ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0731.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cytokine storm; COVID-19; CD169; inflammation; respiratory outcome; T-cell exhaustion; COVID-19 therapy
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:28:24 CEST)
Background: CD169 has been found overexpressed in the blood of COVID-19 patients and identified as a biomarker in the early disease. We have analysed CD169 in blood cells of COVID-19 patients to assess its role as predictive marker of the disease. Methods : The ratio of the CD169 Median median Fluorescence fluorescence Intensity intensity of CD169 between monocytes and lymphocytes (CD169 RMFI ) was analysed by flow cytometry in blood samples of COVID-19 patients (COV) and healthy donors (HD ) and correlated with immunophenotyping, inflammatory markers, cytokines mRNA expression, pulmonary involvement and disease progression. Results: CD169 RMFI increased in COV but not in HD. CD169 RMFI correlated with T-cell differentiation and exhaustion markers as well as with B cells maturation and differentiation. In vitro stimulation of PBMCs of HD with SARS-CoV-2 Spike spike protein induced CD169 RMFI together with IL-6 and IL-10 gene expression. Likewise, CD169 RMFI correlated with blood cytokine mRNA levels, inflammatory markers, and pneumonia severity in patients which that had not received any treatment at sampling. Notably, in untreated patients, CD169 RMFI reflected the respiratory outcome during hospitalization. Conclusion : Considering the immunological role of CD169 and its involvement during the infection and the progression of COVID-19, it could be considered as an early biomarker to evaluate disease progression and clinical outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0666.v1
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:27:12 CEST)
Lymph nodes are secondary lymphoid organs that appear as bean-like nodules usually <1 cm in size, and they are localized throughout the body. Many antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages reside in lymph nodes, where they mediate host defense responses against pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. In cancers, antigen-presenting cells induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to react to cancer cell–derived antigens. Macrophages located in the lymph node sinus are of particular interest in relation to anti-cancer immune responses because many studies using both human specimens and animal models have suggested that lymph node macrophages play a key role in activating anti-cancer CTLs. The regulation of lymph node macrophages therefore represents a potentially promising novel approach in anti-cancer therapy.