were performed on the effect of selecting different timesteps, using distinct conversion tolerances for exporting the 3D models to STL files and moving the punch with different speeds. Consequently, it was possible to determine that a timestep equal to a 10% Rayleigh timestep, a conversion tolerance of 0.01 mm and a punch speed of 0.2 m/s are adequate for simulating the compaction process using the contact models in this work. In addition, the results determined that the maximum force was influenced by the PSD because of the rearrangement of the particles. The PSD was also related to the computational cost because of the number of simulated particles and their sizes. Finally, an equivalence was found between the linear cohesion and SJKR2 contact models
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0074.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: archaeological topography; tumulus; burial mound; geomorphometry; high-resolution; DEM; LiDAR; Random Forest
Online: 6 February 2020 (02:43:29 CET)
Archaeological topography identification from high-resolution DEMs is a current method that is used with high success in archaeological prospecting of wide areas. I present a methodology trough which burial mounds (tumuli) from LiDAR DEMS can be identified. This methodology uses geomorphometric and statistical methods to identify with high accuracy burial mound candidates. Peaks, defined as local elevation maxima are found as a first step. In the second step, local convexity watershed segments and their seeds are compared with positions of local peaks and the peaks that correspond or have in vicinity local convexity segments seeds are selected. The local convexity segments that correspond to these selected peaks are further feed to a Random Forest algorithm together with shape descriptors and descriptive statistics of geomorphometric variables in order to build a model for the classification. Multiple approaches to tune and selected the proper training dataset, settings and variables were tested. The validation of the model was performed on the full dataset where the training was performed and on an external dataset in order to test the usability of the method for other areas in a similar geomorphological and archaeological setting. The validation was performed against manually mapped and field checked burial mounds from two neighbor study areas of 100 km2 each. The results show that by training the Random Forest on a dataset composed of between 75% to 100% of the segments corresponding to burial mounds and ten times more non-burial mounds segments selected using latin hypercube sampling, 93% of the burial mound segments from the external dataset are identified. There are 42 false positive cases that need to be checked, and there are two burial mound segments missed. The method shows great promise to be used for burial mound detection on wider areas by delineating a certain number of tumuli mounds for model training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0246.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Cell Method (CM); Discrete Element Method (DEM); multiscale modeling; periodic composite continua
Online: 21 January 2020 (11:53:52 CET)
This paper addresses the study of the stress field in composites continua with the multiscale approach of the DECM (Discrete Element modeling with the Cell Method). The analysis focuses on composites consisting of a matrix with inclusions of various shapes, to investigate whether and how the shape of the inclusions changes the stress field. The purpose is to provide a numerical explanation for some of the main failure mechanisms of concrete, which is precisely a composite consisting of a cement-based matrix and aggregates of various shapes. Actually, while extensive experimental campaigns detailed the shape effect of concrete aggregates in the past, so far it has not been possible to model the stress field within the inclusions and on the interfaces accurately. The reason for this lies in the limits of the differential formulation, which is the basis of the most commonly used numerical methods. The Cell Method (CM), on the contrary, is an algebraic method that provides descriptions up to the micro-scale, independently of the presence of rheological discontinuities or concentrated sources. This makes the CM useful for describing the shape effect of the inclusions, on the micro-scale. When used together with a multiscale approach, it also models the macro-scale behavior of periodic composite continua, without losing accuracy on the micro-scale. The DECM uses discrete elements precisely to provide the CM with a multiscale approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: urban flood; river flood; hydrodynamic model; high resolution dem; flood mitigation measures
Online: 19 December 2017 (10:14:54 CET)
Mostly populous city like Chennai is subjected to frequent flooding due to its complex nature of natural and man-made activities. From the analysis of the past records of flood events of 1943,1976,1985,2005 and 2008,it has been observed Adayar watershed is subjected to cataclysmic flooding in low-lying areas of the city and its suburbs because of inoperativeness of the local drainage system, rainfall associated with cyclonic activity, topography of the terrain, encroachments along the floodplain, hugh upstream flow discharge into the river and the highly impervious area which blocked the runoff to flow into the storm water drainage. After looking into these problems of flooding, a study have been conducted on Adayar watershed to develop a 2D hydrodynamic model for the two scenarios of existing condition of storm water drainage network and revised conditions of storm water drainage network using high resolution Lidar DEM to assess the volume of runoff with respect to time and duration on flood peaks for the two flood events of 2005 and 2015.Secondly to develop a 1D flood model to predict the river stages during peak floods using MIKE 11 for the Adayar watershed. Thirdly to integrate the coupled 1D and 2D model using MIKEFLOOD for assessing the extent of inundation in the floodplain area of Adayar river. Finally results from the integrated model have been validated and the results found satisfactory. As a part of mitigation measures, two flood mitigation measures have been adopted. One measure such as revised storm water drainage system which enhances the flood carrying capacity of the drains and results in less inundated area which solves the problem of urban flooding and second measure such as regrading the river bed which reduces the floodplain inundation around the adjacent area of the river. After adopting these measures, the river is free to flow into the sea without any blockades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: LBE; Corrosion products; CFD simulation; Fast reactor
Online: 16 September 2021 (10:09:57 CEST)
For better understanding the corrosion and corrosion products behavior in the primary circuit of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant reactor, the concentration distribution of soluble impurities and the transport of solid particles are investigated through finite-element method. An axisymmetric model of the primary circuit of LBE reactor was constructed to accelerate the calculation the thermal hydraulic filed of circuit. The saturation concentration of solute Fe, Cr and Ni in LBE coolant are identified through the equilibrium of their oxides and PbO. And the very different saturation concentrations of Fe/Cr/Ni in LBE will lead to significant element selective corrosion. The migration of solid oxides particles in the primary circuit is also investigated by the Euler-Lagrange tracing model. The simulation shows that driving force for the movement of particles >100 μm is buoyancy, which lets particles float on a free surface, while particles <10 μm tend to suspend in coolant. However, the behavior of particles also depends on the formation position, the particles formed above the core have the high possibility of re-entering in the core.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Complex terrain; Terrain-induced turbulence; CFD; LES
Online: 22 May 2018 (06:10:59 CEST)
We have developed an unsteady and non-linear wind synopsis simulator called RIAM-COMPACT (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, COMputational Prediction of Airflow over Complex Terrain) in order to simulate the airflow on a microscale, i.e., a few tens of km or less. In RIAM-COMPACT, the large-eddy simulation (LES) has been adopted for turbulence modeling. LES is a technique in which the structures of relatively large eddies are directly simulated and smaller eddies are modeled using a sub-grid scale model. In the present study, we have conducted the numerical wind diagnoses for Taikoyama Wind Farm nacelle separation accident in Japan. The simulation results suggest that all six wind turbines at the Taikoyama Wind Farm are subject to significant influence from separated flow (terrain-induced turbulence) which is generated due to the topographic irregularities in the vicinity of the wind turbines. A proposal has been also made on reconstruction of the wind farm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: mixing time; LIF; CFD; SPH; stirred tank
Online: 3 November 2016 (09:22:18 CET)
Performing optimisation and scale-up studies of crystallisation systems requires accurate and computationally efficient mathematical models. The assumption of the ideal mixing conditions in batch reactors typically produce inaccurate results while the computational expense of CFD models is still prohibitively high. Therefore, in this work, a new intermediary approach is proposed that takes into account the non-ideal mixing conditions in the reactor and requires less computational resources than full CFD simulations. Starting with the Danckwerts concept of the intensity of segregation, an analogy between its application to chemical reactions and the kinetics of the crystallisation phenomena (such as nucleation and growth) has been made. As a result, the modified kinetics expressions have been derived which incorporate the effect of non-idealities present in stirred reactors. This way, based on the experimental measurements of the mixing time using the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique, computationally more efficient mathematical models can be developed in two ways: (1) the accurate semi-empirical correlations are available for standard mixing configurations with the most often used types of impellers, (2) CFD simulations can be utilised for estimation of the mixing time; in this case it is necessary to simulate only the mixing process. The benefits offered by the LIF experimental technique have been demonstrated and some frequent problems in its application analysed. The mixing time results for configurations with and without baffles for three types of impellers and four different rotational speeds have been presented. The false shorter mixing times in the non-baffled configurations have been observed and this phenomena explained by the existence of two segregated zones in the reactor and confirmed by additional experiments. The precise measurements in these cases have been shown as difficult using the LIF technique, particularly for higher rpms. The experimental data has been compared to the preliminary simulation results obtained from the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method and the standard k-ε turbulence model with the modest success. The shortcomings of the SPH model have been recognized and the directions for the future work discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: CFD; SPH; population balance; NVidia CUDA; OpenMP
Online: 2 November 2016 (05:31:48 CET)
The second article in the series presents the application of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method to modelling of batch crystallisation in stirred tanks. A methodology to integrate the population balance equations (PBE) in parallel and independently from the Navier-Stokes equations is demonstrated. The benefits of the proposed methodology in terms of computational requirements, accuracy and availability of the crystal size distribution are discussed. The specific formulation of the SPH equations where the resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved using the weighted contributions rather than numerically by solving a linear system of equations allows for massive parallelisation and a very loose coupling of the population balance and the fluid dynamics. It has been demonstrated, that the population balance equations can be solved on a Shared Memory Architecture (SMA) system using the OpenMP interface while the fluid dynamics equations being computed independently on a General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) using the NVidia CUDA technology. This way, a significant portion of the computational overhead due to the large number of additional transport equations resulting from the discretisation of the population balance was removed: the SPH simulation coupled with 200 population balance equations was only 40% slower compared to SPH-only simulation. Two methods for the solution of population balance equations that preserve full crystal size distribution were implemented: discretised population balance (DPB) and method of characteristics (MOCH). The DPB equations are solved using the high-resolution finite-volume method with flux limiter and the effect of a large number of different flux limiters have been investigated. Both methods were validated using the case studies from the literature where an analytical solution can be derived. The developed models were applied to a numerical solution of coupled computational fluid dynamics and population balance equations to model a batch crystallization process. The effect of the hydrodynamics on the local temperature/supersaturation and the resulting crystal size distribution was captured and compared to the ideal mixing case. The simulation results from the DPB and MOCH methods were compared in terms of computational requirements and accuracy and MOCH selected as computationally more efficient and accurate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0067.v1
Online: 6 August 2016 (11:31:10 CEST)
In this study, a basic study was performed to analyze the seasonal temperature status of a research room in the Global Environment Research Building where ceiling-embedded indoor units are installed to study the room temperature status of the building as well as to improve its thermal environment. In addition, a direction for improvement of the indoor thermal environment in the winter was proposed through a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation and was proven by an additional experiment. Through the results of this study, it appeared that if the ceiling-embedded indoor unit was installed in the small indoor space without considering the thermal vulnerability of its perimeter boundary, the air temperature of the upper part was greatly different from that of the bottom part in the winter. Hence, in this study, as a means to improve it, convectors were installed to minimize the effect of the external thermal environment and angle-controllable air flowing fans were installed to mitigate the stratification distribution. With such result, it was intended to present the essential data for improvement of the thermal environment as well as conservation of heating energy in the winter for buildings by reviewing the use of the ceiling-embedded indoor unit in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0014.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Discrete Element Method (DEM); Cell Method (CM); multiscale modeling; periodic composite materials; nonlocality
Online: 10 February 2020 (10:09:46 CET)
This paper presents a new numerical method for multiscale modeling of composite materials. The new numerical model, called DECM, consists in a DEM (Discrete Element Method) approach of the Cell Method (CM) and combines the main features of both the DEM and the CM. In particular, it offers the same degree of detail as the CM, on the microscale, and manages the discrete elements individually such as the DEM—allowing finite displacements and rotations—on the macroscale. Moreover, the DECM is able to activate crack propagation until complete detachment and automatically recognizes new contacts. Unlike other DEM approaches for modeling failure mechanisms in continuous media, the DECM does not require prior knowledge of the failure position. Furthermore, the DECM solves the problems in the space domain directly. Therefore, it does not require any dynamic relaxation techniques to obtain the static solution. For the sake of example, the paper shows the results offered by the DECM for axial and shear loading of a composite two-dimensional domain with periodic round inclusions. The paper also offers some insights into how the inclusions modify the stress field in composite continua.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0070.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: intramontane basin; pediment; glaci; alluvial fan; river terrace; DEM; interpolation; cosmonuclide; base level
Online: 18 August 2018 (08:50:50 CEST)
Collisional mountain belts commonly develop intramontane basins from mechanical and isostatic subsidence during orogenic development. These frequently display a relict top surface, evidencing a change interval from basin infilling to erosion often via capture or overspill. Such surfaces provide markers that inform on orogenic growth patterns via climate and base level interplay. Here, we describe the top surface from the Sorbas Basin, a key intramontane basin within the Betic Cordillera (SE Spain). The surface is fragmentary comprising high elevation hilltops and discontinuous ridges developed onto the variably deformed final basin infill outcrop (Gochar Formation). We reconstruct surface configuration using DEM interpolation and apply 10Be/26Al cosmonuclides to assess surface formation timing. The surface is a degraded Early Pleistocene erosional pediment developed via autogenic switching of alluvial fan streams under stable dryland climate and base level conditions. Base level lowering since the Middle Pleistocene focused headwards incision up interfan drainages, culminating in fan head capture and fan morphological preservation within the abandoned surface. Post abandonment erosion has lowered the basin surface by 31 m (average) and removed ~5.95 km3 of fill. Regional basin comparisons reveal a phase of Early Pleistocene surface formation, marking landscape stability following the most recent Pliocene-Early Pleistocene mountain building. Post-surface erosion rate quantification is low and in accordance with 10Be denudation rates typical of the low uplift Betic Cordillera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0273.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Kerosene; CFD; Combustion; Fuel; Gas-turbine; Numerical analysis
Online: 16 September 2021 (08:43:49 CEST)
The previously developed models for fuel droplet heating and evaporation processes, mainly the Discrete Multi Component Model (DMCM), and Multi-Dimensional Quasi-Discrete Model (MDQDM) are investigated for the aerodynamic combustion simulation. The models have been recently improved, and generalised for a broad range of bio-fossil fuel blends so that the application areas are broadened with increased accuracy. The main distinctive features of these models are that they consider the impacts of species thermal conductivities and diffusivities within the droplets to account for the temperature gradient, transient diffusion of species and recirculation. A formulation of fuel surrogates is made, using the recently introduced model, referred to as ‘’Complex Fuel Surrogate Model (CFSM)’’ and analysing their heating, evaporation, and combustion characteristics. The CFSM is aimed to reduce the full composition of fuel to a much smaller number of components based on their mass fractions, and to formulate fuel surrogates. Such approach has provided a proof of concept with the implementation of the developed model into a commercial CFD code ANSYS-Fluent. A case study is made for the CFD modelling of gas-turbine engine using kerosene fuel surrogate. The surrogate is proposed using the CFSM. The model is implemented into ANSYS-Fluent via a user-defined function to provide the first full simulation of the combustion process. Detailed chemical mechanism is also implemented into ANSYS Chemkin for the combustion study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0674.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fast catamaran; shallow water resistance; full-scale CFD
Online: 26 April 2021 (13:25:12 CEST)
The present paper investigates numerically the resistance at full-scale of a zero-emission, high-speed catamaran in both deep and shallow water, with the Froude number ranging from 0.2 to 0.8. The numerical methods are validated by two means: a) comparison with available model tests; b) a blind validation using two different flow solvers. The resistance, sinkage and trim of the catamaran, as well as the wave pattern, longitudinal wave cuts and cross-flow fields, are examined. The total resistance curve in deep water shows a continuous increase with the Froude number while in shallow water, a hump is witnessed near the critical speed. This difference is mainly caused by the pressure component of total resistance, which is significantly affected by the interaction between the wave systems created by the demihulls. The pressure resistance in deep water is maximised at a Froude number around 0.58, whereas the peak in shallow water is achieved near the critical speed (Froude number ≈ 0.3). Insight into the underlying physics is obtained by analysing the wave creation between the demihulls. Profoundly different wave patterns within the inner region are observed in deep and shallow water. Specifically, in deep water, both crests and troughs are generated and moved astern as the increase of the Froude number. The maximum pressure resistance is accomplished when the secondary trough is created at the stern, leading to the largest trim angle. In contrast, the catamaran generates a critical wave normal to the advance direction in shallow water, which significantly elevates the bow and creates the highest trim angle as well as pressure resistance. Moreover, significant wave elevations are observed between the demihulls at supercritical speeds in shallow water which may affect the decision for the location of the wet deck.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Hyperloop; CFD; K-e model; Aerodynamics; Energy efﬁciency
Online: 8 December 2019 (16:32:24 CET)
Based on K-ε Standard Wall turbulence model (2-Equation) and Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations defined for incompressible fluids, fluid flow behaviour around hyperloop pods in an evacuated tube was simulated using ANSYS fluent solver assuming steady state and two dimensional conditions. In this research, to develop the case studies, using combination of different head and tail shape profile, four kind of hyperloop pods were developed with the aid of SolidWorks. These four pods have been investigated for their aerodynamic behaviour as four different case scenarios. The results of simulation depicts that an atmospheric pressure of 100 Pa with blockage ratio of 0.36 in tube provides the best possible aerodynamic behaviour for the designed hyperloop pod models. This research finds that overall aerodynamic behaviour of hyperloop pods can be varied by changing the head and tail shape profile of pods and a particular combination of head and tail shape profile can provide optimally best aerodynamic capabilities. Thus, this research paper provides a novel method of obtaining best aerodynamic capabilities in hyperloop pods by designing head profile optimally in combination with tail profile. This outcome will provide major contribution towards the development of hyperloop pods in future with better aerodynamic behaviour resulting in lesser electrical energy required to propel the hyperloop pods in evacuated tube.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: fixed-bed reactor; blender; Discrete Element Method; CFD
Online: 8 May 2019 (10:00:00 CEST)
A common reactor type in the chemical and process industry is the fixed-bed reactor. Accurate modeling can be achieved with particle-resolved Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations. However, the underlying bed morphology plays a paramount role. Synthetic bed-generation methods are much more flexible and faster than image-based approaches. In this study, we look critically at the two different bed generation methods: Discrete Element Method (DEM) (in the commercial software STAR-CCM+) and the rigid-body model (in the open-source software Blender). The two approaches are compared in terms of synthetically generated beds with experimental data of overall and radial porosity, particle orientation, as well as radial velocities. Both models show accurate agreement for the porosity. However, only Blender shows similar particle orientation than the experimental results. The main drawback of the DEM is the long calculation time and the shape approximation with composite particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0362.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: complex terrain; CFD; terrain-induced turbulence; economic effects
Online: 25 May 2018 (11:02:46 CEST)
At the Atsumi Wind Farm in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, damage to wind turbines occurred frequently due to terrain-induced turbulence. In the present study, numerical analyses of terrain-induced turbulence were conducted by reproducing the topography in the vicinity of the wind turbine sites in high resolution and using RIAM-COMPACT natural terrain version, which is based on large eddy simulation (LES). The results of the diagnoses indicated that, in the case of south-easterly wind, terrain-induced turbulence is generated at a small terrain feature located upstream of Wind Turbine (WT) #2, which serves as the origin of the turbulence. At the Atsumi Wind Farm, a combination of the series of wind diagnoses and on-site operation experience led to a decision to adopt an "automatic shutdown program" for WTs #1 and #2. Here, "automatic shutdown program" refers to the automatic suspension of wind turbine operation upon the wind speed and direction meeting the conditions associated with significant effects of terrain-induced turbulence at a wind turbine site. The adoption of the "automatic shutdown program" has successfully resulted in a large reduction in the number of occurrences of wind turbine damage, thus, creating major positive economic effects. 1) a reduction in the repair costs by 9.322 million yen per year per wind turbine, 2) an increase in the availability factor by 8.05%, and 3) an increase in the capacity factor by 1.7%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0114.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: flight simulation; flight control; optimization; CFD; flight dynamics
Online: 18 December 2017 (07:03:18 CET)
The optimization methods are increasingly used to solve challenging problems of aeronautical engineering. Typically, the optimization methods are utilized in design of aircraft airframe or its structure. The presented study is focused on an improvement of aircraft-flight-control procedures through the numerical optimization approach. The optimization problems concern selected phases of flight of light gyroplane - a rotorcraft using an unpowered rotor in autorotation to develop lift and an engine-powered propeller to provide thrust. An original methodology of computational simulation of rotorcraft flight was developed and implemented. In this approach the aircraft-motion equations are solved step-by-step, simultaneously with the solution of the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, which is conducted to assess aerodynamic forces acting on the aircraft. As a numerical optimization method, the BFGS algorithm was adapted. The developed methodology was applied to optimize the flight-control procedures in selected stages of gyroplane flight in direct proximity of the ground, where properly conducted control of the aircraft is critical to ensure flight safety and performance. The results of conducted computational optimizations proved qualitative correctness of the developed methodology. The research results can be helpful in design of easy-to-control gyroplanes and also in the training of pilots of this type of rotorcraft.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: PEM fuel cell; optimization; CFD; modeling; neural network; performance
Online: 18 April 2022 (06:19:49 CEST)
This article presents new PEM fuel cell models with hexagonal and pentagonal designs. After observing cell performance improvement in these models, we optimized them. Inlet pressure and temperature were used as input parameters, and consumption and output power were the target parameters of the multi-objective optimization algorithm. Then we used artificial intelligence techniques, including deep neural networks and polynomial regression, to model the data. Next, we employed the RSM (Response Surface Method) method to derive the target functions. Furthermore, we applied the NSGA-II multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimize the targets. Compared to the base model (Cubic), the optimized Pentagonal and Hexagonal models averagely increase the output current density by 21.819\% and 39.931\%, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: High-rise Building; Urban Ventilation; Wind Flow; CFD; Babolsar
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:28:25 CET)
In recent years, excessive heat in the urban texture has become the main problem in the humid and calm wind city of Babolsar with high density, especially in high-rise areas. Therefore, in order to create comfort in this region, it is necessary to establish and continue the wind circulation in space with an environmentally compatible and optimal configuration. The study applies combination of literature, field measurement, experimental validation of CFD simulation output, and comparative analysis. After field measurement and validation of FLOW-3D simulation software (V11.2.2), the relationship between these parameters (height, the width of passages, enclosure between buildings, and buildings' orientation) will be studied which affects the wind’s velocity and direction. The factors of the buildings' orientation and enclosure based on the passages' width have opposite reactions in the direction of the prevailing wind especially from perpendicular side. In this study, two effective factors are on wind velocity: 1- The orientation of the buildings towards the wind flow by creating permeability 2- Reducing the enclosure by increasing the width of the passage's perpendicular to the wind flow (w '= 3w, E' = 0.33E). According to the theoretical and practical study, first, the creation of permeability in the body of the block and the separation of buildings instead of aggregation has been studied, and then reducing the confinement of streets perpendicular to the wind flow has been discussed as effective solutions to improve the wind velocity and circulation between the urban environment.
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:07:40 CEST)
Plate fin-tube heat exchangers are widely used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems and other industry fields. Various errors made in the manufacturing process can result in the formation of an air gap between the tube and fin. Several numerical simulations were carried out for a symmetric section of plate fin-tube heat exchanger to study the influence of air gap on heat transfer under periodic flow conditions. Different locations and sizes of an air gap spanning 1/2 circumference of the tube were considered for the range of airflow velocities. Velocity and temperature fields for cases with air gap were compared with ideal thermal contact cases. Blocking of heat flow by the gap leads to the reduction of heat transfer rate. Fin discontinuity in the front of the tube causes the smallest reduction of the heat transfer rate in comparison to the ideal tube-fin contact, especially for thin slits. The rear gap position is the worst in the smallest gap range. Therefore, reversing the flow direction can lead to up to a 15% heat transfer increase, if mainly the rear gaps are present. The introduction of a thin slit in the front of the tube leads to convective heat transfer enhancement, which should be further investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Vertical Axis Wind Turbine; Wind Energy; Helical Blade; CFD
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:00:17 CET)
The global energy crisis has lead researchers explore other sources of energy like wind, resulting in a wide acceptance of wind turbines. Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) more suitable for small scale application in urban conditions than their horizontal-axis counterparts. A Helical bladed VAWT would reduce the ripple effect when compared to Straight bladed VAWT. The effect of the blade helix angle on the aerodynamic performance of VAWT using 3D numerical simulations is studied. Turbulence modelled using 4-Equation transition SST k-w model. Three different helix angles of 60, 90 and 120 of a 3 bladed VAWT operating across different tip speed ratios were studied. The 60 helical bladed VAWT was found to perform better than all other helical bladed and straight bladed VAWT. Standard deviation of the moment coefficient generated by a blade plotted against 360 of azimuth rotation revealed that the ripple effect on the shaft produced by cyclic loading of the straight blade is considerably reduced upon introduction of helix angle, with 120 helical blade giving lowest standard deviation. The analysis has been done for the percentage of power generated by each quartile of flow and the contribution of each section of the blade. A comparative study was also conducted between different helical bladed VAWT and straight bladed VAWT. Flow feature analysis also revealed the reasons behind secondary peaks and the performance improvement when tip speed ratio increases. Wake structure analysis and flow contours were also studied for a better understanding of the flow field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Bow structures; Breakwater design; CFD; Greenwater; Wave structure interaction
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:09:16 CEST)
Greenwater (splashing of water on the deck) loading is a classical problem faced by the designer of ship-shaped vessels, which becomes even worst when the vessel operates at harsh weather conditions for an extended period. Installation of breakwaters on the deck can play a crucial role in minimizing this impact. However, research on the design and optimization of the breakwater is still at its infancy, and this study aims at shedding further light on this area by proposing and analyzing the effectiveness of three breakwater designs on a fixed box-shaped vessel. Commercial CFD software is used for this investigation. However, the design model (without breakwater) was validated at first against experimental results of green water splashing, before performing the actual simulations with proposed breakwater design. A vertical plate is used as the deck structure, and greenwater pressure at several locations on that plate is measured to compare the effectiveness of various breakwater designs. Overall, breakwaters with openings (perforations, grillages etc.) found to be more effective in minimizing the pressure generated by the greenwater. Nevertheless, there are significant rooms for improvement on breakwater designs, and some topics for further research are also suggested in this regard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0385.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CFD Simulation; Transient state; Rayleigh Taylor Instability; Multiphase Flow
Online: 17 July 2020 (14:20:55 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to simulate a two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem using the classical method of Finite Element analysis of a multiphase model using ANSYS FLUENT 19.2. The governing equations consist of a system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for conservation of mass, momentum and phase transport equations. The study focuses on the transient state simulation of Rayleigh Taylor waves and subsequent turbulent mixing in the two phases incorporated in the model. The Rayleigh Taylor instability is an instability of an interface between two fluids of different densities which occurs when the lighter fluid is pushing the heavier fluid in a gravitational field. The problem was governed by the Navier-Stokes and Cahn-Hilliard equations in a primitive variable formulation. The Cahn- Hilliard equations were used to capture the interface between two fluids systems. The objective of this article is to perform grid dependency test on Rayleigh Taylor Instability for 2 different mesh size and compare the results for the variation in Atwood Number. The results were validated with the observations from previous published literatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: OpenFOAM; overset meshing; NACA 0018; high Reynolds number; CFD
Online: 18 July 2019 (11:29:28 CEST)
The open source CFD code OpenFOAM has emerged as one of the most popular alternative to commercial CFD solvers. The recent version of OpenFOAM supports overlapping grids, so called Overset mesh. In this type of mesh, one or more sub-collection of control volumes (or cells) are allowed to overlap with other set of cells. This allows for great flexibility in modelling Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) problems. Fluid mesh can be standard structured mesh of a rectangular/cuboidal/or cylindrical domain. The structure mesh can be generated separately by creating multiple layers around a given body. The overset mesh functionality allows for overlapping or immersing this structured mesh inside the fluid mesh and a relevant FSI or moving dynamics problems can be solved. The idea of overset mesh has been around since eighties but its support in OpenFOAM is very recent. Most CFD codes which support overset mesh have either been in-house or commercial CFD codes. OpenFOAM's support for overset is the first major open source code resource available for CFD problems. The aim of this research is to solve a classical benchmark airfoil problem using OpenFOAM overset mesh and compare the numerical results with experimental result. We report here flow simulations results around NACA 0018. The result obtained from overset mesh compares convincingly well with experimental results. Computations have been carried out for Reynolds numbers in the range of 105 with angle of attack ranging from α= 5 degree to α= 30 degree with an interval of 5 degree. Turbulence is incorporated using k - ε turbulence model. This study helps developing confidence in using OpenFOAM overset support for more complicated flows and moving dynamics. This report is complemented with a brief description of finite volume discretization using overset mesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: numerical wave tank; internal wavemaker; CFD; wave generation; OpenFOAM
Online: 22 January 2019 (12:09:25 CET)
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models, are a useful tool for a wide range of coastal and offshore applications, providing a high fidelity representation of the underlying hydrodynamic processes. Generating input waves in the CFD simulation is performed by a numerical wavemaker (NWM), with a variety of different NWM methods existing for this task. While NWMs, based on impulse source methods, have been widely applied for wave generation in depth averaged, shallow water models, they have not seen the same level of adoption in the more general RANS based CFD simulations, due to difficulties in relating the required impulse source function to the resulting free surface elevation for non-shallow water cases. This paper presents an implementation of an impulse source wavemaker, which is able to self-calibrate the impulse source function to produce a desired wave series in deep or shallow water at a specific point in time and space. Example applications are presented, for a numerical wave tank (NWT), based on the opensource CFD software OpenFOAM, for wave packets in deep and shallow water, highlighting the correct calibration of phase and amplitude. Also, the suitability for cases requiring very low reflection from NWT boundaries is demonstrated. Possible issues in the use of the method are discussed and guidance for good application is given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: pipeline; transportation; trailing oil; CFD; dead-leg; modified formula;
Online: 18 December 2018 (16:21:13 CET)
Trailing oil is the tail section of contamination. There are two main reasons for the formation of trailing oil, one is the effect of laminar flow boundary layer, the other is the outflow of the preceding batch remained in the dead-legs. In the batch transportation of refined oil, under the action of viscous force, the preceding batch forms laminar boundary layer near the pipe wall and stays on the pipe wall, resulting in the phenomenon of contamination trailing and formation of trailing oil. When oil passes through the valve chamber of the oil transportation station, dead-leg will be formed. Due to gravity and convection diffusion, preceding batch flowing from dead-legs will form trailing oil in the pipeline. The phenomenon of trailing oil exists in the process of batch transportation, which will have an effect on the quality of oil. In this paper, Reynolds time-averaged method is used to simulate turbulence.Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) software is used to simulate different flow rates and bypass lengths to obtain contamination-related experimental data.Matlab software is used to perform multi-nonlinear regression for the oil substitution time, the length of the bypass and the flow rate. The formula for calculating the length of the trailing oil produced by the dead-leg is obtained. The modified formula for calculating the length of the contamination is obtained by combining the existing formula for calculating the length of the contamination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0328.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: CFD; LES; Complex terrai; actual wind speed; wind energy
Online: 24 May 2018 (05:14:27 CEST)
This paper proposes a procedure for predicting the actual wind speed for flow over complex terrain with CFD. It converts a time-series of wind speed data acquired from field observations into a time-series of actual scalar wind speed by using non-dimensional wind speed parameters which are determined beforehand with the use of CFD output. The accuracy and reproducibility of the prediction procedure were examined by simulating the flow with CFD with the use of high resolution (5 m) surface elevation data for the Noma Wind Park in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The errors of the predicted average monthly wind speeds relative to the observed values were less than approximately 20%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CFD; NACA airfoil; wind turbine; attack angle; wall pressure
Online: 1 April 2018 (11:46:52 CEST)
A numerical study of the flow over a NACA aerofoil is presented in this paper. The numerical simulations are achieved with the computer code CFX and the computational domain is created by the computer tool ANSYS ICEM CFD. The CFX code is based on the finite volume method to solve the equations of mass, momentum and energy. The purpose of this paper is to determine the pressure distribution, flow patterns and the forces acting on the airfoil. Effects of the attack angle and Reynolds number on the velocity and pressure distribution, on the lift and drag coefficients are also explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0447.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Gaofen-3 (GF-3); Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR); DEM; baseline estimation; real-time orbit
Online: 27 June 2018 (14:38:19 CEST)
For Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), the normal baseline is one of the main factors that affect the accuracy of the ground elevation. For Gaofen-3 (GF-3) InSAR processing, the poor accuracy of the real-time orbit determination resulting in a large baseline error, leads to the modulation error in azimuth and the slope error in range for timely Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generation. In order to address this problem, a baseline estimation method based on external DEM is proposed in this paper. Firstly, according to the characteristic of the real-time orbit of GF-3 images, orbit fitting is executed to remove the non-linear error factor. Secondly, the height errors are obtained in slant-range plane between Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM and the GF-3 generated DEM after orbit fitting. At the same time, the height errors are used to estimate the baseline error which has a linear variation. In this way, the orbit error can be calibrated by the estimated baseline error. Finally, DEM generation is performed by using the modified baseline and orbit. This procedure is implemented iteratively to achieve a higher accuracy DEM. Based on the results of GF-3 interferometric SAR data for Hebei, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified and the accuracy of GF-3 real-time DEM products can be improved extensively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0260.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Hydrofoil optimization; NSGA-II; CFD; XFOIL; NACA 63815; Bezier curve
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:26:14 CEST)
A method was developed to perform shape optimization of a tidal stream turbine hydrofoil using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. A bezier curve parameterized the refrence hydrofoil profoil NACA 63815. Shape optimization of this hydrofoil maximized its lift-to-darg ratio and minimized its pressure coefficient, thereby increasing the turbines power output power and improving its cavitation characteristics. The Elitist Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) was employed to perform the shape optimization. A comparative study of two-and three-dimensional optimizations was carried out. The effect of varing the angle of attack on the quality of optimized results was also studied. predictions based on two-dimensional panel method results was also studied. Preditions based on a two-dimensional panel method and on a computational fluid dynamics code were compared to experimental measurments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0499.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: C-2 hydrogenation adiabatic reactor; mathematical model; CFD simulation; optimization
Online: 23 October 2020 (20:11:44 CEST)
In this paper, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been used to simulate the gas flow and the catalytic hydrogenation process of the C-2 hydrogenation adiabatic reactor in a practical ethylene production unit of a chemical plant. The laminar finite-rate model was used for the chemical reaction model. The standard two-equation model was used for the turbulence model. The exponent-function kinetic model was used for the reaction dynamics model. The simulation results were in good agreement with the actual industrial data obtained from the C-2 hydrogenation reactor, and the distributions of reaction parameters such as temperature and component concentrations in the reactor were further analyzed. Based on the validated CFD models, the structure and operating conditions of the reactor, as well as hydrogen load distribution ratios, are simulated for comparing the comprehensive performance metrics of ethylene selectivity and acetylene conversion rate; as a result, we can obtain the optimal temperature of 312 K, the optimal hydrogen/acetylene ratio of 0.10 as well as the optimal hydrogen load distribution ratio of 4:4:2, and the diameter/height ratio exerts a marginal effect on the selectivity, conversion rate and harmonic mean of the reactor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0477.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Kaplan turbine; draft tube optimization; CFD analysis; DOE; Response Surface
Online: 21 August 2020 (09:25:12 CEST)
The overall cost of a hydropower plant is mainly due to the expenses for civil works, mechanical equipment (turbine and control units) and electrical components. The goal of a new draft tube design is to obtain a geometry that reduces investment costs, especially the excavation ones, but the primary driver is to increase the overall machine efficiency allowing for reduced payback time. In the present study, an optimization study of the elbow-draft tube assembly of a Kaplan turbine was conducted. A CFD model for the complete turbine has been developed and validated; next, an optimization of the draft tube alone was performed using a Design of Experiments technique; finally, several optimum solutions for the draft tube were obtained using a Response Surface technique aiming at maximizing pressure recovery and minimizing flow losses. A selection of optimized geometries was subsequently post-checked using the validated model of the entire turbine and a detailed flow analysis on the obtained results could make it possible to provide insight into the improved designs. It was observed that efficiency could be improved by 1% (in relative terms), and the mechanical power increased by 1,8% (in relative terms) with respect to the baseline turbine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0001.v1
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:02:29 CEST)
Traditional winglets are designed as fixed devices attached at the tips of the wings. The primary purpose of the winglets is to reduce the lift-induced drag, therefore improving aircraft performance and fuel efficiency. However, because winglets are fixed surfaces, they cannot be used to control lift-induced drag reductions or to obtain the largest lift-induced drag reductions at different flight conditions (take-off, climb, cruise, loitering, descent, approach, landing, and so on). In this work, we propose the use of variable cant angle winglets which could potentially allow aircraft to get the best all-around performance (in terms of lift-induced drag reduction), at different flight phases. By using computational fluid dynamics, we study the influence of the winglet cant angle and sweep angle on the performance of a benchmark wing at Mach numbers of 0.3 and 0.8395. The results obtained demonstrate that by adjusting the cant angle, the aerodynamic performance can be improved at different flight conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0199.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; FSI; CFD; haematocrit; pulsatile flow; non-Newtonian
Online: 17 December 2018 (15:50:54 CET)
The Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a local dilation of the abdominal aorta and it is a cause for serious concern because of the high mortality associated with its rupture. Consequently, the understanding of the phenomena related to the creation and the progression of an AAA is of crucial importance. In this work the complicated interaction between the blood flow and the AAA wall is numerically examined using a fully coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) method. The study investigates the possible link between the dynamic behaviour of an AAA and the blood viscosity variations attributed to the haematocrit value, while it also incorporates the pulsatile blood flow, the non-Newtonian behaviour of blood and the hyperelasticity of the arterial wall. It was found that blood viscosity has no significant effect on von Mises stress magnitude and distribution, whereas there is a close relation between the haematocrit value and the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) magnitude in AAAs. This WSS variation can possibly alter the mechanical properties of the arterial wall and increase its growth rate or even its rupture possibility. The relationship between haematocrit and dynamic behaviour of an AAA can be helpful in designing a patient specific treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: pressure drop; CFD; Casson fluid; blood; hematocrit; small-vessel; microfluidics
Online: 3 September 2018 (10:58:39 CEST)
The aim of this study is to provide the scientists with a straightforward correlation that can be applied for predicting the Fanning friction factor and consequently the pressure drop during blood flow in small caliber vessels. Due to the small diameter of the conduit, the Reynolds numbers are low and thus the flow is laminar. The study has been conducted using CFD simulations validated with relevant experimental data acquired using an appropriate experimental set-up. The experiments concern pressure drop measurement during the flow of a blood analogue that follows the Casson model, i.e. an aqueous glycerol solution that contains a small amount of xanthan gum and exhibits similar behavior to blood, in a smooth, stainless steel microtube (L=5.6cm and D=400 μm). The interpretation of the resulting numerical data led to the proposal of a simplified model that incorporates the effect of the flow rate, the hematocrit value (35-55%) and the vessel diameter (300-1800 μm) and predicts with better than ±10% the Fanning friction factor and consequently the pressure drop during laminar blood flow in small caliber vessels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0027.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: bubble column; porous sparger; holdup; bubble size; transition point; CFD
Online: 5 February 2018 (03:45:04 CET)
In our previous works we have proposed design equations that can predict with reasonable accuracy the transition point from homogeneous to heterogeneous regime as well as the gas holdup and the mean Sauter diameter at the homogeneous regime. The validity of the proposed correlations was checked with data obtained using different geometrical configurations and several Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids as well as the addition of surfactants. However, in all the experiments the gas phase was atmospheric air. This work investigates the effect of gas phase properties by conducting experiments employing various gases (i.e., air, CO2, He) that cover a wide range of physical property values. Experiments revealed that only the use of low-density gas (He) has a measurable effect on bubble column performance. More precisely, when the low-density gas (He) is employed, the transition point shifts to higher gas flow rates and the gas holdup decreases, a fact attributed to the lower momentum force exerted by the gas. In view of the new data, the proposed correlations have been slightly modified to include the effect of gas phase properties and it is found that they can predict the aforementioned quantities with an accuracy of ±15%. It has been also proved that CFD simulations are an accurate means for assessing the flow characteristics inside a bubble column.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: aerofoil; CFD; lift and drag force; pressure and velocity contour
Online: 22 October 2016 (11:08:56 CEST)
NACA 0015 and NACA 4415 aerofoil are most common four digits and broadly used aerodynamic shape. Both of the shapes are extensively used for various kind of applications including turbine blade, aircraft wing and so on. NACA 0015 is symmetrical and NACA 4415 is unsymmetrical in shape. Consequently, they have big one-of-a-kind in aerodynamic traits at the side of widespread differences of their utility and performance. Both of them undergo the same fluid principle while applied in any fluid medium giving dissimilar outcomes in aerodynamics behavior. On this work, experimental and numerical investigation of each NACA 0015 and NACA 4415 is done to decide their performance. For this purpose, aerofoil section is tested for a prevalence range attack of angle (AOA). The study addresses the performance of NACA 0015 and NACA 4415 and evaluates the dynamics of flow separation, lift, drag, pressure and velocity contour and so on. This additionally enables to layout new optimistic aerofoil, which is critical to enhance the efficiency and performance of an aircraft in terms of lift enhancement and drag reduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: CFD simulation; industrial furnace; heat flux; forging industry; thermal analysis
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:47:21 CEST)
Industries, which are mainly responsible for high energy consumptions, need to invest in research projects in order to develop new managing systems for rational energy use and to tackle the devastating effects of climate change caused by human behavior. The study reported in this paper concerns the forging industry, where the production processes generally start with the heating of the steel in furnaces and continue with other processes, such as heat treatments and mechanical machining. One of the most critical operations, in terms of energy loss, is the opening of the furnace doors for the insertion and extraction operations. During this time, the temperature of the furnaces decreases by hundreds of degrees in a few minutes. Because the dispersed heat needs to be supplied again through the combustion of fuel, increasing the consumption of energy and the pollutant emissions, the evaluation of the amount of the lost energy is crucial for the development of operating or mechanical systems able to contain this dispersion. To perform this study, CFD simulation software was used. Results show that at the door opening, because of temperature and pressure differences between the furnace and the ambient, turbulences are generated. Results also show that the amount of energy lost for an opening of 10 minutes for radiation, convection and conduction is equal to 5606 MJ where convection is the main contributor with 5020 MJ. The model created, after being validated, has been applied to perform other simulations in order to improve the energy performance of the furnace. Results show that a reduction of the opening time of the door allows energy savings and limits pollutant emissions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0559.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Pollution; Art Corporation; Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons; CFD model; SAS Enterprise Guide
Online: 30 January 2023 (13:17:11 CET)
The output of non-ferrous metal smelters is 450,000 tons (3.1% of world output), and copper ranks 10th in the world for health impact evaluation. According to the latest information from smelters, the overall average concentration in 2020 was 8.2 ppb each of SO2, NO2, O3, PM10, and PM2.5. 7.5 ppb, 30.8 ppb, 21.3 μg/m3, and 13.2 μg/m3, and the maximum concentrations were 390 ppb, 50 ppb, 167 ppb, 148 μg/m3, and 107 μg/m3. Art Corporation, A2C (Atmosphere to CFD) model was used to investigate the resident health follow-up management (cohort study) study (SAS Enterprise Guide) as the basis for the source of diffuse pollution in the area. The average concentration of PAHs (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) among carcinogens in the air by survey site was the highest in Seokpo 4-ri (60.7 ng/m3), followed by Seokpo 1-ri (48.6 ng/m3) and Seokpo. Among the respiratory diseases, the disease (Acute upper respiratory tract disease(J00-J06), Other upper respiratory tract diseases (J32-J39), Acute lower respiratory tract infection (excluding pneumonia) (J20-J22), Chronic lower respiratory disease (persons) (excluding J40-J47, J45-J46), Asthma (J45-J46), Rhinitis (J30-J31), Respiratory disease (J00-J99), Cough (R05)) that has a correlation between the exposed area and the control area is as follows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0547.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: CFD simulation; flat flame; high-pressure burner; soot formation; premixed flame
Online: 30 January 2023 (09:16:43 CET)
The second-order factor effect of burner optical ports and Edge inter-matrices (EIM) and the first one of pressure on soot formation process and behaviour of premixed sooting-flame in a high-pressure burner are numerically investigated here. Three-dimensional CFD simulations of a premixed flame C2H4/air at p = 1.01 and 10 bar using one-step chemistry approach are first performed to justify satisfied predictability of prospective axisymmetric bi-dimensional (2D) and one- dimensional (1D) simulations. The justified 2D-simulation approach shows the generation of an axial vorticity around the EIM and axial multi-vorticities due to the high expansion rate of burnt gases at the high-pressure of 10 bar. This leads to the development of axial multi-sooting zones, which are manifested experimentally by visible luminous soot streaks, and to boosting soot formation conditions of relatively low-temperature field, < 1800 K, and high-mixing rate of gases in combustion around and above the EIM location. Nevertheless, tolerable effect on the axial soot volume fraction (fV) profile, fV < 3%, is manifested only at high heights above burner of the atmospheric sooting-flame C2H4/air phi = 2.1 and early at the high-pressure 10 bar of this flame, fV < 10%. Enhancing the combustion process reactivity by decreasing the rich equivalence ratio of fuel/air mixture and/or rising the pressure results prior formation of soot precursors which shifts the sooting zone upstream.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Energy Consumption; Natural Ventilation; Dwelling Design; CFD Simulation; Hot Dry Climate.
Online: 5 January 2023 (11:02:08 CET)
This paper evaluates an architectural design using an Energy Consumption consideration of Natural Ventilation in a hot dry climate (Khartoum State), at dwellings design applied. Method was used analysis of Autodesk IEVS software natural ventilation and energy consumption simulation. It resulted that to cooling, by natural ventilation in dwelling design used to get indoor temperature at the comfortable level during the summer. The Best-Case Situation of natural ventilation with consider of energy saving Based on the CFD simulation analysis, the performance of internal air velocity is approximately 0.7m/s. The wind velocity starts to slow down towards the rear of the apartment spaces. Approximately 95% of the internal areas have average air velocity between 0.43 m/s to 0.9 m/s. Internal Air flow pattern single floor house plan at Khartoum (Alazhari City); showing the internal air velocity of 0.7m/s near the window opening positions with the wind directions in the details and pressure of the air as worst-case situation, with velocity and temperature of the air with average 22o as a best-case situation. during a year. Architectural design process in the urban area of Alazhari City for dwelling towards to saving energy was applied and determined into an urban planning neighbourhood at Khartoum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0459.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Bladeless fan; Discharge ratio; Coanda effect; Eppler 473; Velocity contour; CFD
Online: 24 November 2022 (10:42:30 CET)
Toshiba devised the bladeless fan (or Air Multiplier) concept in 1981. Researchers like James Dyson and Jafari et al. further developed it. Bladeless fans are more energy-efficient, safer due to the hidden blades, easier to clean, and more adjustable than conventional fans. From a performance point of view, bladeless fans are better because they multiply mass flow rate, eliminate buffeting, consume less power, and are quieter. This paper investigates the influence of the airfoil’s outlet slit thickness on the discharge ratio by varying the outlet slit thickness of an Eppler 473 airfoil from 1.2 mm to 2 mm in intervals of 0.2 mm. Results indicated that smaller slits showed higher discharge ratios. The airfoil with a 1.2 mm slit thickness showed a discharge ratio of 18.78, a 24% increase from the discharge ratio of the 2 mm slit. The effect of outlet angle on the pressure drop across the airfoil was also studied. Outlet angles were varied from 16∘ to 26∘ by an interval of 2∘. The airfoil profile with a 24∘ outlet angle showed a maximum pressure difference of 965 Pa between the slit and leading edge. In contrast, the 16∘ outlet angle showed the least pressure difference of 355 Pa. Parameters such as average velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, the standard deviation of velocity and outlet velocity magnitude was used to assess the performance of airfoil profiles used in bladeless fan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: metallic foam; CFD; fixed-bed reactor; friction factor; heat transfer coefficient
Online: 6 May 2022 (13:49:16 CEST)
Open-cell metallic foams used as catalyst supports exhibit excellent transport properties. In this work, a unique application of metallic foam, as pelletized catalyst in a packed bed reactor, is examined. By using a wall-segment Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) setup, parametric analyses are carried out to investigate the influence of foam morphologies (cell size ϕ=0.45-3 mm and porosity ε=0.55-0.95) and intrinsic conductivity on flow and heat transport characteristics in a slender packed bed (N=Ddp=6.78) made of cylindrical metallic foam pellets. The transport processes have been modeled using an extended version of conventional particle-resolved CFD, i.e., flow and energy in inter-particle spaces are fully resolved, whereas porous-media model is used for the effective transport processes inside highly-porous foam pellets. Simulation inputs include the processing parameters relevant to Steam Methane Reforming (SMR), analyzed for low (Rep~100) and high (Rep~5000) flow regimes. The effect of foam morphologies on packed beds has shown that the desired requirements contradict each other, i.e., increase in cell size and porosity favor the reduction in pressure drop, however lowering the heat transfer efficiency. A design study is also conducted to find the optimum foam morphology of a cylindrical foam pellet at higher Rep~5000, which yields ϕ = 0.45, ε = 0.8. Suitable correlations to predict the friction factor and the overall heat transfer coefficient in a foam packed bed have been presented, which considers the effect of different foam morphologies over a range of particle Reynolds number, 100≤Rep≤5000.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Virtual Blade Model; Code extension; CFD modeling; Tidal turbine; Wind turbine
Online: 17 March 2022 (02:37:47 CET)
The Virtual Blade Model (VBM) is the implementation of the Blade element model (BEM). This was done by coupling the Blade Element Momentum theory equations to simulate rotor operation with the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation to simulate rotor wake and the turbulent flow field around it. Exclusion of actual geometry of blades causes lower computational cost (about 10 to 100 times). Also, due to simplifications in the meshing procedure, VBM is easier to set up than the models that consider the actual geometry of blades. One of the main unaddressed limitations of the VBM code was the constraint of modeling up to ten rotor zones within one computational domain. This paper provides a detailed and well-documented general methodology to develop a virtual blade model for simulation of ten-plus turbines within one computational domain to remove the limitation of this widely used and robust code. It is strongly believed that the technical contribution of this paper, combined with the current sky-rocketing advancement of available computational resources and hardware, would open the gates to simulate various engineering problems in the field of aerospace, clean energy, and many more.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0231.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Coal-fired Thermal Plants; CFD modelling; Pollution; Particulate matter; Sulphur dioxide
Online: 11 July 2020 (08:42:34 CEST)
Coal-fired thermal plants (CTPP) are known to pollute the atmosphere with emission of many greenhouse gases and particulate matter. The power generation from these thermal plants cannot be stopped completely because it forms the backbone of the grid power supply. It is necessary to study the dispersion patterns of pollutants that affect the health of the people. The dispersion patterns are location specific since they depend on local meteorological conditions. In this study, the dispersion of particulate matter (PM) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from a CTPP with 275 m high stack are studied under different atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) of neutral, stable and unstable conditions up to a distance of 30 km from the stack. The plume of the PM spreads under all conditions. During some parts of the day, PM settles around the stack while at other times PM keeps suspending in the air for the full distance under study. Sulphur dioxide dilutes to concentrations below the detection limits in about 12-13 km from the stack for neutral and unstable ABL whereas for the stable ABL, the dispersion is up to 30 km. The 24 h weighted average concentration of sulphur dioxide, at 10 m height from the ground, is 14.2 mg/m3 at a distance of 25 kms from the CTPP, which is comparable with the value of 9.2 mg/m3 measured at the Air Quality Stations located around the same distance. Based on the results policy changes that need to be implemented are suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Natural convection; CFD; conjugate heat transfer; containment vessel; thermal-hydraulics; CIGMA
Online: 3 July 2020 (07:44:25 CEST)
In the case of a severe accident, natural convection plays an important role in the atmosphere mixing of nuclear reactor containments. In the previous study, to simulate the natural convection in the accident scenario within a nuclear reactor containment, the steady thermal boundary conditions (BCs) were prescribed on either cooled or heated wall. The present study, therefore, aims at the transient 3D numerical simulations of natural convection of air around a cylindrical containment with unsteady thermal BCs at the vessel wall. For that purpose, the experiment series was done in the CIGMA facility at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The upper vessel or both the upper vessel and the middle jacket was cooled by subcooled water, while the lower vessel was thermally insulated. A 3D model was simulated with OpenFOAM®, applying the Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (URANS) model. Different turbulence models were studied, such as the standard k-ε, standard k-ω, k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) and, low-Reynolds-k-ε Launder-Sharma. The results of the four turbulence models were compared versus the results of experimental data. The k-ω SST showed a better prediction compare to other turbulence models. Also, the accuracy of the predicted temperature and pressure were improved when the heat conduction on the internal structure, i.e., flat bar, was considered in the simulation. Otherwise, the predictions on both temperature and pressure were underestimated compared with the experimental results. Hence, the conjugate heat transfer in the internal structure inside the containment vessel must be modeled accurately.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0150.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: CFD; numerical optimization; CAD parametrization; cloud-based; design space exploration; SSIM
Online: 9 March 2020 (09:50:23 CET)
In this manuscript, an automated framework dedicated to design space exploration and design optimization studies is presented. The framework integrates a set of numerical simulation, computer-aided design, numerical optimization, and data analytics tools using scripting capabilities. The tools used are open-source and freeware, and can be deployed on any platform. The main feature of the proposed methodology is the use of a cloud-based parametrical computer-aided design application, which allows the user to change any parametric variable defined in the solid model. We demonstrate the capabilities and flexibility of the framework using computational fluid dynamics applications; however, the same workflow can be used with any numerical simulation tool (e.g., a structural solver or a spread-sheet) that is able to interact via a command line interface or using scripting languages. We conduct design space exploration and design optimization studies using quantitative and qualitative metrics, and to reduce the high computing times and computational resources intrinsic to these kinds of studies, concurrent simulations and surrogate-based optimization are used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0105.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: High-Rise Building; Wind Comfort; Building Arrangement; Pedestrian Level; CFD; Tehran
Online: 6 March 2020 (04:35:48 CET)
High-Rise buildings with their particular features can affects on surrounding environment and makes new microclimates. In the windy conditions, the spaces that are between building blocks changes to passages and affects on the wind velocity, intensity and it’s other parameters.The importance of this effect is different in each level of building height. The Pedestrian-Level is the lowest and one of important areas. Markets, playgrounds and pedestrian access had located in this area and any unwanted microclimate changes like high velocity and turbulence in this level can makes discomfort and dangerous condition for residents. So this research tries to consider the pedestrian- level wind comfort in some High-Rise building complexes arrangement that had located in Tehran district 22 with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling and reaching to a suitable arrangement pattern. It had collected the required data through field study and librarian databases and then compared them with standard guidelines and analyzed them by comparative comparison method. As a result a linear arrangement that placed crossover to wind direction for providing wind comfort and preventing wind danger is been suggested in this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0044.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: bubble column reactor; machine learning; prediction; hydrodynamics; big data; Computational Fluid Mechanics, deep learning, hydroinformatics; artificial neural networks (ANNs); data science; artificial intelligence; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS); pressure gradient
Online: 22 July 2019 (07:47:03 CEST)
Intelligent algorithms are recently used in the optimization process in chemical engineering and application of multiphase flows such as bubbling flow. This overview of modeling can be a great replacement with complex numerical methods or very time-consuming and disruptive measurement experimental process. In this study, we develop the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) method for mapping inputs and outputs together and understand the behavior of the fluid flow from other output parameters of the bubble column reactor. Neural cells can fully learn the process in their memory and after the training stage, the fuzzy structure predicts the multiphase flow data. Four inputs such as x coordinate, y coordinate, z coordinate, and air superficial velocity and one output such as pressure gradient are considered in the learning process of the ANFIS method. During the learning process, the different number of the membership function, type of membership functions and the number of inputs are examined to achieve the intelligent algorithm with high accuracy. The results show that as the number of inputs increases the accuracy of the ANFIS method rises up to almost for all cases, while the increment in the number of rules has a effect on the intelligence of artificial algorithm. This finding shows that the density of neural objects or higher input parameters enables the moded for better understanding. We also proposed a new evaluation of data in the bubble column reactor by mapping inputs and outputs and shuffle all parameters together to understand the behaviour of the multiphase flow as a function of either inputs or outputs. This new process of mapping inputs and outputs data provides a framework to fully understand the flow in the fluid domain in a short time of fuzzy structure calculation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0484.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: CFD; unsteady BEM; floating offshore wind turbine; scaled wind turbine rotor
Online: 29 August 2018 (06:43:56 CEST)
Aerodynamic performance of a floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) is significantly influenced by platform surging motions. Accurate prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic loads is imperative for determining the fatigue life, ultimate loads on key components such as FOWT rotor blades, gearbox and power converter. The current study examines the predictions of numerical codes by comparing with unsteady experimental results of a scaled floating wind turbine rotor. The influence of platform surge amplitude together with the tip speed ratio on the unsteady aerodynamic loading has been simulated through unsteady CFD. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamic loads of FOWT are highly sensitive to the changes in frequency and amplitude of the platform motion. Also, the surging motion significantly influences the windmill operating state due to strong flow interaction between the rotating blades and generated blade-tip vortices. Almost in all frequencies and amplitudes, CFD, LR-BEM and LR-uBEM predictions of mean thrust shows a good correlation with experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: drug delivery; dentine; diffusion; bio-active molecules; CFD; μ-LIF; microfluidics
Online: 14 November 2017 (10:15:29 CET)
This work deals with the numerical investigation of the delivery of potential therapeutic agents through dentinal discs (i.e. a cylindrical segment of the dentinal tissue) towards the dentin-pulp junction. The aim is to assess the main key features (i.e. molecular size, initial concentration, consumption rate, disc porosity and thickness) that affect the delivery of therapeutic substances to the dental pulp and consequently to define the necessary quantitative and qualitative issues related to a specific agent before its potential application in clinical practice. The CFD code used for the computational study is validated with relevant experimental data obtained using micro Laser Induced Fluorescence (μ-LIF) a non-intrusive optical measuring technique. As the phenomenon is diffusion dominated and strongly dependent on the molecular size, the time needed for the concentration of released molecules to attain a required value can be controlled by their initial concentration. Finally, a model is proposed which, given the maximum acceptable time for the drug concentration to attain a required value at the pulpal side of the tissue along with the aforementioned key design parameters, is able to estimate the initial concentration to be imposed and vice versa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0296.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Savonius wind turbine; Porous deflector; Porosity; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Self-starting
Online: 17 August 2022 (03:54:51 CEST)
The present study explores the effect of using two porous deflectors on the performance of the Savonius wind turbine compared to only one porous deflector. The numerical simulation is performed to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations using the SST k-
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0419.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: asymmetric pulsating flow; in-line tube bundle; CFD; enhancement of heat transfer
Online: 30 June 2022 (07:47:01 CEST)
The pulsating flow is one of the techniques which can enhance heat transfer, therefore leading to energy saving in tubular heat exchangers. This paper investigates the heat transfer and flow characteristics in a two-dimensional in-line tube bundle with the pulsating flow by a numerical method using the Ansys Fluent. Numerical simulation is performed for Reynolds number Re = 500 with different frequencies and amplitude of pulsation. Heat transfer enhancement was estimated from the central tube of the tube bundle. Pulsation velocity had an asymmetrical character with a reciprocating flow. The technique developed by the authors to obtain asymmetric pulsations was used. This technique allows simulating an asymmetric flow in heat exchangers equipped with a pulsation generation system. Increase in both the amplitude and the frequency of the pulsations has a significant effect on heat transfer enhancement. Heat transfer enhancement is mainly observed in the front and back of the cylinder. At a steady flow in these areas, heat transfer is minimal due to the weak circulation of the flow. The increase in heat transfer in the front and back of the cylinder is associated with increased velocity and additional flow mixing in these areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0386.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CFD; PIV; experimental fluid mechanics; pressure calculation; SIMPLE; Reynolds Stresses; measurement integration)
Online: 30 March 2022 (04:40:11 CEST)
Calculation of the pressure field on and around solid bodies exposed to external flow is of paramount importance to a number of engineering applications. However, conventional pressure measurement techniques are inherently linked to problems principally caused by their point-wise and/or intrusive nature. In the present paper, we attempt to calculate the time-averaged two-dimensional pressure field by integrating PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) velocity measurements into a CFD code and modifying them by the respective correction step of the SIMPLE algorithm. Boundary conditions are applied from the PIV data as a three-layer area of constant velocities, adjacent to the boundaries. A novel characteristic of the approach is the straightforward inclusion of the Reynolds Stresses into the source terms of the momentum equations, calculated directly from the PIV statistics. The methodology is applied to three regions of the symmetry plane parallel to the main boundary layer flow past a surface mounted cube. In spite of findings of deviations from the planar 2D flow assumption, the derived pressure fields and the adjusted velocity fields are found to be reliable, while the intrinsic turbulent nature of the flow is considered without modelling of the Reynolds stresses.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: pollutant emissions; hydrogen combustion; alternative fuels; CFD; NOx emissions; greenhouse gasses; aviation
Online: 25 February 2022 (13:37:28 CET)
The present is a study of the CFD simulations intended to simulate the emissions of pollutants that are generated after the combustion of proposed alternative aircraft fuels (Hydrogen, Ethanol and Methane) to compare with the emissions generated after the combustion of Kerosene and Benzene in a 2D cylindrical combustion chamber. Given that air traffic is a main contributor to not only 3% of man-made greenhouse effects but also of the generation of smog over heavy air traffic urban areas generating an impact on the air quality and the population of those areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0412.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: wave-structure-interaction; storm; hurricane; waves; loads; pressures; slamming; decks; bridges; CFD
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:29:41 CEST)
Given the documented wave-induced damage of elevated coastal decks during extreme natural hazards (e.g. hurricanes) in the last two decades, it is of utmost significance to decipher the wave-structure-interaction of complex deck geometries and quantify the associated loads. Therefore, this study focuses on the assessment of solitary wave impact on open-girder decks that allow the air to escape from the sides. To this end, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) numerical method with a multi-phase compressible formulation is used for the development of three-dimensional hydrodynamic models, which are validated against a large-scale experimental dataset of a coastal deck. Using the validated model as a baseline, a parametric investigation of different deck geometries with a varying number of girders Ng and three different widths, was conducted. The results reveal that the Ng of a superstructure has a complex role and that for small wave heights the horizontal and uplift forces increase with the Ng, while for large waves the opposite happens. If the Ng is small the wave particles accelerate after the initial impact on the offshore girder leading to a more violent slamming on the onshore part of the deck and larger pressures and forces, however, if Ng is large then unsynchronized eddies are formed in each chamber, which dissipate energy and apply out-of-phase pressures that result in multiple but weaker impacts on the deck. The decomposition of the total loads into slamming and quasi-static components, reveals surprisingly consistent trends for all the simulated waves, which facilitates the development of predictive load equations. These new equations, which are a function of Ng and are limited by the ratio of the wavelength to the deck width, provide more accurate predictions than existing empirical methods, and are expected to be useful to both engineers and researchers working towards the development of resilient coastal infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0542.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Automotive Engineering, Electric Bus, CFD, Numerical Fluid Mechanics, Electromobility, Noise, Eco-Design
Online: 26 January 2021 (15:23:24 CET)
The dynamic development of electromobility poses challenges to designers regarding not only the efficiency of energy transformation but also the battery life, which is influenced by the stability of its operating temperature. Designing cooling systems is connected not only with the optimization of energy management but also with other environmental parameters, such as noise emission. The paper presents the numerical optimization of an innovative radiator for use in electric buses in terms of energy consumption and noise emission. The results of the numerical studies were verified in laboratory and field conditions, showing a very good convergence of the model with the results of the experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0042.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: inhalation exposure assessment; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); biocides; spray model; unsteady RANS
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:17:30 CET)
Consumer products contain the chemical substances that threaten human health. The modeling methods and experimental methods have been used to estimate the inhalation exposure concentration by the consumer products. The model and measurement methods have the spatial property problem and time/cost consuming problem, respectively. For solving the problems due to the conventional methodology, this study performed the feasibility of applying CFD for evaluation of inhalation exposure by comparing the experiment results and the zero-dimensional results with CFD results. To calculate the aerosol concentration, the CFD was performed by combined the 3D Reynolds averaged Navier Stoke’s equation and discrete phased model using ANSYS FLUENT. As a result of comparing the three methodologies performed under the same simulation/experimental conditions, we found the zero-dimensional spray model shows approximately 5 times underestimated inhalation exposure concentration when compared with the CFD results and measurement results in near field. Also, the results of the measured concentration of aerosols at five locations and the CFD results at the same location were compared to show the possibility of evaluating inhalation exposure at various locations using CFD instead of experimental method. The CFD results according to measurement positions can predict rationally the measurement results with low error. In conclusion, in the field of exposure science, a guideline for exposure evaluation using CFD was found that complements the shortcomings of the conventional methodology, the zero-dimensional spray model and measurement method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0187.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cyclone separator; Computational fluid dynamics (CFD); Machine learning; Unsteady RANS; Critical Diameter
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:11:58 CET)
This paper deals with the characteristics of the cyclone separator from the Lagrangian perspective to design important dependent variables, develops a neural network model for predicting the separation performance parameter, and compares the predictive performance between the traditional surrogate model and the neural network model. In order to design the important parameters of the cyclone separator based on the particle separation theory, the force acting until the particles are separated was calculated using the Lagrangian-based CFD methodology. As a result, it was proved that the centrifugal force and drag acting on the critical diameter having a separation efficiency of 50% were similar, and the particle separation phenomenon in the cyclone occurred from the critical diameter, and it was set as an important dependent variable. For developing a critical diameter prediction model based on machine learning and multiple regression methods, Unsteady-RANS analyzes according to shape dimensions were performed. The input design variables for predicting the critical diameter were selected as four geometry parameters that affect the turbulent flow inside the cyclone. As a result of comparing the model prediction performances, the ML model showed the 32.5 % of improvement rate of R2 compared to the traditional MLR considering the nonlinear relationship between the cyclone design variable and the critical diameter. The proposed techniques have proven to be fast and practical tools for cyclone design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Terrain‐induced severe wind event; Stratified flows; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); LES
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:39:54 CEST)
In this research, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) approach that has been used in wind power generation field was applied for the solution of the problems of local strong wind areas in railway fields, and the mechanism of wind generation was discussed. At the same time, the affectivity of the application of computational fluid dynamic approach to railway field was discussed. The problem of local wind that occurs on the railway line in winter was taken up in this research. A computational simulation for the prediction of wind conditions by LES was implemented and it was clarified that the local strong wind area is mainly caused by separated flows originating from the small‐scale terrain positioned at its upstream (at approximately 180.0 m above sea level). Meanwhile, the effects of the size of calculation area and spatial grid resolution on the result of calculation and the effect of atmospheric stability were also discussed. It was clarified that when the air flow characteristic of the separated flow originating from the small‐scale terrain (at altitude of approximately 180.0 m) targeted in this research is reproduced at high accuracy by computational simulation of wind conditions, approximately 10.0 m of spatial resolution of computational grid in horizontal direction is required. As a result of the computational simulation of wind conditions of stably stratified flow (Fr = 1.0), lee waves were excited at the downstream of the terrain over time. As a result, the reverse‐flow region lying behind the terrain that had been observed at a neutral time was inhibited. Consequently, local strong wind area was generated at the downstream of the terrain and the strong wind area passing through the observation mast was observed. By investigating the speed increasing rate of local strong wind area induced at the time of stable stratification, it was found that the wind was approximately 1.2 times stronger than what was generated at a neutral time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0326.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: amphibious UAV; hovercraft; FEA; CFD; prototype; water quality; sensors; Internet of Things
Online: 18 September 2018 (05:30:13 CEST)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have gained significant attention in recent times due to their suitability to a wide variety of civil, military and societal missions. Development of an unmanned amphibious vehicle integrating the features of a multi-rotor UAV and a hovercraft is focus of the present study. Components and subsystems of the amphibious vehicle are developed with due consideration on aerodynamic, structural and environmental aspects. Finite element analysis (FEA) on static thrust conditions and skirt pressure are performed to evaluate the strength of structure. For diverse wind conditions and angles of attack (AOA), computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is carried out to assess the effect of drag and suitable design modification is suggested. A prototype is built with a 7 kg payload capacity and successfully tested for stable operations in flight and water-borne modes. Internet of Things (IoT) based water quality measurement is performed in a typical lake and water quality is measured using pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), turbidity and electrical conductivity (EC) sensors. The developed vehicle is expected to meet functional requirements of disaster missions catering to the water quality monitoring of large water bodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0065.v1
Subject: Keywords: Axial fan; Gurney flaps; wind tunnel testing; CFD investigation; pressure rise coefficient
Online: 11 December 2017 (14:47:50 CET)
The Gurney flap (GF) is a miniature lift-enhancement device and is usually mounted at the trailing edge of an airfoil. The GF and has been successfully applied to isolated airfoils, multi-element airfoils, and aircraft wings as well as helicopter rotor due to its attractive features of simplicity, cost-effective and separation control. The GF also has aroused the attention of researchers in the turbomachinery industry. However, limited studies are currently available on the application of a GF to an axial fan.Hence, in this paper, we conduct a wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) investigation on an axial fan profiled with a NACA 65-(12)10 airfoil to evaluate the effect of the GF on the performance of the fan. We also present the detailed flow features of the fan with and without the GF after validating the simulation results with the experimental results. The experimental results show that as the GF is installed higher on the fan blade, it can produce a higher total pressure rise accompanied with a greater loss of efficiency. The installation of the GF also enlarges the work capacity of the fan. Detailed flow field analysis, including the surface pressure distribution, vorticity distribution at the trailing edge and streamline distribution of the fan, is carried out to understand the mechanisms of the effect of the GF on the performance of the fan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0083.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air shock wave; rock-fall; two-phase model; computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
Online: 23 January 2017 (09:15:34 CET)
In this paper, a two-phase model of air shock wave induced by rock-fall was described. The model was made up of the uniform motion phase (velocity was close to 0 m·s-1) and the acceleration movement phase. The uniform motion phase was determined by experience, meanwhile the acceleration movement phase was derived by the theoretical analysis. A series of experiments were performed to verify the two-phase model and obtained the law of the uniform motion phase. The acceleration movement phase was taking a larger portion when height of rock-fall was higher with the observations. Experimental results of different falling heights showed good agreements with theoretical analysis values. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation had been carried out to study the variation velocity with different falling height. As a result of this, the two-phase model could accurately and convenient estimating the velocity of air shock wave induced by rock-fall. The two-phase model could provide a reference and basis for estimating the air shock waves' velocity and designing the protective measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0349.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: history of shipbuilding; Galleon hull; Barque hull; seakeeping analysis; CFD analysis; 3D model
Online: 27 June 2022 (04:09:47 CEST)
The Galleon was considered a masterpiece of shipbuilding in the sixteenth century, but from a modern point of view, the shape of her hull looks archaic and primitive. However, how accurate is this perception? Is the hull form of Galleon primitive? What were the reasons for its unique design features? This article investigates these questions by directly analysing the hull’s features from the point of view of modern ship’s theory, as well as from a historical perspective. A careful evaluation of specific design criteria of a typical Galleon, together with analysing a 3D model of its hull on modern software, with further insight for the seakeeping behaviour of Galleon with a comparison to more modern full-rigged ship (Barque of 19 CE), showed that these features were not random, but instead had a good rationale behind it, and served specific and carefully decided functions, required at the time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0318.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Hull-propeller interaction; Full-scale CFD; Scale effect; Self-propulsion; Statistical sea trails
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:16:25 CET)
Accurate prediction of the self-propulsion performance is one of the most important factors for energy-efficient design of a ship. In general, the hydrodynamic performance of a full-scale ship could be achieved by model-scale simulation or towing tank test with extrapolations. With the development of CFD methods and computing power, directly predict ship performance with full-scale CFD is an important approach. In this article, a numerical study on the full-scale self-propulsion performance with propeller operating behind ship at model- and full-scale is presented. The study includes numerical simulations using RANS method with double-model and VOF model respectively and scale effect analysis based on overall performance, local flow fields and detailed vortex identification. Verification study on grid convergence is also performed for full-scale simulation with global and local mesh refinements. And a series of sea trail tests were performed to collect reliable data for the validation of CFD predictions. The analysis of scale effect on hull-propeller interaction shows that the difference on hull boundary layer and flow separation is the main source of scale effect on ship wake. And the results of the fluctuations of propeller thrust and torque along with circulation distribution and local flow field show that propeller’s loading is significantly higher for model-scale ship. It is suggested that the difference on vortex evolution and interaction is more pronounced and have larger effects on ship’s powering performance at model-scale than full-scale according to the simulation results. From the study on self-propulsion prediction, it could be concluded that the simplification on free surface treatment does not only affect the wave-making resistance for bare hull but also the propeller performance and propeller induced ship resistance which can produced up to 5% uncertainty to the power prediction. Roughness is another important factor in full-scale simulation because it has up to approximately 7% effect on the delivery power. As a result of validation study, the numerical simulations of full-scale ship self-propulsion shows good agreement with the sea trail data especially for cases that have considered both roughness and free surface effects. This result will largely enhance our confidence to apply full-scale simulation in the prediction of ship’s self-propulsion performance in the future ship designs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Airborne wind energy; crosswind kite; induction factor; wake model; aerodynamic performance; CFD; analytical model
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:50:24 CET)
This paper presents some results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a multi-megawatt crosswind kite spinning on a circular path in a straight downwind configuration. The unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations closed by the k−ω SST turbulence model are solved in the three-dimensional space using ANSYS Fluent. The flow behaviour is examined at the rotation plane, and the overall (or global) induction factor is obtained by getting the weighted average of induction factors on multiple annuli over the swept area. The wake flow behaviour is also discussed in some details using velocity and pressure contour plots. In addition to the CFD model, an analytical model for calculating the average flow velocity and radii of the annular wake downstream of the kite is developed. The model is formulated based on the widely-used Jensen’s model (Technical Report Risø-M; No. 2411, 1983), which was developed for conventional wind turbines, and thus has a simple form. Expressions for the dimensionless wake flow velocity and wake radii are obtained by assuming self-similarity of flow velocity and linear wake expansion. Comparisons are made between numerical results from the analytical model and those from the CFD simulation. The level of agreement was found to be reasonably good. Such computational and analytical models are indispensable for kite farm layout design and optimization, where aerodynamic interactions between kites should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: pintle type rotary spool valve; flow distributor valve; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); orbit motor
Online: 11 September 2018 (05:34:52 CEST)
In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of spool port/ groove geometry on the pressure drop and chamber pressures which effect the performance parameters of the flow distributor valve. The work mainly involves formulation of detailed mathematical model of the valve and compare them on the same platform. For mathematical modelling, Matlab has been used. The size of the orifices is considered same throughout the model for better comparison. Initially the construction and functioning of flow distributor valve along with working principles of hydrostatic motor (Rotary Piston) is shown. Next shown the analytical analysis of area change and pressure drops due to different geometry of the spool valve ports. After that the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been shown. A complete mathematical model to describe such flow distributor valve is developed after having a comprehensive knowledge of orifice characteristics, flow interactions based on valve geometry. Equations of flow through different orifices (fixed and variable area) of the valve have been developed based on the relationships obtained earlier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0030.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: digital elevation model; DEM; digital surface model; DSM; great barrier reef; gully erosion; multi-view stereo; point cloud; unmanned aerial vehicle
Online: 13 July 2017 (02:55:02 CEST)
Structure from Motion with Multi-View Stereo photogrammetry (SfM) is increasingly utilised in geoscience investigations as a cost-effective method of acquiring high resolution (sub-meter) topographic data, but has not been thoroughly tested in gullied savanna systems. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of topographic models derived from aerial (via an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, ‘UAV’) and ground-based (via a handheld digital camera, ‘Ground’) SfM in modelling a hillslope gully system in dry-tropical savanna, and to assess the strengths and limitations of the approach at different scales. A UAV survey covered an entire hillslope gully system (0.715 km2), whereas a Ground survey covered a single gully within the broader system (650 m2). SfM topographic models, including Digital Surface Models (DSM) and dense point clouds, were compared against RTK-GPS point data and a pre-existing airborne LiDAR Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Results indicate UAV SfM can deliver topographic models with a resolution and accuracy suitable to define gully systems at a hillslope scale (e.g., 0.1 m resolution with ~ 0.5 – 1.3 m elevation error), while ground-based SfM is more capable of quantifying gully morphology (e.g., 0.01 m resolution with ~ 0.1 m elevation error). Key strengths of SfM for these applications include: the production of high resolution 3D topographic models and ortho-photo mosaics, low survey instrument costs (< $AUD 3,000); and rapid survey time (4 and 2 hours for UAV and Ground survey respectively). Current limitations of SfM include: difficulties in reconstructing vegetated surfaces; uncertainty as to optimal survey and processing designs; and high computational demands. Overall, this study has demonstrated great potential for SfM to be used as a cost-effective tool to aid in the mapping, modelling and management of hillslope gully systems at different scales, in tropical savanna landscapes and elsewhere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Blower wind tunnel design; CFD; Boundary layer controller; Turbulent intensity Validation; Power spectral density (PSD)
Online: 19 August 2022 (08:31:04 CEST)
new subsonic blower wind tunnel design has been studied both numerically and experimentally, it is also referred to as “blower” wind tunnel. This paper, is initially aimed to address each sequential stage of the wind tunnel design process. Rather than applying the standard method of modelling solely the flow in the test section, a large-scale CFD model of the whole wind tunnel was employed. The loss of every constituent element was calculated and then all the losses are added up to determine the power needed for the wind tunnel operation which is used as “intake fan” boundary conditions in the CFD model. Then, flow uniformity and turbulent intensity measurements in an empty test section using a Pitot-static tube and hot wire anemometer (HWA) were introduced to validate the CFD results. The results showed that flow quality was significantly affected by boundary layer controllers (honeycomb and mesh screens) in the settling chamber and wide-angle diffuser. Investigations were also conducted to evaluate the flow deficit in the wake area behind a convex hump model using HWA. This was additional experimental tests carried out to validate the suitability of the wind tunnel flow aerodynamic research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0479.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: mixing; CFD-simulation; surrogate-based optimization; compartmental modeling; competing reaction system; optimization; model order reduction
Online: 20 November 2018 (05:07:13 CET)
Mixing is considered as a critical process parameter (CPP) during process development due to its significant influence on reaction selectivity and process safety. Nevertheless, mixing issues are difficult to identify and solve owing to their complexity and dependence on knowledge of kinetics and hydrodynamics. In this paper, we proposed an optimization methodology using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based compartmental modelling to improve mixing and reaction selectivity. More importantly, we have demonstrated that through the implementation of surrogate-based optimization, the proposed methodology can be used as a computationally non-intensive way for rapid process development of reaction unit operations. For illustration purpose, reaction selectivity of a process with Bourne competitive reaction network is discussed. Results demonstrate that we can improve reaction selectivity by dynamically controlling rates and locations of feeding in the reactor. The proposed methodology incorporates mechanistic understanding of the reaction kinetics together with an efficient optimization algorithm to determine the optimal process operation and thus can serve as a tool for quality-by-design (QbD) during product development stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0442.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Terrain Referenced Navigation (TRN); Federated Filter; Interferometric Radar Altimeter (IRA); Batch Processing; Auxiliary Particle Filter; Digital Elevation Model (DEM); Captive Flight Test
Online: 31 March 2020 (04:29:41 CEST)
Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) require highly reliable navigation information. Generally, navigation systems with the inertial navigation system (INS) and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) have been widely used. However, the GNSS is vulnerable to jamming and spoofing. The terrain referenced navigation (TRN) technique can be used to solve this problem. In this study, to obtain reliable navigation information even if a GNSS is not available or the degree of terrain roughness is not determined, we propose a federated filter based INS/GNSS/TRN integrated navigation system. we also introduce a TRN system that combines batch processing and an auxiliary particle filter to ensure stable flight of UAVs even in a long-term GNSS-denied environment. As an altimeter sensor for the TRN system, we use an interferometric radar altimeter (IRA) to obtain reliable navigation accuracy in high altitude flight. In addition, a parallel computing technique with general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) is applied to process a high resolution terrain database and a nonlinear filter in real time on board. Finally, we verify the performance of the proposed system through software-in-the-loop (SIL) tests and captive flight tests in a GNSS unavailable environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0036.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: turboshaft; axial compressor; blade; FEM; CFD; erosion; wear; stall margin; compressor surge; brownout; gas-turbine performance
Online: 4 November 2019 (03:58:12 CET)
This paper analyses the health and performance of 12-stage axial compressor of the TV3-117VM/VMA turboshaft operated in a desert environment. The results of the dimensional control of 4,800 worn blades are analysed to model the wear process. Operational experience and numerical simulations are used to assess the effectiveness of an Inlet Particle Separator. Numerical modal analysis is performed to generate the Campbell diagram of worn blades and identify resonant blade vibration which can lead to high cycle fatigue (HCF). It is shown that the gradual loss of the stall margin over time determines the serviceability limits of compressor blades. Recommendations setting out go / no-go criteria are made to maintenance and repair organisations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Stainless Steel ASTM A312 Grade 304L, Under Salt Vapor; Corrosion Rate, Welding Procedure Specification, CFD Modeling
Online: 12 December 2018 (12:17:36 CET)
This work studied the corrosion of welded pipes and how welding destroyed surface film of pipes. Surface reaction of a welded pipe is key to understanding phenomena and important factors during the corrosion. This paper presents experiment and CFD modeling approaches of a welded pipe corrosion under salt vapor condition. The pipes were welded at currents of 60 A,70 A and 80 A to observe the effect of welding current on corrosion. A welded pipe is a stainless-steel ASTM A312 grade 304L and period of experiment about 0-600 hours that they are tested in vertical and horizontal alignments. In CFD software, there is not direct model of corrosion but it can use surface reaction and create add-on species and chemical reaction technique for imitating the corrosion mechanism. The modeling approaches of corrosion have presented in 3-dimensional transient times in CFD simulation. Surface reactions were performed by Species Model which involve site species. Site species in Species Model took place at gas-solid interfaces and in this case are salt vapor and surface pipe. Chemical reaction rate on the surface controls lost weight of a welded pipe and the model can be validated with experiment. In conclusion, in period 0-600 hours error between CFD modeling and experiment have error trend decreased. The error at 600 hours is 6% both of vertical pipe and horizontal pipe test. The modeling approaches closely with the performed experiment and can be accepted. Moreover, the model is able to predict corrosion of a welded pipe of different sizes and their lost weight after 600 hours without experiment. Also the model can predict lifetime of pipe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: flotation; separation of microorganisms; bioseparation; heteroaggregation; population balance modeling; coupling of aggregation and CFD; model comparison
Online: 22 August 2018 (11:58:12 CEST)
Bioprocesses for the production of renewable energies and materials lack efficient separation processes for the utilized microorganisms such as algae and yeasts. Dissolved air flotation (DAF) and microflotation are promising approaches to overcome this problem. The efficiency of these processes depends on the ability of microorganisms to aggregate with microbubbles in the flotation tank. In this study, different new or adapted aggregation models for microbubbles and microorganisms are compared and investigated for their range of suitability to predict the separation efficiency of microorganisms from fermentation broths. The complexity of the heteroaggregation models range from an algebraic model to a 2D population balance model (PBM) including the formation of clusters containing several bubbles and microorganisms. The effect of bubble and cell size distributions on the flotation efficiency is considered by applying PBMs, as well. To determine the impact of the model assumptions, the modeling approaches are compared and classified for their range of applicability. Evaluating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of a DAF system shows the heterogeneity of the fluid dynamics in the flotation tank. Since analysis of the streamlines of the tank show negligible backmixing, the proposed aggregation models are coupled to the CFD data by applying a Lagrangian approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0533.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: laser beam welding; welding with gap; keyhole dynamics; pore formation; multiphysical simulation; CFD; process optimization; mesh refinement
Online: 23 February 2021 (19:06:04 CET)
Keyhole laser beam welding (LBW) of stainless steel sheets with a gap in between is numerically simulated with a three-dimensional, transient multi-physical model for laser material processing. At first, the model’s ability to reproduce experimental results on a relatively coarse computational mesh within reasonable computing time, so as to serve as process optimization tool, is presented. An example of process optimization, where a given set of weld seam quality criteria is fulfilled by iteratively optimizing a secondary laser beam, is shown. The relatively coarse mesh, in combination with a good model calibration to the experimental conditions, allows for sufficiently fast simulations to use this approach for optimization tasks. Finally, using a finer spatial and temporal discretization, the dynamic processes in the vicinity of the keyhole leading to the formation of pores are investigated. The physical phenomena predicted by the simulation are coherent with experimental observations found in literature.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: bed load transport; shear Reynolds number; bed-armoring; bed-change; Danube; gravel-sand mixture; 3D CFD modeling
Online: 1 August 2019 (11:12:26 CEST)
In this study, the field measurement-based validation of a novel sediment transport calculation method is presented. River sections with complex bed topography and inhomogeneous bed material composition highlight the need for an improved sediment transport calculation method. The complexity of the morphodynamic features can result in the simultaneous appearance of the gravel and finer sand dominated sediment transport (e.g. parallel bed armoring and siltation) at different regions within a shorter river reach. For the improvement purpose of sediment transport calculation in such complex river beds, a novel sediment transport method was elaborated. The base concept of it is the combined use of two already existing empirical sediment transport models. The method was already validated against laboratory measurements. The major goal of this study is the verification of the novel method with a real river case study. The combining of the two sediment transport models is based on the implementation of a recently presented classification method of the locally dominant sediment transport nature (gravel or sand transport dominates). The results are compared with measured bed change maps. The verification clearly refers to the meaningful improvement in the sediment transport calculation by the novel manner in case of spatially varying bed content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0369.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method; mass-conserved wall treatment; non-equilibrium extrapolation boundary condition; mass leakage; parallel computation; CFD
Online: 30 May 2019 (13:38:44 CEST)
In this study, the multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method is applied to investigate the oscillatory instability of lid-driven flows in two-dimensional semi-elliptical cavities with different vertical to horizontal aspect ratios K in the range of 1.0--3.0. The program implemented in this study is parallelized using CUDA (compute unified device architecture), a parallel computing platform, and computations are carried out on NVIDIA Tesla K40c GPU. To carry out precise calculations, the CUDA algorithm is extensively investigated, and its parallel efficiency indicates that the maximum speedup is 47.6 times faster. Furthermore, the steady--oscillatory Reynolds numbers are predicted by implementing the CUDA-based programs. The amplitude coefficient is defined to quantify the time-dependent oscillation of the velocity magnitude at the monitoring point. The simulation results indicate that the transition Reynolds numbers correlate negatively with the aspect ratio of the semi-elliptical cavity, and are smaller than those of the rectangular cavity at the same aspect ratio. In addition, the detailed vortex structures of the semi-elliptical cavity within a single period are also investigated when the Reynolds number is larger than the steady--oscillatory value to determine the effects of periodic oscillation of the velocity magnitude.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Wind engineering; Pressure coefficient; CFD simulation; Tensile membrane structure; Turbulence model; Form-Finding; Double curved models; General shapes
Online: 4 January 2023 (10:38:07 CET)
The fundamental challenge for the structural design of complicated shapes and lightweight structures such as Tensile Membrane Structures (TMS) is a reliable estimation of lateral loading such as wind load. Wind pressure coefficients can’t be correctly calculated by standards for a large range of intricate forms of structures. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), a strong computational technique for evaluating wind pressure distribution on complicated geometry, can be used to determine wind-related parameters. The average wind related-distributions for the tensile membrane surface are validated with a few contributions from prior studies, which are important to validate with benchmarks in experimental wind tunnel experiments. For the double-curved surface, the results show good agreement between experimental tests and CFD simulations. In this study, CFD simulation was used to calculate the mean surface pressure coefficient (Cp) for generic shapes and tensile membrane forms using the steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) technique. Wind force coefficients and the effect of wind directions are also explored across a wide range of classical and tensile forms. The purpose of the current research is to look at the effect of wind assault angle on the Cp distribution for tensile membrane structures and general shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0025.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: bubble column reactor; ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO); flow pattern; machine learning; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); big data
Online: 11 January 2020 (12:47:48 CET)
In order to perceive the behavior presented by the multiphase chemical reactors, the ant colony optimization algorithm was combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data. This intelligent algorithm creates a probabilistic technique for computing flow and it can predict various levels of three-dimensional bubble column reactor (BCR). This artificial ant algorithm is mimicking real ant behavior. This method can anticipate the flow characteristics in the reactor using almost 30 % of the whole data in the domain. Following discovering the suitable parameters, the method is used for predicting the points not being simulated with CFD, which represent mesh refinement of Ant colony method. In addition, it is possible to anticipate the bubble-column reactors in the absence of numerical results or training of exact values of evaluated data. The major benefits include reduced computational costs and time savings. The results show a great agreement between ant colony prediction and CFD outputs in different sections of the BCR. The combination of ant colony system and neural network framework can provide the smart structure to estimate biological and nature physics base phenomena. The ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO) framework based on ant behavior can solve all local mathematical answers throughout 3D bubble column reactor. The integration of all local answers can provide the overall solution in the reactor for different characteristics. This new overview of modelling can illustrate new sight into biological behavior in nature.