REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0014.v1
Subject: Oncology And Oncogenics, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: breast cancer; breast reduction; contralateral breast cancer
Online: 1 December 2023 (03:13:14 CET)
Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women globally. Early diagnosis and treatment improvements are leading to a growing population of survivors. This has increased the risk of developing contralateral breast cancer (CBC), a distinct occurrence in the opposite breast of a previously diagnosed patient. The treatment options for breast cancer are often mas-tectomy or lumpectomy. Patients with lumpectomy frequently undergo a contralateral reduc-tion procedure to achieve more symmetry after the primary breast cancer surgery. The reduc-tion specimen is usually routinely examined by pathology to check for malignancies. The exci-sion in pieces and the absence of specific markers or ink make an examination of tumor size and margin status more challenging, impacting treatment decisions. A new protocol introduced in July 2022 seeks to improve diagnostic precision and treatment planning by excision in toto, marking, and inking excised reduction tissue to examine and treat potential CBC more effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0194.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: wooden breast; broilers; myopathy; breast muscle
Online: 18 August 2019 (02:48:50 CEST)
Wooden breast is a muscle disorder affecting modern commercial broiler chickens that causes a palpably firm pectoralis major muscle and severe reduction in meat quality. Most studies have focused on advanced stages of wooden breast apparent at market age, resulting in limited insights into the etiology and early pathogenesis of the myopathy. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify early molecular signals in the wooden breast transcriptional cascade by performing gene expression analysis on the pectoralis major muscle of two-week-old birds that may later exhibit the wooden breast phenotype by market age at 7 weeks. Biopsy samples of the left pectoralis major muscle were collected from 101 birds at 14 days of age. Birds were subsequently raised to 7 weeks of age to allow sample selection based on the wooden breast phenotype at market age. RNA sequencing was performed on 5 unaffected and 8 affected female chicken samples, selected based on wooden breast scores (0 to 4) assigned at necropsy where affected birds had scores of 2 or 3 (mildly or moderately affected) while unaffected birds had scores of 0 (no apparent gross lesions). Differential expression analysis identified 60 genes found to be significant at an FDR-adjusted p value of 0.05. Of these, 26 were previously demonstrated to exhibit altered expression or genetic polymorphisms related to glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus in mammals. Additionally, 9 genes have functions directly related to lipid metabolism and 11 genes are associated with adiposity traits such as intramuscular fat and body mass index. This study suggests that wooden breast disease is first and foremost a metabolic disorder characterized primarily by ectopic lipid accumulation in the pectoralis major.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1476.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: breast; autologous reconstruction; implant-based breast reconstruction; MRI of reconstructed breast; complications of reconstruction surgery; breast cancer recurrence
Online: 21 August 2023 (12:35:42 CEST)
The incidence of breast cancer and therefore need for breast reconstruction is expected to increase. The many reconstructive options available and the changing aspects of the field make this a complex area of plastic surgery, requiring knowledge and expertise. Two major types of breast reconstruction can be distinguished: Breast Implants and Autologous Flaps. Both present advantages and disadvantages. Autologous fat grafting is also commonly used. MRI is the modality of choice for evaluating breast reconstruction. Knowledge of the type of reconstruction is preferable to provide the maximum of pertinent information and avoid false positives. Early complications include seroma, hematoma, and infection. Late complications depend on the type of reconstruction. Implant rupture and implant capsular contracture are frequently encountered. Depending on the implant type, specific MRI signs can be depicted. In case of myocutaneous flap, fat necrosis, fibrosis and vascular compromise represent the most common complications. Late cancer recurrence is much less common. Rare reported late complications include breast implant associated large cell anaplastic lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) and, recently described and even rarer, Breast implant-associated squamous cell carcinoma (BIA-SCC). In this review article, the various types of breast reconstruction will be presented, with emphasis on pertinent imaging findings and complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0430.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Breast cancer infection; breast cancer immunity; breast cancer virus; nasopharyngeal cancer; EBV cancer; hereditary breast cancer; BRCA1; BRCA2
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:29:06 CEST)
Inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase risks for breast, ovarian, and other cancers. Both genes encode proteins for accurately repairing chromosome breaks. If mutations inactivate this function, broken chromosomes may not be restored correctly, allowing breaks to persist or rearrange chromosomes. These abnormalities are potentially catastrophic events that can originate from viral infections. I used bioinformatic analyses of publicly available breast cancer patient data to show that the distribution of chromosome breaks in hereditary breast cancers differs markedly from sporadic breast cancers. Then I tested hereditary breast cancer sequence data around chromosome breaks for DNA similarity to all known viruses. Human DNA flanking breakpoints usually had decisive matches to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV / HHV4) tumor variants HKHD40 and HKNPC60. Many breakpoints were near EBV genome anchor sites, human EBV tumor-like sequences, EBV-associated epigenetic marks, and some fragile sites. On chromosomes 2 and 12, sequences near EBV genome anchor sites accounted for 90% and 88% of breakpoints (p<0.0001), respectively. On chromosome 4, 51/52 inter-chromosomal breakpoints were close to EBV-like sequences in 19 hereditary breast cancers. In contrast, 19 sporadic breast cancers only had 12 interchromosomal breakpoint regions on chromosome 4 near EBV-like sequences. On various other chromosomes, five EBV genome anchor sites were near hereditary breast cancer breakpoints at precisely defined, disparate gene or LINE locations. Independent evidence further implicating EBV in hereditary breast cancer breakpoints is that 25 breast cancer break positions are within 1.25% of breakpoints in model EBV cancers. In addition to BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, all the hereditary breast cancers had mutated genes essential for immune responses. This compromise facilitates reactivation of herpes viruses which produce nucleases capable of breaking chromosomes. EBV also causes other deleterious effects: anchored EBV episomes can interfere with normal replication and obstruct DNA break repairs; even very early infection causes massive transcription changes. The results, therefore, imply proactive treatment and prevention of herpes viral infections may prevent some chromosome breaks and benefit BRCA mutation carriers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1881.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: DIBH; breast cancer; left descending artery; breast irradiation
Online: 27 September 2023 (10:53:11 CEST)
Background: to assess the benefit of a deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) over standard irradiation technique, and eventually to identify anatomical and/or treatment preplanning characteristics correlated with LAD dose. Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with left-sided breast cancer who underwent whole breast radiotherapy in DIBH. All patients had both plans in DIBH and free-breathing (FB). Receiving operating characteristics (ROC analysis) were performed to define the cut-off point of parameters to predict LAD maximum dose >10 Gy and LAD mean dose > 4 Gy. Areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated for all variables. Post-test probability has been calculated to evaluate advantage for parameters combination. Results: One hundred ninety-seven patients were identified. LAD dose was significantly reduced in DIBH plans with maximum and mean dose reduced by 31.7% (mean value 3.5 Gy vs 4.8 Gy, p=<0.001) and 28.1% (mean value 8.2 Gy vs 12.8 Gy, p=<0.001) in DIBH plans compared to FB plans. The strongest predictor of LAD maximum dose > 10 Gy and a LAD mean dose > 4 Gy was the minimum distance of LAD from tangent open fields. Other parameters were lung volume and heart volume for LAD Dmax > 10 Gy and lung volume, heart volume and breast separation for LAD Dmean > 4 Gy. Conclusion: The dosimetric benefit of DIBH is valid for all patients and DIBH should be preferred for all left sided patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0076.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: surgical site infection; breast surgery; breast implants; complications
Online: 4 July 2019 (11:32:17 CEST)
Purpose: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a significant complication of non-reconstructive and reconstructive breast. This study aimed to assess SSI after breast surgery over 5 years in a single center in Poland. The microorganisms responsible for SSI and their antibiotic susceptibility were determined. Materials/methods: Data of 2129 patients acquired over 5 years postoperatively by the [center] were analyzed. Results: SSI was diagnosed in 132 patients (6.2%) and was an early infection in most cases (65.2%). The incidence of SSI was highest in patients who underwent subcutaneous amputation with simultaneous reconstruction using an artificial prosthesis (14.6%) and breast reconstruction via the TRAM flap method (14.3%). Gram-positive bacteria were responsible for SSI in most cases (72.1%), and these were mainly Staphylococcus strains (53.6%). These strains were 100% susceptible to all beta-lactam antibiotics (except penicillin), but were less susceptible to macrolides and lincosamides. Conclusions: SSI is a serious problem, and attention should be focused on its prevention. Reconstruction using an artificial prosthesis or via the TRAM flap method is connected to increased SSI incidence. Further studies are required to prevent SSI following breast surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Breast Cancer; Radiomics; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Segmentation; In Situ Breast Cancer; Infiltrative Breast Cancer
Online: 7 August 2020 (09:29:33 CEST)
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide in women. This aggressive tumour can be categorized into two main groups: in situ and infiltrative, with the latter being the most common malignant lesions. The current use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was shown to provide highest sensitivity in the detection and discrimination between benign vs. malignant lesions, when interpreted by expert radiologists. In this article, we present the prototype of a Computer-Aided Detection/Diagnosis (CAD) system that could provide valuable assistance to the radiologist for the discrimination between in situ and infiltrating tumours. The system consists of two main processing levels: 1) Localization of possibly tumoral regions of interest (ROIs) through an iterative procedure based on intensity values (ROI Hunter) followed by a deep-feature extraction and classification method for false-positive rejection; 2) Characterization of the selected ROIs and discrimination between in situ and invasive tumour, consisting of Radiomics feature extraction and classification through a machine-learning algorithm. The CAD system was developed and evaluated using a DCE-MRI image database, containing at least one confirmed mass per image, as diagnosed by an expert radiologist. When evaluating the accuracy of the ROI Hunter procedure with respect to the radiologist-drawn boundaries, sensitivity to mass detection was found to be 75%. The AUC of the ROC curve for discrimination between in situ and infiltrative tumors was 0.70.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0852.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Metastatic Breast Cancer; Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis; SH3PXD2B; Eribulin
Online: 13 September 2023 (16:12:03 CEST)
Breast Cancer metastasis remains a formidable challenge in cancer research, contributing significantly to patient mortality despite advances in medical research. Lung metastasis, associated with breast cancer, poses an ongoing clinical dilemma with limited curative treatment options. This study delves into the intricate mechanisms underlying Breast Cancer-Lung Metastasis (BC-LM) primarily focusing on the function of SH3PXD2B in maturation of invadopodia, inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, disruption of proteostasis network, and ultimately leading to metastasis of Breast Cancer (BC) cells. With an extensive analysis of differential gene expression using RNASeq data, comparing normal breast cancer cells to metastatic sub-populations in lung. Employing the New Tuxedo pipeline our investigation notably observes SH3PXD2B as a key regulator in lung metastasis samples. This trend is further substantiated by data from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE), and Human Protein Atlas (HPA) which highlights elevated SH3PXD2B expression in MDA-MB-468 cells, underscoring its significance in metastatic adenocarcinoma. Additionally, we checked the overall survival (OS) of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients pinpointing SH3PXD2B and its associated partners like SH3PXD2A, MMPs, CTTN, ADAMs, and EMT markers with substantial expression in both BC and lung cancer, prognosticating poorer patient survival. Further, our transcription factor – target gene (TFTG) network essentially elucidated the role of SH3PXD2B as a key node in the network unveiling its roles in regulating cell migration, communication, and developmental processes. Proteomics and Western blotting assays consistently confirm heightened SH3PXD2B expression in BC cell lines, reaffirming our findings. By employing computational structure biology along with cancer systems biology approach, we generated a high-confidence structural model of SH3PXD2B, indicating its SH3_2 and SH3_3 domains crucial for interactions with the drug molecules. Molecular docking simulations identify Eribulin as a promising therapeutic agent capable of targeting these domains. Thus, our multidisciplinary approach seamlessly amalgamates systems medicine principles, aiming to repurpose existing drugs that target SH3PXD2B based on molecular signatures. Targeted therapies have emerged as a promising avenue for addressing MBC and this mechanistic model introduces novel therapeutic avenues for the treatment of BC-LM patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Breast neoplasms; neoplasm metastasis; inflammatory breast neoplasms; survival analysis
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:56:00 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to determine the change in overall survival (OS) for patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer (dnMBC) over time. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with 1981 patients with dnMBC diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2017 at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. OS was measured from the date of diagnosis of dnMBC. OS was compared between patients diagnosed during different time periods: 5-year periods and periods defined according to when key agents were approved for clinical use. The median OS was 3.4 years. The 5- and 10-year OS rates improved over time across both types of time periods. A subgroup analysis showed that OS improved significantly over time for the estrogen-receptor-positive/HER2-positive (ER+/HER2+) subtype, and exhibited a tendency toward improvement over time for the ER-negative (ER-)/HER2+ subtype. Median OS was significantly longer in patients with non-inflammatory breast cancer (P = .02) and in patients with ER+ disease, progesterone-receptor-positive disease, HER2+ disease, lower nuclear grade, locoregional therapy, and metastasis to a single organ (all P <.0001). These findings showed that OS at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis in patients with dnMBC improved over time. The significant improvements in OS over time for the ER+/HER2+ subtype and the tendency toward improvement for ER-/HER2+ subtype suggest the contribution of HER2-targeted therapy to survival.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: breast cancer; BOLD-100; olaparib; triple negative breast cancer
Online: 22 July 2020 (10:00:52 CEST)
BOLD-100, a ruthenium-based complex, sodium trans-[tetrachloridobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (also known as IT-139, NKP1339 or KP1339), is a novel small molecule drug that demonstrated a manageable safety profile at the maximum tolerated dose and modest antitumor activity in a phase I clinical trial. BOLD-100 has been reported to inhibit the upregulation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensing protein GRP78. However, response to BOLD-100 varies in different cancer models and the precise mechanism of action in high-response versus low-response cancer cells remains unclear. In vitro studies have indicated that BOLD-100 induces cytostatic rather than cytotoxic effects as a monotherapy. To understand BOLD-100 mediated signaling mechanism in breast cancer cells, we used estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF7 breast cancer cells to obtain gene-metabolite integrated models. Particularly, BOLD-100 significantly reduced expression of genes involved in the DNA repair pathway. BOLD-100 also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation of histone H2AX, gH2AX (Ser139), suggesting disruption of proper DNA surveillance. In estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer cells, combination of BOLD-100 with a PARP inhibitor, olaparib, induced significant inhibition of cell growth and xenografts and increased gH2AX. Thus, BOLD-100 is a novel DNA repair pathway targeting agent and can be used with other chemotherapies in ER- breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Key wordsbrest cancer screening, mammography, breast ultrasound, breast MRI
Online: 29 September 2017 (15:00:08 CEST)
Abstract On the background of new research results in screening of breast cancer, together with the expectation of the participants in a screening for breast cancer, the conventional mammography requires supplementation by means of tomosynthesis or additive ultrasound. Alternatively, ultrasound now seems to be an independent method of early detection of breast cancer because of its superior sensitivity, especially in the case of aggressive mammary carcinoma types. The MRI remains at present still a preferred method in high-risk cases and as an additive examination in case of insufficient presentation of the glandular tissue by conventional methods. MRI is also preoperatively valuable for more accurately measuring the extent of multifocal carcinomas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0490.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Breast cancer infection; breast cancer immunity; breast cancer virus; genome biochemistry; nasopharyngeal cancer; herpes viruses; hereditary breast cancer; BRCA1; BRCA2; Burkitt's lymphoma; homologous recombination; DNA repair; viral cancer; chromosome breaks; Breast cancer infection; breast cancer immunity; breast cancer virus; nasopharyngeal cancer; hereditary breast cancer; BRCA1; BRCA2; Burkitt's lymphoma
Online: 20 May 2021 (12:43:11 CEST)
Inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase risks for breast, ovarian, and other cancers. Both genes encode proteins for accurately repairing chromosome breaks. If mutations inactivate this function, chromosome fragments may not be restored correctly. Resulting chromosome rearrangements can become critical breast cancer drivers. Because I had data from thousands of cancer structural alterations that matched viral infections, I wondered whether infections contribute to chromosome breaks and rearrangements in hereditary breast cancers. There are currently no interventions to prevent chromosome breaks because they are thought to be unavoidable. However, if chromosome breaks come from infections, they can be treated or prevented. I used bioinformatic analyses to test publicly available breast cancer sequence data around chromosome breaks for DNA similarity to all known viruses. Human DNA flanking breakpoints usually had the strongest matches to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) tumor variants HKHD40 and HKNPC60. Many breakpoints were near sites that anchor EBV genomes, human EBV tumor-like sequences, EBV-associated epigenetic marks, and fragile sites. On chromosome 2, sequences near EBV genome anchor sites accounted for 90% of breakpoints (p<0.0001). On chromosome 4, 51/52 inter-chromosomal breakpoints were close to EBV-like sequences. Five EBV genome anchor sites were near breast cancer breakpoints at precisely defined, disparate gene or LINE locations. Breakpoint flanking regions resembled known EBV-cancers. Twenty-five breakpoints in breast cancers were within 1.25% of EBV cancer breakpoints. In addition to BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, all the breast cancers had mutated genes essential for immune responses. Because of this immune compromise, herpes viruses can activate and produce nucleases that break chromosomes. Alternatively, anchored viral episomes can obstruct break repairs, whatever the cause. The results, therefore, imply proactive treatment and prevention of herpes viral infections may prevent some chromosome breaks and benefit BRCA mutation carriers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0507.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; TILs; PD-L1; immunotherapy; chemotherapy, triple negative breast cancer; HER2; luminal breast cancer; CPS
Online: 7 June 2023 (08:04:20 CEST)
With the rise of novel immunotherapies able to stimulate the antitumor immune response, increasing literature data concerning the immunogenicity of breast cancer have been published in recent years. Numerous clinical studies have been conducted in order to identify novel biomarkers that could reflect the immunogenicity of BC and predict response to immunotherapy. In this regard, TILs have emerged as an important immunological biomarker related to the antitumor immune re-sponse in BC. TILs are more frequently observed in triple-negative breast cancer and HER2+ sub-types where increased TIL levels have been linked to better response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and with improved survival. PD-L1 is a type 1 transmembrane protein ligand expressed on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells and is considered a key inhibitory checkpoint involved in cancer immune regulation. PD-L1 immunohistochemical expression in breast cancer is observed in about 10–30% of cases and is extremely variable based on tumor stage and molecular subtypes . In detail, TNBC shows the highest percentages of PD-L1 positivity, followed by HER2+ tumors. On the other hand, PD-L1 is rarely expressed (0-10% of cases) in hormone-receptor positive BC. The prognostic role of PD-L1 expression in BC is still controversial since different immunohistochemistry (IHC) clones, cut-off points and scoring systems have been utilized across published studies. In the present paper an extensive review on the current knowledge of immune landscape of BC is provided. In detail TILS and PD-L1 expression across different BC subtypes is discussed also providing a guide for their pathological assessment and reporting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0160.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: 99mTc-Sestamibi; Breast Specific Gamma Imaging; Breast Cancer; Apoptosis; Theragnostic
Online: 4 March 2021 (14:00:05 CET)
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of 99mTc-sestamibi in the regulation of cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. To this end, Te in vivo values of 99mTc-sestamibi uptake have been associated to the in-situ expression of both Ki67 and caspase-3. For in vitro investiga-tions BT-474 cells were incubated with three different concentration of 99mTc-sestamibi: 10µg/ml –1µg/ml – 0,1µg/ml. Expression of caspase-3 and Ki67, as well as the ultrastructure of cancer cells, were evaluated at T0 and after 24, 48, 72 and 120 hours after 99mTc-sestamibi incubation. Ex vivo data strengthened the known association between the sestamibi uptake and the Ki67 expression. Linear regression analysis showed a significant association between the sestamibi uptake and the number of apoptotic cells evaluated as caspase-3 positive breast cancer cells. As concern the in vitro data, a significant decrease of the proliferation index was observed in breast cancer cells incubated with high concentration of 99mTc-sestamibi (10µg/ml). Amazingly, a significant increase in caspase-3 positive cells in cultures incubated with 10µg/ml 99mTc-sestamibi was observed. This study suggested the possible role of sestamibi in the regulation of pathophysiological process involved in breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1866.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: breast reconstruction; reconstruction following mastectomy; prophylactic mastectomy; chest feminization; transgender; implant reconstruction of breast; immediate reconstruction; delayed reconstruction; two-stage breast reconstruction; autologous breast reconstruction
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:19:28 CEST)
(1) Importance of problem: Breast cancer accounted for 685.000 deaths globally in 2020, and half of all cases occur in women with no specific risk factor beside gender and age-group. During last 4 decades we see a reduction by 40% of age-standardized breast cancer , which in turn means that the number of mastectomies performed for younger women increased, raising the need for adequate breast reconstructive surgery. Advances in oncological treatment have made it possible to limit the extent of what represents radical surgery for breast cancer, yet in the past decade, we see a marked trend toward mastectomy in breast conserving surgery eligible patients . Prophylactic mastectomy has also registered an upward trend [3,4]. This trend together with new indication for breast reconstruction like chest feminization in transgender patients  have increased the need for breast reconstruction surgery. (2) Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the types of reconstructive procedures, their indications, their limitations, their functional results and the safety profiles when used during the integrated treatment plan of the oncologic patient; (3) Methods: We conducted an extensive literature review of the main reconstructive techniques, especially the autologous procedures, summarized the findings and presented a few cases from our own experience for exemplification of the usage of breast reconstruction in oncologic patients. (4) Conclusions: Breast reconstruction has become a necessary step in the treatment of most breast cancers and many reconstructive techniques are now routinely practiced. Microsurgical techniques are considered the "gold standard", but they are not accessible to all services, from a technical or financial point of view, so pediculated flaps remain the safe and reliable option, along with alloplastic procedures, to improve the quality of life of these patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: breast cancer; TIL; modified radical mastectomy; breast conservative surgery; predictive biomarker
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:18:08 CEST)
Introduction: Antitumor host immune response is an important factor, but its role is not fully established. The role of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in breast cancer as an immunological biomarker has been significantly explored over the past years. The number of patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) increased and identification of a biomarker to predict the probability of pCR (pathological complete response) is a high priority. Materials and methods: We evaluated 334 cases of BC treated with NAC followed by surgical resection from 2020-2022 in Ist Clinic of Oncological Surgery, Oncological Institute "Prof Dr I Chiricuta" Cluj Napoca. Of the above, 122 cases were available for histological evaluation both in pre-NAC biopsy and post-NAC resection tissue. Evaluation of biopsy fragments and resection parts using hematoxylin eosin (H&E). The TIL evaluation took place according to the recommendations of the International TIL Working Group (ITILWG). Results: There was a strong association between elevated levels of pre-NAC TIL. At the same time, there is a statistically significant correlation between stromal TIL and tumor grade, the number of lymph node metastases, the molecular subtype, and the number of mitoses (p <0.005). Intratumoral TIL showed a significant correlation with tumor size, distant metastasis, molecular subtype, number of mitosis, stage and lymph node metastasis (p<0.005). We also demonstrated that high pre-NAC TILs represent a strong predictive marker for pCR. Conclusion: This study reveals the role of TIL as a predictive biomarker in breast cancer not only for the well-established TNBC (triple negative breast cancer) and HER2+ (Her2 overexpressed) subtypes but also in Luminal A and B molecular subtypes. In this scenario, the evaluation of TILs as novel predictive and therapy-predicting factors should become a routinely performed analysis that could guide clinicians into the choice of the most appropriate therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast tumor; mammary neoplasm; breast carcinoma; meta-analysis; population at risk
Online: 7 April 2020 (01:22:38 CEST)
To systematically investigate the epidemiology of breast cancer risk factors in Iran, we performed a systematic search via PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Persian databases for identifying studies published on breast cancer risk factors up to March 2019. Meta-analyses were done for risk factors reported in more than one study. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed/random-effects models.Thirty-nine studies entered into the meta-analysis. Pooling of ORs showed a significant harmful effect for risk factors including family history (OR: 1.80, 95%CI 1.47-2.12), HRT (OR: 5.48, 95%CI 0.84-1.74), ER positive (OR: 1.87, 95%CI 1.41-2.33), PR positive (OR: 1.84, 95%CI 1.38-2.29), stress condition (OR: 2.67, 95%CI 1.84-3.50), passive smokers (OR: 1.68, 95%CI 1.34-2.03), full-term pregnancy at age 30 (OR: 3.41, 95%CI 1.19-5.63), abortion (OR: 1.84, 95%CI 1.35-2.33), sweets consumption (OR: 1.71, 95%CI 1.32-2.11) and genotype Arg/Arg (crude OR: 1.59, 95%CI 1.07-2.10), whereas a significant protective effect for late menarche (OR: 0.58, 95%CI 0.32-0.83), nulliparity (OR: 0.68, 95%CI 0.39-0.96), 13 to 24 months of breastfeeding (OR: 0.68, 95%CI 0.46-0.90), daily exercise (OR: 0.59, 95%CI 0.44-0.73) and vegetable consumption (crude OR: 0.28, 95%CI 0.10-0.46).This study suggest that factors such as family history, HRT, ER and PR positive status, stress condition, passive smokers, late full-term pregnancy, abortion, sweets consumption and genotype Arg/Arg might increase risk of breast cancer development, whereas late menarche, nulliparity, 13-24 months breastfeeding, daily exercise and vegetable consumption had an inverse association with breast cancer development.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2240.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: retroareolar breast tumor; modified radical mastectomy; case report; triple negative breast cancer (TNBC); chemotherapy; superficial infiltrating breast carcinoma; taxol
Online: 7 August 2023 (02:30:15 CEST)
(1) Background: Retroareolar breast tumors are common, but they rarely progress to malignancy. This report presents a case of a 41-years-old woman with a superficial breast tumor, emphasizing the significance of considering a wide range of options when evaluating breast lumps. (2) Methods: The patient presented with a steadily growing, ulcerating superficial tumor in her left breast. To determine the nature of the tumor, a diagnostic assessment was conducted, which included a positron emission tomography (PET) scan and histological analysis. (3) Results: The diagnostic assessment confirmed the presence of a malignant Grade II superficial infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Following the diagnosis, the patient underwent a modified radical mastectomy under general anesthesia. Subsequently, she received four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, followed by taxol administrations. (5) Conclusions: This case report underscores the importance of conducting a thorough examination and maintaining a high index of suspicion for breast tumors. By documenting this case, the report contributes to the existing knowledge on various manifestations of breast cancer and highlights the necessity of early identification and aggressive treatment. This knowledge can be applied to identify and manage similar cases in the future, leading to improved patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0244.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: breast cancer; diabetes; metformin
Online: 13 January 2023 (07:29:32 CET)
Background: Metformin is a drug used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes, especially those who suffer from obesity. It is also used in the treatment of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This disease has been shown to be related to insulin resistance and multiplied blood sugar ranges. Further, it has been found that the use of metformin improves the menstrual cycles and ovulation rates of these women. Methods: A structured questionnaire will be conducted to determine the prevalence of breast cancer among women using metformin in the Ha’il region. Result: Incidence of breast cancer among women using metformin in the Ha’il region is very low. Conclusions: According to previous findings, metformin has been linked to lower breast cancer risk in women with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the findings of this study have corroborated the literature for the same by indicating that there is a substantial connection between metformin use and a lower risk of breast cancer in women with type 2 diabetes
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Breast; cancer; metastasis; oncology
Online: 16 August 2022 (09:52:17 CEST)
Regardless of the advances in our ability to detect early and treat breast cancer, it is still one of the common types of malignancy worldwide, with the majority of patients decease upon metastatic disease. Nevertheless, due to these advances, we have extensively characterized the drivers and molecular profiling of breast cancer and further dividing it into subtypes. These subgroups are based on immunohistological markers (Estrogen Receptor-ER, Progesterone Receptor-PR and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-HER-2) and transcriptomic signatures, with distinct therapeutic approaches and regiments. These therapeutic approaches include targeted therapy (HER-2+), endocrine therapy (HR+) or chemotherapy (TNBC) with optional combination radiotherapy, depending on clinical stage. Technological and scientific advances in the identification of molecular pathways that contribute to therapy-resistance and establishment of metastatic disease, have provided the rationale for revolutionary targeted approaches against Cyclin-Dependent Kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6), PI3 Kinase (PI3K), Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase (PARP) and Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1), among others. In this review, we focus on the comprehensive overview of epidemiology and current standard of care treatment of metastatic breast cancer, along with ongoing clinical trials. Towards this goal, we utilized available literature from PubMed and ongoing clinical trial information from clinicaltrials.gov to reflect the up to date and future treatment options for metastatic breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0007.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: IDH2; 2HG; breast carcinoma
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:03:24 CET)
Mitochondrial production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG) can be catalyzed by wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase, iron-containing 1 (ADHFE1). We investigated whether biochemical background and substrate concentration in breast cancer cells promote 2HG production. To estimate its role in 2HG production, we analyzed 2HG levels and its enantiomers in breast cancer cells using analytical approaches for metabolomics. By manipulation of mitochondrial substrate fluxes, including glutaminolysis, using genetic and pharmacological approaches we demonstrated the existence of an active competition between 2HG producing enzymes, i.e. IDH2 and ADHFE1. Moreover, we show that distinct fractions of IDH2 enzyme molecules operate in distinct oxido-reductive modes, providing NADPH and producing 2HG simultaneously. We have also detected 2HG release into breast cancer patient´s urine undergoing adjuvant therapy and detected a correlation with stages of breast carcinoma development. In summary, we provide a background for vital mitochondrial production of 2HG in breast cancer cells with outcomes towards cancer biology and possible future diagnosis of breast carcinoma.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: breast cancer; micronutrients; cancer
Online: 2 November 2020 (13:50:43 CET)
Epidemiological studies on micronutrient consumption have reported protective associations in the incidence and/or progression of various cancer types. Supplementation with some of these micronutrients has been analyzed, showing chemoprotection, low toxicity, antiproliferation, and the ability to modify epigenetic signatures in various cancer models. The following review inves-tigates the reported effects of micronutrient intake or supplementation in breast cancer progres-sion. A PubMed search was conducted with the keywords “micronutrients breast cancer progres-sion,” and the results were analyzed. The selected micronutrients were: Vitamins (A, C, D, and E), Folic Acid, metals (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn), fatty acids, polyphenols, and iodine. The majority of in vitro models showed antiproliferative, cell cycle arrest, and antimetastatic effects for almost all the micronutrients analyzed, but these effects do not reflect animal or human studies. Only one clinical trial with Vitamin D and one pilot study with molecular iodine showed favorable overall survival and disease-free interval.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: COVID-19; Breast Cancer; Breast Cancer (Suspected); Mammogram Images and Invasive Cancer
Online: 5 July 2020 (07:40:57 CEST)
Breast cancer develops from cells lining the milk ducts and slowly grows into a lump or a tumour. Breast cancer may be invasive or non-invasive. Invasive cancer spreads from the milk duct or lobule to other tissues in the breast, whereas, non-invasive ones lack the ability to invade other breast tissues. Non-invasive breast cancer is called in situ and may remain inactive for entire lifetime. Due to heterogeneity nature of breast, density as well as masses is variable in size and shape. A dataset of 18056 patients are collected from 20 Government Hospitals and 50 Private Hospitals in West Bengal before COVID-19 and after COVID-19. The classification of patients are made on three classes- Normal, Sign of Abnormality and Abnormality. The reports of MRIs of patients in January 2020 and February 2020 are collected from different hospitals. It is treated as dataset before COVID-19 . MRIS of patients in April 2020 and May 2020 are dataset during COVID-19. The entire datasets are accumulated for testing of any change in patients MRIS after the official announcement of new virus COVID-19 in March 2020. The aim of the paper is to make a comparison of any change in size and shape of masses of MRIs of patients before and after COVId-19. All collected MRIs reports are diagnosed by radiologists of hospitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: deep learning; DNN; machine learning; breast cancer; metastasis, metastatic breast cancer, distant recurrence of breast cancer metastasis; prediction; clinical; EHR
Online: 29 June 2022 (04:06:16 CEST)
ABSTRACT Background It is important to be able to predict, for each individual patient, the likelihood of later metastatic occurrence, because the prediction can guide treatment plans tailored to a specific patient to prevent metastasis and to help avoid under- or over-treatment. Deep Neural Network (DNN) learning, commonly referred to as deep learning, has become popular due to its success in image detection and prediction, but questions such as whether deep learning outperforms other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data remain unanswered. Grid search has been introduced to deep learning hyperparameter tunning for the purpose of improving its prediction performance, but the effect of grid search on other machine learning methods are under-studied. In this research, we take the empirical approach to study the performance of deep learning and other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data to predict the occurrence of breast cancer metastasis (BCM) 5, 10, or 15-years after the initial treatment. We developed DNN models as well as models using 9 other machine learning methods including Naive Bayes (NB), Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), LASSO, Decision Tree (DT), k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Random Forrest (RF), AdaBoost (ADB), and XGBoost (XGB). We used grid search to tune hyperparameters for all methods. We then compared the deep learning models to the models trained using the 9 other machine learning methods. Results Based on the mean test AUC results, DNN ranks 6th, 4th, and 3rd when predicting 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year BCM respectively, out of 10 machine learning methods. The top performing methods in predicting 5-year BCM are XGB(1st), RF(2nd), and KNN(3rd). For predicting 10-year BCM the top performers are XGB (1st), RF(2nd), and NB(3rd) . Finally, for 15-year BCM the top performers are SVM (1st), LR and LASSO (tied for 2nd), and DNN (3rd). The ensemble methods RF and XGB outperform other methods when data are less balanced, while SVM, LR, LASSO, and DNN outperform other methods when data are more balanced. Our statistical testing results show that at a significance level of 0.05 DNN overall performs no worse than other machine learning methods when predicting 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year BCM. Conclusions Our results show that deep learning with grid search overall performs at least as well as other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data. It is interesting to note that some of the other machine learning methods such as XGB, RF, and SVM are very strong competitors of DNN when incorporating grid search. It is also worth noting that the computation time required to do grid search with DNN is way more than that required to do grid search with the other 9 machine learning methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0806.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Underestimation; Upgrade Rate; Vacuum assisted breast biopsy (VABB); Breast Microcalcifications; Active Surveillance.
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:52:08 CET)
(1) Background: Considering highly selected patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), active surveillance is a valid alternative to surgery. Our study is aimed at showing the reliability of post-biopsy complete lesion removal, documented by mammogram, as additional criterion to select these patients. (2) Methods: 2173 Vacuum Assisted Breast Biopsies (VABB) documented as DCIS have been reviewed. Surgery has been performed in all cases. We retrospectively collected the reports of post-VABB complete lesion removal and the histological results of the biopsy and surgery. We calculated the rate of upgrade of DCIS identified on VABB upon excision for patients with post-biopsy complete lesion removal and for those showing residual lesion. (3) Results: We observed 2173 cases of DCIS: 408 classified as low grade; 1262 as intermediate grade; 503 as high grade. The overall upgrading rate to invasive carcinoma was 15.2% (330/2173). The upgrade rate was significantly lower (8.2%) when considering patients showing mammographically documented complete removal of the lesion. (4) Conclusion: The absence of mammographically documented residual lesion following VABB is associated to a lower upgrading rate of DCIS to invasive carcinoma on surgical excision and should be considered when deciding the proper management DCIS diagnosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0534.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer etiopathogenesis; breast cancer treatment; hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer; pH-related paradigm; H+-related therapeutics of breast cancer
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:04:24 CEST)
A brand-new approach to the understanding of breast cancer (BC) is urgently needed. In this contribution, the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of this disease is approached from the new pH-centric anticancer paradigm. Only this Unitarian perspective based upon that the hydrogen ion (H+) dynamics of cancer, allows understanding and integrating the many dualisms, confusions, and paradoxes of the disease. The new H+-related wide range model can embrace under a unique frame of mind the many aspects of the disease and at the same time therapeutically interfere with most, if not with all, the hallmarks of cancer known to date. The pH-related armamentarium available for the treatment of BC here reviewed may be beneficial for all types and stages of the disease. In this vein, we have attempted a mega synthesis of traditional and new knowledge in the different areas of breast cancer research and treatment based upon the wide range approach afforded by the hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer. The concerted utilization of a pH-related drugs nowadays available for the treatment of breast cancer is advanced.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0331.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: pH and breast cancer; breast cancer etiology; breast cancer etiopathogenesis; breast cancer treatment; pH-centric anticancer paradigm; hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer; cancer proton reversal; MDR integral approach
Online: 27 November 2019 (04:57:00 CET)
Despite all efforts, the treatment of breast cancer (BC) cannot be considered to be a success story. The advances in surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy have not been sufficient. Indeed, the accumulated experience clearly indicates that new perspectives and non-main stream approaches are needed to better characterize the etiopathogenesis and treatment of this disease. This contibution deals with how the new pH-centric anticancer paradigm plays a fundamental role in reaching a more integral understanding of the etiology, etiopathogenesis and treatment of this multifactorial disease. For the first time the armamentarium available for the treatment of the different types and phases of BC is approached here from a Unitarian perspective based upon the hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer. The wide-ranged pH-related molecular, biochemical and metabolic model is able to embrace most the fields and subfields of breast cancer pathology. This single and integrated approach allows to advance a unidirectional program to treatment. Further efforts in this line are likely to first improve the therapeutics of each subtype of this tumor, then every phase of the disease and finally every individual patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0799.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: breast imaging; artificial intelligence; deep learning; machine learning; mammography; breast MRI; breast ultrasound; radiology workflow; computer-aided diagnosis; computer-aided detection
Online: 23 April 2023 (12:48:48 CEST)
Attempts to use computers to aid in the detection of breast malignancies date back more than 20 years. Despite significant interest and investment, this has historically led to minimal or no significant improvement in performance and outcomes with traditional computer aided detection. However, recent advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning are now starting to deliver on the promise of improved performance. There are at present more than 20 FDA approved AI applications for breast imaging, but adoption and utilization are widely variable and overall low. Breast imaging is unique and has aspects that create both opportunities and challenges for AI development and implementation. Breast cancer screening programs worldwide rely on screening mammography to reduce the morbidity and mortality of breast cancer and many of the most exciting research and available AI applications focus on cancer detection for mammography. There are however multiple additional potential applications for AI in breast imaging including decision support, risk assessment, breast density quantitation, workflow and triage, quality evaluation, response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy assessment, and image enhancement. In this review the current status, availability, and future directions of investigation of these applications are discussed, as well as the opportunities and barriers to more widespread utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); invasive breast carcinoma; breast; biopsy; overtreatment; active surveillance.
Online: 17 November 2021 (11:03:55 CET)
Background: We aimed to create a model of radiological and pathological criteria able to predict the upgrade rate of low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma, in patients undergoing vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) and subsequent surgical excision. Methods: 3100 VABBs were retrospectively reviewed among which we reported 295 low-grade DCIS who subsequently underwent surgery. The association between patients’ features and the upgrade rate to invasive breast cancer (IBC) was evaluated by univariate analysis. Finally, we developed a predictive multivariable model based on the features which were significantly associated with the univariate analysis outcome. Results: the upgrade rate to invasive carcinoma was 10.8 %. At univariate analysis, the risk of upgrade was significantly lower in the absence of post- biopsy residual lesion (p<0.001), age > 50 (p=0.029), and in presence of low-grade DCIS only in specimens with microcalcifications (p=0.002). According to the final multivariable model, the predicted probability of diagnostic underestimation for a patient with all the three favourable features selected at univariate analysis was 1% (95% CI: 0.3%-4%). Conclusions: An easy to use predictive model of radiological and pathological criteria is able to identify patients with low-grade carcinoma in situ with low risk of upstaging to infiltrating carcinomas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast tumor kinase (BRK); protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6); breast cancer; pathways; therapeutics
Online: 2 August 2018 (09:58:55 CEST)
The search for improved therapeutic approaches to breast cancer are still on going. Breast tumor kinase (BRK, also known as PTK6) is one of the targets, it is highly expressed in breast carcinomas while displaying low or no expression in the normal mammary gland, which hints at the oncogenic role of this enzyme in breast cancer. In these twenty years, an increasing number of studies have focused on understanding the cellular roles of BRK in breast cancers. This review outlines the advances made towards understanding the cellular and physiological role of BRK, the molecular and chemical inhibitors and its therapeutic significance in breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; mastectomy; autologous breast reconstruction; PAP flap; DIEP flap; donor-site morbidity; quality of life; aesthetic outcome; scar quality; Breast Q
Online: 2 December 2022 (09:57:20 CET)
(1) Background: This work aimed to conduct the first comparative study providing long-term data about patient reported outcome measures as well as donor-site scar assessment and aesthetic evaluation of the reconstructed breasts in patients with DIEP versus PAP flap breast reconstruction. (2) Methods: This prospective, single-center, matched cohort study included a total of 36 patients after DIEP and PAP flap breast reconstruction. Evaluation was done using the Breast-Q and POSAS questionnaire as well as the Breast Aesthetic Scale for cosmetic analysis by four plastic surgeons. (3) Results: Post-operative Breast-Q evaluation revealed no significant differences between both patient groups for the categories physical well-being donor-site, physical well-being breast and satisfaction with the breast. Scar evaluation of the donor-site region showed equivalent results for the thigh and the abdomen concerning the overall opinion of patients and observers. There was no significant difference between both methods of reconstruction for all aspects of breast aesthetics. (4) Conclusions: Similar results of donor-site morbidity, scar quality and aesthetic outcome of the breast in both the DIEP and PAP patient group have been demonstrated. Hence, in cases suitable for both types of reconstruction, the decision can be based on factors such as patients’ lifestyle, leisure activities and preferences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1901.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: MYC; LncRNAs; miRNA; Breast Cancer
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:23:16 CEST)
The Myc gene, widely studied in numerous cancer types, serves as a pivotal regulator of crucial cellular processes implicated in tumorigenesis, such as cell growth, proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and therapy resistance. LncRNAs have been identified as relevant partners of Myc. LncRNAs modulate chromatin structure and function, transcription, splicing, stability, and translation of mRNAs, thereby emerging as pivotal regulators in cell differentiation, metabolism, signaling. An intricate crosstalk exists between Myc and lncRNAs in a wide range of cancers, wherein they can physically and functionally interact through direct and indirect mechanisms. Some lncRNAs can regulate Myc activity at post-transcriptional level, affecting its stability, translation, or interactions with other proteins, thus acting as oncogenes, while others act as tumor suppressors. On the other hand, Myc can target numerous lncRNA genes and modulate their expression, affecting the expression of downstream targets involved in tumorigenesis. Given the significant role of the Myc-lncRNA network in various cancer types, exploring therapeutic strategies targeting these crucial cellular regulators is of utmost importance. This review article focuses on breast cancer, analyzing those lncRNAs influencing Myc as well as the Myc-regulated lncRNAs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1524.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; TIMPs; tumor progression
Online: 21 June 2023 (10:16:51 CEST)
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are essential players during tumor progression in various types of cancer, including breast cancer. TIMPs regulate the activity of matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) at different levels. However, a dual role for TIMPs in breast carcinogenesis, either promoting or inhibiting tumor progression, has been observed. By a comprehensive bioin-formatics analysis using different databases, we report that of the four TIMPs, only TIMP-1 is overexpressed in tumor breast tissue. However, TIMP-2, TIMP-3, and especially TIMP-4 present lower levels in breast tumor tissue than in normal tissue. Interestingly, high levels of TIMP-1 are associated with shorter survival in breast cancer patients. In contrast, low TIMP-2, TIMP-3, and TIMP-4 levels are associated with poor survival. Function enrichment analysis showed that TIMP-3 has the highest interactions with its target proteins and a higher number of processes re-lated to mammary carcinogenesis. We found differential expression of TIMP-1 concerning TIMP-3 and TIMP-4 in breast cancer and normal tissue. TIMP-4 has a significant relationship with cancer staging, including tumor size, lymph node spread, and metastasis. The correlation between immune cell infiltrates and TIMP expression is of great importance as they provide in-formation on breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis, progression, and response to treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0328.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: classification; machine learning; breast cancer
Online: 20 May 2020 (10:53:42 CEST)
Classification algorithms are very widely used algorithms for the study of various categories of data located in multiple databases that have real-world implementations. The main purpose of this research work is to identify the efficiency of classification algorithms in the study of breast cancer analysis. Mortality rate of women increases due to frequent cases of breast cancer. The conventional method of diagnosing breast cancer is time consuming and hence research works are being carried out in multiple dimensions to address this issue. In this research work, Google colab, an excellent environment for Python coders, is used as a tool to implement machine learning algorithms for predicting the type of cancer. The performance of machine learning algorithms is analyzed based on the accuracy obtained from various classification models such as logistic regression, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naïve Bayes, Decision Tree and Random forest. Experiments show that these classifiers work well for the classification of breast cancers with accuracy>90% and the logistic regression stood top with an accuracy of 98.5%. Also implementation using Google colab made the task very easier without spending hours of installation of environment and supporting libraries which we used to do earlier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0055.v1
Online: 6 May 2019 (11:09:04 CEST)
Breast cancer is an important disease that threatens the lives of women. The majority of breast screening health education is printed promotional material, which is ineffective in enhancing women’s knowledge on breast screening in Taiwan, and showed low breast cancer screening rate in women. This provided the impetus for us to carry out this study to understand the major barrier of women on breast cancer and screening procedures. This study used quasi-experimental design and purposive sampling. The study participants were 45–69 year-old women. Data collection was carried out before and after intervention. The health belief model was used as a research framework to examine changes in the study participants after multimedia health education intervention for detecting which factors most affect women's breast cancer screening behavior. Then we could make the policy for enhancing women's breast cancer screening in the future. Our study showed that after multimedia health education intervention, the scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy in the experimental group were all significantly higher than the control group. We believe that the effectiveness of multimedia health education is better than traditional health education methods, and can enhance women to receive breast cancer screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: matrix metalloproteases; breast cancer; proteomics
Online: 11 June 2018 (04:38:22 CEST)
Matrix metalloproteases (MMPS) are a family of well-known enzymes which operate prevalently in the extracellular domain, where they fulfil the function of remodeling the extracellular matrix. Within the about 26 family members, encoded by 24 genes in humans, MMP-2 and MMP-9, have been regarded as the primary responsibility for the basement membrane and pericellular ECM rearrangement. In cases of infiltrating carcinomas, which arise from the epithelial tissues of a gland or of an internal organ, a marked alteration of the expression and the activity levels of both MMPs is known to occur. Present investigation represents the continuation and upgrading of our previous studies, now focusing on the occurrence and intensity levels of MMP-2 and -9, and their proteomic correlations, in a cohort of 80 breast cancer surgical tissues
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1845.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: (luminal) breast cancer; breast cancer biology; mutations; primary tumor; de novo - stage IV; tumor microenvironment
Online: 27 June 2023 (04:47:03 CEST)
Background. The molecular mechanisms underlying de novo metastasis of luminal breast cancer (dnMBC) remain largely unknown. Materials & Methods. Newly diagnosed dnMBC patients (grade 2/3, ER+, PR+/-, HER2-), with available core needle biopsy (CNB), collected from the primary tumor, were selected from our clinical-pathological database. Tumors from dnMBC patients were 1:1 pairwise matched (n=32) to tumors from newly diagnosed patients who had no distant metastases at baseline (eBC group). RNA was extracted from 5 x 10µm sections of FFPE CNBs. RNA sequencing was performed using the Illumina platform. Differentially expressed genes (DEG)s were assessed using EdgeR, deconvolution was performed using CIBERSORTx to assess immune cell fractions. Paired Wilcoxon test was used to compare dnMBC and eBC groups, and corrected for false discovery rate (FDR). Results. Many regulatory DEGs were significantly downregulated in dnMBC compared to eBC. Also, immune-related and hypoxia-related signatures were significantly upregulated. Paired Wilcoxon analysis showed that CCL17 and neutrophils fraction were significantly upregulated, whereas the memory B-cell fraction was significantly downregulated in the dnMBC group. Conclusion. Primary luminal tumors of dnMBC patients display significant transcriptomic and immunological differences compared to comparable tumors from eBC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: congenital breast asymmetry; PROM, autologous fat injections, fat grafting, lipograft, implant augmentation, breast augmentation, 3D volumetry, three-dimensional imaging, Breast-QTM; human adipose stem cells
Online: 9 August 2021 (15:06:09 CEST)
Congenital breast asymmetry represents a particular challenge to the classical techniques of plastic surgery due to a young group of patients. This study compares traditional breast augmentation using silicone implants to the more innovative lipograft technique regarding long-term results. To achieve this, we not only captured subjective parameters like satisfaction with outcome and symmetry, but also objective parameters such as breast volume and anthropometric measurements. Objective examination was performed manually and by using the Vectra® H2 photogrammetry scanning system. Patients who underwent implant augmentation and lipograft both showed no significant differences in patient´s satisfaction with surgical outcome (p = 0.55) and symmetry (p = 0.69). Furthermore, a breast symmetry of 93 % in both groups was reported. Likewise, no statistically significant volume difference between left and right breast was observed in both groups (p<0.41). However, on average, lipograft patients needed 1.3 procedures more until the desired result was achieved. In contrast, patients treated with implant-based breast augmentation usually need several implant changes during their life. In conclusion, both methods should be considered for patients with congenital breast asymmetry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1532.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: invasive breast cancer; histological grade; microRNA
Online: 23 November 2023 (14:29:39 CET)
This study aimed to identify microRNAs associated with histological grade using comprehensive microRNA analysis data obtained by next-generation sequencing in early-stage invasive breast cancer. RNA-seq data from normal breast and breast cancer samples were compared to identify candidate microRNAs with different expressions using bioinformatics. A total of 108 microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between normal breast and breast cancer tissues. Using clinicopathological information and microRNA sequencing data of 430 patients with breast cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the differences in candidate microRNAs between low- and high-grade cases were compared. Comparing the expression of the 108 microRNAs between low- and high-grade cases, 25 and 18 microRNAs were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in high-grade cases. Clustering analysis of the TCGA cohort using these 43 microRNAs identified two groups strongly predictive of histological grade. miR-3677 is a microRNA upregulated in high-grade breast cancer. The outcome analysis revealed that patients with high miR-3677 expression had a significantly worse prognosis than those with low miR-3677 expression. This study showed that microRNAs were associated with histological grade in early-stage invasive breast cancer. These findings contribute to the elucidation of a new mechanism of breast cancer growth regulated by specific microRNAs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Chromolaena odorata; liver; breast; cancer; plant
Online: 4 April 2023 (04:37:21 CEST)
Siam weed, scientifically known as Chromolaena odorata and belonging to the Asteraceae family, is a fast-growing plant with prolific seed production. Although it is a traditional medicinal plant, it has become an agricultural weed in Africa and Asia, posing a threat to biodiversity and causing environmental damage. Despite this, C. odorata is highly regarded as a medicinal herb in tropical Africa, with anticancer effects on breast, liver, and colorectal cancer. However, it is important to regulate the intake of the plant extract as it can have a hepatotoxic effect on liver cells at higher doses. Further research needs to be conducted on the plant extract, and proper orientation and knowledge of its oral daily administration are necessary. This review summarizes current scientific investigations using ethanolic and methanolic aqueous extracts of C. odorata leaves on various cancer cells, to uncover its potential as an anticancer agent. The investigations were sourced from online databases like Google Scholar, PubMed, and other online-based journals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: breast cancer; radiodermatitis; radiotherapy; primary prevention
Online: 2 March 2023 (06:33:07 CET)
INTRODUCTION: Radiation dermatitis is a common sequela of radiotherapy (RT) that can affect up to 95% of patients, developing moderate to severe skin reactions in up to 30% of them. Variation in fractionation or administration methods may reduce the incidence and severity of radiation dermatitis. It is considered that topical use of preparations holding certain preservatives, surfactants, additives, oils, and impurities should be avoided in cancer patients. In clinical practice, creams of different compositions are used, with and without Epidermal Growth Factor (EFG). OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effectiveness of three creams of different compositions for the control of symptoms and skin side effects of RT.METHODS: A pilot study comparing three treatment groups (HR, HU, and RS creams) during the RT program and with a follow-up of 2 weeks thereafter. Study variables: fractionation, Patient-Observer scale, Maxidex (elasticity, hydration, melanin, erythema).RESULTS: The pilot study sample included 15 patients (5 for each group), so the results were not statistically significant. There were no undesirable side effects to the application of the creams under study and compliance and tolerance were excellent.Regardless of fractionation, RS cream appears to be more effective in controlling symptoms during RT, while HU cream may control them more effectively after the RT regimen is completed.During RT, in hypofractionated therapies, the RS cream seems to preserve elasticity, hydration, and hyperpigmentation allowing erythema that could increase skin repair processes. After the RT is finished, the HR cream further improves elasticity and allows the appearance of erythema.In normofractionated therapies during RT all creams seem to have comparable results in the four cutaneous components analyzed; after completion of RT, HR cream appears to better control hydration and hyperpigmentation.CONCLUSIONS: All the creams analyzed have good control of symptoms and the appearance of the skin during and after RT. The prescription of one or another composition should be done individually according to the cutaneous and clinical particularities of each patient. A study with experimental design is needed to analyze the statistical significance of the differences between the creams analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0011.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: MST4; EMT; AKT; Apoptosis; Breast cancer
Online: 1 December 2022 (04:46:12 CET)
The mammalian STE 20-like protein kinase 4 (MST4) gene is highly expressed in several cancer types, but little is known on the role of MST4 in breast cancer and the function of MST4 during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that overexpression of MST4 in breast cancer results in enhanced cell growth, migration, and invasion, whereas inhibition of MST4 expression significantly attenuates these properties. Further study shows that MST4 promotes EMT by activating Akt and its downstream signaling molecules such as E-cadherin/N-cadherin, Snail, and Slug. MST4 also activates AKT and its downstream pro-survival pathway. Furthermore, by analyzing breast cancer patient tissue microarray and silicon datasets, we found that MST4 expression is much higher in breast tumor tissue compared to normal tissue, and significantly correlates with cancer stage, lymph node metastasis and a poor overall survival rate (p<0.05). Taken together, our findings demonstrate the oncogenic potential of MST4 in breast cancer, highlighting its role in cancer cell proliferation, migration/invasion, survival, and EMT, suggesting a possibility that MST4 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: LAG-3; immuncheckpoints; immunotherapy; breast cancer
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:50:19 CEST)
Background: Monoclonal antibodies against PD-1 or PD-L1 are established in clinical practice for the treatment of both early and advanced/metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. Beyond the established immune checkpoints (ICPs) (PD-1 and CTLA-4) additional ICPs such as lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) are subject of current research. In the present retrospective gene ex-pression analysis, we evaluated the prognostic significance of LAG-3 in 461 patients with early breast cancer. In addition, we examined whether there was a correlation between the different ICPs and CD8 expression. Methods: Using microarray-based gene expression analysis, we examined the prognostic signif-icance for metastasis-free survival (MFS) of LAG-3 mRNA expression in the whole cohort of 461 breast cancer patients and among different molecular subtypes. Correlations were analyzed us-ing Spearman-Rho correlation coefficient. Results: In the whole cohort, LAG-3 expression had no significant impact on MFS (p = 0.712, Log Rank). In the subgroup analyses, there was a trend, that higher LAG-3 expression was associated with favorable outcome in the luminal B (p = 0.217), basal-like (p = 0.370) and HER2 (p = 0.089) subtypes, although significance was not reached. In contrast, in multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, tumor size, axillary nodal status, histological grade of differentiation and the proliferation marker Ki-67, LAG-3 showed a significant influence on MFS (HR 0.574; 95% CI 0.369–0.894; p = 0.014). High LAG-3 significantly correlated with CD8 ( = 0.571; p < 0.001). Conclusion: LAG-3 expression had an independent impact on MFS. In addition to PD-1 and PD-L1, further immune checkpoints such as LAG-3 could serve as therapeutic targets in breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: breast cancer; polymorphism; mitochondrial genomics; D310
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:17:28 CEST)
Breast cancer has an important incidence in the worldwide female population. Although alterations in the mitochondrial genome probably play an important role in carcinogenesis, the actual evidence is ambiguous and inconclusive. The purpose of the present work was to explore mitochondrial sequences of clinical cases with breast cancer from different origins and determine the polymorphisms associated. The search for complete and partial mtDNA sequences obtained from breast cancer patients and controls was performed in NCBI Genbank database. We identified 124 mtDNA sequences associated to breast cancer cases of which 86 were complete and 38 partial sequences. Of these 86 complete sequences, 52 belong to patients with a confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer and 34 sequences were obtained from healthy mammary tissue of the same patients used as controls. From mtDNA analysis, two polymorphisms with significative statistical differences were found in D130 in sequences analyzed: m.310del (rs869289246) in 34.6% (27/78) breast cancer cases and 61.7% (21/34) of controls; and m.315dup (rs369786048) in 60.2% (47/78) of breast cancer cases and 38.2% (13/34) of controls. Also, the variant m.16519T>C (rs3937033) was found in 59% of control sequences and 52% of breast cancer sequences with a significant statistical difference. Polymorphic changes are evolutionarily related to haplogroup H of Indo-European and Euro Asiatic origins, however, were found in all non-European sequences with breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: male; breast; cancer; diagnosis; treatment; prognosis
Online: 24 May 2022 (09:34:47 CEST)
Male breast cancers are uncommon, as men account for less than 1 percent of all breast carcinomas. Among the predisposing risk factors for male breast cancer, the following appear to be significant: a) breast/chest radiation exposure, b) estrogen use, diseases associated with hyper-estrogenism, such as cirrhosis or Klinefelter syndrome, and c) family health history. Furthermore, there are clear familial tendencies, with a higher incidence among men who have a large number of female relatives with breast cancer and d) major inheritance susceptibility. Moreover, in families with BRCA mutations, there is an increased risk of male breast cancer, although the risk appears to be greater with inherited BRCA2 mutations than with inherited BRCA1 mutations. Due to diagnostic delays, male breast cancer is more likely to present at an advanced stage. A core biopsy or a fine needle aspiration must be performed to confirm suspicious findings. Infiltrating ductal cancer is the most prevalent form of male breast cancer, while invasive lobular carcinoma is extremely uncommon. Male breast cancer is almost always positive for hormone receptors. A worse prognosis is associated with a more advanced stage at diagnosis for men with breast cancer. And randomized controlled trials which recruit both female and male patients should be developed in order to gain more consistent data on the optimal clinical approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: molecular iodine; immune response; breast cancer
Online: 9 September 2021 (10:45:34 CEST)
Molecular iodine (I2) induces apoptotic, antiangiogenic, and antiproliferative effects in breast cancer cells. Little is known about its effects on the tumor immune microenvironment. We studied the effect of oral (5 mg/day) I2 supplementation alone (I2) or together with conventional chemotherapy (Cht+I2) on the im-mune component of breast cancer tumors from a previously published pilot study conducted in Mexico. RNA-seq, I2 and Cht+I2 samples showed significant increases in expression of Th1 and Th17 pathways. Tumor immune composition determined by deconvolution analysis revealed significant increases in M0 macrophages and B lymphocytes in both I2 groups. Real-time RT-PCR showed that I2 tumors overexpress T-BET (p = 0.019) and interferon-gamma (IFNγ; p = 0.020) and silence tumor growth factor-beta (TGFβ; p = 0.049); whereas in Cht+I2 tumors, GATA3 is silenced (p = 0.014). Preliminary methylation analysis shows that I2 activates IFNγ gene promoter (by increasing its unmethylated form) and silences TGFβ in Cht+I2. In conclusion, our data showed that I2 supplements induce the activation of the immune response and that when combined with Cht, the Th1 pathways are stimulated. The molecular mechanisms involved in these responses are being analyzed, but preliminary data suggest that methylation/demethylation mechanisms could also participate.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; endocrine therapy; neoadjuvant; resistance
Online: 12 April 2021 (13:55:10 CEST)
Endocrine therapy (ET) has established itself as an efficacious treatment for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers, with a reduction in recurrence rates and increased survival rates. The pre-surgical approach with chemotherapy (NCT) has become a common form of management for large, locally advanced or high-risk tumors. However, a good response to NCT is not usually expected in ER+ tumors. Good results with primary ET, mainly in elderly women, have encouraged studies in other stages of life, and nowadays neoadjuvant endocrine treatment (NET) has become a useful approach to many ER+ breast cancers. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current state of art regarding the present and the future role of NET.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0582.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Breast cancer; CCN proteins; Metastasis; Tumorigenesis
Online: 28 January 2021 (12:38:09 CET)
CCNs are specific type of matricellular proteins, which are essential signaling molecules, and play multiple roles in multicellular eukaryotes. This family of proteins consists of six separate members in mammals. The architecture of CCN proteins is multimodular and comprises four distinct motifs. CCN proteins achieve their specific physiological functions by binding to integrin receptors. The CCN family has been implicated in both cure and disease with impacts on biological interactions, such as cell adhesion, chemotaxis and migration, mitogenesis, cell survival, angiogenesis, differentiation, tumorigenesis, immune functions, chondrogenesis, and wound healing. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer mortality among women triggered by atypical expression of CCNs. A favorable or unfavorable association between various CCNs has been reported in patients with breast carcinomas. Aberrant expression of CCN1 intensifies the proliferation of epithelial cells that line the lobes and ducts of the breast. Evidence also shows that the expression of CCN2 can ameliorate tumor growth and metastasis. However, CCN3 (NOV), CCN5 (WISP-2), and CCN6 (WISP-3) are consistent with neoplastic development and metastasis repression. Particular CCN members can develop tumors and cancer progression, whereas others can competitively counter the processes. Several studies have been conducted on CCN proteins and cancer in recent years. In our study, we intend to provide an overview of those research works while keeping breast carcinoma on focus. We believe that the importance of the CCN protein family in breast cancer should be reconsidered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes mellitus; breast cancer; pulmonary volumes
Online: 27 June 2019 (06:08:48 CEST)
Background and Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and breast cancer (BC) are diseases of high prevalence worldwide. Both alter lung function separately. So suffering both tables would increase this decrease in lung function. The objetive was to determine the effects of DM2 and BC on ventilation volumes and pressures in adult women. Material and Methods: Forty-two women patients were recruited, of whom 40 were accepted under the exclusion criteria. They were divided into four groups: control group (CG), DM2, BC and DM2+BC. Body plethysmography was used to measure forced vital capacity, lung volumes, airway resistance and muscle pressures. Finally the normality of the data was determined using Student's t test or the Mann-Whitney U test; the threshold of significance was p<0.05. Results: No significant differences were observed in the anthropometric variables between the control group and the other groups. The ventilation flows showed no significant differences, while the lung volumes presented significant differences in the inspiratory capacity (IC) variables (p<0,002). Maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP-MEP) also presented significant diminution (p<0,001; p<0,041, respectively). Conclusions: From the results obtained we can conclude that the combination of type 2 diabetes mellitus with breast cancer caused a diminution in ventilation volumes and pressures, specifically in IC, MIP and MEP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; Wnt pathway; TCF1; NHERF1
Online: 14 June 2019 (05:00:53 CEST)
Wnt pathway is involved in breast cancer (BC) progression. Our aim was to evaluate the expression of some components of the Wnt pathway (β-catenin, FZD4, LRP5, LRP6 and TCF1) in order to detect potential associations with NHERF1 protein. In addition, we assessed their impact on patients’clinical outcome. We evaluated 220 primary BC samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and protein localization by immunofluorescence. We found a significant correlation between NHERF1 and FZD4, LRP5, LRP6 and TCF1. Univariate analysis showed that β-catenin (p<0.0001), FZD4 (p=0.0001), LRP5, LRP6 and TCF1 over-expression (p<0.0001 respectively) was related to poor disease free survival (DFS). A Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed univariate data and showed a poor DFS for cNHERF1+/FZD4+ (p=0.0007), cNHERF1+/LRP5+ (p=0.0002), cNHERF1+/LRP6+ (p<0.0001) and cNHERF1+/TCF1+ phenotypes (p=0.0034). In multivariate analysis, TCF1 and β-catenin expression were independent prognostic variable of worse DFS (p=0.009 and p=0.027, respectively). In conclusion, we found that β-catenin, FZD4, LRP5, LRP6 and TCF1 overexpression was associated to poor prognosis. Furthermore, we first identified TCF1 as independent prognostic factor of poor outcome, indicating it as a new potential biomarker for BC patients management. In addition, Wnt pathway proteins expression, both alone and in association with NHERF1, suggests original associations of biological significance for new studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: NRF1; oncogenic reprogramming; estrogen; breast cancer
Online: 11 September 2018 (05:27:01 CEST)
Transcription factor activity of the nuclear respiratory factor 1 protein (NRF1) is increased in breast cancer. Whether this gain of NRF1 activity is directly involved in breast cancer remains unknown. Herein, we report a novel oncogenic function of NRF1 supporting its causative role in breast cancer development and progression. The gain of NRF1 and/or treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) produced heterogeneous breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) composed of more than ten distinct cell sub-populations. Flow sorting combined with confocal imaging of markers for pluripotency, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and BCSCs phenotypically confirmed that the sub-populations of BCSCs arise from cell re-programming. Thus, we determined the molecular actions of NRF1 on its target gene CXCR4 because of its known role in the acquisition of BCSCs through EMT. CXCR4 was activated by NRF1 in a redox dependent manner during malignant transformation. NRF1-induced BCSCs were able to form xenograft tumors in vivo, while inhibiting transcription of CXCR4 prevented xenograft tumor growth. Consistent with our observation of NRF1 driven breast tumorigenesis in the experimental model, higher levels of NRF1 protein expression were also found in human breast cancer tissue specimens. This highly novel role of NRF1 in the stochastic acquisition of BCSCs and their progression to a malignant phenotype may open an entirely new research direction targeting NRF1 signaling in invasive breast cancer. Additionally, the discovery of targeting transcriptional activation of CXCR4 to inhibit NRF1-induced oncogenic transformation provides a mechanistic explanation for estrogen-dependent breast carcinogenesis and opens the new avenues for mechanistic therapeutic strategy against breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0409.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: QNBC (Quadruple negative breast cancer); AR (Androgen receptor); AA (African American); CA (Caucasian); BC (Breast cancer)
Online: 27 July 2022 (04:07:32 CEST)
Background: We previously found that QNBC tumors are more frequent in African Americans compared to TNBC tumors. To characterize this subtype further, we sought to determine the miRNA-mRNA profile in QNBC patients based on race. Methods: Both miRNA and mRNA expression data were analyzed from TCGA and validated using datasets from the METABRIC, TCGA proteomic, and survival analysis by KMPLOT. Results: miRNA-mRNAs which include FOXA1 and MYC (mir-17/20a targets); GATA3 and CCNG2 (mir-135b targets); CDKN2A, CDK6, and B7-H3 (mir-29c targets); and RUNX3, KLF5, IL1-β, and CTNNB1 (mir-375 targets) were correlated with basal-like and immune subtypes in QNBC patients and associated with a worse survival. Conclusion: Thus, QNBC tumors have an altered gene signature implicated in racial disparity and poor survival.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI); neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC); breast cancer; Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); residual tumor size
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:40:31 CEST)
Background: The present retrospective study was designed to evaluate the relative diagnostic utility of breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as means of evaluating female breast cancer patients in China. Methods: A total of 229 malignant breast cancer patients underwent ultrasound, mammography, BSGI, and MRI between January 2015 and December 2018 for initial tumor staging. Of these patients, 73 were subsequently treated via definitive breast surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), of whom 17 exhibited a complete pathologic response (pCR) to NAC. Results: BSGI and MRI were associated with respective 76.8% and 69.6% sensitivity values as a means of detecting residual tumors following NAC, while both of these approaches exhibited comparable specificity in this diagnostic context (58.8% vs 70.6%, P=0.473). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that BSGI is a useful auxiliary approach to evaluating pCR to NAC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1658.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: CD274; ferroptosis; immunotherapy; breast cancer; basal; TNBC
Online: 27 November 2023 (09:03:50 CET)
(1) Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a distinct subgroup of breast cancer presenting high level of recurrence and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is beneficial in its therapy management. Anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy improves effect of neo-adjuvant therapy in TNBC. (2) Methods: Immune-modulation and ferroptosis related R-packages were developed for integrative transcriptome to analyze transcriptome datasets: TNBC cells stimulated with ferroptosis inducers (GSE173905, GSE154425), breast tumors with clinical data (TCGA and METABRIC cohorts). Protein level validation was investigated through protein atlas proteome experiments. (3) Results: Erastin/RSL3 ferroptosis inducers up-regulate CD274 in TNBC cells (MDA-MB-231 and HCC38). In breast cancer, CD274 expression is associated to overall survival. Breast tumors presenting high expression of CD274 up-regulated some ferroptosis drivers associated to prognosis: IDO1, IFNG and TNFAIP3. CD274-ferroptosis-driver score computed on breast tumor transcriptome stratified patients on their prognosis: low score was observed in basal subgroup with higher level of recurrent risk scores: oncotypeDx, ggi and gene70 scores. In METABRIC cohort, CD274, IDO1, IFNG and TNFAIP3 were found overexpressed in TNBC subgroup. CD274-ferroptosis-driver score was found associated to overall survival independently of TNM classification and age diagnosis. Tumor expression of CD274, TNFAIP3, IFNG and IDO1 in biopsy of breast ductal carcinoma was confirmed at protein level (4) Conclusion: Ferroptosis inducers up-regulate PD-L1 in TNBC cells, known as effective target of immunotherapy in high risk early TNBC which received neo-adjuvant therapy. Basal and TNBC tumors highly expressed CD274 and ferroptosis drivers: IFNG, TNFAIP3 and IDO1. CD274-ferroptosis driver score is associated to prognosis and to the risk of recurrence in breast cancer. A potential synergy of ferroptosis inducers with anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy is suggested in recurrent TNBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1419.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: breast cancer; culture; belief; rural; South Africa
Online: 21 September 2023 (12:14:44 CEST)
Breast cancer remains one of the most deadly non-communicable diseases in the world. The incidence of breast cancer in South Africa is increasing, with rural African women presenting with advanced stages of the disease. In this study, we aim to explore sociocultural factors influencing breast cancer screening practices among rural African women. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 22 rural African women selected by purposive sampling. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. In this study, four sociocultural factors were identified as influencing breast cancer screening practices among rural African women. These factors included psychological factors, habits, beliefs, and healthcare perception. Women in rural African communities have deep-rooted traditional beliefs and practices regarding breast cancer. Consequently, this influences women's preventative health behaviours regarding breast cancer screening. To increase the number of women participating in breast cancer screenings, it is vital to develop culturally sensitive health education programs. Engaging community healers will also help to increase the number of women participating in breast cancer screening.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0506.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: breast cancer; fertility preservation; cryopreservation; GNRH-analogs
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:16:49 CEST)
Introduction: Breast cancer affects worldwide almost 1.5 million women below the age of 45 years each year. Many of these women will be advised to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy to minimize the risk of death or recurrence of the tumor. For these patients, chemotherapy is a known cause of infertility, as it can damage primordial follicles which can lead to early menopause or premature ovarian insufficiency. This systematic review aims to synthesize the current evidence of the most suitable treatments for fertility preservation. Methodology: This review is performed following the PRISMA guidelines. The authors conducted an extensive search from the last 15 years. Relevant studies were pursued in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library up until the July 31, 2023. A total of 7 eligible studies were identified. Discussion: The most suitable treatments for fertility preservation in young patients, is the temporary suppression with luteinizing hormone-releasing analogs, while the patient undergoes chemotherapy and cryopreservation. For cryopreservation, the physicians might deem it necessary to either cryopreserve ovarian tissue taken from the patient before any treatment or cryopreserve embryos/oocytes. Cryopreservation of oocytes and/or embryos is the most effective solution for fertility preservation in women of reproductive age, who have sufficient ovarian reserve and are diagnosed with breast cancer, regardless of the histological type of the tumor. Since approximately 50% of young breast cancer patients are interested in becoming pregnant right after completion of therapy, the evolution and development of fertility preservation techniques promise to be very exciting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1702.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: BRD4; radiation therapy; triple-negative breast cancer
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:08:44 CEST)
Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is an intracellular protein that regulates expression of various cellular functions. This study investigated whether BRD4 inhibition can alter the immunomodulatory and antitumor effects of radiation therapy (RT). A murine breast cancer cell line was implanted into BALB/c mice. The dual-tumor model was used to evaluate the abscopal effects of RT. A total of 24 Gy was delivered and BRD4 inhibitor was injected intravenously. Tumor size was measured and in vivo imaging was performed to evaluate tumor growth. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine immunologic changes upon treatment. The combination of BRD4 inhibitor and RT significantly suppressed tumor growth compared to RT alone. BRD4 inhibitor reduced the size of the unirradiated tumor indicating that it may induce systemic immune responses. Expression of HIF-1α and PD-L1 in tumor was significantly downregulated by the BRD4 inhibitor. Proportion of M1 tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) increased, and proportion of M2 TAMs decreased upon BRD4 inhibition. BRD4 inhibitor expanded CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations and reduced the population of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs). RT-induced splenic M-MDSCs decreased upon addition of BRD4 inhibitor. Therefore, addition of BRD4 inhibition significantly enhanced the systemic antitumor responses of local RT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1882.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Breast Cancer; Curcumin; Copolymer; Drug delivery; Nanoinformatics
Online: 27 June 2023 (10:23:03 CEST)
Curcumin (CUR) is a phytochemical with potent anticancer activities as demonstrated by both preclinical and clinical studies. CUR bioformulations, including loading in biodegradable polymers, have been explored to increase CUR’s solubility and chemical stability, control its release, and improve its delivery to cancer cells. In this study, copolymers comprising poly (L-lactide)-poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (L-lactide) (PLA-PEG-PLA) and poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (L-lactide)-poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG-PLA-PEG) were designed and synthesized to assess and compare their curcumin delivery capacity and inhibitory potency on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that PLA-PEG-PLA has a higher propensity to interact with the cell membrane and more negative free energy, suggesting it is the better carrier for cell membrane penetration. Our characterization indicated that the microsphere copolymers were synthesized successfully. Of the two formulations, PLA-PEG-PLA experimentally exhibited better results, with an initial burst release of 17.5%, followed by a slow, constant release of the encapsulated drug up to 80%. PLA-PEG-PLA-curcumin showed a significant increase in cell death in MCF-7 cancer cells (IC50 = 23.01 ± 0.85 µM) based on the MTT assay. These data were consistent with gene expression studies of Bax, Bcl2, and hTERT which showed that PLA-PEG-PLA-CUR induced apoptosis more efficiently in these cells. Our study integrates in vitro and in silico approaches to identify an optimal co-polymer for the delivery of CUR to cancer cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0480.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Breast; lung; cancer; microenvironment; pleural effusion; immunofluorescence
Online: 7 June 2023 (03:49:27 CEST)
Background:Malignant pleural effusion (MPE),a frequent complication of advanced malignancies. This pilot study characterized and compared the immune landscapes of breast carcinoma (BC) and lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) primary tumors(PTs) and their corresponding MPEs and tested the incorporation of multiplexed image technology for the study of malignant fluids. Methods: We studied the immune contexture of 6 BC and 5 LADC PT samples and their MPEs using 3 multiplex immunofluorescence panels. We explored associations between sample characteristics and pleural effusion–free survival. Results: Although we found 3 out of 11 PTs PD-L1 positive more than 1% by malignant cells, no MPE samples reached positive expression by malignant cells. In addition, CD3+ T cells and CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells predominated (median percentages for MPEs vs. PTs: 45.5% vs. 40.7% and 4.7% vs. 6.6%, respectively). In the BC samples, CD68+ macrophages predominated (median percentages for MPEs vs. PTs:61% vs. 57.1%). Generally, CD3+CD8+FOXP3+ T cells in PTs and the distances from the malignant cells to CD3+CD8+Ki67+ and CD3+PD-1+ T cells were correlated in the first event of MPE after diagnosis. Conclusions: The immune cell phenotypes in the MPEs and PTs were similar within each cancer type but were different for LADC vs. BC.MPE analysis could be used as a substitute for PT analysis, but an expanded study on this topic is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1160.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Laterality; Ion Channel; Breast Cancer; Proliferation; Stemness
Online: 16 May 2023 (11:01:00 CEST)
Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease that displays diverse molecular subtypes and clinical outcomes. Although it is known that the location of tumors can affect their biological behavior, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In our previous study, we found a differential methylation profile and membrane potential between left (L) and right (R)-sided breast tumors. In this current study, we aimed to identify the ion channels responsible for this phenomenon and determine any associated phenotypic features. To achieve this, experiments were conducted in mammary tumors in mice, human patient samples, and with data from public datasets. The results revealed that L-sided tumors have a more depolarized state than R-ones. We identified a 6-ion channel-gene signature (CACNA1C, CACNA2D2, CACNB2, KCNJ11, SCN3A, and SCN3B) associated with side: L-tumors exhibit lower expression levels than R-ones. Additionally, in silico analyses show that the signature correlates inversely with DNA methylation writers and with key biological processes involved in cancer progression, such as proliferation and stemness. The signature also correlates inversely with patients’ survival rates. In an in vivo mouse model, we confirmed that KI67 and CD44 markers were increased in L-sided tumors and similar tendency for KI67 was found in patient L-tumors. Overall, this study provides new insights into the potential impact of anatomical location on breast cancer biology and highlights the need for further investigation into possible differential treatment options.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0488.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; obesity; inflammation; metabolism; treatment resistance
Online: 24 March 2023 (02:09:14 CET)
White adipose tissue (WAT) represents an endocrinologically and immunologically active tissue that’s primary role is energy storage and homeostasis. Breast WAT is involved in the secretion of hormones and proinflammatory molecules that are associated with breast cancer development and progression. The role of adiposity and systemic inflammation in immune responses and resistance to anti-cancer treatment in breast cancer (BC) patients is still not clear. This review aims to evaluate the emerging evidence on the crosstalk between adiposity and the immune-tumour microenvironment in BC, its progression and treatment resistance. Adiposity, and by extension subclinical inflammation, are associated with metabolic dysfunction and changes in the immune-tumour microenvironment in BC. In oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast tumours, it is proposed that these changes are mediated via a paracrine interaction between macrophages and preadipocytes leading to elevated aromatase expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in the breast tissue in patients who are obese or overweight. In HER2+ breast tumours, WAT inflammation has been shown to be associated with resistance to trastuzumab mediated via MAPK or PI3K pathways. Furthermore, adipose tissue in patients with obesity is associated with upregulation of immune checkpoints on T-cells that is partially mediated via immunomodulatory effects of leptin and has been paradoxically associated with improved responses to immunotherapy in several cancers. In conclusion, evidence suggests that body composition and metabolic status are associated with patient outcomes. To optimise patient stratification and personalisation of treatment, prospective studies are required to evaluate the role of body composition and metabolic parameters in metabolic immune reprogramming with and without immunotherapy in patients with BC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0462.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Hypoxia; Extracellular vesicles; Breast Cancer; Cell Invasion
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:08:23 CEST)
Hypoxia, a condition of low oxygenation frequently found in triple-negative breast tumors (TNBC), promotes extracellular vesicle (EV) secretion and favors cell invasion, a complex process in which cell morphology is altered, dynamic focal adhesion spots are created, and ECM is re-modeled. Here, we investigated the invasive properties triggered by TNBC-derived hypoxic small EV (SEVh) in vitro in cells cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, using pheno-typical and proteomic approaches. SEVh characterization demonstrated increased protein abundance and diversity over normoxic SEV (SEVn), with enrichment in pro-invasive pathways. In normoxic cells, SEVh promotes invasive behavior through pro-migratory morphology, in-vadopodia development, ECM degradation and matrix metalloprotease (MMP) secretion. Pro-teome profiling of normoxic cells exposed to SEVh determined enrichment in metabolic processes and cell cycle, modulating cell health to escape apoptotic pathways. In hypoxia, SEVh was re-sponsible for proteolytic and catabolic pathway inducement, interfering with integrin availabil-ity and gelatinase expression. Overall, our results demonstrate the importance of hypoxic signal-ing via SEV in tumors for the early establishment of metastasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: noncoding RNA; biomarkers; breast cancer; prognostic; diagnostic
Online: 25 May 2022 (05:09:11 CEST)
For decades since the central dogma, cancer biology research has been focusing on the involvement of genes encoding proteins. It has been not until more recent times that a new molecular class has been discovered, named non-coding RNA (ncRNA), which has been shown to play crucial roles in shaping the activity of cells. An extraordinary number of studies into shown that ncRNAs represent an extensive and prevalent group of RNAs, including both oncogenic or tumor suppressive molecules. Henceforth, various clinical trials involving ncRNAs as extra ordinary biomarkers or therapies have started to emerge. In this review, we will focus on the prognostic and diagnostic role of ncRNAs for breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: PDK1; breast cancer; survival; prognosis; targeted therapy
Online: 14 September 2021 (14:51:06 CEST)
Given that 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) plays a crucial role in malignant biological behaviors of a wide-range of cancers, we further review the influence of PDK1 in breast cancer (BC). First, we describe the power of PDK1 in cellular behaviors and extensively demonstrate the interacting networks of PDK1 via PI3K-dependent/ PI3K-independent pathway. Then we enlighten the roles of PDK1 in carcinogenesis, growth and survival, metastasis, and chemoresistance in BC cells. More important, we sort the current preclinical or clinical trials of PDK1 targeted therapy in BC and find that even though at present no selective PDK1 inhibitor is available for BC therapy, but the combination trials of PDK1 targeted therapy and other agents have demonstrated some benefit. Thus, there is increasing anticipations that PDK1 targeted therapy will have its space in future therapeutic concepts of BC, and we hope to feature PDK1 in BC to the clinic and bring the new promising to patients for targeted therapies.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Breast cancer; PIK3CA; digital PCR; Sanger sequencing
Online: 5 July 2021 (14:00:22 CEST)
PIK3CA is a gene usually mutated in breast cancer and has an important role in tumor progression and treatment. Therefore, there is required a technique to detect low-rate PIK3CA mutations improving the clinical conduct. This study aimed to compare chip-based dPCR and Sanger sequencing to detect PIK3CA mutations in breast cancer patients. Fifty-seven tumor samples from breast cancer patients were collected and analyzed by Sanger sequencing and dPCR for PIK3CA mutations (E545K, H1047R, and H1047L). Digital PCR sensitivity, specificity, and overall performance were estimated by contingency tables, receptor operator characteristic (ROC), and area under the curve (AUC). Sanger sequencing identified PIK3CA mutations in six patients (10.5%), two with H1047R, and four with E545K. Digital PCR confirmed those mutations and identified 19 additional patients with at least one mutation. Comparison between dPCR and Sanger sequencing showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 53-100%), and a specificity of 84.2% (95% CI 83 - 84.2%). Besides, H1047R mutation showed a significant association with breast cancer phenotype (p =0.019) and lymphatic node infiltration (p =0.046). Digital PCR showed a high sensitivity to detect mutations in tumor samples and it might be capable to detect low-rate mutations and tumor subpopulations not detected by Sanger sequencing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0064.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: CINV; breast cancer; antiemetic guidelines; risk factors
Online: 2 June 2021 (10:06:30 CEST)
Aims: To assess the occurrence of Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) after standard antiemetic therapy in the acute (24 h post-chemotherapy) and delayed (2–5 days post-chemotherapy) phases, as well as to identify risk factors for CINV in the acute and delayed phases. Methods: This prospective longitudinal and observational study analyzed the data of 400 breast cancer patients scheduled for chemotherapy over two cycles in two hospitals. The self-report survey was developed to assess the occurrence of CINV and their associated factors. CINV was evaluated with a Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Antiemetic Tool (MAT) on days 2 and 6 of chemotherapy. The incidence of acute and delayed CINV were presented by frequency and percentage. Generalized equation estimates (GEE) was used to identify risk factors of acute and delayed CINV. Results: There were 400 evaluable patients with complete Round 1 data, 334 for Round 2 data. Among 400 patients, 29.8% and 23.5% experienced acute and delayed CINV, respectively. Risk factors associated with for acute CINV were pain/insomnia, history of CINV, history of motion sickness (MS), and highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimen, while history of MS, CINV history, number of completed chemotherapy cycle number < 3, and the incidence of acute CINV were risk factors of delayed CINV (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings may help nurses working for Chinese population in identifying patients at risk for CINV and in planning effective program to reduce the occurrence of CINV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0446.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: CTC, cell culture, liquid biopsy, breast cancer
Online: 16 April 2021 (13:29:37 CEST)
Background: Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have relevance as prognostic markers in breast cancer. However, the functional properties of CTCs or their molecular characterization have not been well-studied. Experimental models indicate that only a few cells can survive in the circulation and eventually metastasize. Thus, it is essential to identify these surviving cells capable of forming such metastases. Methods: We isolated viable CTCs from 50 peripheral blood samples obtained from 35 patients with advanced metastatic breast cancer using RosetteSepTM for ex vivo culture. The CTCs were seeded and monitored on plates under low adherence conditions and with media supplemented with growth factors and Nanoemulsions. Phenotypic analysis was performed by immunofluorescence and gene expression analysis using RT-PCR and CTCs counting by Cellsearch® system. Results: We found that in 75% of samples the CTC cultures lasted more than 23 days, predicting a shorter Progression-Free Survival in these patients, independently of having ≥ 5 CTC by Cellsearch®. We also observed that CTCs before and after culture showed a different gene expression profile. Conclusions: the cultivability of CTCs is a predictive factor. Furthermore, the subset of cells capable of growing ex vivo show stem or mesenchymal features and may represent the CTC population with metastatic potential in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Planckian Distribution Equation; breast cancer; mRNA; chemotherapy
Online: 8 February 2021 (16:00:22 CET)
Chemotherapy-related deaths, the result of treatment with faulty medications, account for nearly 10% of all breast cancer deaths (Rashbass, 2016). Patient-specific, personalized medicine is evidently required to administer optimized therapeutics and prevent treatment-related mortality. In order to develop a predictive model for breast cancer therapy, the following study analyzed the mRNA data of 4,704 genes derived from 20 breast cancer patients before and after doxorubicin treatment for 16 weeks (O’brien et al., 2006; Perou et al., 2000). The genomic data of each patient was first stratified into 9 groups (corresponding to the 9 Mechanisms defined in Figure 4) based on mRNA expression in response to the tumor and to the doxorubicin treatment. The study then employed the Planckian Distribution Equation (PDE) discovered at Rutgers University to model the stratified samples by transforming each mechanism into a single long-tailed histogram fitted by the PDE. Our PDE model is based on 3 parameters - A, B, and C - of which 2 were extracted from each model to generate the plots seen in figures 5e and 5f. The drug-induced slopes of the A vs C plots were then determined for all 9 mechanisms of each patient. The study observed an increase in post-treatment mRNA levels for longer surviving patients in 6 mechanisms. Further analysis displayed how the drug treatment uniquely altered each of the mechanisms based on the length of patient survival. These results indicate that the PDE-based procedures described herein may provide a novel tool for discovering potential anti-breast cancer pharmaceuticals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0605.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: biomarker; breast cancer; RP11-445H22.4; lncRNA; TINCR
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:58:55 CEST)
Purpose: Recently introduced molecules namely long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are associated with various diseases, including breast cancer, and they may have the potential to act as biomarkers. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a frequently observed type of breast cancer that diagnosis through immunohistochemical methods. However, no reliable non-invasive markers such as circulating markers have been introduced for it, so far. Materials and methods: The relative quantitation (RQ) of two lncRNAs, RP11-445H22.4 and TINCR, was measured in tumoral tissues and paired adjacent non-tumoral tissues (PANTs) as well as in plasma samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, promoter methylation of the two lncRNAs genes was assessed using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). In order to compare the diagnostic values, plasma levels of CA 15-3 were measured as a conventional circulating biomarker using ELISA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to illustrate the sensitivity and specificity of the potential biomarkers. Results: The RP11-445H22.4 and TINCR genes were upregulated in tumor tissues compared to PANTs (RQRP11-445H22.4 = 2.7, RQTINCR = 4.4). Furthermore, the presence of RP11-445H22.4 and TINCR in the plasma of patients was significantly more than healthy controls (RQc.RP11-445H22.4 = 4.12, RQc.TINCR = 4.16, P<0.001). The promoters of RP11-445H22.4 and TINCR genes were hypomethylated in the tumoral tissues with a negative correlation with their gene expression. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it can be speculated that the expression levels of these two lncRNAs as well as their promoter methylation can be considered as a therapeutic target and potential biomarker for breast carcinoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: obesity; breast screening; mammograms; health service utilization;
Online: 15 January 2019 (09:10:11 CET)
Obesity in Australia is rapidly rising, and is a major public health concern. Obesity increases risk of breast cancer and worse associated outcomes, yet breast screening participation rates in Australia are suboptimal and can be lower in higher risk, obese women. This study qualitatively explored barriers to breast screening participation in obese women in Australia. In-depth interviews (n=29), were conducted with obese women (BMI 30) and key health stakeholders. A disconnect between stakeholders’ and women’s perceptions was found. For women, low knowledge around a heightened need to screen existed, they reported limited desire to prioritize personal health needs, reluctance to screen due to poor body image and prior negative mammographic experiences due to issues with weight. Stakeholders perceived few issues in screening obese women beyond equipment limitations, and health and safety issues. Overall, weight was a taboo topic among our interviewees, indicating that a lack of discourse around this issue may be putting obese women at increased risk of breast cancer morbidity and mortality. Consideration of breast screening policy in obese women is warranted. Targeted health promotion on increased breast cancer risk in obese women is required as is a need to address body image issues and encourage screening participation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0050.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: polymorphism; risk for breast cancer; SULT1A allele
Online: 9 November 2018 (04:28:29 CET)
Sulfotransferases (SULTs) family plays a significant role in the biotransformation of a variety of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds by which carcinogenesis and mutagenicity of different malignancies are increasingly affected. Recent data identified various genetically polymorphic SULTs enzymes with significant variations in the enzyme activity. This study aimed to investigate the impact of SULT1A1 gene polymorphism and and its potential risk on females with breast cancer in Jordan using a PCR-RFLP and Sanger Sequencing methods. The analysis showed that 24.7% of the patients and 25.3% of the controls were homozygous for the SULT1A1*1 allele (SULT1A1*1/SULT1A1*1) compared to 8.8% and 5.7% homozygous for the SULT1A1*2 allele (SULT1A1*2/SULT1A1*2) for patients and controls respectively. Most of the patients and controls were heterozygous for SULT1A1*1 allele (SULT1A1*1/SULT1A1*2) with rates of 66.5% and 69.0% in patients and controls respectively. In addition, the frequencies of the mutant SULT1A1*2 allele were 0.42 and 0.4 in the patient and control groups respectively. No significant difference in genotype and allele distribution was noted between the breast cancer and control groups. The risk of breast cancer in individuals carrying the SULT1A1*2 allele was determined by combining the SULT1A1*1/SULT1A1*2 and ULT1A1*2/SULT1A1*2 genotypes. No association was observed between SULT1A1 polymorphism and breast cancer incidence (P = 0.63; OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.68–1.26). However, SULT1A1*2 allele was found to increase the risk of breast cancer by 1.26-fold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: asthma; breastfeeding; milk other than breast milk
Online: 3 October 2018 (11:32:20 CEST)
Prevalence of asthma in Australian children is amongst the highest in the world. Although breastfeeding positively influences infants’ immunity, early introduction of Milk Other than Breast Milk (MOTBM) may also play an important role in the development of Asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the introduction of MOTBM in the first six months after birth and the development of reported persistent asthma in children 3-years old. As sample of 1,121 children were extracted from the Environments for Healthy Living longitudinal birth cohort study. Introduction of MOTBM during the first six months after birth increased the risk of development of persistent asthma by almost two-folds (Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR): 1.71, 95%CI: 1.03-2.83, p= 0.038). This study indicates that the introduction of MOTBM in the first six months of life is a risk factor for asthma incidence among children 3 years old or younger. This result is important in explaining the benefits of breastfeeding as part of public health interventions to encourage mothers to increase breastfeeding initiation and duration and avoid introduction of MOTBM in the first six months after childbirth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0307.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: breast cancer; metastasis; Notch; Jagged-1; Dll4
Online: 17 September 2018 (11:54:19 CEST)
Metastasis is a major cause factor for breast cancer (BC)-associated mortality. During the metastatic process, disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) detach from the primary sites, and enter the bloodstream and establish the secondary colonies. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence for the importance of Notch signaling in BC metastasis. Therefore, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which Notch contributes to the origin of BC DTCs, increases their motility, regulates their intravasation and extravasation, protects them from host surveillance, and finally facilitates colonization. Identification of the mechanisms underlying Notch-related BC metastasis will lead to the development of novel Notch-targeted therapeutic strategies to reduce metastasis and significantly improve outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; comorbidities; older women; radiotherapy; survival
Online: 29 May 2018 (13:01:28 CEST)
Background: Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management and survival of patients with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the association between age, comorbidities and use of radiotherapy in this population. Methods: Patients diagnosed with breast cancer from 2004–2013 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Cancer Database (NCDB). Follow-up time was measured from the date of diagnosis (baseline) to the date of death or censoring. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were used as the measure of association. Results: Independently of comorbidities and other important outcome-related factors, patients >65 years of age who received radiotherapy survived significantly longer than those who did not receive radiotherapy (aHR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.52–0.54). However, as women aged, those with comorbidities were less likely to receive RT (adjusted P-trend by age <0.0001). Conclusions: The development of decision-making tools to assist clinicians, and older women with breast cancer and comorbidities, are needed to facilitate personalized treatment plans regarding RT. This is particularly relevant as the population ages and the number of women with breast cancer is expected to increase in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: gene expression obesity triple negative breast cancer
Online: 20 March 2018 (07:56:33 CET)
Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive form of breast cancer with poor outcomes. The molecular basis of TNBC remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between obesity and TNBC in premenopausal and postmenopausal Caucasian women using whole genome transcription profiling. Methods: We compared gene expression levels of tumor samples drawn from normal weight, overweight and obese in pre and postmenopausal women diagnosed with TNBC. We performed hierarchical clustering to assess similarity in patterns of gene expression profiles, and conducted network and pathway analysis to identify molecular networks and biological pathways. Results: We discovered gene signatures distinguishing normal weight from obese, normal weight from overweight and overweight from obese individuals in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The analysis revealed molecular networks and biological pathways dysregulated in response to obesity. Among the discovered pathways included the unfolded protein response, endoplasmatic reticulum stress, B cell receptor and the autophagy signaling pathways in obese premenopausal women and the integrin, axonal guidance, ERK/MAPK and Glutathione biosynthesis signaling pathways obese postmenopausal women. Conclusions: The results suggest that both overweight and obesity are associated with TNBC, highlighting the need for conformation of these results in independent studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0004.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: breast cancer; optimal control; ketogenic diet; chemotherapy
Online: 1 February 2018 (04:45:40 CET)
In this paper, a mathematical model of breast cancer governed by a system of ordinary differential equations in the presence of chemotherapy treatment and ketogenic diet is discussed. Several comprehensive mathematical analysis was carried out using varieties of analytical methods to study the stability of the breast cancer model. Also, sufficient conditions on parameter values to ensure cancer persistence in the absence of anti-cancer drugs ketogenic diet and cancer emission when anti-cancer drugs, immune-booster, ketogenic diet are included were established. Furthermore, optimal control theory is applied to find out the optimal drug adjustment as an input control of the system therapies to minimize the number of cancerous cells by considering different controlled combinations of administering the chemotherapy agent and ketogenic diet using the popular Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle. Numerical simulations were presented to validate our theoretical results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: breast milk lipidome, preterm infant, growth trajectory
Online: 11 December 2017 (15:53:33 CET)
Human milk is recommended for feeding preterm infant. Yet the potential impact of specific breast-milk lipid components on the initial growth rate of very-preterm infants has received scant attention. The current pilot study aims to determine whether breast-milk lipidome had any impact on the early growth pattern of preterm infants fed their own mother’s milk. A prospective monocentric observational birth cohort was established, enrolling 147 preterm infants, who received their own mother’s breast-milk throughout hospital stay. Among that cohort, infants who experienced slow (n=15) or fast (n=11) growth were selected, based on the change in their weight Z-score between birth and hospital discharge (-1.54± 0.42 and -0.48± 0.19 Z-score, respectively). Liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry was used to obtain lipidomic signatures in breast-milk. Multivariate analyses made it possible to identify breast-milk lipid species that allowed clear-cut discrimination between the 2 infants’ groups. Validation of the selected biomarkers was performed by means of various multidimensional statistical techniques, false-discovery rate and ROC curve computation. Breast-milk associated with fast growth contained more medium chain-saturated fatty acid and -sphingomyelin, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA)-containing phosphethanolamine, and less oleic acid-containing triglyceride and DGLA-oxylipin. Their predictive ability of preterm early-growth rate was validated in presence of confounding clinical factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0124.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: breast cancer; immunosuppressive factor; biomarker; online database
Online: 30 September 2016 (09:34:30 CEST)
To screen and validate immunosuppressive factors in luminal- and basal-like breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples associated with malignant phenotypes. The mRNA microarray datasets, GSE40057 and GSE1561, were downloaded and remodelled. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Enrichment analyses performed and the online resources, GOBO and Kaplan-Meier Plotter, were employed to screen for immunosuppressive factors associated with breast cancer malignant phenotypes. qRT-PCR and western blot were used to validate the expression of CD274 and IL8 in cell lines and immunohistochemical detected the MIF and VEGFA on tissue microarrays. The results showed that CD274 and IL8 were both upregulated in basal-like cell lines. That MIF expression was dramatically increased in patients with breast cancer metastases (p<0.05) and that VEGFA expression positively correlates with breast cancer pathologic grade (p<0.05).During the formation and development of breast cancer, immune-related genes are always activated, and immunosuppressive factors CD274, IL8, MIF and VEGFA are upregulated. Such molecules could be used as biomarkers for breast cancer prognosis. However, because individual immune-related factors can play several biological roles, the mechanistic relationship between immunosuppressive factors and breast cancer malignant phenotypes and the feasibility of their application as drug targets require further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic breast cancer; taxanes; eribulin; observational study
Online: 26 September 2016 (11:39:32 CEST)
Taxanes have been shown to be the most effective treatment for recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. However, for patients pretreated with taxanes, more active and possibly less toxic drugs are needed. In this retrospective study, we investigated on the effectiveness and safety of eribulin mesylate in 91 taxane-refractory subjects, extracted from the ESEMPIO database, which included 497 metastatic breast cancer patients treated with eribulin allover the Italy. This analysis included only those patients who have shown disease progression while receiving taxane therapy (primary refractory), or those who achieved a response followed by progression while still on therapy (taxane failure). Overall, 41/91 patients (45.2%) showed a clinical benefit; 1 complete response (2.2%) and 16 partial responses (17.6%) were observed. The median progression free survival was 3.1 months (95% CI: 2.8–3.5) and the median overall survival was 11.6 months (95% CI: 8.7–16.7). With regard to toxicity, 53 patients (58%) experienced asthenia/fatigue, 23 (25%) showed peripheral neurotoxicity, 18 (20%) alopecia, 12 (13%) mild constipation and 27 (30%) neutropenia. The toxicity related to the treatment led to eribulin dose reduction in 19 (21%) and discontinuation in 9 (10%) patients, respectively. In conclusion, this study suggests that eribulin is effective and well tolerated also in taxane-refractory patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: COX-2; breast cancer; PGE2; EP receptors; stem-like cells; metastasis; angiogenesis; lymphangiogenesis; MicroRNAs; triple negative breast cancer
Online: 13 February 2018 (09:16:54 CET)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, also called seven-transmembrane or heptahelical receptors) are a superfamily of cell surface receptor proteins that bind to many extracellular ligands and transmit signals to an intracellular guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). When a ligand binds, the receptor activates the attached G-protein by causing the exchange of Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) for guanosine diphosphate (GDP). They play a major role in many physiological functions as well as in the pathology of many diseases including cancer progression and metastasis. Only a few GPCR members have been exploited as targets for developing drugs with therapeutic benefit in cancer. Present review deals with the Prostaglandin E receptor EP4, a member of the EP family of GPCR, as a promising newer therapeutic target for treating breast cancer. We show that aberrant over-expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, an inflammation-associated enzyme, occurring in 40-50% of breast cancer patients leads to tumor progression and metastasis due to multiple cellular events resulting from an increased prostaglandin (PG) E2 production in the tumor milieu. They include inactivation of host anti-tumor immune (NK and T) cells, increased immuno-suppressor function of tumor-associated macrophages, promotion of tumor cell migration, invasiveness and tumor-associated angiogenesis (due to upregulation of VEGF-A), lymphangiogenesis (due to upregulation of VEGF-C/D) and a stimulation of stem-like cell (SLC) phenotype in cancer cells. All these events were primarily mediated by activation of the PGE receptor EP4 on tumor or host cells. We show that selective EP4 antagonists (EP4A) could mitigate all these events tested with cells in vitro as well as in vivo in syngeneic COX-2 expressing mammary cancer bearing mice or immune-deficient mice bearing COX-2 over-expressing human breast cancer xenografts. We suggest that EP4A can avoid thrombo-embolic side effects of long term use of COX-2 inhibitors by sparing cardio-protective roles of PGI2 via IP receptor activation or PGE2 via EP3 receptor activation. Furthermore, we identified two COX-2/EP4 induced oncogenic and SLC-stimulating microRNAs - miR526b and miR655, one of which (miR655) appears to be a potential blood biomarker in breast cancer patients, for monitoring SLC-ablative therapies such as with EP4A. We suggest that EP4A will likely produce the highest benefit in aggressive breast cancers such as COX-2 expressing triple-negative breast cancers, when combined with other newer agents such as PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1599.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: pregnancy associated plasma protein-A; breast cancer; triple negative breast cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; cancer therapy; cancer biomarker; immunotherapy
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:35:57 CEST)
Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) plays an integral role in breast cancer (BC), especially triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). This subtype accounts for the most aggressive BC, possesses high tumor heterogeneity, is least responsive to standard treatments and has the poorest clinical outcomes. There is a critical need to address the lack of effective targeted therapeutic options available. PAPP-A is a protein that is highly elevated during pregnancy. Frequently, higher PAPP-A expression is detected in tumors than in healthy tissues. The increase in expression coincides with increased rates of aggressive cancers. In BC, PAPP-A has been demonstrated to play a role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as acting as a biomarker for predicting patient outcomes. In this review, we present the role of PAPP-A, with specific focus on TNBC. The structure and function of PAPP-A, belonging to the pappalysin subfamily, and its proteolytic activity are assessed. We highlight the link of BC and PAPP-A with respect to the IGFBP/IGF axis, EMT, the window of susceptibility and the impact of pregnancy. Importantly, the relevance of PAPP-A as a TNBC clinical marker is reviewed and its influence on immune-related pathways are explored. The relationship and mechanisms involving PAPP-A reveal the potential for more treatment options that can lead to successful immunotherapeutic targets and the ability to assist with better predicting clinical outcomes in TNBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0015.v1
Subject: Nursing, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: breast cancer; mastectomy; micropigmentation; nipple-areola complex; tattooing
Online: 1 December 2023 (03:14:52 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the impact of the establishment of a nursing practice for micropigmentation of the nipple-areola complex at the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada on women who have undergone unilateral or bilateral mastectomies. Micropigmentation is a procedure for decorating the human body by implanting pigments and dyes at the sub-epidermal level for a temporary duration of several months or years. Methodology: Retrospective descriptive study conducted in the micropigmentation clinic of HUSC-Granada (Spain). The sample consisted of 167 patients: 24 declined the treatment, 3 had second thoughts and cancelled the appointment, and 135 were accepted. Results: The mean age of the women was 53 years (range:35–75 years). Of the patients, 64.1% came from San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada, the rest from Virgen de las Nieves Hospital in Granada (19.6 %), hospitals in the province of Almería (7.2 %), and private hospitals and clinics (9.2 %). In the last two years, 36.4 % of the women had undergone surgery in the last 2 years. Complications arising from this technique are almost nonexistent. Conclusions: A very high number of women accepted the technique, with the highest proportion being those under 48 years of age. It is a technique that has not presented complications; therefore, it would be interesting to study how the application of the technique would affect women's self-esteem and quality of life
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0973.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Chromolaena tacotana; chalcone; breast cancer; intrinsic apoptosis; autophagy
Online: 16 November 2023 (10:43:38 CET)
Breast cancer (BC) ranks among the most prevalent cancers diagnosed in women. Its treatment necessitates precision tailored to the cancer's genetic makeup for enhanced efficacy. Research has been directed towards natural compounds for their anti-BC properties, aiming to augment existing treatment modalities. Chromolaena tacotana (Klatt) R.M. King and H. Rob, commonly referred to as Ch. tacotana, is a notable source of bioactive hydroxy-methylated flavonoids. However, the specific anti-BC mechanisms of these flavonoids, particularly those present in the plant's inflorescences, remain partly undefined. This study focuses on assessing a chalcone derivative extracted from Ch. tacotana inflorescences for its potential to concurrently activate regulated autophagy and intrinsic apoptosis in Luminal A and triple-negative BC cells. We determined the chemical composition of the chalcone using ultraviolet (UV) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Its selective cytotoxicity against BC cell lines was assessed using the MTT assay. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis were employed to examine the modulation of proteins governing autophagy and the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Additionally, in silico simulations were conducted to predict interactions between the chalcone and various anti-apoptotic proteins, including the mTOR protein. The chalcone was identified as 2',4-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxy-chalcone (DDC), also known as Flavokavain C (FKC). This compound demonstrated selective inhibition of BC cell proliferation and triggered autophagy and intrinsic apoptosis. It induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and altered mitochondrial outer membrane potential (∆ψm). The study observed the activation of autophagic LC3-II and mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins in both BC cell lines. The regulation of Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 proteins varied according to BC subtype, yet they showed promising molecular interactions with DDC. Among the examined pro-survival proteins, mTOR and Mcl-1 exhibited the most favorable binding energies and were downregulated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Further research is needed to fully understand the molecular dynamics involved in the activation and interaction of autophagy and apoptosis pathways in cancer cells in response to potential anticancer agents like the hydroxy-methylated flavonoids from Ch. tacotana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0940.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: nonylphenol; breast milk; HPLC-SPE analysis, breastfeeding, lifestyle
Online: 15 November 2023 (04:08:43 CET)
: Nonylphenol is an endocrine disruptor who belongs to alkylphenol group of chemicals and its high occurrence in the environment can caused an adverse effect on human health. The breast milk can serve as a marker to take measure of human exposure to these chemicals through different routes of exposure. In this study, the influence of different factors (kind of wastes mothers drink, consummation of fish, pork and beef; using gloves, mail polish, using vitamins and medication) on the concentration on nonylphenol in breast milk were studied. Concentrations of nonylphenol in breast milk were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The lowest and highest concentration of nonylphenol in breast milk was 0.97 ng/mL and 4.37 ng/mL, respectively. The selected factors such as pork, beef, fish consumption, vitamin supplementation, medication, using of gloves, nail polish and gel nails were observed in relation to 4-nonylphenol concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1934.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: breast cancer; depression; fatigue; insomnia; quality of life
Online: 30 October 2023 (13:51:16 CET)
The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of quality of life (QOL) changes in breast cancer survivors (BCS) and to determine factors associated with subgroups of consistently low or deteriorated QOL. We enrolled 101 women recently diagnosed with breast cancer in South Korea and asked them to complete a questionnaire at baseline (within 1 month of diagnosis), 1 year later (Year 1), 2 years later (Year 2), and 3 years later (Year 3). We assessed QOL using the global QOL subscale from the EORTC QLQ-C30. We defined low QOL as a global QOL score 10 points below the mean score of the general population. Based on low QOL as defined in this study, we identified subgroups of QOL changes over 3 years. We identified four subgroups of QOL changes: improved (47.4%), stable (30%), continuously low (8.8%), and deteriorated (13.8%) and considered the last two categories (22.6%) as poor QOL. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that significant determinants of poor QOL were insomnia at Year 1, fatigue and anxiety at Year 2, and fatigue, depression, and comorbidity at Year 3. In conclusion, persistent symptoms of insomnia, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and comorbidity are potential risk factors for poor QOL in BCS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: EHF; NDRG2; STAT3; Senescence; Breast cancer; TCGA data
Online: 17 October 2023 (05:09:29 CEST)
(1) Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ETS homologous factor (EHF) in malignant breast cancer cells. (2) Methods: Overexpression and knockdown of the EHF gene in human and mouse breast cancer cells were performed, and the TCGA dataset and Q-omics were analyzed. (3) Results: We found that the tumor suppressor NDRG2 is correlated with EHF gene expression in triple-negative breast cancer cells, that EHF overexpression results in reduced cell proliferation and that apoptosis is promoted by chemotherapeutic reagent treatment of EHF-overexpressing cells. By EHF overexpression, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and p21WAF1/CIP1 expression were increased, suggesting that EHF may induce cellular senescence. In addition, overexpression of EHF reduced the migratory ability and inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, EHF inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT3. Overexpression of EHF also reduced tumor size, and lung metastasis in vivo. At the tumor site, β-galactosidase activity was increased by EHF. Finally, Kaplan-Meier-plotter analysis showed that TNBC patients with high expression of EHF had a longer relapse-free survival rate. (4) Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that EHF inhibits breast tumor progression by inducing senescence and regulating EMT in TNBC cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: breast cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; vimentin; vascular invasion; prognosis
Online: 4 October 2023 (11:22:07 CEST)
To clarify whether changes in biological features of breast tumor cells and intra-tumor immunity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) may correlate with pathological responses and prognosis in breast cancer patients treated with NAC, we investigated various biomarkers using both pre- and post-NAC tumor samples. The study subjects were 24 primary breast cancer patients, who were treated with NAC at the Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School Hospital between 2010 and 2011. All of them had a non-pathological complete response (pCR) to NAC and their pre- and post-NAC tumor samples were available for biomarker assays. Ki67 labeling index, apoptosis, factors related to cancer stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and expression levels of CD-8, CD-4, FoxP3, PD-L1, and PD-1 were studied using the paired samples. Biological characteristics of residual tumors such as nuclear grade (NG) and vascular invasion (v) were also investigated. The median age was 53 years-old and 14 patients had stage III tumors, while 10 had stage II tumors. A higher expression level of CD8, CD4, or PD-1 in pre-NAC samples and of CD8, CD4 or PD-L1 in post-NAC samples was significantly correlated with a better pathological response to NAC. Positivity of ZEB1, vimentin, and v or NG 3 in post-NAC samples was significantly correlated with either worse disease-free survival (DFS) or worse overall survival (OS) by univariate analyses. Multivariate analyses for DFS and OS revealed that positivity for v and vimentin expression in residual tumors were independent prognostic factors in this study. These findings indicate that activated intra-tumor immune microenvironments may play significant roles in pathological responses to NAC, and that the up-regulation of vimentin and v-positivity in residual tumors may be pivotal prognostic factors in non-pCR cases to NAC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1131.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: nonylphenol; breast milk; HPLC-SPE analysis; breastfeeding; lifestyle
Online: 18 September 2023 (13:29:54 CEST)
Nonylphenol is a endocrine disruptors who belongs to alkyphenol groups. It´s high occurrence in the environment can caused an adverse effect on human health. The breast milk can serve as a marker to take measure of human exposure to these chemicals through different routes of exposure. In this study, the influence of different factors (including the length of accommodation, kind of wastes mothers drink, con summation of fish, pork and beef; using gloves, mail polish, using vitamins and medication) on the concentration on nonylphenol in breast milk were studied. The length of accommodation has a statistically significant effect on nonylphenol, concentration in breast milk (p value was 0.02). Other mentioned factors had not a significant influence on nonylphenol values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0961.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: breast cancer; chemotherapy; lipids; triglycerides; HDL; LDL; cholesterol
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:25:14 CEST)
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Cardiovascular diseases are common complications after chemotherapy due to the effect of the drug on lipid levels. This study aimed to explore the changes in lipid profiles in patients with breast cancer under chemotherapy. Methods: In this prospective study, 50 patients with breast cancer participated. Three biochemical-lipid hematological tests were performed: total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL-C), and Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C) before initiation (pre-chemotherapy), at the start (1st follow-up), and at the completion (2nd follow-up) of the first cycle of chemotherapy. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Analyses were conducted using SPSS Statistical Software (version 22.0). Results: Mean TC values increased significantly at 2nd follow-up. TG values decreased significantly from 1st to 2nd follow-up. HDL-C was significantly lower at 1st follow-up compared to pre-chemotherapy and 2nd follow-up reaching similar to the initial levels. LDL-C values were significantly higher at 2nd follow-up compared to pre-chemotherapy measurement. Significantly positive correlations of BMI with pre-chemotherapy LDL-C, 1st follow-up TC, 1st follow-up LDL-C, 2nd follow-up TC, and 2nd follow-up LDL-C were found. Conclusions: There is a statistically significant increase in the levels of TC and LDL-C in breast cancer patients during chemotherapy. This study was not registered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0006.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: breast cancer; machine learning; BRACA1; BRACA2; biomarker; QDA
Online: 1 September 2023 (07:40:33 CEST)
Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of death in the United States in women. 1 in 8 women in their lifetime has a risk of developing breast cancer. With advances in omics technology, more data is available for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. The help of Machine Learning algorithms, a subdomain of Artificial Intelligence, would allow for a better clinical support tool. Machine Learning could be the key to answering a complex problem in BC. The methodology of this research question involves collecting and finding data such as RNA-Seq datasets, selecting and training appropriate machine learning algorithms, and evaluating the performance of the algorithms in predicting BC prognosis. Also, the study explores and tries to identify the most relevant genes and pathways through feature selection extraction and dimensionality reduction techniques. After applying feature extraction, the top 10 genes were extracted using the Univariate Feature Selection (UFS) method, precisely the SelectKBest technique. After employing different machine learning algorithms, such as Networks, Random Forest, Linear SVM, Logistic Regression, and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), we found QDA was the best model in classifying the RNA-seq dataset with a 96% accuracy rate and 94% ROC AUC. This study suggests that AK2 and CD68 have a positive correlation with each other, and it could potentially be a biomarker and therapeutic target for BC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Breast cancer; Diagnostic; Mammography; Ultrasound; Magnetic resonance imaging
Online: 10 July 2023 (13:54:10 CEST)
Breast cancer is the foremost common in women, and its early diagnosis will help treat and increase patients' survival. This review article aims to studies on recent findings of standard imaging techniques and their characteristics for breast cancer diagnosis and recent nanoparticles (NPs) which are used for breast cancer detection. Herein, The search was performed in the literature through scientific citation websites, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science until May 2023. A comprehensive study on different imaging modalities and NPs for breast cancer diagnosis is reviewed, and their successes, challenges, and limitations are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0808.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Disintegrin-like; breast cancer; TNBC; HUVEC; migration; angiogenesis
Online: 13 June 2023 (04:03:08 CEST)
Venoms are a rich source of bioactive compounds, and among them is leberagin-C (Leb-C), a disintegrin-like protein derived from the venom Macrovipera lebetina transmediterrannea snakes. Leb-C has shown promising inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation. Previous studies have demonstrated that this SECD protein specifically targets α5β1, αvβ3 and αvβ6 integrins through a mimic mechanism of RGD disintegrins. In our current study, we focused on exploring the potential effects of Leb-C on metastatic breast cancer. Our findings revealed that Leb-C disrupted the adhesion, migration, and invasion capabilities of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and its highly metastatic D3H2LN sub-population. Additionally, we observed significant suppression of adhesion, migration, and invasion of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, Leb-C demonstrated a strong inhibitory effect on fibroblast growth factor 2-induced proliferation of HUVEC. We conducted in vivo experiments using nude mice and found that treatment with 2 µM of Leb-C resulted in a remarkable 73% reduction in D3H2LN xenograft tumor size. Additionally, quantification of intratumor microvessels revealed a 50 % reduction in tumor angiogenesis in xenograft after 21 days of twice-weekly treatment with 2 µM of Leb-C. Collectively, these findings suggest the potential utility of this dinsintegrin-like protein for inhibiting aggressive and resistant metastatic breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Triple negative breast cancer; chemotherapy; immunotherapy; limitations; nanotechnology
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:58:25 CEST)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a negative expression of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER2). The survival rate for TNBC is generally worse than other breast cancer subtypes. TNBC treatment has made significant advances, but certain limitations remain. Treatment for TNBC can be challenging since the disease has various subtypes. Individualized therapy is recommended rather than generalized therapy, given the genetic variations among these TNBC subtypes. A precise and effective treatment for TNBC requires identifying prognostic markers. Depending on the type and stage of TNBC, patients are treated with various therapeutic interventions. A variety of treatment options are available, such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Chemotherapy is the most common of these options. TNBC is generally treated with systemic chemotherapy using drugs such as anthracyclines and taxanes in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant settings. Developing resistance to anticancer drugs and off target toxicity are the primary hindrances to chemotherapeutic solutions for cancer. It is imperative that researchers, clinicians, and pharmaceutical companies work together to develop effective treatment options for TNBC. Several studies have suggested nanotechnology as a potential solution to the problem of suboptimal TNBC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1600.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Breast cancer; Rutin; Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition; Metastasis; Angiogenesis
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:41:57 CEST)
Rutin has been reported as a potential anti-cancer agent for several decades. This study evaluated the effects of rutin on the proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Increasing concentrations of rutin significantly stimulated the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells compared to controls. Wound scratch assay demonstrated that rutin had an inducing effect on the migration of the cells. In MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, rutin upregulated MKI67, VIM, CDH2, FN1, and VEGFA and downregulated CDH1 and THBS1 genes. It also increased N-cadherin and VEGFA and decreased E-cadherin and thrombospondin 1 protein expression. Our data indicated that rutin could stimulate proliferation, migration, and pro-angiogenic activity in two different breast cancer cell lines. This phytoestrogen induced invasion and migration of both cell lines by a mechanism involving the EMT process. This suggests that rutin may act as a breast cancer-promoting phytoestrogen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0284.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; contrast-enhanced mammography; magnetic resonance imaging
Online: 5 May 2023 (03:26:25 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) and compare breast lesions on CEM and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using 5 features. We propose to create a flowchart for BI-RADS classification of breast lesions on CEM based on the Kaiser score (KS) flowchart for breast MRI. Included were 68 subjects (women and men; median age 61.4 ± 11.6 years) who were suspected of having a malignant process in the breast based on digital mammography (MG) findings. The patients underwent breast ultrasound (US), CEM, MRI, and biopsy of the suspicious lesion. There were 47 patients with malignant lesions confirmed by biopsy and 21 patients with benign lesions, for each of which a KS was calculated. In the patients with malignant lesions, the MRI-derived KS was 9 (IQR 8-9), its CEM equivalent was 9 (IQR 8-9), and BI-RADS was 5 (IQR 4-5). In patients with benign lesions, MRI-derived KS was 3 (IQR 2-3), its CEM equivalent was 3 (IQR 1.7-5), and BI-RADS was 3 (IQR 0-4). There was no significant difference between the ROC-AUC of CEM and MRI (P=0.749). In conclusion, there were no significant differences in KS results between CEM and breast MRI. The KS flowchart is useful for evaluating breast lesions on CEM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Asian women; breast cancer; transfer learning; artificial intelligence
Online: 1 March 2023 (08:51:04 CET)
This study utilised an ensemble of pre-trained networks and digital mammograms to develop a supplementary diagnostic tool for radiologists. Digital mammograms and their associated information were collected from the department of radiology and pathology, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. Thirteen pre-trained networks were selected and explored in this study. ResNet101V2 and ResNet152 had the highest mean PR-AUC, MobileNetV3Small and ResNet152 had the highest mean precision, ResNet101 had the highest mean F1 score, and ResNet152 and ResNet152V2 had the highest mean Youden J index. Subsequently, three ensemble models were developed using the top three pre-trained networks based on PR-AUC, precision, and F1 score. The final ensemble model had a mean precision, F1 score, and Youden J index of 0.82, 0.68, and 0.12, respectively. Additionally, the final model demonstrated a balanced performance across mammographic density. In conclusion, this study exhibited the good performance of the ensemble transfer learning on digital mammograms for the purpose of breast cancer risk estimation. This model can be utilised as a supplementary diagnostic tool for radiologists, thus, reducing their workloads.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HER2; breast cancer; NEDD9 adaptor protein; hyperplasia; AURKA
Online: 3 January 2023 (06:57:38 CET)
The HER2 overexpression occurs in 10–20% of breast cancer patients. HER2+ tumors are characterized by increase in Ki67, early relapse and increased metastasis. There is little known about factors influencing early stages of HER2- tumorigenesis and diagnostic markers. Previously, it was shown that deletion of NEDD9 in mouse models of HER2 cancer interferes with tumor growth, but the role of NEDD9 upregulation is currently unexplored. We report that NEDD9 is overexpressed in a significant subset of HER2+ breast cancers and correlates with limited response to anti-HER2 therapy. To investigate the mechanisms through which NEDD9 influences HER2-dependent tumorigenesis, we generated MMTV-Cre-NEDD9 transgenic mice. The analysis of mammary glands shows extensive ductal epithelium hyperplasia, increased branching, and terminal end bud expansion. The addition of oncogene Erbb2 (neu) leads to development of early hyperplastic benign lesions earlier (~16 weeks) with a significantly shorter latency than the control mice. Similarly, NEDD9 upregulation in MCF10A-derived acini leads to hyperplasia like DCIS. This phenotype is associated with activation of ERK1/2 and AURKA kinases leading to an increased proliferation of luminal cells. These findings indicate that NEDD9 is setting permissive conditions for HER2-induced tumorigenesis, thus identifying this protein as a potential diagnostic marker for early detection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: asian breast cancers; mammography screening; risk-based screening
Online: 4 August 2022 (06:20:25 CEST)
Close to half (45.4%) of 2.3 million breast cancers (BC) diagnosed in 2020 were from Asia. While the burden of breast cancer has been examined on the level of broad geographic regions, literature on more in-depth coverage of the individual countries and subregions of the Asian continent is lacking. This review examines the breast cancer burden in 47 Asian countries. Breast cancer screening guidelines and risk-based screening initiatives are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: biosymilars; metastatic breast cancer; trastuzumab; cost; her2; PTH
Online: 25 July 2022 (10:05:29 CEST)
Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) overexpression can be found in 15-20% of breast cancers, and it strongly correlates with aggressive clinical behavior and adverse prognosis. The first-line treatment for HER-2 positive metastatic breast cancers is the combination of trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and taxane (PTH). ABP 980 is a biosimilar of the innovator trastuzumab and is characterized by highly comparable effectiveness. Methods: The group of 61 patients with HER-2 positive MBC received biosimilar ABP 980 plus pertuzumab and docetaxel from November, 18, 2018 to December, 24, 2019. The response to therapy, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), metastases, and adverse effects among patients were determined and analyzed. Results: Initially, 42 women responded partially to the treatment and their median PFS was 27 months. Median PFS for the whole group was 18 months. Cardiotoxicity of treatment was noticed in all patients in the form of the reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction but only in 2 cases, it was the reason for withdrawing from therapy. Conclusion: Biosimilar ABP 980 is registered in the same indications as the innovator trastuzumab and their effectiveness, as well as side effects, are comparable. The costs of biosimilar make the therapy more accessible and thus more patients with MBC around the world can receive relevant treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0141.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SAMHD1; NSCLC; breast cancer; ovarian cancer; solid tumors
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:05:00 CET)
SAMHD1 is a deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) triphosphohydrolase with important roles in the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis, either through the regulation of intracellular dNTPs levels or the modulation of the DNA damage response. However, SAMHD1 role in cancer evolution is still unknown. We performed the first in-depth study of SAMHD1 role in advanced solid tumors, by analyzing samples of 128 patients treated with chemotherapy agents based on platinum derivatives and/or antimetabolites and developing novel in vitro knock-out models to explore the mechanisms driving SAMHD1 function in cancer. Low or no expression of SAMHD1 was associated with a positive prognosis in breast, ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cancer patients. A predictive value was associated to low-SAMHD1 expression in NSCLC and ovarian patients treated with antimetabolites in combination with platinum derivatives. In vitro, SAMHD1 knock-out cells showed increased γ-H2AX and apoptosis suggesting that SAMHD1 depletion induces DNA damage leading to cell death. In vitro treatment with platinum-derived drugs significantly enhanced γ-H2AX and apoptotic markers expression in knock-out cells, indicating a synergic effect of SAMHD1 depletion and platinum-based treatment. SAMHD1 expression represents a new strong prognostic and predictive biomarker in solid tumors and thus, modulation of SAMHD1 function may constitute a promising target for the improvement of cancer therapy.