BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1923.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: lightness; heterochromatic flicker photometry; menstrual cycle; estrogen
Online: 30 October 2023 (11:14:03 CET)
1) Background: The influence of estrogen on cognitive and perceptual functions is debated. Some research suggests that estrogen increases arousal, improving cognitive function, while others propose that increased arousal might reduce performance on certain tasks. This study investigates the effects of menstrual cycle phase and estrogen levels on lightness perception in cycling women and hormonal contraceptive (HC) users. (2) Methods: Estrogen levels were determined from saliva samples collected at three sessions aligned with different menstrual phases in 16 women (9 with natural cycles, 7 HC users). The effects of wavelength and menstrual cycle phase on lightness perception were analyzed, followed by post-hoc comparisons and correlations between lightness perception and estrogen levels for both cycling women and HC users. (3) Results: Lightness varied by menstrual phase (MCP) in cycling women and was slightly higher during the low estrogen menstrual phase compared to peri-ovulation or luteal phases. In HC users, lightness measures were equivalent across phases. For cycling women, lightness was negatively correlated with estrogen for the green and green-yellow stimuli. There were no such associations among HC users. (4) Conclusions: This report challenges the concept that high estrogen phases of the menstrual cycle always positively influence perception. Conversely, the present results revealed that—at least in cycling, non-hormonal contraceptive users—lightness perception was both at a maximum during the low estrogen menstrual phase and negatively associated with estrogen levels across all tested wavelengths.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: normative grading; criterion-based grading; clinic evaluations; clinic interns
Online: 17 November 2022 (11:29:06 CET)
Background: Grades in clinical courses matter. They are often used to determine clinical academic awards, scholarships, and—most importantly—interns’ suitability for graduate medical education opportunities. Aware of these stakes, clinic preceptors may feel pressure to grade too leniently or uniformly. A fair method of adjusting for differences in preceptor bias is then needed. Approach: The authors propose a technique that employs the advantages of both criterion- and normative-based grading to adjust for differences in both grader leniency and uniformity. Evaluation: The technique produces fair adjustments to any raw assign grades, and the authors demonstrate how easily this process can be administered in any clinical setting where multiple preceptors are evaluating interns. Implications: This work provides a grading framework that is transparent to all stakeholders but places responsibilities at the appropriate level. That is, clinic performance evaluations are left to clinic preceptors but grading to clinic academic managers.