ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0456.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Bronze Age settlement; modern soil; micromorphology; chemical properties; gypsum; anthropogenic impact
Online: 24 July 2018 (12:00:13 CEST)
In some cases, the human impact on ancient landscapes has been so profound that local soils still remain significantly affected even after hundreds and thousands of years after ending impact. We studied the Late Bronze Age Muradymovo settlement located in Urals, Russia, aiming to estimate the consequences of the ancient people activity for environment. Despite the present humid climate, the modern soils inside the cultural layer of the study site contain more than 27% of gypsum at a depth of just 10 cm from the surface, and a microrelief of the study site is typical of a gypsum desert. The nearby background Chernozems are gypsum-free to a depth of 2 meters. According to the archaeological data, the ancient people belonged to the ‘Srubno-Alakul’ archaeological culture (1750–1350 yrs BC cal) and had a tradition of building their houses from gypsum rocks. At the present time, this area is still unsuitable for human settlement. The properties of modern soils inside the cultural layer of the study site are directly affected by the Late Bronze Age human activities. It has been identified on soil morphology, micromorphology and chemical properties of soils developed inside the cultural layer of the settlement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0011.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: copper slag; sulphide; chalcocite; сovellite; bornite; LA-ICP-MS; South Ural; Kazakhstan; Bronze Age
Online: 2 October 2019 (03:32:26 CEST)
In the paper, the results of an investigation into trace elements found in slag sulphides from 14 archaeological Bronze Age settlements of the Cis-Urals, Trans-Urals and North and Central Kazakhstan are presented. The study used Cu-(Fe)-sulphides as indicator minerals. Cu-(Fe)-S minerals in slags are primarily represented by covellite and chalcocite, as well as by rarer bornite and single chalcopyrite grains. Slag sulphides formed relic clasts and neogenic droplets of different shapes and sizes. Supergenic ores in the Bronze Age in Urals and Kazakhstan played a significant role in the mineralogical raw material base. In sulphides, the main indicator elements Fe, Co, Ni, As, Se, Te, Sb, Ag, Pb, and Bi are important markers of copper deposit types. Sulphides from olivine Cr-rich spinel containing slags of Ustye, Turganik, and Kuzminkovskoe 2 are characterised by As-Co-Ni assemblages and confined to copper deposits in ultramafic rocks. Olivine sulphide-containing slags from Kamenny Ambar, Konoplyanka and Sarlybay 3 are characterised by Co-Se-Te assemblage and confined to mafic rocks. Glassy sulphide-containing slags from Katzbakh 6, Turganik, Ordynsky Ovrag, Ivanovskoe, Tokskoe, Bulanovskoe 2, Pokrovskoe, Rodnikovoe, and Taldysay are characterised by Ag-Pb-(Ba)-(Bi) assemblage and confined to cupriferous sandstone deposits. High As, Sb, Sn and Ba contents found in slags can be seen as indicators of alloying or flux components in primary copper smelting. These include samples from Ustye, Katzbakh 6, Rodnikovoe, and Taldysay sites, where high Ba and As slag contents are identified. The compilation of a database with a broad sample of sulphide compositions from Bronze Age slags and mines in the Urals and Kazakhstan will permit the further identification of ore types and raw materials associated with a particular deposit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0141.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: the Late Bronze Age; Bashkir Transurals; Srubnaya-Alacul type of monuments; interdisciplinary methods in archaeological investigation
Online: 15 February 2019 (11:16:37 CET)
The Late Bronze Age on the territory of Southern Transurals is represented by two major archeological cultures: Srubnaya and Andronovskaya (Alakul culture and Fyodorovskaya – type). Their interaction of constitutes a special mix of material cultures which preserves common features of two independent, Srubnaya and Andronovskaya cultures, but also creates novel local material features. These cultural groups are also known to have brought to the region the technology of bronze production. This is evidenced, amongst others, by the proximity of the largest copper mining in the region, Kargaly mines Chernykh (2002). New methods to produce ceramics and to work bones were also developed, combining two traditions, coming from Srubnaya and Andronovskaya cultures respectively. Importantly, the features of these cultures are commonly encountered together in a single cultural horizon across the distribution ares. These diffusion processes took place in a vast area (more than 120,000 km2) andwere reflected in archeological micro-district of the Urshak river basin. We present here the most recent results of the scientific examination of the Late Bronze Age settlements in southern Transurals and attempt to address a peculiar cultural co-habitation of two distinct cultural groups in this region. We also discuss their synchronism based on absolute dates and elaborate on this cultural syncretism in the entire territory of the Volga-Ural region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0137.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Archaeology; Archaeogenetic Model; Neolithic; Chalcolithic; Bronze Age; Migration
Online: 19 December 2017 (15:49:22 CET)
Migrations are much more important than currently recognised, for explaining important patterns observed in the European archaeology record – according to this archaeology led model. At a high level, they explain the introduction of different farming, monument building, the spread of metalworking and patterns of trade and exchange. This paper presents an archaeogenetic model based on a strategic review of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic archaeology of Europe, alongside a review of recently published ancient DNA data. The model is archaeology led. It takes archaeology themes and proposes migratory events to explain them. Ancient DNA data and further archaeology evidence is then used to test these proposed migrations- to reject or refine them. The model introduces a new and more strategic way of looking at archaeological cultures - that updates early 20th century approaches to studying archaeology cultures, and integrates with the detailed ‘post processual’ studies of the late 20th Century. The model consists of seven maps – each showing multiple migration events – with key evidence to support each migration map. It proposes a new category of a ‘Black Sea’ related population that makes a major genetic contribution to the Middle Neolithic of Europe. The proposed migrations provide an explanation for the observed patterns of archaeology, for example: • multiple Neolithic migrations that introduced, farming and metalworking into Europe; • a major ‘Black Sea’ related ‘Middle Neolithic’ migration that carried advanced knowledge of astronomy that can be recognised in a variety of types of monument from the Neolithic through to Bronze Age Europe; and, • migrations of related cultures (‘supercultures’) that explain patterns of trade and exchange in Bronze Age western Europe. The model also provides ancient DNA and archaeology based support for the key aspects of Childe’s ‘dawn of civilisation’ in Europe and Egypt and Gimbutas’ ‘Old Europe’ and “three waves of migration from the Steppe”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0349.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Sea level changes; Luminescence dating; coastal archaeology; landscape reconstruction; Bronze age; Crete
Online: 13 April 2021 (11:42:17 CEST)
Understanding the processes that govern the transformation of the landscape through time is essential for exploring the evolution of a coastal area. Coastal landscapes are dynamic sites, with their evolution strongly linked with waves and sea-level variations. Geomorphological features in the coastal area, such as beachrock formations and dune fields, can function as indicators of the coastal landscape evolution through time. However, our knowledge of the chronological framework of coastal deposits on the Aegean coasts is limited. Optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques are deemed to be very promising indirect dating of the coastal sediments, especially when they are linked with archaeological evidence. The dating of the sediments from different sediment core depths, as they are determined by the method of luminosity, allows us to calculate the rate of sediment deposition over time. Additionally, the coastal evolution and stability were studied from 1945 until today, with the use of aerial photographs and satellite images. This paper presents the 6000 ka years evolution of a coastal landscape based on geomorphological, archaeological, and radio-chronological data. Based on the results, the early stages of the Ammoudara beach dune field appear to be formed ~9.0 – 9.6 ka BP, while the OSL ages from 6 m depth represented the timing of its stabilization (OSL ages ~5–6 ka). This indicates that the dune field appears to already have been formed long before the Bronze Age (5-10 ka BP) and became stabilized with only localized episodes of dune reactivation occurring, while high coastal erosion rates are found in modern times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0578.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: aluminum alloys; bronze; journal bearings; tribological alloys; friction; friction surface; secondary structures; self-organization
Online: 29 September 2018 (04:53:00 CEST)
Within the task of replacing bronze journal bearings with aluminum the processes taking part on friction surface of high-alloyed aluminum alloys working with steel are investigated. The surface and subsurface layer of experimental aluminum bearings were studied before and after tribological tests by scanning electron microscopy including energy-dispersive analysis. Both structural and composition changes in surface layer are shown. It has been revealed that secondary structures are formed on the surface during friction process and include all the chemical elements of the tribosystem which is a consequence of its self-organization. The interaction behavior of some chemical elements of tribological system is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0028.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; physical vapor deposition; X-ray diffraction; tungsten oxide; tungsten dioxide; tungsten trioxide; beryllium; tungstate; tungsten bronze
Online: 10 September 2019 (08:09:51 CEST)
Tungsten oxides play a pivotal role in a variety of modern technologies e.g., switchable glasses, wastewater treatment, and modern gas sensors. Metallic tungsten is used as armor material, for e.g., gas turbines as well as future fusion power devices. In the first case, oxides are desired as functional materials, while in the second case, oxides can lead to catastrophic failures, so avoiding the oxidation of tungsten is desired. In both cases, it is crucial to understand the reactivity of tungsten oxides with other chemicals. In this study, the different reactivities of tungsten oxides with the highly-oxophilic beryllium are studied and compared. Tungsten-(IV)-oxide and tungsten-(VI)-oxide layers are prepared on a tungsten substrate. In the next step, a thin film of beryllium is evaporated on the samples. In consecutive steps, the sample is heated in steps of 100 K from r. t. to 1273 K. The chemical composition is investigated after each experimental step by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of all involved core levels as well as the valence band. A model is developed to analyze the chemical reactions after each step. In this study, we find that tungsten trioxide was already reduced by beryllium at r. t. and started to react to form the ternary compounds BeWO3 and BeWO4 at temperatures starting from 673 K. However, tungsten dioxide is resistant to reduction at temperatures of up to 1173 K. In conclusion, we find WO2 to be much more chemically resistant to the reduction agent Be than WO3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0234.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: niobium tungsten oxide; pentagonal tunnels; tetragonal tungsten bronze; high-angle annular dark field detector; scanning transmission electron microscopy; HAADF-STEM; twinning; superstructure, battery material.
Online: 12 November 2021 (15:17:48 CET)
The evaluation of HAADF-STEM images of a sample with the composition Nb18W16O93 provided new insights in its real structure. The basic structure comprises an intact octahedral framework of the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) type. The partial occupation of the pentagonal tunnels (PT) by metal-oxygen strings determines the oxygen to metal ratio (O/SM with M = Nb,W). For a large area, the O/SM was determined to be 2.755 which is smaller than the value of Nb18W16O93 which is O/SM = 2. 735. To a large extent, the threefold TTB superstructure structure of Nb8W9O47 with a high oxygen content is present (O/SM = 2.765). In addition, a new fourfold TTB superstructure was found in small domains: Nb12W11O63 with an O/SM = 2.739 obviously accommodates a part of the sample’s metal excess compared to the stable phase Nb8W9O47.