REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0796.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: HIV-1; HSV-1/2; CD4; CD8; Vaccines; Infection; Immunity; Keratitis
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:18:00 CET)
Tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) were first described in 2009. While initially the major focus was on CD8 TRM, there has been recently an increased interest in defining the phenotype and the role of CD4 TRM in diseases. Circulating CD4 T cells seed tissue CD4 TRM, but there also appears to be an equilibrium between CD4 TRM and blood CD4 T cells. CD4 TRM are more mobile than CD8 TRM, usually localized deeper within the dermis/lamina propria and yet may exhibit synergy with CD8 TRM in disease control. This has been demonstrated in herpes simplex infections in mice. In human recurrent herpes infections, both CD4 and CD8 TRM persisting between lesions may control asymptomatic shedding through interferon gamma secretion, although this has been more clearly shown for CD8 T cells. The exact role of the CD4/CD8 TRM axis in the trigeminal ganglia and/or cornea in controlling recurrent herpetic keratitis is unknown. In HIV, CD4 TRM have now been shown to be a major target for productive and latent infection in cervix. In HSV and HIV co-infections, CD4 TRM persisting in the dermis support HIV replication. Further understanding of the role of CD4 TRM and their induction by vaccines may help control sexual transmission by both viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: pancreatic cancer, T cells, cancer stem cells, CD8, PD-L1, CD44, CD133, immunotherapy
Online: 4 March 2019 (13:28:43 CET)
Cancer immunotherapy targeting immune checkpoints has exhibited promising clinical outcomes in many cancers, but it offers only limited benefits for pancreatic cancer (PC). Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a minor subpopulation of cancer cells, play important roles in tumor initiation, progression, and drug resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that CSCs employ immunosuppressive effect to evade the immune recognition. However, clinical implications of the associations among CD8+ T cells infiltration, programmed death receptor ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression, and CSCs existence are poorly understood in PC. Immunostaining and quantitative analysis were performed to assess CD8+ T cells infiltration, PD-L1 expression, and their relationship with CD44+/CD133+ CSCs and disease progression in PC. CD8+ T cells infiltration was associated with better survival while PD-L1 expression was correlated with PC recurrence. Both the low CD8+ T cells infiltration/high PD-L1 expression group and the high CD8+ T cells infiltration/high PD-L1 expression group show high levels of CD44+/CD133+ CSCs, but patients with low CD8+ T cells infiltration/high PD-L1 expression had worse survival and higher recurrence risk than those with high CD8+ T cells infiltration/high PD-L1 expression. Moreover, CD8+ T cells infiltration could reduce unfavorable prognostic effect of high co-expression of PD-L1 and CD44/CD133. Our study highlights an interaction among CD8+ T cells infiltration, PD-L1 expression, and CD44+/CD133+ CSCs existence, which contributes to PC progression and immune evasion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0065.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: acute HIV infection; vaccines; CD8$^+$ T cells; immune response; multiple epitopes; competition; mathematical model
Online: 8 January 2019 (11:22:41 CET)
Multiple lines of evidence indicate that CD8$^+$ T cells are important in the control of HIV-1 (HIV) replication. However, CD8$^+$ T cells induced by natural infection cannot eliminate the virus or reduce viral loads to acceptably low levels in most infected individuals. Understanding the basic quantitative features of CD8$^+$ T-cell responses induced during the course of HIV infection may therefore inform us about the limits that HIV vaccines, which aim to induce protective CD8$^+$ T-cell responses, must exceed. Using previously published experimental data from a cohort of HIV-infected individuals with sampling times from acute to chronic infection we defined the quantitative properties of CD8$^+$ T-cell responses to the whole HIV proteome. In contrast with a commonly held view, we found that the relative number of HIV-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell responses (response breadth) changed little over the course of infection (first 400 days post-infection), with moderate but statistically significant changes occurring only during the first 35 symptomatic days. This challenges the idea that a change in the T-cell response breadth over time is responsible for the slow speed of viral escape from CD8$^+$ T cells in the chronic infection. The breadth of HIV-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell responses was not correlated with the average viral load for our small cohort of patients. Metrics of relative immunodominance of HIV-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell responses such as Shannon entropy or the Evenness index were also not significantly correlated with the average viral load. Our mathematical-model-driven analysis suggested extremely slow expansion kinetics for the majority of HIV-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell responses and the presence of intra- and interclonal competition between multiple CD8$^+$ T-cell responses; such competition may limit the magnitude of CD8$^+$ T-cell responses, specific to different epitopes, and the overall number of T-cell responses induced by vaccination. Further understanding of mechanisms underlying interactions between the virus and virus-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell response will be instrumental in determining which T-cell-based vaccines will induce T-cell responses providing durable protection against HIV infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0086.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Cryptococcal meningitis; Cryptococcus; HIV; CD4 T cells; CD8 T cells; adaptive immune response; IRIS
Online: 8 April 2019 (11:02:55 CEST)
Cryptococcal meningitis remains a significant opportunistic infection among HIV-infected patients, contributing 15%-20% of HIV-related mortality. A complication of initiating Antiretroviral therapy (ART) following opportunistic infection is Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS). IRIS afflicts 10-30% of HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM), but its immunopathogenesis is poorly understood. We compared circulating T cell memory subsets and cytokine responses among 17 HIV-infected Ugandans with CM: 11 with and 6 without CM-IRIS. At meningitis diagnosis, stimulation with cryptococcal capsule component, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) elicited consistently lower frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell memory subsets expressing intracellular cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17) among subjects who subsequently developed CM-IRIS. After ART initiation, T cells evolved to show a decreased CD8+ central memory phenotype. At the onset of CM-IRIS, stimulation more frequently generated polyfunctional IL-2+/IL-17+ CD4+ T cells in patients with CM-IRIS. Moreover, CD8+ central and effector memory T cells from CM-IRIS subjects also demonstrated more robust IL-2 responses to antigenic stimulation vs. controls. Thus, ART during CM elicits distinct differences in T cell cytokine production in response to cryptococcal antigens both prior to and during the development of IRIS, suggesting an immunologic foundation for the development of this morbid complication of CM infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0160.v1
Subject: Keywords: melanoma; genetic whole cell therapeutic melanoma vaccine (AGI-101H); CD8+ T cells; melanoma antigens; ELISPOT
Online: 7 December 2020 (13:53:31 CET)
Healthy human subjects develop spontaneous CD8+ T cell responses to melanocyte antigens (MA) expressed by normal melanocytes, such as Tyrosinase, MAGE-A3, Melan/Mart-1, gp100, and NY-ESO-1. This natural autoimmunity directed against melanocytes might confer protection against the development of malignant melanoma (MM), where MA are present as overexpressed tumor-associated antigens. Consistent with this notion we report here that functional T cell reactivity to MA was found to be diminished in untreated MM patients: while 57.5% of healthy controls (n=40) exhibited high-frequency MA-specific T cell reactivity ex vivo, such was detected in only 12% of the untreated MM patients (n=24). Three lines of evidence suggest that the MA-reactive T cells present in healthy subjects undergo exhaustion once MM establishes itself. First, only the MA-specific T cell reactivity was affected in the MM patients; that to third party recall antigens was not. Second, in these patients, the residual MA-specific T cells, unlike third party antigen reactive T cells, were functionally impaired, showing a diminished per cell IFN-γ productivity. Third, successful immunotherapy with AGI-101H melanoma vaccine restored natural CD8+ T cell autoimmunity to MA in 85% of the vaccinated patients (n= 27). The role of natural T cell autoimmunity to tumor-associated MA is discussed based on discrete levels of T cell activation thresholds.
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: 2019-nCoV; coronavirus; peptide vaccine; CD4+ epitope; CD8+ epitope
Online: 8 February 2020 (05:56:31 CET)
In this report, we demonstrate that it is possible to design epitope-based peptide vaccine candidates to counteract the novel China coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by using an approach similar to the one used in cancer neoantigen vaccination therapy. We identified multiepitope peptide vaccine candidates against 2019-nCov that can potentially trigger both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune response with increased efficiency due to the presence of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes and a cathepsin-sensitive linker. Furthermore, we suggest that the peptide design strategy should incorporate population-specific HLA alleles in order to optimize binding specificity of the peptides. We refer to this as populationalized vaccinomics.
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: CD4- CD8 counts; immunity; inflammation; oxidative stress; peak expiratory flow rate
Online: 14 September 2021 (14:43:16 CEST)
Immunity has become an important aspect of concern, as the spread of corona virus, is on the rise. The strategies to boost and modulate the immunity have therefore become need of the hour. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Charak immunity Tablets (CIT) on innate and adaptive immune response in healthy individuals. It was a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, exploratory study. After obtaining Ethics Committee permission, 36 healthy individuals of either sex aged 18-35 years with prior consent were recruited in the study. They were randomly divided into 2 groups to receive either CIT or Placebo in 2:1 ratio. Both the interventions were given in a dose of 1 tab (500 mg) twice daily. The assessment variables were vitals [temperature, pulse, and blood pressure], respiratory health [respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and peak expiratory flow rate], questionnaire based assessment of immune status, perceived stress and quality of life along with objective assessment of immunity [CD4+, CD8+ counts, Interferon gamma (IFN γ), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin 10 (IL-10)] as well as oxidative stress; [Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Glutathione peroxidase], which were assessed at fixed time points. Of 36 recruited participants, only 18 participants completed the study. CIT treated individuals showed a statistically significant improvement in respiratory health, quality of life, perceived stress and subjective immune status. There was a decrease in the levels of serum IFN γ on day 60 compared to baseline. TNF-α and IL-10, both estimated from supernatant of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), showed a decrease and a significant increase respectively on day 60 compared to baseline in CIT group. Further, CIT significantly decreased MDA levels.The present study indicates that CIT is an effective and safe drug to boost immunity. However, our findings need to be confirmed in larger sample size using more specific immune parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0122.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: cervical adenocarcinoma; immune-checkpoint inhibitor; programmed cell death-1(PD-1); programmed cell death-ligand 1(PD-L1); CD8 expression; lymphocyte; survival analysis
Online: 12 January 2020 (15:01:23 CET)
The effectiveness of immunotherapy for cervical adenocarcinoma (CA) has not been demonstrated yet. It may be possible for us to use programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and CD8 as biomarkers of response to immune therapy in CA patients. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the expression levels of PD-1, PD-L1, and CD8 can predict the prognosis of CA patients and their response to ICI therapy. The levels of the PD-1, PD-L1, and CD8 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples. The correlation between the expression levels and patient prognosis was analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier method and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model. We observed a significant inverse-correlation between the PD-1 and CD8 expression (p=0.001, chi square test). We also found a significant inverse-correlation between the PD-L1 and CD8 expression (p=0.027). The overall survival was significantly worse in patients with positive PD-1 expression (p=0.027). Similarly, the progression-free survival was also worse (p=0.087). Our results demonstrate that a high level of PD-1 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in CA patients. Further research is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that mediate this association.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0020.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: hepatitis C virus; hepatocellular carcinoma; immunotherapy; multi-component DNA vaccine; nucleocapsid (core) protein; telomerase reverse transcriptase; eukaryotic expression; CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response; immune suppression; assays of reporter expression; induction of type I interferons
Online: 1 April 2021 (13:18:59 CEST)
Chronic HCV infection and associated liver cancer impose a heavy burden on the healthcare system. Direct acting antivirals eliminate HCV, unless it is drug resistant, and partially reverse liver disease, but they cannot cure HCV-related cancer. Possible remedy could be a multi-component immunotherapeutic vaccine targeting both HCV-infected and malignant cells, also those not infected with HCV. To meet this need we developed a two-component DNA vaccine based on the highly conserved core protein of HCV to target HCV-infected cells, and a renowned tumor associated antigen telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) based on the rat TERT, to target malignant cells. Their synthetic genes were expression-optimized, and HCV core was truncated after aa 152 (Core152opt) to delete the domain interfering with immunogenicity. Core152opt and TERT DNA were highly immunogenic in BALB/c mice, inducing IFN-γ/IL-2/TNF-α response of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Also, DNA-immunization with TERT enhanced cellular immune response against luciferase encoded by a co-delivered plasmid (Luc DNA). However, DNA-immunization with Core152opt and TERT mix resulted in abrogation of immune response against both components. A loss of bioluminescent signal after co-delivery of TERT and Luc DNA into mice indicated that TERT affects the in vivo expression of luciferase directed by the immediate early cytomegalovirus and interferon-β promoters. Panel of mutant TERT variants was created and tested for their expression effects. TERT with deleted N-terminal nucleoli localization signal and mutations abrogating telomerase activity still suppressed the IFN-β driven Luc expression, while the inactivated reverse transcriptase domain of TERT and its analogue, enzymatically active HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, exerted only weak suppressive effects, implying that suppression relied on the presence of the full-length/nearly full-length TERT, but not its enzymatic activity. The effect(s) could be due to interference of the ectopically expressed xenogeneic rat TERT with biogenesis of mRNA, ribosomes and protein translation in murine cells, affecting the expression of immunogens. HCV core can aggravate this effect, leading to early apoptosis of co-expressing cells, preventing the induction of immune response.