REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0106.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Keywords: chloroplast genetic engineering; Homologus recombination; ORF; photosynthesis
Online: 7 November 2022 (04:31:29 CET)
Abstract: Chloroplast is a new hotspot in the field of plant transformation system of plant genetic engineering. Initially developed in Chlamydomonas and tobacco, it is now feasible in a broad range of species. They exploit the homologous recombination and segregation pathways acting on chloroplast genomes and are based on direct repeats, transient co-integration or co-transformation and segregation of trait and marker genes. Foreign site-specific recombinases and their target sites provide an alternative and effective method for removing marker genes from plastids.Chloroplast genetic engineering has many advantages over nuclear genetic enginering, especially site-specific introduction of foreign genes ,leading to the absence of gene siliency and positon effect,which providing the available to explore the regulation and mechanism of chloroplast genes`expression in vitro .It also can identify the structure and function of the chloroplast genome , the expression of chloroplast affect the nulear genome. In this paper, the basic methodology of chloroplast transformation, the current techniques and applications, and the future possibilities for Chloroplast genetic engineering was reviewed[1-3].
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: unmanned surface vehicles; optical visual perception; image stabilization; defogging; target detection; target tracking
Online: 24 November 2019 (16:54:46 CET)
Unmanned surface vehicles have the advantages of maneuverability, concealment, wide activity area and low cost of use. Therefore, they have broad application prospects. This makes unmanned surface vehicles a research hotspot at home and abroad, and the sensing technology is the basis for the unmanned surface vehicles to perform tasks. The perception technology based on optical vision has the advantages of convenient application, relatively low cost, easy data acquisition and large amount of information, and has been widely studied by scholars at home and abroad. This paper mainly discusses the research of optical vision in unmanned surface vehicles from five aspects: Firstly, the water surface image preprocessing based on unmanned surface vehicles, mainly including water surface image stabilization research and defogging enhancement research; two water boundary detection; It is the use of light vision target detection; the fourth is the surface target tracking method. Finally, the light vision research of unmanned surface vehicles is summarized and forecasted.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: capillary; microfluidic device; single-molecule recycling; maximum likelihood
Online: 26 May 2021 (10:50:13 CEST)
Microfluidic devices have been extensively investigated in recent years in fields including ligand-binding analysis, chromatographic separation, molecular dynamics, and DNA sequencing. To prolong the observation of a single molecule in aqueous buffer, the solution in a sub-micron scale channel is driven by the electric field and reversed after a fixed delay following each passage, so that the molecule passes back and forth through the laser focus and the time before irreversible photobleaching is extended. However, this practice requires complex chemical treatment to the inner surface of the channel to prevent unexpected sticking to the surface and the confined space renders features, such as a higher viscosity and lower dielectric constant, which slow the Brownian motion of the molecule compared to the bulk liquid. In this paper, we have fixed a capillary microchannel with an inner diameter of 2 microns on top of a piezo stage to recycle the molecule and collected the fluorescence by a confocal microscope. The passing times of the molecule through the laser focus are calculated by a real-time control system based on an FPGA and the commands of translation are given to the piezo stage through a feedback algorithm. We have achieved a maximum number of recycles of more than 200 and developed a maximum-likelihood estimation of the diffusivity of the molecule, which attains results of the same magnitude as previous reports. This technique simplifies the overall procedure of the single-molecule recycling and could be useful for the ligand-binding studies of biomolecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0175.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: CNT; in-situ repaiir; Fractsure toughness; Cohesive interface modelling
Online: 12 October 2022 (10:29:38 CEST)
This study aims to develop an in-situ field repair approach, special for aircraft composite structures, to enhance the interlaminar toughness of plain woven composites (PWCs) by adding multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs are dispersed at each interface between prepreg layers by means of solvent spraying with the density is 1.58 g/m2. And then, the layers are stacked with the predefined sequence and cured at 120℃ and 1 bar pressure using the heat repairing instrument. Moreover, double cantilever beam (DCB) standard test is used to investigate the interlaminar toughening effect due to the MWCNTs. For comparison, original samples are also prepared, the results indicate that the introduction of MWCNTs can favorably enhance the interlaminar toughness of PWCs at field repair approach and the Mode I fracture energy release rate GIC increases by 102.92%. Based on finite element method (FEM) of continuum damage mechanics, the original and MWCNTs toughening specimen under DCB Mode I fracture are modeled and analyzed. The simulation and experiment are in good agreement. Finally, the toughening mechanism of MWCNTs is explored by scanning electron microscope (SEM), it is founded that a large amount of Fiber-matrix (F-M) interface debonding and matrix cracking of mountain shape are the major modes of fracture accompanied with few fiber breakage and matrix peeling off for the MWCNTs toughening specimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0446.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: plasma-TIG; coupled arc; arc profile; pressure distribution
Online: 30 May 2018 (09:39:07 CEST)
In this article, a novel hybrid welding process called plasma-TIG coupled arc welding was proposed to improve the efficiency and quality of welding by utilizing the full advantage of plasma and TIG welding processes. The two arcs of plasma and TIG were pulled into each other into one coupled arc under the effect of Lorentz force and plasma flow force during welding experiments. The arc behavior of coupled arc was studied by means of it’s arc profile, arc pressure and arc force conditions. The coupled arc pressure distribution measurements were performed. The effects of welding conditions on coupled arc pressure were evaluated and the maximum coupled arc pressure was improved compared with single-plasma arc and single-TIG arc. It was found that the maximum arc pressure was mainly determined by plasma arc current and plasma gas flow. According to the results, the proposed coupled arc welding process have both advantages of plasma arc and TIG method, and it has a broad application prospect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0315.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; ACE2 receptor; medical cannabis; CBD
Online: 19 April 2020 (02:45:50 CEST)
With the rapidly growing pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the new and challenging to treat zoonotic SARS-CoV2 coronavirus, there is an urgent need for new therapies and prevention strategies that can help curtail disease spread and reduce mortality. Inhibition of viral entry and thereby spread constitute plausible therapeutic avenues. Similar to other respiratory pathogens, SARS-CoV2 is transmitted through respiratory droplets, with potential for aerosol and contact spread. It uses receptor-mediated entry into the human host via angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) that is expressed in lung tissue, as well as oral and nasal mucosa, kidney, testes, and the gastrointestinal tract. Modulation of ACE2 levels in these gateway tissues may prove a plausible strategy for decreasing disease susceptibility. Cannabis sativa, especially one high in the anti-inflammatory cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), has been proposed to modulate gene expression and inflammation and harbour anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Working under the Health Canada research license, we have developed over 800 new Cannabis sativa lines and extracts and hypothesized that high-CBD C. sativa extracts may be used to modulate ACE2 expression in COVID-19 target tissues. Screening C. sativa extracts using artificial human 3D models of oral, airway, and intestinal tissues, we identified 13 high CBD C. sativa extracts that modulate ACE2 gene expression and ACE2 protein levels. Our initial data suggest that some C. sativa extract down-regulate serine protease TMPRSS2, another critical protein required for SARS-CoV2 entry into host cells. While our most effective extracts require further large-scale validation, our study is crucial for the future analysis of the effects of medical cannabis on COVID-19. The extracts of our most successful and novel high CBD C. sativa lines, pending further investigation, may become a useful and safe addition to the treatment of COVID-19 as an adjunct therapy. They can be used to develop easy-to-use preventative treatments in the form of mouthwash and throat gargle products for both clinical and at-home use. Such products ought to be tested for their potential to decrease viral entry via the oral mucosa. Given the current dire and rapidly evolving epidemiological situation, every possible therapeutic opportunity and avenue must be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0115.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Controlled drainage; Water content; Salinity (EC); Mineral nitrogen; Nitrogen loss; Yield of oilseed sunflower
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:06:58 CEST)
Controlled drainage (CD) is an important agricultural measure for maintaining soil moisture and nutrients, controlling groundwater level, and increasing crop yield. In arid regions, CD can be used to improve the water supply in agriculture and reduce environmental pollution. In this study, we investigated the effect of CD, including a drainage depth of 40 cm (CWT1) and 70 cm (CWT2) during the plant growth period, free drainage (FD), and open ditch drainage (OD) on the migration of water, nutrients, and salts in the soil; the dynamics of groundwater level; the loss of soil nitrogen; and the growth of oilseed sunflower plants. Compared with FD, CD increased the water and nutrient content in the soil, reduced nitrogen loss, and enhanced the ability of the soil to continuously supply nitrogen to the oilseed sunflower plants, which benefited plant growth at later growth stages and reduced environmental pollution. During the period between irrigation at the budding stage and harvest stage, the average soil water content in the 0–20 cm soil layer in CWT1 increased by 3.67%, 4.78%, and 0.55%, respectively, compared with that in CWT2, FD, and OD. The soil mineral content in CWT1 was 25.17%, 35.05%, and 17.78% higher than that in CWT2, FD, and OD, respectively, indicating that higher soil salinity occurred at the later stage of plant growth in CWT1, which actually had little effect on the plants due to their enhanced salt tolerance and increased need for water and nutrients at that stage. In addition, CD delayed the decline in groundwater level, which allowed the plants to use groundwater at later growth stages, and as a result the yield and water use efficiency were improved. CWT1 significantly increased oilseed sunflower yield by 4.52–11.14% and increased water use efficiency by 1.16–10.8%. Moreover, CWT1 also increased the survival rate of the oilseed sunflower plants by 2.62–2.92%, and the plants demonstrated good growth. Therefore, under CD conditions, plants used soil water and nitrogen more efficiently and, as a result, their productivity was increased, and the water quality was improved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0234.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: 3-D fluid-electrostatic coupling field; electrical sensor performance; concentration measurement; gas/solid two-phase flow
Online: 31 August 2016 (09:03:30 CEST)
This paper proposed three-dimensional numerical simulation method by coupling of electrostatic and fluid fields to evaluating the performance of electrical sensor in the concentration measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow. Compared with the static numerical simulation, this real-time dynamic 3-D simulation method can research on a designed capacitance sensor combining the dynamic characteristics of the two-phase flows for concentration measurement. Several fluid-electrostatic models of transmission pipes with different sensor structures are built. Under different test positions and different particle concentrations, the flow characteristics and the corresponding electric signals can be obtained, and the correlation coefficient between the concentration values and the capacitance values are used for performance evaluation of the sensors. The effects of flow regimes on concentration measurement are also been investigated in this paper. To validate the results of simulation, an experimental platform with horizontal straight pipe for phase volume concentration measurement of solid/air two-phase flow is built, and the experimental results agree well with simulation conclusions. The simulation and test results show that the coupling models can give constructive reference opinions for the sensor design and collection of installation position in different transmission pipelines, which are very important for the practical process of pneumatic conveying system.