ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0014.v4
Online: 29 December 2021 (12:39:03 CET)
The distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) has great potential for monitoring natural-resource reservoirs and borehole conditions. However, the large volume of data and complicated wavefield add challenges to processing and interpretation. In this study, we demonstrate that seismic interferometry based on deconvolution is a convenient tool for analyzing this complicated wavefield. We extract coherent wave from the observation of a borehole DAS system at the Brady geothermal field in Nevada. Then, we analyze the coherent reverberating waves, which are used for monitoring temporal changes of the system. These reverberations are tirelessly observed in the vertical borehole DAS data due to cable or casing ringing. The deconvolution method allows us to examine the wavefield at different boundary conditions. We interpret the deconvolved wavefields using a simple 1D string model. The velocity of this wave varies with depth, observation time, temperature, and pressure. We find the velocity is sensitive to disturbances in the borehole related to increasing operation intensity. The velocity decreases with rising temperature, which potentially suggests that the DAS cable or the casing are subjected to high temperature. This reverberation can be decomposed into distinct vibration modes in the spectrum. We find that the wave is dispersive, and the the fundamental mode propagate with a large velocity. The method can be useful for monitoring borehole conditions or reservoir property changes. For the later, we need better coupling than through only friction in the vertical borehole to obtain coherent energy from the formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0045.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Lithology performance; shear failure; surface methane capture borehole; shear strength
Online: 2 July 2019 (11:52:10 CEST)
The shear failure of surface methane capture borehole (SMCB) is the main cause of shortening life cycle of SMCB but lack of lithological analysis. In order to improve the stability of SMCB and improve efficient drainage period, it is of great significance to investigate the lithology performances for shear failure of SMCB. Based on the direct shear tests and geological method, the results shows that the shear displacement increases as the grain size decreases. Mechanical jump occurs at the lithological boundaries, which is mainly determined by the composition of rock specimens. The cohesion is the mainly possible reason for the step change of shear strength. Lithology with high quartz and low clay may effectively improve shear strength and failure resistance. Boreholes drilled into the weaker siltstone and mudstone sections may potentially experience preferential damage due to the larger shear displacement and shear strength. Protective measures at these sections may improve the stability of the borehole casing. The probing data where it was found that boreholes closure validated the prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: shallow geothermal resource; borehole heat exchanger; thermal response test; TRT
Online: 1 December 2017 (11:18:32 CET)
Theory of the Thermal Response Testing (TRT) is a well-known part of sizing process of the geothermal exchange system. Multiple parameters influence accuracy of effective ground thermal conductivity measurement; like testing time, variable power, climate interferences, groundwater effect etc. To improve accuracy of the TRT we introduced procedure to additionally analyze falloff temperature decline after power test. Method is based on a premise of analogy between TRT and petroleum well testing, since origin of both procedures lies in diffusivity equation with solutions for heat conduction or pressure analysis during radial flow. Applying pressure build-up test interpretation technique to the borehole heat exchanger testing, greater accuracy could be achieved since ground conductivity could be obtained from this period. Analysis was conducted on coaxial exchanger with five different power steps, and with both direct and reverse flow regime. Each test was set with 96hr of a classical TRT, followed by 96hr of temperature decline, making it almost 2000 hours of cumulative borehole testing. Results showed that ground conductivity value could vary as much as 25% depending on test time, seasonal period and power fluctuations while thermal conductivity obtained from a falloff period gives more stable values with only 10% value variation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Shallow geothermal, Borehole heat exchanger, Heat pump, Renewable energy, Applied thermogeology
Online: 27 February 2019 (11:58:26 CET)
When considering implementation of shallow geothermal energy as a renewable source for heating and cooling of the building, special care should be taken in hydraulic design of borehole heat exchanger system. Laminar flow can occur in pipes due to usage of glycol mixture at low temperature or inadequate flow rate. This can lead to lower heat extraction and rejection rates of the exchanger because of higher thermal resistances. Furthermore, by increasing flow rate to achieve turbulent flow and satisfactory heat transfer rate can lead to increase the pressure drop of the system and oversizing of circulation pump which leads to impairment of seasonal coefficient of performance at the heat pump. Most frequently used borehole heat exchanger system in Europe is double-loop pipe system with smooth inner wall. Lately, development is focused on implementation of different configuration as well as with ribbed inner wall which ensures turbulent flow in the system, even at lower flow rates. At a location in Zagreb, classical and extended thermal response test was conducted on three different heat exchanger configurations in the same geological environment. With classic TRT test, thermogeological properties of the ground and thermal resistance of the borehole were determined for each smooth or turbulator pipe configuration. Extended Steady-State Thermal Response Step Test (TRST) was implemented, which incorporate series of power steps to determine borehole extraction rate at the define steady-state heat transfer conditions of 0/-3°C. Results show that heat exchangers with ribbed inner pipe wall have advantages over classic double-loop smooth pipe design, in terms of greater steady state heat extraction rate and more favorable hydraulic conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ground coupled Heat Exchangers; Thermal Response Test; Thermal conductivity; Thermal diffusivity; Geotechnical properties; Borehole heat exchangers
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:13:18 CET)
The performance of ground heat exchangers systems depends on the knowledge of the thermal parameters of the ground like thermal conductivity, thermal capacity and diffusivity. The knowledge of these parameters often requires quite accurate experimental analysis, known under the name of Thermal Response Test (TRT). In this paper, after a general analysis of the various available types of TRT and the study of the theoretical basics of the method, the perspective of the definition of a simplified routine method of analysis based on the combination of a particular version of TRT and the routine geotechnical tests for the characterization of soil stratigraphy and of the ground characteristics, mandatory before the construction of a new buildings, even if limited to quite short drilling depth (lower than 30 m). The idea of developing TRT in connection with geotechnical test activity has the objective of promoting a widespread use of in-situ experimental analysis and of reducing TRT costs and time duration of the experimental analysis. The considerations exposed in the present paper lead to reconsider a particular variety of the TRT in particular the version known as Thermal Response Test while Drilling (TRTWD).