REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: scRNA-seq; bioinformatics; subpopulations; analysis methods; single-cell RNA sequencing
Online: 21 September 2022 (11:22:50 CEST)
Single-cell RNA sequencing data facilitates investigation of cell heterogeneity and subpopulations as well as differentially abundant states however modern single-cell RNA sequencing datasets are growing in size and complexity requiring advances in the bioinformatic methods that analyze them. Many methods exist for each step of analysis including read alignment, normalization, quality control, batch effect correction, imputation and dimensionality reduction. With so many options to choose from at each step of the analysis, benchmarking and a synthesis of the literature on the methods available is necessary to inform biological researchers on the most optimal workflow for their data. Here, recent key methods of analysis are highlighted with a focus on methods that facilitate identification of cell subpopulations and differentially abundant cell states. With a constantly expanding toolset for each step in single-cell RNA sequencing dataset analysis, biological researchers should stay informed to utilize the most applicable methods for their own analyses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: neurotrauma; secondary mechanisms; neurodegeneration; therapeutics
Online: 13 June 2022 (09:35:44 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating event with severe long-term complications. TBI and its sequelae are one of the leading causes of death and disability in those under 50 years old. The full extent of secondary brain injury is still being intensely investigated; however, it is now clear that neurotrauma can incite chronic neurodegenerative processes. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Parkinson’s disease, and many other neurodegenerative syndromes have all been associated with a history of traumatic brain injury. The complex nature of these pathologies can make clinical assessment, diagnosis, and treatment challenging. The goal of this review is to provide a concise appraisal of the literature with focus on emerging strategies to improve clinical outcomes. First, we review the pathways involved in the pathogenesis of neurotrauma-related neurodegeneration and discuss the clinical implications of this rapidly evolving field. Next, because clinical evaluation and neuroimaging are essential to the diagnosis and management of neurodegenerative diseases, we analyze the clinical investigations that are transforming these areas of research. Finally, we briefly review some of the preclinical therapies that have shown the most promise in improving outcomes after neurotrauma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: helmet; military; sport; innovation; secondary injury
Online: 27 July 2022 (10:19:59 CEST)
Neurotrauma continues to contribute to significant mortality and disability. The need for better protective equipment is apparent. This review focuses on improved helmet design and the necessi-ty for continued research. We start by highlighting current innovations in helmet design for sport and subsequent utilization in the lay community for construction. The current standards by sport and organization are summarized. We then address current standards within the military envi-ronment. The pathophysiology is discussed with emphasis on how helmets provide protection. As innovative designs emerge, protection against secondary injury becomes apparent. Much research is needed, but this focused paper is intended to serve as a catalyst for improvement in helmet de-sign and implementation to provide more efficient and reliable neuroprotection across broad arenas.