ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Integrated Care; Social Care; Health Care; Older People; Comorbidity: Person Centered Care
Online: 9 July 2020 (06:23:49 CEST)
Introduction Older people with complex, chronic conditions often receive insufficient or inefficient care provision. And few instruments are able to measure their perception on care provision. The "User Reported Measure of Care Coordination" instrument has been satisfactorily used to evaluate chronic care provision and integration. The aim of this study is to validate this instrument into Spanish. Methods The questionnaire was adapted and validate in two phases: translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire, and psychometric property measurement. Study population were chronic care conditions patients. Results A total of 332 participants completed test re-test as part of the questionnaire validation process. The final version of the questionnaire had 6 domains: Health and Well-being (D1), Health day to day (D2), Social Services (D3), Planned Care (D4), Urgent Care (D5) and Hospital Care (D6). Cronbach's alpha for the overall questionnaire was 0.86, indicating good internal consistency. When analysing each domain, only Planned Care (D4) and Urgent Care (D5) had Cronbach’s Alphas slightly lower than 0.7, although this could be related to the low number of items in each domain. A good temporal stability was observed for the distinct subscales and items, with intraclass correlation coefficients varying from 0.412 to 0.929 (p < 0.05). Conclusion The adapted version of the “User Reported Measure of Care Coordination” into Spanish proved to be a practical tool for use in our daily practice and an efficient instrument for assessment of care coordination in chronic, complex conditions in older people across services and levels of care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0730.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: nursing care; spiritual care; nurse; spiritual
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:54:04 CEST)
Holistic care in the nursing care consists of physical, psychological, socio-cultural, developmental and spiritual aspects. However, the spiritual has received less attention than the other four aspects. The aim of this study was to review paper related to spiritual care in nursing care practices. The method in this study is a review using the CINAHL database. CINAHL was used because the articles focus on nursing topics. The keywords used were "Spirituality" OR "Spiritual care" OR "Spiritual" AND "Nurse". The inclusion criteria for the article were English language and published from 2019-2021, for adult range between 18-44 years old. Exclusion criteria were article not in English language, not full paper article, not in Human and not psychometric study also master thesis. This study recorded 64 articles, screened according to the topic, then the final results recorded 19 articles. This article focuses on the use of spiritual care in patients, nurses and caregivers, as well as both of patients and caregivers. The results of the review showed that spiritual care was important for mental health, physical health, and well-being, quality of life, increasing expectations for patients, nurses or caregivers. The significance of the study was spiritual care should be addressed in nursing care practices and it must include in the nursing curriculum, because spiritual care has many benefits for patients and nurses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0809.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Long-term care; care homes; nursing homes; dementia; quality improvement; palliative care
Online: 31 December 2020 (13:16:03 CET)
Important policy developments in dementia and palliative care in nursing homes between 2010 and 2015 in Flanders, Belgium might have influenced which people die in nursing homes and how they die. We aimed to examine differences between 2010 and 2015 in the prevalence and characteristics of residents with dementia in nursing homes in Flanders, and their palliative care service use and comfort in the last week of life. We used two retrospective epidemiological studies, including 198 residents in 2010 and 183 in 2015, who died with dementia in representative samples of nursing homes in Flanders. We found a 23%-point increase in dementia prevalence (P-value<0.001), with a total of 11%-point decrease in severe to very severe cognitive impairment (P=0.04). Controlling for this difference in resident characteristics, in the last week of life, there were increases in the use of pain assessment (+20%-point; P<0.001) and assistance with eating and drinking (+10%-point; P=0.02) but no change in total comfort. The higher prevalence of dementia in nursing homes with no improvement in residents’ total comfort while dying emphasize an urgent need to better support nursing homes in improving their capacities to provide timely and high-quality palliative care services to more residents dying with dementia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: nursing homes; quality indicators; quality measurement; palliative care; quality of care; end of life care; advance care planning
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:07:43 CET)
An increasingly frail population in nursing homes accentuates the need for high quality care at the end of life and better access to palliative care in this context. Implementation of palliative care and its outcomes can be monitored by using quality indicators. Therefore, we developed a quality indicator set for palliative care in nursing homes and a tailored measurement procedure using a mixed-methods design. We developed the instrument in three phases: 1) literature search, 2) interviews with experts and 3) indicator and measurement selection by expert consensus (RAND/UCLA). Second, we pilot tested and evaluated the instrument in nine nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium. After identifying 26 indicators in the literature and expert interviews, 19 of them were selected through expert consensus. Setting-specific themes were advance care planning, autonomy and communication with family. The quantitative and qualitative analyses showed the indicators were measurable, had good preliminary face validity and discriminative power and were considered useful in terms of quality monitoring according to the caregivers. The quality indicators can be used in a large implementation study and process evaluation in order to achieve continuous monitoring of the access to palliative care for all residents in nursing homes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0466.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: restraint; restrictive practice; chemical restraint; physical restraint; psychotropic; residential aged care; long term aged care; community aged care; nursing home; home care; day care.
Online: 24 August 2021 (13:55:10 CEST)
Restraint use in Australian residential aged care has been highlighted by the media, and investigated by researchers, government and advocacy bodies. In 2018, the Royal Commission into Aged Care selected ‘Restraint’ as a key focus of inquiry. Subsequently, Federal legislation was passed to ensure restraint is only used in residential aged care services as the ‘last resort’. To inform and develop Government educational resources, we conducted qualitative research to gain greater understanding of the experiences and attitudes of aged care stakeholders around restraint practice. Semi-structured interviews were held with 28 participants, comprising nurses, care staff, doctors, physiotherapists, pharmacists and relatives. Two focus groups were also conducted to ascertain the views of residential and community aged care senior management staff. Data were thematically analyzed using a pragmatic approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development. Five themes were identified during the study: 1. Understanding of restraint; 2. Support for Legislation; 3. Restraint-free environments are not possible; 4. Low-level restraint, and 5. Restraint in the community is uncharted. Although most staff, health practitioners and relatives have a basic understanding of restraint, more education is needed at a conceptual level to enable them to identify and avoid restraint practice, particularly ‘low-level’ forms and chemical restraint. There was strong support for the new restraint regulations, but most interviewees admitted they were unsure what the legislation entailed. With regards to resources, stakeholders wanted recognition that there were times when restraint was necessary and advice on what to do in these situations, as opposed to unrealistic aspirations for restraint-free care. Stakeholders reported greater oversight of restraint in residential aged care but stated that community restraint use was largely unknown. Research is needed to investigate the extent and types of restraint practice in community aged care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: resuscitation planning; paediatric palliative care; advance care planning
Online: 1 December 2017 (10:25:12 CET)
Resuscitation plans (RP) are an important clinical indicator relating to care at the end of life in pediatrics. A retrospective review of the medical records of children who had been referred to the Royal Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, Australia who died in the calendar year 2011 was performed. Of 62 records available, 40 patients (65%) had a life limiting condition and 43 medical records (69%) contained a documented (RP). This study demonstrated that both the underlying condition (life-limiting or life-threatening) and the setting of care (PICU or home) influenced the development of resuscitation plans. Patients referred to the paediatric palliative care (PPC) service had a significantly longer time interval from documentation of a resuscitation plan to death and were more likely to die at home. All of the patients who died in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) had a RP which was documented within the last 48 hours of life. Most RPs were not easy to locate. Documentation of discussions related to resuscitation planning should accommodate patient and family centered care based on individual needs. With varied diagnoses and settings of care, it is important that there is inter-professional collaboration (particularly involving PICU and PPC services) in developing protocols of how to manage this difficult but inevitable clinical scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0724.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Palliative care; Delphi technique; Needs Assessment; Home Care Services; coordinated care; complexity; methodological study.
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:25:59 CET)
Capturing complexity is both a conceptual and a practical challenge in palliative care. The HexCom model has proved to be an instrument with strong reliability and valid for describing the needs and strengths of patients in home care. In order to explore whether it is also perceived to be helpful in enhancing coordinated and patient-centered care at a practical level, a methodological study was carried out to assess the face validity of the model. Particularly, a Delphi method involving a group of 15 experts representing the full spectrum of healthcare professionals involved in palliative care was carried out. The results show that there is a high level of agreement, with a Content Validity Index-Item greater than 0.92 both with regard to the complexity model and the HexCom-Red, HexCom-Basic and HexCom-Clin instruments, and higher than 0.85 regarding the HexCom-Figure and the HexCom-Patient instruments. This consensus confirms that the HexCom model and the different instruments that are derived from it are valued as useful tools for a broad range of healthcare professional in coordinately capturing of complexity in healthcare practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: neonatal palliative care; Doctrine of Double Effect; perinatal palliative care; neonatal end-of-life care
Online: 10 February 2021 (15:38:55 CET)
Neonatal palliative care (NPC) is an integrated and holistic approach that is an integral part of the contemporary neonatal treatment delivery paradigm. It is the highest fulfillment of the notion of beneficence (doing or creating 'good') that has otherwise been neglected/underestimated by the focus of modern medicine on technology and instrumental treatments by its commitment to alleviating patient pain and quality of life. For decades, the Double-Effect Doctrine (DDE) has been used to consider and address a range of ethically questionable circumstances, often at the end of life, including euthanasia, termination of pregnancy to save maternal life, and morally justified warfare. The theory has continued to be mired in controversy as ethicists, legal scholars, theologians, and philosophers discuss the abstract concepts of moral reasoning, purpose, foresight, and other underlying moral theories. In this paper, the moral theory of DDE is discussed in its clinical application to the ethical decision-making process in neonatal palliative and end-of-life treatment, specifically 1) the administration of opioids as required for symptom control and 2) the use of palliative sedation for intractable symptom care.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: self-care; self-care monitoring; quality of life; stoma care; health promotion; nurse – patient interaction
Online: 12 January 2021 (17:32:17 CET)
The current article examined stoma self-care and health-related quality of life in patients with drainage enterostomy, describe clinical and sociodemographic variables and analyze the relations between all of them. Trained interviewers collected data using a standardized form that queried sociodemographic and clinical variables, collected from the electronic medical record, in addition to the Specific Self-Care for Ostomized Patients Questionnaire (CAESPO) and Stoma Quality of life (S-QoL) from January 2016 to January 2017. This was a multicenter, cross sectional study conducted in four hospitals of the province of Castellon (Spain) where 120 participants were studied. Significant differences were found in Self Care according to sex (p = .043); married participants show higher score (p < .01); also, significant differences according to work activity were observed (p < .01). Regarding the clinical variables, differences were observed according to the autonomy of care, the presence of complications in the stoma, the use of irrigation and the type of effluent (p < .01). We can highlight the importance of the skills related to self-care by ostomized patients has for a good level of quality of life related to health. In this learning process, the figure of the stoma therapist plays a very important role.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: palliative and end-of-life care; older adults; advance care planning (ACP); health care professionals.
Online: 20 September 2018 (16:59:45 CEST)
This paper reports the findings from a pilot study designed to explore the barriers, facilitators and similarities with the delivery and implementation of two distinct models of Advance Care Planning (ACP) documentation for older adults in their last year of life used by health care professionals in their clinical practice. PACe (Proactive Anticipatory Care Plan): a GP led model and PEACE (Proactive Elderly Persons’ Advisory CarE): a nurse led model with community geriatrician oversight were used by participants in their clinical practice. Telephone interviews were conducted with general practitioners (GPs) to explore their views of using the PACe tool. Hospital admission avoidance matrons took part in face to face interviews and care staff employed in private residential care homes took part in individual telephone interviews to explore their views of using the PEACE tool. GPs and admission avoidance matrons were employed by Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) and all study participants were recruited from the South East of England where data collection took place in 2015. Nine telephone interviews and two face-to-face interviews (one joint and one individual) were conducted with twelve participants. The data was analysed thematically. Participants highlighted the similarity of both tools in providing focus to ACP discussions to inform individual end-of-life care preferences. The importance of relationships was a pivotal theme-established, trusting inter-professional relationships to enable multidisciplinary teamwork and a prior relationship with the older person (or their proxy in the case of cognitive impairment) to enable conversations of this nature. Using both tools enabled participants to think critically and reflect on their own practice was another theme identified. Notwithstanding participants’ views to improve the layout of both tools, using a paper-based approach to deliver streamlined ACP and end-of-life care was a theme to emerge as a barrier which focused on the problems with access to paper-based documentation, accuracy and care co-ordination in the context of multidisciplinary team working. The value of technology in overcoming this barrier and underpin ACP as a means to help simplify service provision, promote integrated professional practice and provide seamless care was put forward as the solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Mental Health; Primary Health Care; Collaborative Care; Health Assessment
Online: 29 June 2022 (05:05:41 CEST)
The supply of mental health processes in primary care has gaps. This study aims to analyze the association of agreement criteria and flows between primary care teams and the Family Health Support Center (NASF) for mental health collaborative care, considering the difference between capital and non-capital cities in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on secondary data from the Primary Care Access and Quality Improvement Program. Agreement criteria and flows were obtained from 3883 NASF teams of the matrix support or collaborative care. The Chi-square test and multiple Poisson regression were used; p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Prevalence ratios of negative associations demonstrated protective factors for support actions: follow-up at Psychosocial Care Center, management of psychopharmacotherapy, offer of other therapeutic actions, care process for users of psychoactive substances, and offer of activities to prevent the use of psychoactive substances. Collaborative care in primary care was effective, and capital cities were a protective factor compared with non-capital cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: acute kidney injury; HPB surgery; perioperative care; critical care
Online: 18 May 2020 (17:29:02 CEST)
Aim: Aim of our study was to evaluate incidence and causative factors for acute kidney injury in hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgeries. Material and Methods: All the HPB surgeries performed between April 2018 to March 2020, in our institution have been analysed for acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury defined according to acute kidney injury network classification. Categorical variables were evaluated by chi square test and fisher t test wherever approptiate and continuous variables by Mann Whitney U test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: We performed 195 HPB surgeries between April 2018 to March 2020, Which included 114 biliary surgeries, 57 liver surgeries and 23 pancreas surgeries. 10 patients developed Acute Kidney Injuries. (AKI) On Univariate analysis AKI was associated with open surgeries, intra operative hypotension and liver surgeries, higher ASA grade, increase operative time, more blood products used, higher CDC grade of surgery and more hospital stay before diagnosis of AKI. However on multivariate analysis only higher ASA score independently predicted Acute Kidney Injury. (p=0.003, odds ratio 15.659, 95% confidence interval 2.54-93.36). AKI was also significantly associated with mortality. (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Pre operative higher ASA grade independently predicted post operative acute kidney injury. Post operative AKI is significantly associated with mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0433.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: music therapy; preterm infants; family-centered care; parents; self-care; wellbeing; Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)
Online: 19 November 2018 (08:49:11 CET)
Background: Parents of preterm infants face major mental health challenges in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Family-centered music therapy actively integrates and empowers parents in their infant’s care. With the aim to better understand and address parental needs separately from their babies’, a music therapy (MT) self-care group was implemented as part of clinical practice at the hospital Clínica de la Mujer in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: The group is provided for both parents twice a week in the NICU. Music guided relaxations, breathing techniques, and self-expression are at the center of the MT group sessions. Parents complete a pre/post self-administered Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) including anxiety levels, stress levels, mood and motivation. Results: Parents highly value the MT self-care group at the NICU. On average there is a 37% improvement in anxiety levels, 28% in stress levels, and 12% in mood, restfulness and motivation. Being able to relax, to distract themselves from their worries and having time for themselves are amongst the most frequently mentioned benefits. Conclusions: Addressing parents’ needs separately form their babies’ treatment with culturally sensitive interventions aimed to improve parental mental health, is essential for continuing the development of family-centered music therapy interventions in the NICU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0190.v1
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:12:48 CEST)
Collaborative action between families and health professionals, in this case nurses, doctors, nutritionists, pharmacies in forming harmonious support is the philosophy of family centered nursing care which aims to involve families as the main focus in care. The aim of this literature review is to identify family-centered family member care: a literatu review. This language method uses literature reviews which are summaries of 10 articles in the publication years of 2020-2021 on search 4 databased electronic searches containing namely Scopus, ProQuest, Pubmed, and Scient Direct. This review used prisms. The eligibility of these studies were from its title, abstract, research methodology, results and discussion. The results of the review were presented in narrative form. The results of a review of 10 articles found that the form family centered care Conclusion: The family is considered a partner in the care of other family members. The concept of family centered care is a philosophy in nursing where the role of the family is very important in caring for family members who are sick.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Intermediate care unit; Middle care; Education; CPAP; Noninvasive ventilation; rehabilitation
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:41:43 CEST)
The different waves of the COVID-19 pandemic caused dramatic issues regarding the organiza-tion of care. In this context innovative solutions have to be developed in a timely manner to adapted the organization of the care. The establishment of middle care (MC) units is a bright example of such an adaptation. A multidisciplinary MC team, including expert and non-expert respiratory nurses, physicians, physiotherapists, psychologists, nutritionists and social workers, was built and trained to work in the COVID-19 MC unit. Important educational resources were set up to ensure rapid and effective training of the MC team, limiting the admission or delaying transfers to ICU and ensuring optimal management of palliative care. We conducted a retrospec-tive analysis of patient data in the MC unit during the second COVID-19 wave. Fifty-two COVID-19 ‘step-up’ patients admitted to the MC unit were included in the study. Thirty-four (65%) patients worsened, of which 12 (23%) were not eligible for ICU access. In total, 42% of the ICU-eligible patients were managed in the MC unit to avoid the ICU. Among the 22 patients transferred to the ICU, 15 were intubated. The establishment of an MC unit during a pandemic, mixing expert and non-expert respiratory team members, is feasible and needed. MC units possi-bly relieve the pressure exerted on ICUs. A highly trained multidisciplinary team is key to ensur-ing the success of an MC unit during a pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Person centered care; health promotion; implementation; behavior change; primary care
Online: 18 January 2021 (11:52:56 CET)
The utilization of person centered care is highlighted as essential for health promotion, yet implementation has been inconsistent and multiple issues remain. There is a dearth of applied re-search exploring the facets of successful implementation. In this paper, a person centered wellbeing program spanning various groups is discussed outlining the central principles that have allowed for successful outcomes. The main data emerges from 10 years of pragmatic pre-post service evaluation. Measures of functional capacity and wellbeing were captured using validated measures. The method for this paper is a narrative exploration of the theory and practices that can explain the continual improvement the clinics have achieved over 10 years. Core principles relate to connecting with people, connecting through groups, and connecting with self. The operationalization and theoretical explanation of these principles is outlined alongside 10 years of data which shows sustained improvement in a range of outcomes. The discussion of these principles posits essential factors to prioritize to advance the implementation of person centered care in health promotion for long term conditions.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: respectful maternity care; disrepectful maternity care; violence; obsteteric; rural; kenya
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:21:16 CEST)
While disrespectful treatment of pregnant women attending health care facilities occurs globally, it is more prevalent in low resource countries. In Kenya, a large body of research studies or has studied disrespectful maternity care (DMC) from the perspective of the service users. This paper examines the perspective of health care workers (HWCs) on factors that influence DMC experienced by pregnant women at health care facilities in rural Kisii and Kilifi counties in Kenya. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews with health care workers (HCWs) in these two sites. Data were analyzed deductively and inductively using NVIVO 12. Findings from HCWs reflective narratives identify four areas connected to the delivery of disrespectful care including poor infrastructure, understaffing, service users’ socio–cultural beliefs, and health care workers’ attitudes toward marginalized women. Investments are needed to address health systems influences on DMC including poor health infrastructure and understaffing. Additionally, it is important to reduce cultural barriers through training on HCWs interpersonal communication skills. Further, strategies are needed to affect positive behavior changes among HCWs directed at addressing stigma and discrimination of pregnant women due to socio-economic standing. To develop evidence-informed strategies to address DMC, a holistic understanding of the factors associated with pregnant women’s poor experiences of facility based maternity care is needed. This may best be achieved through an intersectional approach to address DMC by identifying systemic, cultural, and socio-economic inequities as well as the structural and policy features that contribute and determine peoples’ behaviors and choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Care home; Long-term care; Social care; Preparedness; Contingency plan; Safety culture; Workforce; Survey
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:52:34 CEST)
(1) Background: Nursing homes’ preparedness in managing a public health crisis has been fragile, with effects on safety culture. The objective of this study was to assess nursing homes’ COVID-19 preparedness in Southern Portugal, including personnel’s work experiences during the pandemic. (2) Methods: We used a COVID-19 preparedness checklist to be completed by management teams, followed by follow-up calls to nursing homes. Thereafter, a survey to personnel was applied. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and thematic analysis of open-end questions. (3) Results: In total, 71% (138/195) of eligible nursing homes returned the preparedness checklist. We conducted 83 follow-up calls and received 720 replies to the personnel survey. On average, 25% of nursing homes did not have an adequate decision-making structure to respond to the pandemic. Outbreak capacity and training were fragile areas among nursing homes’ contingency plans. We identified compliance with procedures and nonpunitive response to mistakes as fragile areas of safety culture, and teamwork as a strong safety area. (4) Conclusions: To strengthen how nursing homes cope with upcoming phases of the COVID-19 pandemic or future public health emergencies, nursing homes’ preparedness and safety culture should be fostered and closely monitored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Acute Kidney Injury; Gastrointestinal surgery; HPB surgery; perioperative care; critical care
Online: 14 May 2020 (12:03:15 CEST)
AIM: Aim of our study was to evaluate incidence and causative factors for acute kidney injury in gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgeries. Material and methods: All the gastrointestinal surgeries performed between April 2018 to March 2020, in our institution have been analysed for acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury defined according to acute kidney injury network classification. Categorical variables were evaluated by chi square test and continuous variables by Mann Whitney U test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. P< 0.05 was considered significant Results: We performed 331 gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery from April 2018 to March 2020. After exclusion 317 patients were included in study population.14 patients (4.4%) were defined as having acute kidney injury according to acute kidney injury network classifications. On univariate analysis acute kidney injury was associated with open surgery (p= 0.002, Intra operative hypotension (p=0.006), CDC grade of surgery (p<0.001), increased used to blood products (p=0.004), higher ASA grade (p<0.0001), increased operative time(p<0.0001). On multivariate logistic regression analysis higher ASA grade (p=0.001) and increased operative time (0.015) independently predicted acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury was also significantly associated with 90 days mortality. ( p= <0.0001) Conclusion:Post-operative acute kidney injury was associated with significant mortality in gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery. Open surgery, higher CDC grade surgery, more blood products, higher ASA grades, increase operative time predicted acute kidney injury in post operative periods. Higher ASA grades and increased operative time predicted acute kidney injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Critical Care Capacity; Critical Care Transfers; Critical Care Networks; COVID-19 Critical Care Capacity; COVID-19; Patient Transfer; Inter-hospital transfer; COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2
Online: 6 October 2020 (11:41:35 CEST)
The intensive care units in North West London are part of one of the oldest critical carenetworks in the UK, forming a mature and established strategic alliance to shareresources, experience and knowledge for the benefit of its patients. North WestLondon saw an early surge in COVID-19 admissions, which urgently threatened thecapacity of some of its intensive care units even before the UK government announcedlockdown. The pre-existing relationships and culture within the network allowed itsmembers to unite and work rapidly to develop agile and innovative solutions, protectingany individual unit from becoming overwhelmed, and ultimately protecting its patients.Within a short 50-day period 223 patients were transferred within the network todistribute pressures. This unprecedented number of critical care transfers, combinedwith the creation of extra capacity and new pathways, allowed the region to continue tooffer timely and unrationed access to critical care for all patients who would benefitfrom admission. This extraordinary response is a testament to the power and benefitsof a regionally networked approach to critical care, and the lessons learned maybenefit other healthcare providers, managers and policy makers, especially in regionscurrently facing new outbreaks of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0519.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Palliative Care; Physical Therapy; End-of-Life Care; Non-pharmacological Intervention; Physiotherapy
Online: 30 April 2020 (08:42:54 CEST)
Abstract The aim of this research is to conduct a systematic review analysing the role of the physiotherapy interventions in palliative care. PRISMA as a critical appraisal tool was utilised for the selection of the research articles. The inclusion criteria were based on the year of publication, ease of availability, language, geographical location, and study type. To ensure the credibility, databases such as Elsevier, Proquest, and EBSCO Host were used to filter the grey content. Data published in the past ten years (2009-onwards) was only included to ensure the selection of the most recent interventions used by the physiotherapists. A total of 11 articles were selected which determined that physiotherapy interventions involving breathing exercises, aerobic exercises, manual therapies, and educational awareness were critical to promoting the functional capability and empower the patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: critical care nurses; critical care setting; experiences; patient advocacy; systematic review; understanding
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:42:24 CET)
Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to ascertain critical care nurses’ understanding and experiences of patient advocacy in adult critical care settings. The specific objectives were to identify how critical care nurses define patient advocacy, to explore the understanding and experiences of critical care nurses regarding patient advocacy, to explore critical care nurses’ role in patient advocacy, and to ascertain the barriers to encouraging advocacy in the critical care setting. Research design: Systematic literature search of CINAHL and Medline databases, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, as well as grey literature search, was conducted. Search dates were restricted from January 2005 to 2015 in both CINAHL and Medline. Findings: 62 studies were identified, of which 6 qualitative research papers were included. Nurses gave varied definitions of patient advocacy, which were categorized into three themes: communication, protection, and doing. Nurses perceive advocacy as truly listening to patients and their families. Conclusion: For critical care nurses to be effective advocates, there must be support, collaboration, and improved working relationship between professional groups. Moreover, nurses must be empowered to be able to give power to patients and family.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: Affordable Care Act; access to care; co-residence; labor supply; medical expenditure
Online: 12 March 2018 (08:36:46 CET)
This paper investigates the effects of Inter-generational co-residence on health care market, and labor market outcomes, to see whether or not living under the same roof with at least one parent matters in health care market, and labor market behaviors in post-Affordable-Care Act (ACA) USA. The adopted analytical strategy involves not only looking at the gender differences in co-residence, and its effects on outcomes in the two markets, but also accounting for co-residence endogeneity following the recent literature. Unlike the recent literature that relies on instrumental variables methods, this study adopts a switching regression approach, defining inter-generational co-residence as an endogenous selection process using a binary probit equation, and modeled jointly with the extensive margins and intensive margins in the two markets. This novel approach results in a recursive trivariate probit model for each market, and estimated using penalized maximum likelihood methods. The results suggest that ACA by reorganizing the US health care market, seems to have reduced significantly disparities in health care access among males and females based on race, region of residence, place of birth, and citizenship. However not only do we observe significant differences in inter-generational co-residence status between males and females, we also find significant inequalities in the effects of co-residence on health care market, and labor market outcomes. In fact, co-residence is found to increase health care expenditure by 56.7% among females, while this figure increases to 74.2% among males. In addition co-residing individuals, while spending 69.7% more on health care annually are 1.22 times more likely to access health care, but 31% less likely to use health care intensively during the year. In the labor market, co-residence is found to reduce significantly hours of weekly labor supplied by 41% for females, and 55.6% for males. Furthermore co-residing individuals, while not significantly different in their likelihood of labor force participation, are 1.52 times less likely to work full time once they decide to participate, and also spend about 55.4% less time working in the labor market in post-ACA USA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0147.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Dehumanisation; dementia care; healthcare education; residential aged care facilities; positive dehumanisation; negative dehumanisation
Online: 8 January 2021 (11:23:42 CET)
The term dehumanisation refers to the ways in which a person is perceived to be less than human or treated as if they are less than human. It involves treating a person as if they are a child or infant, like an animal or non-living object, or as if they are dead, or any other way in which someone fails to be treated like a human being with an adult identity. Dehumanisation is widespread in dementia care; it is a major obstacle to person-centred care and has poor outcomes for people with dementia. This article proposes a new model of dehumanisation. The New Model presents a new way of describing dehumanisation that has been synthesised from current understanding about the phenomenon and reflects what is presently known about the subject. The model aims to summarise existing theories and models of dehumanisation and make dehumanisation theory accessible to students and trainees in healthcare. This article describes the new model, discusses existing models and theories in the literature, and explores the potential role of the new model in solutions for reducing dehumanisation in dementia care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Philosophy; Family-Centered Care; Nurse
Online: 24 May 2022 (11:31:41 CEST)
Introduction: Family-centered care (FCC) is currently taking a greater role in health care, due to the increasing empowerment of the parental experience. This literature aims to find out the study of the philosophy of child nursing services based on Family Centered CareMethode: The study of this literature through the search of scientific publications ranges from 201 7-2022. The databases used are Pubmed, Science Direct, and Proquest. The literature search was conducted according to the topic with four keyword groups based on Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) and combined with Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT, keywords Child AND Family AND Centered AND Care. Result: The study of the philosophy of child nursing services based on Family Centered Care is conducted based on the study of ontology, epistomotogi and axiology. Family-centered care (FCC) is a philosophy that emphasizes partnerships between parents and health care staff. The FCC's basic principles in neonatal intensive care units (NICs) are unlimited parental presence and parental participation, shared responsibility and decision-making about infant hospital care, and open communication between parents and staff. A family-centered treatment approach has benefits such as maintaining a bond between the child and the family, allowing the family to engage in child care, and minimizing the negative effects of hospitalization on the child and family.Conclusion: FCC is beneficial for nurses in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of time in the care process and increases professional satisfaction. Therefore, the implementation of the FCC is more effective and the satisfaction of clients and families is more increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0213.v1
Online: 14 January 2022 (13:52:25 CET)
Abstract: Appetite loss is common in older patients and an independent risk factor for sarcopenia, which is associated with high mortality. However, few studies have explored the phenomenon of appetite loss after discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore, we aimed to describe the prevalence of appetite loss and the relationship between appetite loss and depression in patients living at home 12 months after intensive care. We conducted a post hoc analysis, which was a published ambidirectional study examining post-intensive care syndrome at 12 months after discharge. We included patients aged > 65 years. The Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ) and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) were used for the analysis. Descriptive statistics and a multilevel generalized linear model were used to clarify the relationship between appetite loss and depression. Data from 468 patients were analyzed. The defined appetite loss was 25.4% (95%CI, 21.5–29.4). High severity of depression was an independent factor for high probability of appetite loss (OR, 1.2; 95%CI, 1.14–1.28; p=0.00). Poor appetite is common 12 months after intensive care and is associated with the severity of depression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0134.v1
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:52:37 CEST)
Background: Nursing services provided by nurses are based on knowledge and competence in the field of nursing science developed in accordance with Client needs, scientific developments, and the demands of globalization. These health services include nursing services that are carried out responsibly, accountably, with quality, and safely by nurses who have obtained registration and permission to practice. Nursepreneur is innovation and courage to take risks and is ready to work hard to achieve goals with optimism. Which has important components namely: 1) quality, 2) role, 3) option and success. The post-pandemic new world, especially in the health care system, continues to grapple with the demands of costs to provide patient care and safety. By using the application of the nursing theory model. Purpose :. Assessing scientific studies on the application of evidence-based intervention in wound care using nursing theory, identifying the important role of telenursing in improving nursing services in Nerspreneurship, Method: literature study Conclusion: Telenursing in nursing focuses on providing nursing care through information technology, such as telephone, computers, and the Internet that can be used to improve treatment outcomes among older people, especially those with low literacy skills and low financial status (Esmaeilpour-BandBoni et al., 2020). The statement from the results of the study refutes that Telenursing is intended for patients who have higher education and middle and upper economic states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0125.v1
Online: 7 May 2020 (13:17:59 CEST)
Background: Accreditation is a qualitative assessment aimed at technical-professional quality, but above all, at organizational and measurable aspects through process and outcome checks. Method: There are few references in the literature relating to the accreditation and improvement of the quality and safety of care and treatment in the field of primary care. Clinical Governance must also be applied and certified in the field of primary care. Results: An accreditation system for general medicine is proposed based on a new dynamic model and implement that meets different requirements and assessed on the basis of indicators. Discussion: In the current Italian health system, accreditation of health structures is addressed only to public hospitals and private structures and to providers of services and services, however primary care. GPs / PLS do not have quality and safety guarantee systems or models or systems or public or private accreditation certifications with the SSR and SSN. Conclusion: Given the fundamental importance in the NHS of primary care of MG / PLS as the main and fundamental provider of services to the patient in all his socio-welfare and clinical needs, it is considered essential to think and implement an accreditation system extended to the territorial general practice as already present and in place for all affiliated and provider structures on behalf of the NHS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0015.v1
Online: 1 February 2019 (10:53:15 CET)
Objective: To map the literature pertaining to adult Person-Centered Rehabilitation (PCR).Data Sources: Following our previously published scoping review protocol, data were identified through: three major databases, snowball searches and expert consultation.Study Selection: Two independent reviewers identified English-language papers which addressed adult physical rehabilitation and met one or more of the six pre-defined inclusion categories for PCR content. Data Extraction: Two independent reviewers extracted key characteristics of included papers (e.g. aims, methods, participants). Quantitative methods (descriptive statistics, regression analysis) and qualitative content analyses were used to synthesize the results. Data synthesis: Of 5084 unique records initially screened, 145 papers were included: 111 empirical, including 11 systematic reviews. Empirical papers had data from 13498 clients and 3849 providers, in total. Yearly publications grew exponentially from 2000 to 2017 (r²= 0.65; p<0.01). Publications were unevenly distributed by countries (e.g. United States’ publications per population size was 45 times lower than New Zealand’s). Most papers focused in more than one profession, setting-type or health conditions, respectively 57.2%, 66.2%, and 60.7%. Finally, more than half of the empirical papers (53.2%) studied implementation of PCR approaches, including its effect. Conclusion: This scoping review synthesizes key characteristics and publication trends in the PCR literature, which is mainly empirical and growing exponentially over time. Stakeholders can use the identified trends, gaps, and literature map to guide further PCR research, and both clinical and organizational practices. The high prevalence of papers focused on multiple professions, settings-type, or health conditions reinforces the need for developing a transdisciplinary, trans-service model of PCR, which will be derived from a thematic analysis of this body of literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: rural health; dementia care; telehealth
Online: 18 April 2018 (05:25:13 CEST)
Context: A clinical video telehealth (CVT) program was implemented improve access and quality of dementia care to patients and their caregivers in rural areas. The program was offered as part of an established dementia clinic/geriatric primary care clinic in collaboration with five community-based outpatient clinics (CBOC’s) affiliated with the Tennessee Valley Healthcare System (TVHS) in middle Tennessee. Telehealth support was provided by a physician – social worker team visit. Methods: Telehealth training and equipment were provided to clinic personnel, functioning part-time with other collateral clinical duties. Patients and caregivers were referred by primary care providers and had an average of 1 to 2 CVT encounters originating at their local CBOC lasting 20 to 30 minutes. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients and caregivers receiving CVT support were collected by retrospective electronic medical record (EMR) review. Results: Over a 3-year period 45 CVT encounters were performed on patient-caregiver pairs, followed for a mean of 15 (1-36) months. Some 80% patients had dementia confirmed and 89% of these had serious medical comorbidities, took an average of 8 medications, and resided at a distance of 103 (76-148) miles from the medical center. Dementia patients included 33% with late stage dementia, 25% received additional care from a mental health provider, 23% took antipsychotic medications, 19% transitioned to a higher level of care, and 19% expired an average of 10.2 months following consultation. Caregiver distress was present in 47% of family members. Consult recommendations included 64% community-based long-term care services and supports (LTSS), 36% medications, and 22% further diagnostic testing. Acceptance of the CVT encounter was 98%, with 8770 travel miles saved. Conclusion: CVT is well received and may be helpful in providing dementia care and supporting dementia caregivers to obtain LTSS for high-need older adults in rural areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0208.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: End of Life; Advance Directives; Advance Care Planning; Intensive Care, Medical Oncology; malignant hemopathy
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:34:51 CET)
Patients living with cancer often experience serious adverse events due to their condition or its treatments. Those events may lead to a critical care unit admission or even result in death. One of the most important but challenging part of care is to build a caring plan according to the patient’s wishes, meeting his goals and values. Advance directives (ADs) allow everyone to give their preferences in advance regarding life sustaining treatments, continuation, and withdrawal or withholding of treatments in case one is not able to speak his mind anymore. While the absence of ADs is associated with a greater probability of receiving unwanted intensive care around the end of his life, their existence correlates with the respect of the patient’s desires and his greater satisfaction. Although progress has been made to promote ADs’ completion, they are still scarcely used among cancer patients in many countries. Several limitations to their acceptation and use can be detected. Efforts should be made to provide tailored solutions for the identified hindrances. This narrative review aims to depict the situation of ADs in the oncology context, and to highlight the future areas of improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Prenatal Care; Standard of Care; Telemedicine; Cross-Sectional Studies; Poland
Online: 5 May 2021 (10:32:26 CEST)
To reduce the risk of infection of SARS-CoV-2 during the commute to the clinic or due to the contact with medical staff, The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended ar-ranging part of the appointments in the form of “telehealth”. The aim of the study was to assess the access to medical care in pregnancy during the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic and the role of telehealth in implementation of prenatal care standards. This is a cross-sectional study. The study group in-cluded 618 women that were pregnant and or gave birth during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. The majority of participants experienced difficulties in access to medical care because of the pandemic. Correlation between this experience and the use of hybrid healthcare model was es-tablished. However, affiliation to public or private healthcare group was irrelevant. There was no relationship between healthcare (private/public or in-person/hybrid) and implementation of the prenatal care standards. To ensure safe access to prenatal care for pregnant women, recommen-dations for a hybrid pregnancy management model should be created with detailed information for which appointments patients must be present and which can be done remotely. To reduce movement risk and interpersonal contact, all visits during which tests and screenings take place should be done in-person. Other appointments can be arranged in the form of telehealth
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Elderly with dementia; needs; utilization; essential care service package; long-term care system; health policy
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:24:37 CET)
Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) remain a public health challenge in developing counties. We developed a needs-based essential care service package (ECSP) for care planning of persons living with dementia (PLWD) using a cross-sectional survey among PLWD in institutions in six cities in China (n= 1,299). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with caregivers of PLWD by trained staff between 2018 and 2019. Care service needs and utilization by the level of cognitive impairment were summarized. The average age of PLWD was 80.7 years. 76% of participants had severe cognitive impairment. The needs-based ECSP with 30 service items would be sufficient in supporting care services of PLWD in China, of which seven items are core care. The selection plan for ECSP at different levels is designed as “General Care Services + Selective Care Services”, in which service items for low-, mid-and high-level care for PLWD are 7+3, 7+6, and 7+10, respectively. The findings provide the first large-scale data on service needs and utilization of PLWD in mainland China. The ECSP for PLWD advanced in the paper was a practicable and effective quantitative management means. It is deserved to application in a large scale.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: quality of care; Covid-19; relational caring; care ethics; practical wisdom; mismatch; humanness; solicitude; habitability
Online: 28 January 2021 (12:45:14 CET)
The Covid-19 pandemic is a tragedy for those who have been hard hit worldwide. At the same time, it is also a test of concepts and practices of what good care is and requires, and how quality of care can be accounted for. In this paper, we present our Care-Ethical Model of Quality (CEMQ) and apply it to the case of residential care for older people in the Netherlands during the Covid-19 pandemic. Instead of thinking about care in healthcare and social welfare as a set of separate care acts, we think about care as a complex practice of relational caring, crossed by other practices. Instead of thinking about professional caregivers as functionaries obeying external rules, we think about them as practically wise professionals. Instead of thinking about developing external quality criteria and systems, we think about cultivating (self-)reflective quality awareness. Instead of abstracting from societal forces that make care possible but also limit it, we acknowledge them and find ways to deal with them. Based on these critical insights, the CEMQ model can be helpful to describe, interrogate, evaluate, and improve existing care practices. It has four entries: (i) the care receiver considered from their humanness, (ii) the caregiver considered from their solicitude, (iii) the care facility considered from its habitability and (iv) the societal, institutional and scholarly context considered from the perspective of the good life, justice and decency. The crux is enabling all these different entries with all their different aspects to be taken into account. In Corona times this turns out to be more crucial than ever.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Poor prognosis; medically non-beneficial care; futility; breaking bad news; withdrawal of care; miracle; hope; goals of care; communication; health disparities; racial discrimination; ethnocultural discrimination
Online: 16 May 2019 (12:38:38 CEST)
Objective: To recommend how physicians can best respond to families whose hopes for a miracle via divine intervention influence their medical decisions, like, for example, making them not want to withdraw ventilatory support in cases of poor neurologic prognosis because they are still hoping for God to intervene. Methods: Auto-ethnographic analysis of chaplaincy experience in this clinical context yields a nuanced 90-second, point-of-care spiritual intervention physicians can use to address the religious aspect of families who base medical decisions on their hopes for a miracle via divine intervention. Explanation of how spiritual intervention dovetails with existing physician communication protocol for responding to families hoping for a miracle. Results: Spiritual intervention for religious aspect of miracle-hoping families is integrated into existing physician communication protocol for responding to families hoping for a miracle with recommendations for utilization of existing communication technology when necessary. Conclusion: Properly addressing the religious dimension of families hoping for a miracle may be helpful for physicians interested in decreasing their own stress levels, improving outcomes for this clinical context, and ensuring that unintentional discrimination does not perpetuate racial disparities in end-of-life care.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: philosophy; family-centered care; nurse; child
Online: 22 September 2022 (08:04:33 CEST)
Family-Centered Care (FCC) as a philosophy is defined as a care provider that emphasizes and involves the important role of the family. However, there are several obstacles in implementing family center care for children where parents have different perceptions from health workers. Parents are angry when they are involved in a job they consider to be a nurse's job and the attitude of nurses prevents parents from participating. This difference in perception causes the implementation of Family Center Care (FCC) has not been carried out optimally, this has an impact on discomfort during treatment. Along with the not yet optimal implementation of family center care when providing care to children, further discussion is needed regarding the philosophy of child nursing with a family center care approach. The reasons for the importance of implementing family center care include building a collaborative system, focusing on family strengths and resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0105.v1
Online: 12 April 2022 (08:49:09 CEST)
OBJETIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk of collapse of the health system created great difficulties. We will demonstrate that Intermediate Respiratory Care Units (IRCU) provide adequate management of patients with non-invasive respiratory support, which is particularly important in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: A prospective observational study of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU of a tertiary hospital. Sociodemographic data, comorbidities, pharmacological, respiratory support, laboratory and blood gas variables were collected. The overall cost of the unit was subsequently analyzed. RESULTS: 991 patients were admitted, 56 to the IRCU (of the 81 a critical care unit). Mean age was 65 years (SD 12.8), Barthel Index 75 (SD 8.3), Charlson 3.1 (SD 2.2), HTN 27%, COPD 89% and obesity 24%. Significant relationship (p <0.05) with higher mortality of the following: fever greater than or equal to 39oC [OR 5.6; 95% CI (1.2-2.7); p = 0.020], protocolized pharmacological treatment [OR 0.3; 95% CI (0.1-0.9); p = 0.023] and IOI [OR 3.7; 95% CI (1.1-12.3); p = 0.025]. NIMV showed less of a negative impact [OR 1.8; 95% CI (0.4-8.4); p = 0.423] than IOI. The total cost of the IRCUs amounted to €66,233. The cost per day of stay in the IRCU was €164 per patient. The total cost avoided was €214,865. CONCLUSION: The pandemic has highlighted the importance of IRCUs in facilitating the management of a high patient volume. The treatment carried out in IRCUs is effective and efficient, reducing both admissions to and stays in the ICU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0296.v1
Online: 23 February 2022 (13:57:46 CET)
(1)Background: When the COVID-19 pandemic arrived, changes had to be made to several management aspects at our Pediatric Oncology Center. We investigated how the families per-ceived these changes. (2) Methods: Two questionnaires were developed at the Pediatric Oncology Unit of the Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori in Milan, to explore how the pandemic has affected the experience of patients who had been or were being treated at our hospital, and their families. These were administered to three samples of individuals. (3) Results: Between July and October 2020, 120 questionnaires were administered to parents of patients. The impact of school closures and the impossibility of attending sports and social activities outside the hospital were regarded as im-portant. 77.5% of parents judged the social distancing to have affected their children. Regarding the changes introduced in the management of the ward and outpatient clinic, most parents’ opinions were positive. Differences in the opinions expressed by Groups 2 and 3 were statistically significant on the topic of relationships on the ward and staff workload. The aspect most negatively affected by the pandemic was the support that patients’ parents were able to give each other. Regardless of whether patients were treated before the pandemic or after the first lockdown, their parents of all indicated a strong degree of satisfaction with the care received, and with the organizational ar-rangements. (4) Conclusions: The results of our study point us in the right direction to further improve our daily work and better respond to the needs of our patients and their families.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0277.v1
Online: 10 June 2021 (08:08:00 CEST)
In Rwanda, more than 90% of the population is insured for health care. Despite the comprehensiveness of health insurance coverage in Rwanda, some health services at partner institutions are not available, causing insured patients to pay unintended cost. We aimed to analyze the effect of health insurance on health care utilization and factors associated with the use of health care services in Rwanda. This is an analysis of secondary data from the Rwanda integrated living condition survey 2016-2017. The survey gathered data from 14580 households, and decision tree and multilevel logistic regression models were applied. Among 14580 households only (20%) used health services. Heads of households aged between [56-65] years (AOR=1.28, 95% CI:1.02-1.61), aged between [66-75] years (AOR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.193-1.947), aged over 76 years (AOR=1.48, 95% CI:1.137-1.947), households with health insurance (AOR=4.57, 95% CI: 3.97-5.27) displayed a significant increase in the use of health services. This study shows evidence of the effect of health insurance on health care utilization in Rwanda: a significant increase of 4.57 times greater adjusted odds of using health services compared to those not insured. The findings from our research will guide policymakers and provide useful insights within the Rwanda context as well as for other countries that are considering moving towards universal health coverage through similar models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0205.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: communication; childbirth; satisfaction; quality of care
Online: 11 January 2021 (17:46:12 CET)
The study aims to identify the difference in communication needs of women giving birth and women during puerperium. An additional goal includes the analysis of the experience and communication needs through the context of a woman's approach to childbirth. The study is a prospective, cross-sectional, self-report survey. 521 women between 5 and 10 days after birth participated in the study. Women perceived information provided by the medical staff as the most helpful aspect of verbal communication both during labour and puerperium. Maintaining eye contact with the medical staff was perceived as the most helpful aspect of non-verbal communication. Women were more satisfied with communication during labour and birth than in the maternity ward and those after non-instrumental childbirth were more satisfied with communication compared to the instrumental birth group. Women perceiving childbirth as the natural, physiological process considered verbal and non-verbal communication during and after childbirth as less helpful than women perceiving birth as more risky and requiring interventions. The results of the study emphasize the importance of verbal and non-verbal communication during birth and puerperium and different communication needs during labour and early postpartum. It also showed that women who perceive labour as a physiological process seem to be less dependent on the communication with the medical staff than women who accept medical interventions during labour and birth as necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0371.v1
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:35:17 CET)
Abstract: The study aimed to determine the factors associated with the avoidance of dental preventive care in adolescents and their parents in the framework of The Youth and Parents Risk Factor Behavior Survey in Slovakia has been initiated during the years 2015/2016. The data were collected using two separate standardized questionnaires: (i) the questionnaire for adolescents (n=515) and (ii) the questionnaire for parents (n=681). The study group consisted of 57 adolescents (54.4% males) who did not visit the dentist for preventive care in the previous year. The control group consisted of 458 adolescents (35.8% males) who visited a dentist for preventive care at least once in the previous year. A significantly higher number of males (54.4%), older adolescents (21.4%) were not visiting dental preventive care regularly. Incomplete family (56.1%), stressful situations at home (17.5%), and feeling unwell were observed as the factors contributing to the avoidance of dental preventive care. More than 34.5% of adolescents were not visiting either dental preventive care but also pediatric preventive care (AOR=5.14; 95%CI=2.40, 10.99). Divorced mothers and mothers with household income lower than 900 € had significantly higher dental care avoidance in their children. A significantly higher percentage of fathers from the exposed group were not visiting dental preventive care regularly (47.8%; p< .05). The results of the study can be used as an educational intervention steps focusing on the influence of parental and adolescent behavior in dental preventive care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0407.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Substance use disorders; primary care; Thailand
Online: 16 November 2020 (09:17:22 CET)
Background: Monk healers provide an accessible and popular service in Southeast Asia, but little is known on the substance use status of their clients. This investigation intended to assess and compare the rate and correlates of substance use disorders in two different treatment settings (monk healers=MH and primary health care=PHC) in Thailand. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 1024 patients (591 of MH and 613 of PHC) responded to screening measures of the “World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test Lite”, and two common mental disorders (major depression and generalized anxiety disorder) from November 2018 to February 2019. Logistic regression was used to estimate the determinants of any substance use disorder in the MH and PHC setting. Results: The prevalence of substance use disorder was higher in MH clients than PHC patients: any substance use disorder 11.7% (95% Confidence Interval-CI: 9.3%-14.5%) vs 5.4% (95% CI: 3.9%-7.5%), tobacco use disorder 7.6% (95% CI: 5.7%-9.9%) vs 2.5% (95% CI: 1.5%-4.0%), alcohol use disorder 10.0% (95% CI: 8.4%-13.6%) vs 4.3% (95% CI: 3.0%-6.3%), any drug use disorder 4.2% (95% CI: 2.8%-6.1%) vs 0.3% (95% CI: 0.08%-1.3%), and any past three months drug use 8.2% (95% CI: 6.2%-10.7%) vs 1.5%, 95% CI: 0.8%-2.8%). In adjusted logistic regression analysis, among MH clients, male sex (Adjusted Odds Ratio-AOR: 9.52, 95% Confidence Interval-CI: 5.06-17.92) was positively, and were married (AOR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.16-0.61) and high social support (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.16-0.99) were negatively associated with any substance use disorder. Among PHC patients, male sex (AOR: 7.05, 95% CI: 2.99-16.63) was positively and age (AOR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.98) was negatively associated with any substance use disorder. Conclusion: The proportion of substance use disorders among MH attendees was more than twice that of PHC attenders in Thailand, calling for collaboration in controlling substance use disorders between the two treatment systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0324.v1
Online: 31 January 2019 (08:56:46 CET)
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major driver of health care costs, thus treatments enabling T2D reversal may reduce expenditures. We examined the impact of a T2D continuous care intervention (CCI) on health care utilization. Previous research documented that CCI, including individualized nutrition supported by remote care, simultaneously reduced hemoglobin A1c and medication use and improved cardiovascular status after two years; however, the impact on utilization is unknown. Methods: This study used four years of data (two years pre-intervention, two years post-intervention) from the Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC) health record. Two methods estimated the impact of CCI on utilization. First, an interrupted time series (ITS) including only CCI participants (n=193) compared post-intervention utilization to expected utilization had the pre-intervention trend persisted. Deviation from the trend was estimated non-parametrically for each 6-month interval after the implementation of CCI . Second, a 1:3 matched comparator group (n=579) was constructed and used for a difference-in-differences (DiD) analysis. The primary outcome was annualized outpatient encounters. Secondary outcomes included emergency encounters and hospitalizations. Results: In two years prior to intervention, CCI participants had a mean of 5.77 annualized encounters (5.62 outpatient, 0.04 hospitalizations, 0.11 emergency). The CCI group showed a reduction in outpatient utilization after intervention. In ITS analysis, 1.6 to 1.9 fewer annualized outpatient encounters occurred in each 6-month interval post-intervention relative to expected utilization based on pre-intervention trends (p<0.01 each 6-month period; 28-33% reduction). The DiD analysis suggested a larger reduction; 5 fewer annualized outpatient encounters in the quarter after intervention, diminishing to 2.5 fewer after 2 years (p<0.01 each quarter). The study was underpowered to draw conclusions about hospitalization and emergency encounters due to the limited number of CCI patients and the rarity of encounters. Conclusions: Outpatient encounters were significantly reduced for a T2D patient population up to 2 years after receiving an individualized intervention supporting nutrition and behavior change through remote care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0056.v1
Online: 10 October 2017 (02:55:22 CEST)
This study aimed to know the conditioning factors of the transition process to the self-care of women diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. This qualitative study was carried out from June to September 2015 with seven seropositive women, users of a specialized service in sexually transmitted diseases in the municipality of Imperatriz, Maranhão State, Brazil. For the data collection, an individual interview was used, and data analysis was performed by content analysis delineated by Hsieh and Shannon (2005). The resources that influence the self-care in the transition process of women with HIV/AIDS are represented by personal conditioning factors, such as the meaning they attribute to the living with the disease, personal attitudes and cultural beliefs, socioeconomic status, preparation and knowledge about the disease, and by conditioning factors found in the community and society. The transition theory can provide important insights about the resources present in the adaptation process of women diagnosed with HIV so that they can perform their self-care satisfactorily.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Geriatrics; Prehabilitation; Surgery; Acute Care Surgery
Online: 12 August 2017 (04:30:56 CEST)
INTRODUCTION Recently there has been a significant increase in age in the United States. It is necessary to better understand the physiological and surgical needs of these patients in order to optimize outcomes. The vast majority of procedures performed in adult patients are low-risk operations, such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Our aim is to investigate the outcomes, including length of stay, morbidity, mortality, re-admission and discharge disposition of the elderly population (>80) undergoing low-risk operations in our tertiary community hospital. METHODS A retrospective chart review was done at a tertiary community hospital. The time frame utilized was 2011-2015. Patients were excluded only on the basis of their age (< 80) at the time of operation. RESULTS There were a total of 30 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy from 2011 to 2015. 21 patients (70%) were female and 9 (30%) were male. No patients were converted to an open procedure. The average age was 86.4 years and average ASA classification prior to surgery was 2.88. Higher ASA class, specifically those that were class III/IV were more likely to have an increased length of stay that was statistically significant. Overall age greater than 80 was an independent risk factor for transfer to a higher level of care upon discharge (SNF, LTAC, etc.), a surrogate marker for physical decompensation following surgery. CONCLUSIONS Routine surgery, such as the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, effects the elderly population in a more substantial way, and early recognition coupled with increased education for physicians regarding geriatric patients can help to reduce length of stay, morbidity, and overall physical and mental deconditioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0146.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pharmacy graduates; preparedness; patient care; Indonesia
Online: 30 December 2016 (06:12:04 CET)
Pharmacists’ roles in providing patient care remain limited in Indonesia, hence this study aimed to determine the preparedness of pharmacy graduates from one university in Indonesia to deliver patient care. Pharmacy graduates (both registered pharmacists  and recent graduates eligible for registration ) were sent a validated self-administered survey. The survey sought their perceptions about whether they had acquired 16 patient care related attributes. Further, it sought their opinion on the desirability of having those attributes. Data were analysed using SPSS version 22.0. Sixteen of 104 (15.4%) registered pharmacists and 40 of 45 (88.9%) recent pharmacy graduates participated in the study. More than 50% of participants in both groups were female and most participants were aged in their 20s. Of the recent pharmacy graduates the majority perceived they had at least partially acquired four of 16 list attributes. Male and female recent graduates had significantly different beliefs about their leadership ability (p=0.004). In comparison, most registered pharmacists perceived they had 10 out of the 16 listed attributes. The findings of this study suggested that pharmacy graduates should be better prepared to deliver patient care, and that curriculum redesign with expansion of experiential learning is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: community care; integrated care; mental health; service users and relatives’ interventions; service users and relatives’ interaction
Online: 14 September 2022 (16:27:56 CEST)
Relatives play an important role in mental health service users’ care. Interventions directed either at service users or their relatives may influence the other person as well. The project Activa’t per la salut mental (Get active for mental health) consisted of a series of four interventions addressed at people diagnosed with mental disorders and their relatives to help them in their recovery process, increasing their agency and quality of life. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the interaction of the participation of service users on their relatives’ outcomes and vice versa. The impact of the project was evaluated within an RCT. The treatment group had access to all the circuit interventions while the control group received treatment as usual and could only access one of the interventions. All participants were evaluated at baseline, six months, and twelve months after the end of the first intervention. Service users were evaluated with the Stages of recovery questionnaire, and relatives with the Family Burden Interview Schedule II and the Duke-UNC-11 questionnaires. The interaction between service users and their relatives was analysed by means of correlational analyses within the intervention group. Service users baseline characteristics influenced in the level of participation of relatives and vice versa. The results also indicated an interaction between service users’ recovery score changes on the change of care burden of relatives. Service users’ participation levels interacted with the decrease of relatives’ burden. These results can be extremely helpful in fostering interactive benefits in future projects addressing the wellbeing of mental health service users and their relatives. Future studies could use specific designs to explore the directionality of the causality of these effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0489.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: hip fractures; geriatric assessment; orthogeriatric care; functional recovery; geriatric syndromes; mortality; hip fracture surgery; multidisciplinary care
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:31:03 CET)
Hip fractures are an important socio-economic problem in western countries. Over the past 60 years orthogeriatric care has improved the management of older patients admitted to hospital after suffering hip fractures. Orthogeriatric co-management units have increased quality of care, reducing adverse events during acute admission, length of stay, both in-hospital and mid-term mortality, as well as healthcare and social costs. Nevertheless, a large number of areas of controversy regarding the clinical management of older adults admitted due to hip fracture remain to be clarified. This narrative review, centered in the last 5 years, combined the search terms “hip fracture”, “geriatric assessment”, “second hip fracture”, “surgery”, “perioperative management” and “orthogeriatric care”, in order to summarise the state of the art of some questions such as the optimum analgesic protocol, the best approach for treating anemia, the surgical options recommendable for each type of fracture and the efficiency of orthogeriatric co-management and functional recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0553.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Nutrition; family day care; intervention; implementation science; ECEC; child day care centres; RE-AIM; Public Health
Online: 27 January 2021 (10:49:48 CET)
Objective: To highlight opportunities for future nutrition intervention research within early childhood and education care (ECEC) settings, with a focus on generating evidence that has applicability to real-world policy and practice. Methods: An overview of opportunities to progress the field was developed by authors using a collaborative writing approach and informed by recent research in the field. The group developed a list of recommendations aligned with the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Pairs of authors drafted individual sections of the manuscript, which was then reviewed by a separate pair. The first and senior author consolidated all sections of the manuscript and sought critical input on draft iterations of the manuscript. Results: Interventions that employ digital platforms (Reach) in ECEC settings, as well as research in the family day care setting (Effectiveness) were identified as areas of opportunities. Research understanding the determinants of and effective strategies for dissemination (Adoption), implementation of nutrition programs, in addition to de-implementation (Implementation) of inappropriate nutrition practices, is warranted. For maintenance, there is a need to better understand sustainability and sustainment of interventions, in addition to undertaking policy-relevant research. Conclusions: The ECEC setting is prime for innovative and practical nutrition intervention research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Diabetes; Theory; Model; Concept; Management; Health Care
Online: 21 September 2022 (05:46:19 CEST)
BackgroundGood management behavior in patients with diabetes mellitus can reduce disease complications and improve quality of life. This philosophical problem is very important for nurses who are able to provide management care for diabetic patients. The purpose of this literature review is to describe the concept, model or theory that can be used in improving the management of diabetes mellitus patients.MethodsThe method used is by searching several studies published through the Scopus database, PubMed, CINAHL, SpingerLink, and web of science (WOS). The search strategy uses a combination of the terms MeSH Terms. The research questions were designed using the principles of the PICOS framework. Selected studies were published from 2017-2022.ResultsA total of 15 studies were included, with 12 using quantitative methodology and 3 were qualitative. The studies were conducted across various countries. The majority of articles used the concept of self-management intervention based on digital-based development and e-health (n=6), Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory n=2) and the transtheoretical model (n=2). These concepts, models and theories are able to improve good self-management through lifestyle changes, psychosocial, cultural acculturation and increase in spiritual values (n=6).ConclusionTransitional change focuses on changing the modifiable factors found in the concepts, models and theories of the articles obtained. Future research can be developed to assess the existence of elaborations and modifications based on the philosophy that people with diabetes are responsible for their own health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0331.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; diagnose; primary care; respiratory disease
Online: 22 July 2022 (03:12:31 CEST)
Objective: Several authors have analyzed the impact of the pandemic on the incidence rates of different conditions. Our aim was to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on primary care new diagnoses of respiratory diseases. Methods: This was an observational retrospective study performed to describe the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on primary care new diagnosis of respiratory diseases other than lung cancer. Incidence rate ratio between pre-pandemic and pandemic period was calculated. Results: We found an decrease in the incidence of respiratory conditions (IRR 0.65) during the pandemic period. When we compared the different groups of diseases according to ICD-10, we found a significant decrease in the number of new cases during the pandemic period, except in the case of pulmonary tuberculosis, abscesses or necrosis of the lungs and other respiratory complications. Instead, we found increases in new diagnoses of flu and pneumonia (IRR 2.17) and respiratory interstitial diseases (IRR 1.41). Conclusion: There has been a decrease in new diagnosis of most respiratory diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. The real clinical impact of this situation is still unknown. Large-scale real-life studies will make it possible to evaluate the long-term true impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the respiratory diseases management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: IT; ICNP; nursing documentation; care plans; usability
Online: 1 June 2022 (13:12:03 CEST)
Background: in 2016 an IT system was developed at MUL for the documentation of nursing practice. Preparing nursing students for the implementation of eHealth solutions under simulated conditions is crucially important for achieving digital competencies necessary for the health care systems in the future. Scientific evidence demonstrates that the use of an IT system in clinical practice shortens the time required for preparation of documentation, increases the safety of clinical decisions and provides data for analysis and for creation of predictive models for the purposes of HB HTA. Methods: The system was created by cooperation of an interprofessional team at the Medical University of Łódź. The ADPIECare system was implemented in 2016 at 3 universities in Poland, and in 2017 a study of its usability was conducted using a questionnaire made available by Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society “Defining and Testing EMR Usability MASTER V2 Final” on 78 nurses — students of MA in Nursing at Medical University of Łódź. Findings: Over 50% of the surveyed nurses have indicated the usability of the system for the “effectiveness of documentation” variable. The same group of respondents have confirmed that a positive attitude towards patient care planning with the use of the assessed system. In the opinions of the examined parties positive opinions predominated, such as e.g.: “the system is intuitive,” “the system facilitates work,” “all patient assessments are in one place,” “the time needed for data entry would be shortened.”
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: fNIRS; diabetes; brain imaging; point of care
Online: 3 February 2022 (10:10:08 CET)
Abstract—Low-frequency Fahræus–Lindqvist-driven (not blood pressure-driven) oscillations in the small vessels are crucial because oscillations in small vessels support nutrient supply. Understanding of this is critical in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to develop therapeutic measures to prevent Alzheimer's Disease Related Dementias: vascular factors contribute to cerebrovascular disease as well as mild cognitive impairment and dementia, which are predicted to affect 152 million people by 2050 (Alzheimer's Disease International London, UK, 2019). In this clinical study, we performed functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) of the forehead to investigate the effect of the Mini-Cog with three-item recall test on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation and the relative oscillatory power in the 0.01–0.02-Hz (Fahræus–Lindqvist effect) and 0.021–0.052 Hz (smooth muscle autonomic innervation) frequency bands in elderly (60 years and older) T2DM and age-matched controls. We found a significant (p<0.01) difference in the PFC activation between elderly subjects with T2DM and age-matched elderly controls. Moreover, power spectral density (PSD) analysis revealed a significantly lower relative power in 0.021–0.052 Hz (smooth muscle autonomic innervation) frequency band in elderly subjects with T2DM during the Mini-Cog three-item recall test. Furthermore, a drop in the oscillatory power in the 0.01–0.02-Hz frequency band during Mini-Cog three-item recall test was found more pronounced in the elderly subjects with T2DM. Therefore, our study highlighted portable brain imaging to capture cerebrovascular reactivity to cognitive load that may provide a biomarker of cerebrovascular dysfunction in T2DM.Clinical Relevance— Our study establishes forehead portable brain imaging for monitoring cerebrovascular function in T2DM under cognitive load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: multimedia; self-care; quality of life; enterostomy
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:08:14 CEST)
(1)Background: This report was an effective evaluation of using multimedia educational program for self-care and quality of life in patients with a stoma at postoperative and established a simple threshold for enterostomy self-care skills.(2)Methods:108 patients with enterostomy were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention multimedia education program (including information about preparation for enterostomy care, cleaning method, manual bag replacement steps and precautions). The primary outcome was self-care ability and quality of life (defined as overall enterostomy self-care ability and overall quality of life), which was assessed at 2 weeks after intervention via an interview.(3)Results: Compared with those who in the conventional stoma education program, patients received the multimedia education program significantly improved their overall self-care ability and quality of life in statistically. The threshold of the enterostomy self-care skill scale was 20 points, and its corresponding sensitivity was 77.8%, and the specificity was 75.7%.(4)Conclusions: According to our study, the multimedia education program could enhance self-care ability of home care and quality of life in patients with enterostomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0670.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Group Spiritual Care; Hope; Multiple Sclerosis; Iran
Online: 26 March 2021 (15:09:07 CET)
Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is known as an autoimmune disease and a chronic inflammatory condition, inducing a wide variety of mood affective disorders, including depression and feelings of hopelessness in many aspects of patients’ quality of life (QoL). In view of the positive side effects of spirituality and spiritual care on finding appropriate strategies for further adaptation, this study aimed to determine the impact of group spiritual care (GSC) on levels of hope in patients suffering from MS. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on a total number of 96 patients with MS, referring to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (NMSS) in the city of Zahedan, Iran. Following sample selection via the convenience sampling technique, the patients meeting the inclusion criteria were randomized into two groups, i.e., intervention and control. The data collection tools for this purpose included a demographic information form and the Adult Hope Scale (AHS, Snyder et al. 1991), completed by the subjects at the pre- and post-intervention stages. As well, the intervention group received five sessions of GSC during three weeks but the control group members only talked over daily issues along with their mental health problems. The data were also analyzed using the SPSS Statistics software (ver. 14). Results: The Kruskal-Wallis test results revealed that the GSC intervention could have a significant positive effect on raising hope in the patients with MS (p<0.001). Moreover, a significant growth was observed in the scores of hope dimensions including agency and pathway (p<0.001). Conclusion: GSC can effectively boost levels of hope in patients suffering from MS in all dimensions. Therefore, it is recommended to utilize this type of care in order to nurture hope in such individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Causality; Clinical Predisposing Factors; Delirium; Palliative Care
Online: 17 March 2021 (14:46:06 CET)
Delirium occurs in 50-80% of end-of-life patients but it is often misdiagnosed. Identification of clinical factors potentially associated with delirium onset can lead to a correct early diagnosis. To this aim, we conducted an observational prospective study on patients from an Italian Palliative Care Unit (PCU) in 2018-2019 and evaluated the presence of clinical factors at patients’ admission. We then compared their presence in patients who developed delirium and in those who did not during follow-up. On 503 enrolled patients, 95 (18.9%) developed delirium. In univariate analyses, factors significantly more frequent in patients with delirium were advanced age, care in hospice, very compromised performance status, hypoxia, high number of simultaneous clinical factors, presence of breathlessness, poor well-being, severe drowsiness, and background therapy with haloperidol and drugs acting on CNS. In multivariate analyses, setting of care (odds ratio, OR, 1.68 for hospice versus home care, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.02-2.75; p=0.040), and administration of psychiatric drugs (OR 1.74 for administration versus no administration, 95% CI 1.08-2.81; p=0.023) were significantly associated with the risk of developing delirium, while the associations with age (OR 1.82 for > 80 years versus ≤ 70 years, 95% CI=0.98-3.36; p=0.046) and presence of breathlessness (OR 1.70, 95%, CI 0.99-2.89, p=0.053) were of borderline significance. The study indicates that some clinical factors are associated with the probability of delirium onset. Their evaluation in PC patients could help the healthcare professionals to timely identify the development of delirium in those patients.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: HbA1c; point-of-care; diabetes; glycosylated haemoglobin
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:01:13 CET)
Objectives: This study was performed to estimate diagnostic accuracy of the two commercially available point-of-care tests to identify poor glycemic control defined by HbA1c levels, with HPLC as a reference. Settings: The study was carried at two locations, general medical out-patient department of a teaching medical college in Bhopal (urban), and a primary health care centre in rural area in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India.Participants: All individuals with diabetes mellitus who presented to the health care facility for assessment of glycemic control. We excluded participants who denied a written informed consent. No other exclusions were used. We compared HbA1c estimated from two index tests (Hemocue Hb501, Sweden; SD Biosensor, South Korea) from capillary blood samples with HPLC performed from venous blood, as a reference standard. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Diagnostic properties of index tests such as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy for identifying poor glycemic control were primary outcome measures. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was secondary outcome measure.Results: Out of 114 patients, all received reference standard, 103-Hemocue A1C test, and 110- SD Biosensor test. Overall both the index-tests had similar diagnostic accuracy estimates. The area under the Receiver Operating Curve for SDA1c device was 0.935 (95%CI 0.886-0.983), and for Hemocue device was 0.938 (95%CI 0.893-0.984). The Hemocue device HbA1c value of above 7.0 (positive) correctly predicted poor glycemic control 92% times (81.58% for SD device). There were 4 vs. 11 device failures and 14 vs. 12 failures with SD and Hemocue respectively. Ambient air temperatures were no different for the device test failures.Conclusions: Commercially available point-of-care tests evaluated in this study are comparable and an acceptable alternative to HPLC based measurements for assessment of glycemic control. Tests and device failure rates of both the index tests are similar.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: health equity; emergency care; determinants of health
Online: 18 January 2021 (11:24:42 CET)
Identifying health care equity indicators is an important first step in integrating the concept of equity into assessments of health care system performance, particularly in emergency care. We conducted a systematic review of administrative data-derived health care equity indicators and their association with socio-economic determinants of health (SEDH) in emergency care settings. Following PRISMA-Equity reporting guidelines, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PUBMED and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies. The outcomes of interest were indicators of health care equity and the associated SEDH they examine. Among 29 studies identified, 14 equity indicators were identified and grouped into four categories that reflect the patient emergency care pathway. Total emergency department (ED) visits and ambulatory care sensitive condition-related ED visits were the two most frequently used equity indicators. Despite some conflicting results, all identified SEDH (social deprivation, income, education level, social class, insurance coverage and health literacy) are associated with inequalities in access to and use of emergency care. In conclusion, the use of administrative data-derived indicators combined with identified SEDH could improve healthcare equity measurement in emergency care settings across health care systems worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0412.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: distance; inpatient care; SDG’s; Kenya; Tweedie; clustered
Online: 18 September 2020 (03:52:59 CEST)
Background: Distance to a health facility for inpatient care in developing countries has been a huge hindrance towards the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal three. The United Nation encourages countries to research on access to inpatient care, so as to form health policies based on data. Methods: Data on four hundred and eighty-one participants of all ages from forty-seven counties in Kenya who sought inpatient care in Kenya in 2018 were analyzed. Distance to a health facility was captured as a continuous variable and was self-reported by the respondent. The response exhibited a discrete mass at zero and continuous characteristic, therefore a Tweedie distribution was adopted for modelling. Due to the correlation nature of clustered data, we embraced the Generalized Estimating Equations approach with an exchangeable correlation. Since no standard software was available to analyze this problem, we developed an R functions. We assessed the best model fit using the QICu and criteria, in which the lowest value for the former and the highest for the later are preferred.Findings: Differences in employment, ability to pay for the service and household size are associated with the distance covered to access government facilities. Interpretation: Poor people tend to have large households and are more likely to live in rural areas and slums, thus are forced to travel for long distance to access inpatient care. Compared to unemployed, the employed could have better socio-economic status and possibly live within reach of the inpatient health facilities, therefore travel less distances to access. Longer distances are associated with high payments, signifying some form of specialized treatment care due to the complexity of the medical cases, that are expensive to treat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0061.v1
Online: 3 August 2020 (01:04:55 CEST)
Aims and Objectives: Our primary aim was to study association between nonsurgical techniques related complications and mortality and our secondary aim was to determine factors responsible for non surgical technique related complications. Material and Methods: All gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary procedures performed in last 3 years have been evaluated retrospectively. Nonsurgical procedure related postoperative complications were defined as perioperative complications nonrelated to surgical procedures or techniques and related to patients’ physiological health or comorbidities. To avoid selection bias in attempt to evaluate effect of non-surgical procedural related complication on mortality, we did 1:1 propensity score matching analysis with nonsurgical technique related complications as dependent factor. Propensity scores were calculated using logistic regression. Pre operative confounding factors like age, sex, American society of Anesthesia score (ASA), emergency surgery, type of surgeries like HPB surgeries, Upper gastrointestinal surgeries, small bowel surgeries, colorectal surgeries, hernia surgeries, open or laparoscopic surgeries were entered in model as covariates. We used nearest neighbor matching protocol with a calipher of 0.2. Cases were not reusable after matching. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. Results: Total 348 patients underwent various abdominal surgeries (gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary) in our department from April 2017 to March 2020. Total 24 patients developed nonsurgical technique related complications. Before Propensity score matching nonsurgical technique related complications were significantly higher in Upper Gastrointestinal surgeries (gastric and esophageal), emergency surgeries, Open surgeries, in patients who developed intraoperative hypotension, patients operated for malignancies, patients with higher ASA grades, patients in whom more blood products were used and patient who had more operative time. ASA scores independently predicted nonsurgical technique related complications. [P=0.001. Odds Ratio 3.955 (95% C.I.) 1.774-8.813)]. After Matching 24 patients patients were included in nonsurgical complication related complication group and they were compared with 23 matched controls. After matching also nonsurgical procedural related complications were significantly associated with mortality. (p< 0.0001). No intraoperative factors like intraoperative hypotension, blood product requirement, operative time predicted non-surgical technique related complication. Surgery related complications were not associated with mortality after matching. Conclusion: Nonsurgical technique related complications are associated with significant increase risk of mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0754.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: ME/CFS; dentistry; interdisciplinary care; oral health
Online: 31 July 2020 (14:02:48 CEST)
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disabling condition affecting millions of adults and children worldwide. Despite the development of multiple criteria sets for defining this disorder, agreement on the core symptoms and other implications of ME/CFS point to the importance of understanding their role in oral health care. Overall, care for the homebound and bedbound population with ME/CFS issues has been under-addressed in the literature to date and there has been little consideration of the oral health needs of this population. Evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of dental concerns may be hindered by many of the diverse symptoms of ME/CFS. The present paper utilizes the International Consensus Criteria (ICC) in discussing treatment considerations for the most severely affected patients with ME/CFS, both in oral evaluation and active care. While no specific dental pathology is linked to ME/CFS, proper care for the patient so affected must take into account the disorder’s symptoms and severity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0360.v1
Online: 25 February 2020 (05:23:17 CET)
Although man is still rapidly evolving, he has not co-evolved with all of the modern chemicals made by man, including those in cosmetic products. Care must be taken when formulating products so that commonly used ingredients, such as polyethylene glycol, can be substituted with safer ingredients to which man has adapted and that will not cause irritation and inflammation. This is especially important given that induction of skin inflammation will cause systemic inflammation. A review of the literature and of commercially available products was made to highlight techniques and products that remediate inflammation or induce inflammation. Many skin care products contain chemicals that induce irritation and inflammation that may lead to chronic, systemic inflammation. Well studied natural products, especially skin identical chemicals, may offer an advantage compared to recent man-made chemicals in cosmetic and topical formulations and help to reduce skin inflammation as well as skin derived systemic chronic inflammation.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: myopia progression; environmental factors; vision care knowledge
Online: 7 October 2019 (10:55:03 CEST)
Importance: Because of the high prevalence of myopia in Taiwan, understanding the risk factors for its development and progression is important to public health. Background: This study investigated the risk factors for myopia and their influence on the progression of myopia in schoolchildren in Taiwan. Design: Patients’ clinical records were obtained retrospectively from ophthalmologists. Questionnaires were given to collect demographic information, family background, hours spent on daily activities, myopia progression, and treatment methods. Participants: A total of 522 schoolchildren with myopia from a regional medical hospital in northern Taiwan participated the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants of legal age or the parents or legal guardians. Methods: Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Myopia measured in dioptres was analysed, controlling for patients’ family and demographic information as well as their daily behaviours. Main Outcome Results: Children with high myopic parents were more myopic. Earlier onset age of myopia was associated with a higher level of myopia and greater annual myopic progression. Children reporting more near work activities had higher levels of myopia and greater progression of myopia. Lower levels of myopia were associated with more exercise, longer periods of sleep, and better vision care knowledge in children and parents. Intake of food supplements had no effect on myopia. Conclusions and Relevance: In addition to genetics, education, environment, and near work activity can influence the development of myopia. Health policies for schoolchildren should promote protective activities and vision care knowledge in order to protect the eyesight of schoolchildren.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0052.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: health care, human resources, inequality, Gini coefficient.
Online: 5 February 2019 (11:33:20 CET)
Human resources are the major input of health systems therefore the equitable distribution of human resources in health care remain critical in making progress towards the goal of universal health coverage and thus to sustainable development. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the health care human resources distribution across regions of Poland between 2010 and 2017 and estimate the level of equity. This research by applying to Polish conditions will allow to fill in the gap in existing literature. Data was derived from the Knowledge Database Health and Health Care of Statistic Poland and Polish Statistical Yearbook. In purpose to examine the distribution of health resources against population size and geographic size in Poland, the Gini coefficient calculated based on the Lorenz Curve was engaged. This study has several major findings. The amount of most types of human resources – as apart from internist, obstetrics and gynecology, occupational medicine - when expressed as number of them per 10,000 population or 1 square km increased in 2017 compared to 2010. Moreover, for most types of health care human resources the level of access slightly changed during analysied period as Gini coefficients decreased. However, the geographical distribution of all types of human resources is less equitable then in case of population distribution. The most troublesome is relatively lower equity in case of oncologist, family medicine and occupational medicine and cardiologist in both population and geographical distribution. Thus this research provides some implications for policy and practice. As the main reason to establish National Health Fund (which meant the centralization of the system) in Poland was to to eliminate regional differences in access to health care, thus this research confirms that still some more corrective actions, in this field, should be undertaken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0156.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Health care risk waste, home-based caregivers
Online: 8 October 2018 (16:02:59 CEST)
The quadruple burden of diseases, early discharge from hospital and hospital at home have resulted in home-based care services becoming a requirement in South Africa. The home-based care services generate a significant amount of health care risk waste that is mismanaged. However, more attention is given to the health care risk waste generated in hospitals and clinics than to health care risk waste generated by home-based caregivers. Therefore, this study investigates the health care risk waste management practices by home-based caregivers. The study adopted a mixed research approach, qualitative and quantitative methods, using a literature review, interviews, and questionnaires as means of data collection. Results show that there are different types of health care risk waste generated as a result of different activities performed by home-based caregivers, but that the waste was found to be managed in an unsafe manner. The majority of households receiving home-based care did not have basic sanitation facilities such as toilets, running water and waste removal services, aggravating the issue of health care risk waste mismanagement. The study recommends a new policy framework that will lead to safe management practices of generated health care risk waste to be adopted by home-based caregivers.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0410.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: long-term care, technology, therapy, virtual reality
Online: 20 September 2018 (13:34:02 CEST)
In this study, 6 residents of a long-term care facility were asked to try on Virtual Reality glasses and report their first experiences with Virtual Reality. The results show that Virtual Reality is of great interest to elderly residents of in-patient long-term care facilities. The wearing period was longer than expected and no symptoms of cyber sickness occurred. For the residents it was exciting to explore the virtual environments. Austrian destinations, nature scenes in the mountains and forests but also trips to the zoo, the museum, in churches or even densely populated areas like shopping streets or train stations would be places for the residents, they would like to explore virtually. Far-off destinations such as Rio de Janeiro or the Caribbean are more of an exception. Biographically relevant places such as the parental home or the location of their wedding were not named. Concerning the usability, an adjustment of the VR glasses is necessary for a longer-term use in any case.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: patient empowerment; patient education; patient information; intensive care unit discharge; intensive care unit transition; nursing interventions, systematic review.
Online: 14 September 2021 (10:05:11 CEST)
Intensive care unit discharge is an important transition which impacts on patient wellbeing. Nurses can play an essential role in this scenario, potentiating patient empowerment. A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement. Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were evaluated in May 2021. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of evidence. Quality of the studies included was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Of the 273 articles initially identified, eight randomized controlled trials reported nursing interventions mainly focused on patients’ ICU discharge preparation through information and education. The creation of ICU Nurse-Led and nurses’ involvement in critical care multidisciplinary teams also aimed to support patients during ICU discharge. This systematic review provides an update on clinical practice aimed at improving the patient experience during ICU discharge. The main nursing interventions were based on information and education, as well as the development of new nursing roles. Understanding transitional needs and patient empowerment are key to making the transition easier.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0263.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chronic obstructive; patient discharge; patient care team; personalized care; interdisciplinary health team; patient safety; pulmonary disease; pulmonary medicine
Online: 14 July 2021 (09:58:17 CEST)
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often require frequent hospitalization due to worsening symptoms. Preventing prolonged hospital stay and readmission becomes a challenge for healthcare professionals treating patients with COPD. Although the integration of health and social care supports greater collaboration and enhanced patient care, organizational structure and poor leadership may hinder the implementation of patient-oriented goals. This paper presents a case of a 64-year-old chronic smoker with severe COPD who was to be discharged on long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). It further highlights the healthcare decisions made to ensure the patient’s safety at home and further provides a long-lasting solution to the existing medical and social needs. The goal was accomplished through a discharge plan that reflects multidisciplinary working, efficient leadership, and change management using Havelock’s theory. While COPD is characterized by frequent exacerbation and hospital readmission, it was emphasized that most failed discharges could be attributed to bureaucratic organizational workflow which might not be in the patient’s best interest. It was further demonstrated that healthcare professionals are likely to miss the window of opportunity to apply innovative and long-lasting solutions to the patient’s health condition in an attempt to remedy the immediate symptoms of COPD
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0029.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: blood stream health care associated infections; neonates; risk factors, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance; neonatal intensive care unit; India
Online: 30 January 2018 (08:03:04 CET)
Very little is known about laboratory confirmed blood stream infections (LCBIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in resource-limited settings. The aim of this cohort study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and causative agents of LCBIs in a level-2 NICU in India. The diagnosis of LCBIs was established using the Centre for Disease Control, USA criteria. A predesigned questionnaire containing risk factors associated with LCBIs was filled-in. A total of 150 neonates (43% preterm) were included in the study. The overall incidence of LCBIs was 31%. The independent risk factors for LCBIs were: preterm neonates (relative risk (RR) 2.23), duration of NICU stay more than 14 days (RR 1.75), chorioamnionitis in the mother (RR 3.18), premature rupture of membrane in mothers (RR 2.32), neonate born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (RR 2.32), malpresentation (RR 3.05), endotracheal intubation (RR 3.41), umbilical catheterization (RR 4.18), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (RR 3.17). The initiation of minimal enteral nutrition was protective from LCBIs (RR 0.22). The predominant causative organisms were gram-negative pathogens (58%). The results of the present study can be used to design antibiotic interventions to reduce LCBIs in resource-limited settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0511.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Neonatal infection; hand hygiene; behaviour change; Cambodia; post-natal care; newborn care; formative research; intervention design; health facility; household
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:37:57 CET)
Background: Globally, infections are the third leading cause of neonatal mortality. Predominant risk factors for facility-born newborns are poor hygiene practices that span both the facility and home environments. Current improvement interventions focus on only one environment and tar-get limited caregivers, primarily birth attendants and mothers. To inform the design of a hand hygiene behaviour change intervention in rural Cambodia, a formative mixed-methods research study was conducted to investigate the context specific behaviours and determinants of hand-washing among healthcare workers, maternal and non-maternal caregivers along the early new-born care continuum. Methods: Direct observations of hygiene practices of all individuals providing care to 46 newborns across eight facilities and associated communities were completed and hand hygiene compliance assessed in analysis. Semi structured interactive interviews were subsequently conducted with 35 midwives and household members to explore the corresponding cognitive, emotional, and environmental factors influencing the observed key hand hygiene behaviours. Results: Hand hygiene opportunities during newborn care were frequent in both set-tings (n = 1319) and predominantly performed by mothers, fathers and non-parental caregivers. Compliance to hand hygiene protocol across all caregivers, including midwives, was inadequate (0%). Practices were influenced by the lack of accessible physical infrastructure, time, increased workload, low infection risk perception, nurture-related motives, norms and inadequate knowledge. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that an effective intervention in this context should be multi-modal to address the different key behaviour determinants and target a wide range of caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0182.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: oncology; nutrition; supportive care; integrative oncology; metabolism; mitochondria
Online: 9 August 2022 (15:02:55 CEST)
Cancer-related fatigue is a common, burdensome symptom of cancer and side-effect of chemotherapy. While a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) promotes energy metabolism and overall health, its effects on cancer-related fatigue remain unknown. In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated a rigorous MedDiet intervention for feasibility and safety as well as preliminary effects on cancer-related fatigue and metabolism compared to usual care. Participants had stage I-III cancer and at least 6 weeks of chemotherapy scheduled. After baseline assessments, randomization occurred 2:1, MedDiet:usual care. Measures were collected at baseline, week 4, and week 8 including MedDiet adherence, dietary intake, and blood-based metabolic measures. Mitochondrial respiration from freshly isolated T cells was measured at baseline and 4 weeks. Participants (n=33) were 51.0±14.6 years old, 94% were female, and 91% were being treated for breast cancer. The study was feasible, with 100% completing the study and >70% increasing their MedDiet adherence at 4 and 8 weeks compared to baseline. Overall, the MedDiet intervention vs. usual care had a small-moderate effect on change in fatigue at weeks 4 and 8. For those with a baseline MedDiet score<5 (n=21), the MedDiet intervention had a moderate-large effect of 0.67 and 0.48 at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. The MedDiet did not affect blood-based lipids, though it had a beneficial effect on fructosamine (ES= -0.55). Fatigue was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction including lower basal respiration, maximal respiration, and spare capacity (p<0.05 for FACIT-F fatigue subscale and BFI, usual fatigue). In conclusion, the MedDiet was feasible and attenuated cancer-related fatigue among patients undergoing chemotherapy, especially those with lower MedDiet scores at baseline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0175.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: survey; emergency medical services; training; stroke; prehospital care
Online: 16 June 2022 (10:58:04 CEST)
Background: Emergency medical services (EMS) are the first health care contact for the majority of stroke patients. However, there is a lack of data on the current paramedics’ hospital-directed feedback and training needs across different health care settings. We aimed to evaluate paramedics’ prehospital stroke care knowledge, training needs, and current status of feedback on suspected stroke patients. Methods: We surveyed paramedics from the Vilnius region from September to November 2019, and compared the answers between the city and the district agencies. The questionnaire content included questions on paramedics’ demographic characteristics, prehospital stroke care self-assessment, knowledge on stroke mimics, stroke training needs, and the importance of hospital-directed feedback on suspected stroke patients. Results: A total number of 161 paramedics were surveyed, with more district paramedics rating their prehospital stroke care knowledge as inadequate (44.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 32.8–57.6) vs 28.1% (95% CI 20.1–27.8), p = 0.028). In addition, more district paramedics indicated a need for additional stroke training (83.1% (95% CI 71.5–90.5) vs 69.8% (60.0–78.1), p = 0.043). However, respondents reported being the most confident while dealing with stroke (71.3%, 95% CI 63.8–77.7) compared to other time-critical conditions (p < 0.001). Vertigo (60.8%, 95% CI 53.0–68.0), brain tumours (56.3%, 95% CI 48.5–63.8), and seizures (54.4%, 95% CI 46.7–62.0) were indicated as the most common stroke mimics. Only 6.2% (95% CI 3.4–11.1) of respondents received formal feedback on the outcome of suspected stroke patients brought to the emergency department. Conclusion: A high proportion of paramedics self-perceive having inadequate stroke knowledge and an urgent need for further stroke training. The EMS staff indicate receiving an insufficient amount of feedback on suspected stroke patients, even though the usefulness is perceived to be paramount.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: spirituality; holistic nursing; nursing care; postgraduate nursing education
Online: 2 February 2022 (12:14:40 CET)
The purpose of this study was to analyse selected psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale (SSCRS), among them the applicability of the dimensions of spiritual care in nursing, i.e. spirituality, spiritual care, religiosity and personalized care, to Polish conditions. Poland-wide multicentre study with a cross-sectional validation design. The study was conducted between March and June 2019. Seven Polish Nursing Faculties accepted the invitation to participate in the study. Representative sample of 853 nurses enrolled in MSc (postgraduate) programs in nursing. After translation and cultural adaption of the SSCRS, the instrument underwent a full psychometric evaluation with theoretical relevance using (exploratory, confirmatory factor analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), reliability (test−retest analysis), construct validity (correlation analysis), criterion-related validity (convergent and discriminant validity) analysis. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that Polish version of the SSCRS was a three-factor model with “Activity-centred spiritual care” (9 items), “Emotional support-centred spiritual care” (5 items) and “Religiosity” (3 items) domains. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the whole scale was 0.902, and the alpha values for the individual domains were 0.898, 0.873 and 0.563, respectively. The three domains mentioned above seemed to provide the entire picture of spiritual care perceived subjectively by Polish MSc in nursing students. This study demonstrated a substantial degree of similarity in the selected psychometric characteristics of the Polish version of SSCRS and the original scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: rehospitalization; transition care; pilot study; prospective randomized trial
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:40:43 CET)
Hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge (30-day readmission) is a high-priority quality measure and cost target. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and efficacy of the Diabetes Transition of Hospital Care (DiaTOHC) Program on readmission risk in high-risk adults with diabetes. This was a non-blinded pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compared usual care (UC) to DiaTOHC at a safety-net hospital. The primary outcome was all-cause 30-day readmission. Between 10/16/2017 and 05/30/2019, 115 patients were randomized. In the intention-to-treat (ITT) population, 14 (31.1%) of 45 DiaTOHC subjects and 15 (32.6%) of 46 UC subjects had a 30-day readmission (p=0.88) while 35.6% DiaTOHC and 39.1% UC subjects had a 30-day readmission or ED visit (p=0.72). The Intervention:UC cost ratio was 0.33 (0.13-0.79)95%CI (p<0.01). Among the 69 subjects with baseline HbA1c >7.0% (53 mmol/mol), 30-day readmission rates were 23.5% (DiaTOHC) and 31.4% (UC, p=0.46) and composite 30-day readmission or ED visit rates were 26.5% (DiaTOHC) and 40.0% (UC, p=0.23). In this subgroup, the Intervention:UC cost ratio was 0.21 (0.08-0.58)95%CI (p=0.002). The DiaTOHC Program is feasible and may decrease combined 30-day readmission/ED visit risk as well as healthcare costs among patients with higher HbA1c levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: lung ultrasound; implementation science; point of care ultrasound
Online: 1 July 2021 (07:43:46 CEST)
Despite the many advantages of lung ultrasound (LUS) in the diagnosis and management of patients with dyspnea, adoption among hospitalists has been slow. We performed semi-structured interviews of hospitalists from 4 diverse health systems in the US to understand determinants of adoption within a range of clinical settings. We used the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to guide a framework analysis of the data. Of 27 hospitalists invited, we performed in-terviews of 22 from 4 hospitals of diverse types. Median years post-residency of interviewees was 10.5 [IQR:5-15]. Four main themes emerged: 1) There are important clinical advantages to LUS despite operator dependence, 2) LUS enhances patient and clinician experience, 3) Investment of clinician time to learn and perform LUS is a barrier to adoption but yields improved efficiency for the health system and 4) Mandated training and use may be necessary to achieve broad adoption as monetary incentives are less effective. Despite perceived benefits of LUS for patients, clinicians and health systems, an important barrier to broad LUS adoption is the experience of time scarcity by hospitalists. Future implementation strategies should focus on changes to the clinical environment that address clinician barriers to learning and adoption of new skills.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0330.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: critical care; enteral feeding; mechanical ventilation; nutritional status
Online: 10 June 2021 (14:21:06 CEST)
Objective: This study aims to identify the impact of nutritional factors on mechanical ventilation duration for critical patients. Patients and Methods: The current study was a single-center, prospective observational design which enrolled one-hundred critically ill patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). It demonstrates purposive sampling and also performs the descriptive nutritional factors influencing the mechanical ventilation duration. Daily calories target requirement scale (DCRS), subjective global assessment form (SGA), dyspnea assessment form, and APACHE II have been used as methods in the study along with time to initial enteral nutrition (EN) after 24-hour admission and daily calories target requirement over 7 days to assess patients. Data is analyzed using the multiple regressions. Results: As a result, nutritional status monitoring, time to initial EN, calories and target requirements are statistically positive significance associated with the mechanical ventilation duration respectively (R = 0.54, R = 0.30, R= 0.40, p < 0.05). However, age, illness severity, and dyspnea scales are not associated with the mechanical ventilation duration (p> 0.05). Therefore, the nutritional status, malnutrition scores and calorie target requirements can be used to significantly predict the mechanical ventilation duration. The predictive power is 58 and 28.0% of variance. The most proper influencer to predict the mechanical ventilation duration is nutritional status or malnutrition scores. Conclusion: The research findings show that the nutritional status, time to initial EN, and calorie target requirement within 7 days of admission are associated with the mechanical ventilation duration in the critical patients. Therefore, it can be used to develop guidelines reducing the mechanical ventilation duration and to promote the ventilator halting for critical patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0241.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: educational method; parent; developmental care and premature infant
Online: 23 April 2021 (09:49:08 CEST)
Babies born prematurely are at risk of experiencing visual disturbances, hearing loss, disabilities, the risk of infection and even death. Care for premature babies requires serious attention for both health workers and parents. The role of parents is very important both during hospitalization and at home. Therefore, in order to improve the abilities of parents, it is necessary to make educational efforts with the right method.ObjectivesThis literature review aims to provide an overview of educational methods that nurses can use to improve the ability of parents to care for or care for the development of premature babies. The method used is to search for literature that fits the established theme using 5 data based, namely Scopus, ProQuest, Science Direct, Elsevier Clinicaly for Nursing and Web of Science. The strategy used in finding literature that fits the theme and is used in this literature review uses the PICOS framework. Then conducted a review with the PRISMA method. The literature selection results obtained 572 publications, after going through the selection obtained 11 literatures that match the theme, with 11 educational methods. These methods can be grouped into ideas, namely increasing parental involvement during treatment, using technology, stress management and continuous monitoring. The ability of parents to care for premature babies is needed in order to minimize complications in infants, reduce morbidity, avoid disabilities, increase growth and development of premature babies optimally and reduce parental stress levels, increase parental confidence and good parents' self-efficacy. Choosing the right educational method can improve the ability of parents to properly care for and provide developmental care for premature babies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Grief; Advance Care Planning; Advanced Cancer, Family Caregivers
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:51:17 CEST)
Cancer patients and their family caregivers experience various losses when patients become terminally ill, yet little is known about the grief experienced by patients and caregivers and factors that influence grief as patients approach death. Additionally, few, if any, studies have explored associations between advance care planning (ACP) and grief resolution among cancer patients and caregivers. To fill this knowledge gap, the current study examined changes in grief over time in patients and their family caregivers and whether changes in patient grief are associated with changes in caregiver grief. We also sought to determine how grief changed following completion of advance directives. The sample included advanced cancer patients and caregivers (n=98 dyads) from Coping with Cancer III, a federally funded, multi-site prospective longitudinal study of end-stage cancer care. Participants were interviewed at baseline and at follow-up roughly 2 months later. Results suggest synchrony, whereby changes in patient grief were associated with changes in caregiver grief. We also found that patients who completed a living will (LW) experienced increases in grief, while caregivers of patients who completed a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order experienced reductions in grief, suggesting that ACP may prompt “grief work” in patients while promoting grief resolution in caregivers.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: health care; hospital; blockchain technology; security and privacy
Online: 20 October 2020 (15:04:03 CEST)
One of the special trends in health care is the increasing availability of data and services to the cloud, especially for convenience (for example, providing a complete patient medical record without interruption) and savings (for example, economic issues). Management of health care data). However, there are limitations to using common cryptographic prototypes and access control models to address security and privacy concerns in an increasingly cloudy environment. In this paper, we explore the potential and capacity of using China's Blockchain technology to protect health care data hosted in the cloud. We also explain the real challenges of such an approach and further research is needed. Health care is a highly data-dependent domain, with large amounts of data being created, published, stored and accessed daily. For example, data are created when a patient undergoes a number of examinations (such as computed tomography or computed tomography scans) and the data need to be sent to the radiologist and then to a physician. The visit results are then stored in the hospital, and then need to be accessed later by another physician at another hospital within the network. It is clear that technology can play an important role in improving the quality of care for patients (for example, using data analytics to make informed medical decisions) and potentially costing more by allocating resources more efficiently in terms of personnel, equipment, etc. , Reduce. For example, paper-based data extraction is difficult to extract into systems (for example, it is costly and may involve data entry errors), archiving them and accessing them as needed is costly. These challenges may cause medical decisions to be incomplete, requiring repeated tests for missing information or missing data stored in another hospital in another state or country (at the expense of increased costs and no convenience). (For patients) and so on. Because of the nature of the industry, it is important to ensure the security, privacy and integrity of health care data. As a result, there is definitely a need for a secure and secure data management system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0179.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Physical Education; knowledge; proper exercise; back care; adolescents
Online: 8 September 2020 (07:55:23 CEST)
The aim of this study was to analyze the level of specific back-health-related physical activity and exercise knowledge. This is a cross-sectional study. A representative sample of 1500 students were recruited with a confidence level of 95% and an accepted standard error of ±2.53%. Individuals were aged between 13 and 18 years old (mean age= 15.18; SD = ±1.446). Self-reported questionnaires were used to record back-health-related physical activity and exercise knowledge concerning back care in adolescents. The level of specific knowledge of back health education related to physical activity and exercise in adolescents was low (X = 2.05, SD = ±2.264). Only 10.9% of the students passed the specific knowledge test, achieving a grade equal or superior to 5. The boys average score was higher (X = 2.17, SD = ±2.312) than the girls (X = 1.94, SD = ±2.212) with statistically significant differences (p = .048). The level of specific knowledge increased with age (F = 11.531; p < .001). High school students have a low level of specific knowledge. Physical Education teachers should apply the conceptual content properly. Knowledge is the first step towards changing behavioral habits. Back care education in the school curriculum is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; care homes; general practice; hospital discharges
Online: 7 June 2020 (05:49:04 CEST)
Watching the international COVID-19 epidemics unfold during February and early March 2020, we began to highlight how outbreaks in care homes were inevitable, given the vulnerable patients in close proximity, and pressures on social care to help relieve pressure on the NHS. We suggested public health measures would significantly impact on care homes. Specifically we felt all homes would have multiple individuals isolated within days of introduction of guidance requiring isolation of new cough (or fever), and that a clear definition of an outbreak would be needed that differentiated COVID19 from influenza. We share the experiences of a GP practice looking after 900 nursing or dual registration care homes in the London Borough of Ealing in the early stages of the COVID19 Pandemic 2020. We believe that the altered presentation of cases of COVID19 in care homes contributed to the size of outbreaks, and that keeping COVID19 out of homes is the only way to manage this disease, with early isolation and complete segregation of positive and negative cases. We have seen over 300 suspected cases resulting in four fold (n=175) average monthly death rates, three fold usual issue of anticipatory medications, and approximately 32% mortality rate (up to 43% in over 90’s). Discharge pathways from hospital and admissions to care homes must be clear and robust. COVID19 naïve patients should not be admitted to units with outbreaks and COVID19 positive patients should not be admitted to anything other than a designated “hot” home until risk of contagion is passed. Some patients are testing positive at over 30 days since initial mild symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: machine learning; teleconsultation; primary care; remote consultation; classification
Online: 17 December 2019 (05:17:27 CET)
Background: the primary care service in Catalonia has operated an asynchronous teleconsulting service between GPs and patients since 2015 (eConsulta), which has generated some 500,000 messages. New developments in big data analysis tools, particularly those involving natural language, can be used to accurately and systematically evaluate the impact of the service. Objective: the study was intended to examine the predictive potential of eConsulta messages through different combinations of vector representation of text and machine learning algorithms and to evaluate their performance. Methodology: 20 machine learning algorithms (based on 5 types of algorithms and 4 text representation techniques)were trained using a sample of 3,559 messages (169,102 words) corresponding to 2,268 teleconsultations (1.57 messages per teleconsultation) in order to predict the three variables of interest (avoiding the need for a face-to-face visit, increased demand and type of use of the teleconsultation). The performance of the various combinations was measured in terms of precision, sensitivity, F-value and the ROC curve. Results: the best-trained algorithms are generally effective, proving themselves to be more robust when approximating the two binary variables "avoiding the need of a face-to-face visit" and "increased demand" (precision = 0.98 and 0.97, respectively) rather than the variable "type of query"(precision = 0.48). Conclusion: to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate a machine learning strategy for text classification using primary care teleconsultation datasets. The study illustrates the possible capacities of text analysis using artificial intelligence. The development of a robust text classification tool could be feasible by validating it with more data, making it potentially more useful for decision support for health professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0296.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: point-of-care; cholesterol; clinical diagnostics; laboratory test
Online: 26 July 2019 (01:13:11 CEST)
Managing blood cholesterol levels is important for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. An easy-to-use, portable cholesterol blood test will accelerate more frequent testing by patients and at-risk populations. We aim to evaluate the performance of smartphone-based point-of-care cholesterol blood tests as compared to that of hospital-grade laboratory tests. We used smartphone systems that are already familiar to many people. Because smartphone systems can be carried around everywhere, blood can be measured easily and frequently. We compared the results of cholesterol tests with those of existing clinical diagnostic laboratory methods. We found that smartphone-based point-of-care lipid blood tests are as accurate as hospital-grade laboratory tests (N=116, R>0.97, P<0.001 for all 3 cholesterol blood tests: total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, and triglyceride). Our system will be useful for those who need to manage blood cholesterol levels to motivate them to track and control their behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0042.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: English proficiency, Earnings, Immigrants, MCMC, Medical Care Spending
Online: 2 July 2019 (11:37:52 CEST)
This paper investigates the role of English language proficiency (ELP) as a measure of cultural integration on U.S. immigrant families’ economic integration, as measured by annual earnings, and health care market integration, as captured by annual medical care spending. Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation of a mixed bivariate ordered probit (MBOP) model of annual earnings and medical care spending is conducted using a nationally representative pooled cross-sectional sample data from the U.S. National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). The results reveal that limited English proficiency is associated with lower marginal earnings propensities (-$44.83, -$50.66, and -$56.97), and higher marginal medical care spending propensities ($8.09, $6.09, and $4.32) for each of the three decreasing levels of ELP. Furthermore, we find a small yet statistically significant positive 7.2% correlation between immigrant families’ annual earnings and medical care spending propensities. Therefore investing to raise immigrants’ families ELP in the U.S. would not only contribute to more effective socio-economic integration, but also strengthen the U.S. workforce and economy for decades to come.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0072.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Caesarean section, free maternal health care, inequality, Nigeria
Online: 7 May 2019 (10:21:13 CEST)
Background User fee exemption for maternal and child health care service policy was introduced with a focus on providing free caesarean sections (CS) in Nigeria from 2011 to 2015. This policy had a positive impact on access to facility-based delivery, but its effect on socioeconomic and geographical inequality remains unclear. This study’s main objective is to examine access to birth by CS in the context of free maternal health care. Specifically, the study examines socio-demographic and geographical inequality in access to birth by CS among women who gave birth between 2011 and 2015 under the free maternal health care policy using a population-based survey data obtained from two of the six main regions of the country. Methods Data were obtained from 1227 women who gave birth during the period the policy was in operation selected using cluster random sampling between May and August 2016. Adjusted and unadjusted binary logistic regression models were used to examine whether there is socio-demographic and geographical inequality in access to birth by caesarean section. Results The overall caesarean section rate of 6.1% was found but varies by income (14.1% in monthly income of over $150 versus 4.9% in income of $150 and below), education (11.8% in women with higher education versus 3.9% among women with secondary education and less) and place of residence (7.8% in urban areas versus 3.6% in rural areas). Women who earn a monthly income of $150 or less were 48% less likely to have a birth by CS compared to those who earn more. Compared to women who were educated to tertiary level, women who had secondary education or less were 54% less likely to have birth by caesarean section. Conclusion This study shows that inequality in access to CS persists despite the implementation of free maternal health care services. Given the poor access to facilities with capabilities to offer CS in most rural areas, free maternal healthcare policy is not enough to make birth by CS universally accessible to all pregnant women in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: dental care; immigrants; inequalities; health survey; economic crisis
Online: 10 April 2019 (09:44:49 CEST)
This study evaluates inequalities in the use of dental services according to place of birth before and after the economic crisis in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed in the population aged 18 to 65 years in Spain. We used data from three Spanish National Health Surveys for years 2006 (before the crisis), 2014 and 2017 (after the crisis). Log-binomial regression was used to quantify the association between region of origin and use of dental care services before and after controlling for the selected covariates. In 2006, we found a greater probability of not using dental care services in immigrants from Asia (PR:1.36, 95% CI:1.10–1.67) and Africa (PR:1.16; 95% CI:1.05–1.28) compared to the natives. For 2014, the probability of not using dental care services was greater for all immigrants compared to the natives, with the greatest odds for those from Africa (PR:1.71; 95% CI:1.46–2.01) and Asia (PR:1.3; 95% CI:1.23–1. 47). The associations for 2017 were weaker in magnitude than the ones observed for 2014, although stronger than for 2006. This study suggests that the economic recovery did not have the same impact for natives and immigrants regardless of regions of origin, given the observed inequalities in use of dental services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0147.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Intensive care unit, early cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, mortality, readmission
Online: 7 August 2018 (15:33:49 CEST)
Background: This study aims to compare the impact of early and late post-discharge cardiopulmonary rehabilitation on the outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Methods: The retrospective, cohort study used a sub-database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) that contains information of all patients had ICU admission between 2000 and 2012. Early group was defined if patients had received cardiopulmonary rehabilitation within 30 days after ICU discharge, and late group was define as if patients had received cardiopulmonary rehabilitation between 30 days and one year after ICU discharge. The end points were mortality and re-admission during the 3-year follow-up. Results: Among 2136 patients received cardiopulmonary rehabilitation after ICU discharge, 994 was classified early group and other 1142 patients were classified as late group. Overall, early group had a lower mortality rate (6.64% vs 10.86%, p = 0.0006), and a lower ICU readmission rate (47.8% vs 57.97%, p < 0.0001) than late group after 3-year follow-up. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that early group had significantly lower mortality (p=0.0009) and readmission rate (p<0.0001) than late group. In multivariate analysis, the risk of ICU readmission was found to be independently associated with late group (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13-1.47). Conclusions: Early post-discharge cardiopulmonary rehabilitation among ICU survivors has the long-term survival benefit and significantly decreases the readmission rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Intensive care unit; percutaneous tracheostomy; COVID-19; early tracheostomy; late tracheostomy; ICU length of stay; health care workers; mechanical ventilation.
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:04:34 CEST)
(1) Background: Benefits and timing of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients are still controversial. PDT is considered a high risk procedure for transmission of SARS CoV-2 to health care workers (HCWs). The present study analyzed optimal timing of PDT, clinical outcomes of patients undergoing PDT and safety of HCWs performing PDT. (2) Methods: 133 COVID-19 patients underwent PDT in our ICU from April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021, 23 patients were excluded and 110 patients were enrolled. A trained medical team was dedicated to the PDT procedure. Demographic, clinical history and outcome data were collected. Patients who underwent PDT were stratified into two groups: early group, PDT ≤ 12 days from orotracheal-intubation (OTI) and late group, >12 days from OTI; HCW surveillance program was performed. (3) Results: Early group included 57 patients and late group included 53 patients. Early group patients showed shorter ICU length of stay and fewer days of mechanical ventilation than the late group (p<0.001). At day 7 after tracheostomy, early group patients required fewer intravenous anesthetic drugs and experienced an improvement of ventilation parameters, PaO2/FiO2-Ratio, PEEP and FiO2 (p<0.001). No difference in case fatality ratio between the two groups was reported. No SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in HCWs performing PDT. (4) Conclusions: PDT was safe and effective for COVID-19 patients, since it improved respiratory support parameters, reduced ICU length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation, and optimized the weaning process. The procedure was safe for all HCWs involved in the dedicated medical team. The development of standardized early PDT protocols should be implemented and PDT procedure could be considered as first line approach in ICU COVID-19 requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: palliative care team; seriously ill patients; end-of-life; quality of life; symptom relief; acute palliative care unit; cost savings
Online: 25 December 2017 (08:50:18 CET)
Traditionally, palliative care (PC) systems focused on the needs of advanced cancer patients. But, most patients needing PC have end-stage organ diseases. Similarly, PC models focused on the needs of patients in hospice or at home; however, in most cases PC is provided in acute hospitals. Indeed, the symptom burden that these patients experience in the last year of life frequently forces them to seek care in Emergency Department. The majority of them are admitted to the hospital and many die. This issue poses important concerns. Despite the efforts of attending healthcare professionals, inhospital patients do not receive optimal care near the end-of-life. Also, evidence is emerging that delay in identifying patients needing PC have a detrimental impact on their quality of life (QoL). Therefore, there is an urgent need to early and properly identify these patients among those hospitalized. Several trials reported the efficacy of PC in improving the QoL in these patients. Each hospital should ensure that a multidisciplinary PC team is available to support attending physicians to achieve the best QoL for both PC patients and their families. This review discusses the role and the impact of inhospital PC in patients with end-stage disease or advanced cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Chronic conditions; diabetes; older adults; race or ethnicity; health care access; home health care; social determinants of health; inequalities or inequities
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:03:38 CET)
Racial and ethnic disparities exist in diabetes prevalence, health services utilization, and out-comes including disabling and life-threatening complications. Home health care may especially benefit older adults with diabetes through individualized education, advocacy, care coordina-tion, and psychosocial support for patients and their caregivers. This study examined factors as-sociated with hospital discharge to home health care and subsequent utilization of home health care among a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes, age 50 and older, living in the United States. The cohort (n=786,758) was followed for 14 days after a diabetes-related index hospitalization, using linked Medicare administrative, claims, and assessment data (2014-2016). Multivariate logistic regression models included patient demographics, comorbidities, hospital length of stay, geographic region, neighborhood area deprivation, and rural/urban setting. In ful-ly adjusted models, hospital discharge to home health care was significantly less likely among Hispanic (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.8-0.8) and American Indian (OR 0.8, CI 0.8-0.8) compared to white patients. Among those discharged to home health care, all racial/ethnic minority patients were less likely to receive services within 14-days. Further work should focus on eliminating systemic racism in home health care referral and systemic barriers to receiving home health care services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship; implementation model; GP-pharmacist collaboration; primary care
Online: 15 August 2022 (10:29:33 CEST)
Interprofessional collaboration between general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) is central to implement antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs in primary care. This study aimed to design a GP-pharmacist antimicrobial stewardship (GPPAS) model in Australian primary care. A seven-component exploratory study was conducted since 2017 to 2021 to inform a GPPAS model. We generated both secondary and primary evidence through a systematic review, a scoping review, a rapid review, nationwide surveys of Australian GPs and CPs including qualitative components and a pilot study of a GPPAS model. All study evidence was synthesised, reviewed, merged and triangulated to design a prototype GPPAS model using a Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety theoretical framework. Secondary evidence informed effective GPPAS interventions, and primary evidence captured interprofessional issues, challenges and future needs to implement GPPAS interventions by GPs and CPs. A GPPAS model framework involving GP-pharmacist team-based five GPPAS sub-models were successfully designed to foster AMS education, antimicrobial audits, diagnostic stewardship, delayed prescribing, and routine review of antimicrobial prescription by improved GP-CP collaboration. A GPPAS model could be used as a guide to collaboratively optimise antimicrobial use by GPs and CPs. Implementation studies on GPPAS model and sub-models are required to integrate GPPAS model into GP-pharmacist interprofessional care models in Australia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Nursing; Spiritual care; Quality of life; Chronic disease; Children
Online: 13 June 2022 (05:17:18 CEST)
Background: Chronic disease is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Various complex stressors faced by children due to illness and a series of treatments can negatively impact children's welfare, which can negatively affect children's quality of life.Objectives: This literature aims to study the philosophy of spiritual-based care interventions to improve the quality of life of children with chronic diseases viewed from three philosophical perspectives, namely ontology, epistemology, and axiology.Methods: A literature search was performed on five databases, namely SCOPUS, PubMed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and SAGEPub. Population limitations and diagnoses in this literature of children with chronic disease. This research is a quantitative study focusing on publications between 2017-2021.Results: The philosophy of spiritual care intervention is humanistic, pragmatic, and religious intervention. Humanistic interventions are interventions in which nurses are actively involved in spiritual care. Pragmatic intervention is the activeness of a nurse in assessing the spiritual needs of patients. Meanwhile, religious intervention is an intervention that is directly related to the practice or ritual of a specific belief system. Spiritual care is an essential part of holistic care, which is considered an indicator of improving the quality of care. It will ultimately affect the optimal quality of life of children.Conclusion: Spiritual-based care interventions are essential to improve the quality of life of children with chronic diseases. Spiritual care given to children with chronic illnesses must consider all aspects such as developmental stage, life experience, and socio-cultural of the child.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: critical care; artificial intelligence; predictive analytics; VAP; interpretable models
Online: 10 June 2022 (04:43:07 CEST)
(1) Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) causes high mortality among patients with respiratory disease and imposes major burdens on healthcare infrastructure. Models that use electronic health record data to predict the onset of VAP may spur earlier treatment and improve patient outcomes. We developed and studied the performance of interpretable machine learning (ML) models that predict the onset of VAP from electronic health records (EHRs); (2) Methods: We trained Logistic Regression (LR), full feature Explainable Boosting Machine (fEBM), and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) ML models on data from the MIMIC- III (v1.3) database. Model performance was measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). We trained a minimal-feature EBM model (mEBM) with features derived from white blood cell (WBC) counts, duration of ventilation, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Finally, model robustness was evaluated on randomly sparsified EHR datasets; (3) Results: The fEBM model outperformed the XGBoost and LR models at 24 hours post-intubation. The mEBM model maintained an AUC of 0.893. The fEBM model performance remained robust on sparsified datasets; (4) Conclusions: Our novel interpretable ML algorithm reliably predicts the onset of VAP in intubated patients. Integration of this EBM-based model into clinical practice may enable clinicians to better anticipate and prevent VAP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Access to Dental Care; COVID-19; Dental Public Health
Online: 7 June 2022 (11:22:41 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way dentistry has been practiced world over , this study sought to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the patterns of attendance for dental treatment in a large hospital in Kuwait compare them to data from the year prior to the pandemic Methods: A total of 176,690 appointment records of 34,250 patients presenting to the AlJahra specialist hospital, Kuwait for dental treatment from April 2019 to March 2021 were analyzed. Types of procedures and the departments to which they presented were analyzed and the patterns of attendance before and during the pandemic were compared; Results: While there was a significant reduction in the number of orthodontic, endodontic and periodontal procedures there was no impact on oral surgery, restorative procedures or pediatric dentistry; Conclusions: There has been a return in the numbers of patients availing dental treatment, however, there has been a definite shift in the use of certain dental procedures .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Toxicity; Diagnosis; Personal care; Patient encounter; Patient-based medicine
Online: 16 May 2022 (14:06:25 CEST)
Clinicians are key in reclaiming the medical arts ceded to clinically irrelevant technology and thereby aligning patient with fast-changing biological realities. Narrowing the chasm between virtual and real perceptions of health hazards requires: 1) becoming acutely aware of the habitat loss aggravating the pervasive dissemination of chemicals via conventional food, air, and consumer products and the proliferation of non-ionizing radiation; and 2) making strategic use of slow, system 2 thinking so as to respond wisely to the rampant epidemics of chronic low-dose toxicity disregarded or misdiagnosed for half a century. To respond adaptively, take a moment during each patient encounter to add chronic ambient poisoning to the differential diagnosis and investigate subtle symptoms and signs of irritation in vulnerable organ systems. Enacting adaptive response across our profession could ease the suffering of millions, help avert the sixth extinction, and contribute to continuation of evolved life as we know it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: SOFA; Impedance ratio; mortality; emergency department; Critical care; prediction
Online: 28 March 2022 (14:01:05 CEST)
Background: The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) is a scoring system used for the evaluation of disease severity and prognosis of critically ill patients. The impedance ratio (Imp-R) is a novel mortality predictor. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the combination of SOFA + Imp-R in the prediction of mortality in critically ill patients admitted to the emergency department (ED). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed in adult patients with acute illness admitted to the ED of a tertiary-care referral center. Baseline SOFA score and bioelectrical impedance analysis to obtain the Imp-R were performed within the first 24 hours after admission to the ED. A Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate mortality risk of initial SOFA score plus Imp-R. Harrell's C-statistic and decision curve analyses (DCA) were performed. Results: Out of 325 patients, 240 were included for analysis. Overall mortality was 31.3%. Only 21.3% of non-surviving patients died after hospital discharge, and 78.4% died during hospital stay. Of the latter, 40.6% died in the ED. SOFA and Imp-R values were higher in non-survivors and were significantly associated with mortality in all models. The combination of SOFA + Imp-R significantly predicted 30-day mortality, in-hospital mortality, and ED mortality with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.80 (95% CI: 74-0.86), 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74-0.86) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.66-0.84) respectively. The DCA showed that combining SOFA + Imp-R improved the prediction of mortality through the lower risk thresholds. Conclusion: The addition of Imp-R to baseline SOFA score at admission to the ED improves mortality prediction in severely acutely ill patients admitted to the ED.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: integration of sports and health care; sports; health; community
Online: 23 February 2022 (07:06:51 CET)
(1) Background: With continuous globalization and modernization of people's lives, lifestyle has changed dramatically, with decreased physical activity and increased unhealthy eating patterns in many nations throughout the world. With the COVID-19 pandemic and changes taking place in people’s health and lifestyles around the world, the need for rehabilitation is expected to rise in the coming years.(2)Methods: This paper analyzes the integration model of sports and health care using theoretical analysis, literature reviews, logical reasoning, and other methods.(3)Results: The integration of sports and health care in China has entered the stage of practical implementation after many years of development, forming a few representative integration patterns. Governments, communities, community hospitals, hospitals, and third-party institutions are the main participants, with the community playing an important role in the integration. Pharmacies, sports venues, and schools with sufficient staff have a relatively low participation rate.(4)Conclusion: The grading treatment has been applied in health management and sports rehabilitation, based on the development of digital medicine, a government-led grading treatment model of "health management center" can promote the participation of multiple subjects in the integration of sports and health care, solving the problems existing in the current integration process to a certain extent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: compassion fatigue; nurse practitioners; critical care nursing; occupational health
Online: 25 January 2022 (11:02:39 CET)
The aim was to evaluate levels of compassion fatigue in nursing professionals working in complex care units of a Brazilian university hospital. A cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational study was carried out with nursing workers from complex care units of a University Hospital. Data were collected in the second half of 2019, in the pre-pandemic period of COVID-19, using the Brazilian version of the Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQoL-BR). A total of 146 individuals partici-pated, including 41 (28.1%) nurses, 92 (63.0%) nursing technicians and 13 (8.9%) nursing assis-tants. It was observed that 26.1% presented high level of compassion satisfaction. For 17.5% there was level of burnout and 49.7%, medium level of burnout; and 22.0% with high and 46.1% with medium level of secondary traumatic stress. Twenty-eight (19.2%) professionals had compassion fatigue, of which 16 (57.1%) were nursing technicians. There is a high percentage of professionals with medium and high rates of burnout and secondary traumatic stress, a fact that is reinforced by the presence of compassion fatigue in almost one fifth of the studied individuals. These results highlights how much the health of these workers can be affected by living with traumatic patient experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: evidence-based practice; spiritual care; communication skills; path analysis
Online: 3 November 2021 (10:54:36 CET)
Decision-making using evidence-based practice (EBP) is generally universally accepted by nurses. Such acceptance may affect the personnel’s behaviour towards patients, which is also demonstrated by taking into consideration the patient’s preferences, including the patient’s spiritual needs, in the care plan. The provision of such care requires the development of an attitude of approval and an adequate level of communicative competence, which will enable the actual implementation of the EBP. The purpose of our study was to assess the perception of spirituality and the nurse’s role in providing spiritual care, as well as the perception of the significance of communication skills in the approval of EBP in professional practice. A multi-centre cross-section study was conducted on a population of 1176 participants (459 undergraduate (Bachelor programme, BP) and 717 postgraduate students (Master programme, MP)) from 10 medical universities in Poland. Three tools were used in the study to evaluate the participants’ approach: Evidence-Based Practice Competence Questionnaire (EBP-COQ), The Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale (SSCRS), and Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS). Structural equation modelling was used for the analysis. An analysis of structural equations revealed the presence of positive relationships of the attitude to spiritual care and the role of communicative competences with the approach to EBP regardless of the cohort. A significant difference was found related to the influence of age on the attitude toward learning communicative competences. The approval in this respect was observed to decrease with age in the MP group. Increasing approval of EBP requires strengthening the approach to activity-centred spiritual care, with the simultaneous development of a positive attitude towards learning communicative competences. The model reveals the need to integrate a humanistic approach with EBP, which can be achieved by planning different interventions in different groups of recipients: nurses, academic teachers and students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Intensive Care Units; Workforce; Mechanical Ventilation; Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:34:14 CEST)
Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the number of nurses who independently care for pa-tients with severe respiratory failure receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) or veno-venous ex-tracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Additionally, the study analyzed the actual role of nurses in the treatment of patients with MV and VV-ECMO. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using postal surveys. The study included 725 Japanese intensive care units (ICUs). Descriptive statistics were conducted. Results: Among the 725 ICUs, we obtained 302 re-sponses (41.7%) and analyzed 282 responses. The median number of nurses per bed was 3.25. The median proportion of nurses who independently cared for patients with MV was 60% [IQR: 42.3-77.3]. The median proportion of nurses who independently cared for patients with VV-ECMO was 46.9 (35.7-63.3%) in the ICU experiencing VV-ECMO use. Concerning task-sharing, 33.8% of ICUs and nurses did not facilitate weaning from MV. Nurses always ti-trated sedatives in 44.5% of ICUs. Conclusion: Nurse staffing might be inadequate in all ICUs, es-pecially for severe respiratory failure. The proportion of competent nurses for caring for severe respiratory failure in ICUs should be considered when determining the work force of nurses.