REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1955.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: medical education; gamified learning; knowledge retention; algorithm
Online: 28 July 2023 (09:22:22 CEST)
The aim of this review was to summarize the available literature regarding resident and medical student education utilizing the spaced repetition program Anki. This review enables current residents and medical students to recognize and utilize evidence-proven study techniques to increase learning efficacy. A systemic review of papers across all medical journals available on Pubmed was conducted to identify studies published without time constraints. The search was for (Anki) and (spaced repetition residency). Available outcome data was collected and discussed independently for students and residents. Many studies showed a statistically significant increase in exam performance associated with Anki use and high levels of satisfaction among residents and medical students. Further research is warranted to provide high-quality evidence of Anki’s applications and there is a need for exploration in additional residency specialties. Anki use has steadily increased with both medical students and residents. The application demonstrated consistent improvement on exam-based performance and was regarded highly by users. As burnout and time constrictions threaten educational workflow, Anki may serve as a powerful tool to improve the quality of learning. Further data needs to be collected and analyzed in specialties where Anki use may already exist.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: scRNA-seq; bioinformatics; subpopulations; analysis methods; single-cell RNA sequencing
Online: 21 September 2022 (11:22:50 CEST)
Single-cell RNA sequencing data facilitates investigation of cell heterogeneity and subpopulations as well as differentially abundant states however modern single-cell RNA sequencing datasets are growing in size and complexity requiring advances in the bioinformatic methods that analyze them. Many methods exist for each step of analysis including read alignment, normalization, quality control, batch effect correction, imputation and dimensionality reduction. With so many options to choose from at each step of the analysis, benchmarking and a synthesis of the literature on the methods available is necessary to inform biological researchers on the most optimal workflow for their data. Here, recent key methods of analysis are highlighted with a focus on methods that facilitate identification of cell subpopulations and differentially abundant cell states. With a constantly expanding toolset for each step in single-cell RNA sequencing dataset analysis, biological researchers should stay informed to utilize the most applicable methods for their own analyses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neurotrauma; secondary mechanisms; neurodegeneration; therapeutics
Online: 13 June 2022 (09:35:44 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating event with severe long-term complications. TBI and its sequelae are one of the leading causes of death and disability in those under 50 years old. The full extent of secondary brain injury is still being intensely investigated; however, it is now clear that neurotrauma can incite chronic neurodegenerative processes. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Parkinson’s disease, and many other neurodegenerative syndromes have all been associated with a history of traumatic brain injury. The complex nature of these pathologies can make clinical assessment, diagnosis, and treatment challenging. The goal of this review is to provide a concise appraisal of the literature with focus on emerging strategies to improve clinical outcomes. First, we review the pathways involved in the pathogenesis of neurotrauma-related neurodegeneration and discuss the clinical implications of this rapidly evolving field. Next, because clinical evaluation and neuroimaging are essential to the diagnosis and management of neurodegenerative diseases, we analyze the clinical investigations that are transforming these areas of research. Finally, we briefly review some of the preclinical therapies that have shown the most promise in improving outcomes after neurotrauma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, neurologic injury, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke
Online: 4 September 2023 (15:39:56 CEST)
The present review aimed to identify through what means neurologic injury can predispose individuals to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In recent years, comprehensive studies have helped to clarify which structures in the central nervous system (CNS) that, when damaged, lead to distinct PTSD symptoms–namely dissociative reactions or flashbacks. Our review narrowed its focus to three common neurologic injuries including traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and stroke. Beyond discussing the potential mechanisms by which neurotrauma may lead to PTSD, we summarized our current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disorder and discussed predicted associations between the limbic system and PTSD. In particular, the role of noradrenergic neuromodulatory signaling on the HPA axis as it pertains to fear memory recall needs to be further explored to better understand its effects on limbic structures in PTSD patients. This paper also described how damage to the CNS can alter the function of the limbic system and result in characteristic symptoms of PTSD like intrusive memories and acute psychological distress. Further, our review intended to draw attention to a lack of PTSD prognosis in TBI, SAH, and stroke patients who could benefit from early treatment. PTSD symptoms often compound with pre-existing issues further deteriorating health outcomes for these patients. It is ultimately our goal to clarify the relationship between neurotrauma and PTSD such that earlier diagnoses and appropriate treatment are observed in clinic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Leukodystrophies; Demyelinating disorders; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Myelin Imaging; White matter disorders
Online: 2 November 2023 (08:20:34 CET)
Leukodystrophies, also known as demyelinating diseases, mainly affect the CNS. Clinical presentation of different types of leukodystrophies can be nonspecific and thus, imaging techniques like MRI can be used for a more definitive diagnosis. These diseases are characterized as cerebral lesions with characteristic demyelinating patterns, which can be used as differentiating tools. In this review, we talk about these MRI imaging findings for each leukodystrophy, associated genetics, blood work that can help differentiate, emerging diagnostics, and follow up imaging strategy. The leukodystrophies discussed in this paper include X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, Metachromatic leukodystrophy, Krabbe’s disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Alexander’s disease, Canavan disease, and Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0990.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; microRNAs; Exosomes
Online: 26 April 2023 (12:44:56 CEST)
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is most commonly seen in patients over 55 years of age and often results in a loss of many productive years. SAH has a high mortality rate, and sur-vivors often suffer from early and secondary brain injuries. Understanding the pathophysiology of the SAH is crucial to identifying potential therapeutic agents. One promising target for diagno-sis and prognosis of SAH is circulating microRNAs, which regulate gene expression and are in-volved in various physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we discuss the poten-tial of microRNAs as a target for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in SAH.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: helmet; military; sport; innovation; secondary injury
Online: 27 July 2022 (10:19:59 CEST)
Neurotrauma continues to contribute to significant mortality and disability. The need for better protective equipment is apparent. This review focuses on improved helmet design and the necessi-ty for continued research. We start by highlighting current innovations in helmet design for sport and subsequent utilization in the lay community for construction. The current standards by sport and organization are summarized. We then address current standards within the military envi-ronment. The pathophysiology is discussed with emphasis on how helmets provide protection. As innovative designs emerge, protection against secondary injury becomes apparent. Much research is needed, but this focused paper is intended to serve as a catalyst for improvement in helmet de-sign and implementation to provide more efficient and reliable neuroprotection across broad arenas.