REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0106.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Keywords: chloroplast genetic engineering; Homologus recombination; ORF; photosynthesis
Online: 7 November 2022 (04:31:29 CET)
Abstract: Chloroplast is a new hotspot in the field of plant transformation system of plant genetic engineering. Initially developed in Chlamydomonas and tobacco, it is now feasible in a broad range of species. They exploit the homologous recombination and segregation pathways acting on chloroplast genomes and are based on direct repeats, transient co-integration or co-transformation and segregation of trait and marker genes. Foreign site-specific recombinases and their target sites provide an alternative and effective method for removing marker genes from plastids.Chloroplast genetic engineering has many advantages over nuclear genetic enginering, especially site-specific introduction of foreign genes ,leading to the absence of gene siliency and positon effect,which providing the available to explore the regulation and mechanism of chloroplast genes`expression in vitro .It also can identify the structure and function of the chloroplast genome , the expression of chloroplast affect the nulear genome. In this paper, the basic methodology of chloroplast transformation, the current techniques and applications, and the future possibilities for Chloroplast genetic engineering was reviewed[1-3].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0076.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV); Gravity-aided inertial navigation system (GAINS); A* optimization; path planning; posterior Cramér-Rao bound (PCRB)
Online: 6 April 2023 (10:10:02 CEST)
Gravity-aided inertial navigation system (GAINS) is an important development in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) navigation. An effective path planning algorithm plays an important role in the performance of navigation in long-term underwater missions. By combining the gravity information obtained at each position with the error information from the INS, the posterior Cram\'er-Rao bound (PCRB) of GAINS is derived in this paper. The PCRB is the estimated lower bound of position variance for navigation along the planned trajectory. And the sum of PCRB is used as the minimum cost from the initial state to the current state in the state space, and the position error prediction variance of inertial navigation system (INS) is used as the minimum estimated cost of the path from the current state to the goal state in the A* algorithm. Thus, a path planning method with optimal navigation accuracy is proposed. According to simulation results, traveling along the path planed by the proposed method can rapidly improve the positioning accuracy while consuming just slightly more distance. Even when measuring noise changes, the planned path can still maintain optimal positioning accuracy, and high positioning accuracy is possible for any trajectory located within a certain range of the planned path.
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: unmanned surface vehicles; optical visual perception; image stabilization; defogging; target detection; target tracking
Online: 24 November 2019 (16:54:46 CET)
Unmanned surface vehicles have the advantages of maneuverability, concealment, wide activity area and low cost of use. Therefore, they have broad application prospects. This makes unmanned surface vehicles a research hotspot at home and abroad, and the sensing technology is the basis for the unmanned surface vehicles to perform tasks. The perception technology based on optical vision has the advantages of convenient application, relatively low cost, easy data acquisition and large amount of information, and has been widely studied by scholars at home and abroad. This paper mainly discusses the research of optical vision in unmanned surface vehicles from five aspects: Firstly, the water surface image preprocessing based on unmanned surface vehicles, mainly including water surface image stabilization research and defogging enhancement research; two water boundary detection; It is the use of light vision target detection; the fourth is the surface target tracking method. Finally, the light vision research of unmanned surface vehicles is summarized and forecasted.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: capillary; microfluidic device; single-molecule recycling; maximum likelihood
Online: 26 May 2021 (10:50:13 CEST)
Microfluidic devices have been extensively investigated in recent years in fields including ligand-binding analysis, chromatographic separation, molecular dynamics, and DNA sequencing. To prolong the observation of a single molecule in aqueous buffer, the solution in a sub-micron scale channel is driven by the electric field and reversed after a fixed delay following each passage, so that the molecule passes back and forth through the laser focus and the time before irreversible photobleaching is extended. However, this practice requires complex chemical treatment to the inner surface of the channel to prevent unexpected sticking to the surface and the confined space renders features, such as a higher viscosity and lower dielectric constant, which slow the Brownian motion of the molecule compared to the bulk liquid. In this paper, we have fixed a capillary microchannel with an inner diameter of 2 microns on top of a piezo stage to recycle the molecule and collected the fluorescence by a confocal microscope. The passing times of the molecule through the laser focus are calculated by a real-time control system based on an FPGA and the commands of translation are given to the piezo stage through a feedback algorithm. We have achieved a maximum number of recycles of more than 200 and developed a maximum-likelihood estimation of the diffusivity of the molecule, which attains results of the same magnitude as previous reports. This technique simplifies the overall procedure of the single-molecule recycling and could be useful for the ligand-binding studies of biomolecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1679.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: long-tailed image classification; contrastive learning; data augmentation
Online: 23 June 2023 (12:17:21 CEST)
To solve the problem that the common long-tailed classification method does not use the semantic features of the original label text of the image, and the difference between the classification accuracy of most classes and minority classes is large, the long-tailed image classification method based on enhanced contrast visual language trains the head class and tail class samples separately, uses text image to pre-train the information, and uses enhanced momentum contrast loss function and RandAugment enhancement to improve the learning of tail class samples. On the ImageNet-LT long-tailed dataset, the enhanced contrastive visual-language based long-tailed image classification method has improved all class accuracy, tail class accuracy, middle class accuracy, and F1 values by 3.4%, 7.6%, 3.5%, and 11.2%, respectively, compared to the BALLAD method. The difference in accuracy between the head class and tail class is reduced by 1.6% compared to the BALLAD method. The results of three comparative experiments indicate that the long-tailed image classification method based on enhanced contrastive visual-language has improved the performance of tail classes and reduced the accuracy difference between majority and minority classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1099.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: photocatalysis; BiOCl; nanosheets; high-crystallinity
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:20:10 CEST)
: The stability of semiconductor catalysts is a very important property in the field of catalytic reactions. Materials necessitate resistance to mechanical abrasion and chemical erosion for better overall performance. In this work, high crystallinity BiOCl nanosheets were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The photocatalysts demonstrate full UV light absorption ability and excellent photocatalytic norfloxacin degradation performance. 84 % of highly toxic norfloxacin were photocatalytically eliminated within 180 min. The internal structure and surface chemical state of BiOCl were analyzed by SEM, TEM, Raman, FTIR, UV-vis, XPS, and other techniques. Such high crystallinity makes BiOCl molecules closely arranged and the molecular chains strongly connected, thus exhibiting a high level of photocatalytic stability and recyclability.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0893.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: marine lysozyme; seagull optimization algorithm; Gaussian process regression; soft sensor; gray correlation analysis
Online: 17 October 2023 (14:05:08 CEST)
Due to the highly nonlinear, multi-stage, and strongly time-varying marine lysozyme fermentation process, it is difficult to assure the stability and prediction accuracy of the traditional single global soft sensor model on a global scale. This study innovatively proposed a soft sensor model based on an improved seagull optimization algorithm (ISOA) combined with Gaussian process regression (GPR) weighted ensemble learning. First, the sample data set is divided into multiple local sample subsets by the improved density peak clustering algorithm (ADPC). Second, the Gaussian process regression model is optimally altered with an improved seagull optimization algorithm for the purpose of establishing the corresponding sub-prediction model. Finally, the prediction model's fusion strategy is ultimately determined depending on the degree of connection between the test samples and a subset of local pieces. Simulation results show that the proposed soft sensor model, which searches GPR based on ISOA and combines various sub-models, can predict the key biochemical parameters of the marine lysozyme fermentation process better with less prediction error under the condition of fewer training data, and it can be expanded to the soft sensor models of general nonlinear systems, according to simulation results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1968.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: large-scene SAR image; occlusion targets and small target detection; multi-attention mechanism
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:24:42 CEST)
Ship detection in large-scene offshore synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is crucial in civil and military fields, such as maritime management and wartime reconnaissance. However, the problems of low detection rates, high false alarm rates, and high missed detection rates of offshore ship targets in large-scene SAR images are due to the occlusion of objects or mutual occlusion among targets, especially for small ship targets. To solve this problem, this study proposes a target detection model (TAC_CSAC_Net) that incorporates a multi-attention mechanism for detecting marine vessels in large-scene SAR images. Experiments were conducted on two public datasets, the SAR-Ship-Dataset and high-resolution SAR image dataset (HRSID), with multi-scene and multi-size, and the results showed that the proposed TAC_CSAC_Net model achieves good performance for both small and occluded target detection. Experiments were conducted on a real large-scene dataset, LS-SSDD, to obtain the detection results of subgraphs of the same scene. Quantitative comparisons were made with classical and recently developed deep learning models, and the experiments demonstrated that the proposed model outperformed other models for large-scene SAR image target detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0175.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: CNT; in-situ repaiir; Fractsure toughness; Cohesive interface modelling
Online: 12 October 2022 (10:29:38 CEST)
This study aims to develop an in-situ field repair approach, special for aircraft composite structures, to enhance the interlaminar toughness of plain woven composites (PWCs) by adding multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs are dispersed at each interface between prepreg layers by means of solvent spraying with the density is 1.58 g/m2. And then, the layers are stacked with the predefined sequence and cured at 120℃ and 1 bar pressure using the heat repairing instrument. Moreover, double cantilever beam (DCB) standard test is used to investigate the interlaminar toughening effect due to the MWCNTs. For comparison, original samples are also prepared, the results indicate that the introduction of MWCNTs can favorably enhance the interlaminar toughness of PWCs at field repair approach and the Mode I fracture energy release rate GIC increases by 102.92%. Based on finite element method (FEM) of continuum damage mechanics, the original and MWCNTs toughening specimen under DCB Mode I fracture are modeled and analyzed. The simulation and experiment are in good agreement. Finally, the toughening mechanism of MWCNTs is explored by scanning electron microscope (SEM), it is founded that a large amount of Fiber-matrix (F-M) interface debonding and matrix cracking of mountain shape are the major modes of fracture accompanied with few fiber breakage and matrix peeling off for the MWCNTs toughening specimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0446.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: plasma-TIG; coupled arc; arc profile; pressure distribution
Online: 30 May 2018 (09:39:07 CEST)
In this article, a novel hybrid welding process called plasma-TIG coupled arc welding was proposed to improve the efficiency and quality of welding by utilizing the full advantage of plasma and TIG welding processes. The two arcs of plasma and TIG were pulled into each other into one coupled arc under the effect of Lorentz force and plasma flow force during welding experiments. The arc behavior of coupled arc was studied by means of it’s arc profile, arc pressure and arc force conditions. The coupled arc pressure distribution measurements were performed. The effects of welding conditions on coupled arc pressure were evaluated and the maximum coupled arc pressure was improved compared with single-plasma arc and single-TIG arc. It was found that the maximum arc pressure was mainly determined by plasma arc current and plasma gas flow. According to the results, the proposed coupled arc welding process have both advantages of plasma arc and TIG method, and it has a broad application prospect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0973.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: β-cell loss; β-cell dedifferentiation; diabetes; GSIS; THC; CBD; THCV; CBC; CBN
Online: 15 September 2023 (04:54:38 CEST)
Our findings indicate that all five phytocannabinoids reduce HG-HL-induced -cell loss likely through reducing apoptosis and pyroptosis. The protective effects of CBD, THCV, CBC, and CBN were seen in the GSIS impairment by HG-HL. Although all five phytocannabinoids tested in this research demonstrated the capability to inhibit β-cell dedifferentiation induced by HG-HL, CBD seems to be more effective compared to the other phytocannabinoids, as indicated by the specific biomarker responses of β-cells and progenitor cells to CBD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Hydraulic fracturing; Fracture conductivity; Fracture aperture; Screenout
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:18:15 CEST)
Hydraulic fracturing is an efficient method to develop oil/gas resources economically. Temporary plugging and diverting fracturing (TPDF) can generate diversion fractures perpendicular to the initial fractures and enhance the stimulated area. The aperture of the diversion fractures determines its conductivity and the oil/gas production. This work established a fluid-solid fully coupled simulation model to investigate the fracture aperture influenced by various factors during TPDF. The factors include the permeability of the tight plug, the length of the tight plug, Young’s modulus, rock tensile strength, in-situ stress contrast, the leak-off coefficient of the fracture surface, and fluid injection rate. Results show that the aperture of the previous fracture can be enlarged, and the aperture of the diversion fracture can be decreased by the tight plug. The aperture at the diversion fracture mouth is much smaller than that along the diversion fracture. Reservoirs with low Young’s modulus and high rock tensile strength can generate the diversion fracture with a wider aperture. Moreover, increasing the fluid injection rate can effectively increase the fracture mouth aperture. In this way, the risk of screenout can be lowered. This work is beneficial for the design of the TPDF and ensures safe construction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0915.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: dental implants; cone beam computed tomography; CBCT; predictability; predictability of dental implants
Online: 11 August 2023 (09:53:40 CEST)
Since the development of CBCT had been utilized in dentistry, the images of the CBCT can assist the surgeon to evaluate the anatomy carefully. Despite the value of the radiology evaluation, the implant procedures may require additional consideration rather than only evaluating the anatomical factors. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictability of using CBCT alone to plan for implant placement on the edentulous patient digitally CBCT images were analyzed by clinicians, measuring the ridge heights and widths of 4 selected implant sites in the maxillary and 2 selected implant sites in the mandibular arches for 91 patients planning for the implant-supported overdenture. (A total of 47 patients out of the 91 had completed the implant placement on the edentulous ridge, contributing to 55 upper and/or lower arches (136 dental implants). . Both predictabilities are low, implying the CBCT planning for implant placement on the edentulous ridge is not a good index and is insufficient to predict the surgical procedures as a solo method. The finding of this study indicates that digital planning by CBCT is insufficient to serve as an individual tool to predict implant procedures. Further information and evaluation must be considered for implant placement on the edentulous ridge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; ACE2 receptor; medical cannabis; CBD
Online: 19 April 2020 (02:45:50 CEST)
With the rapidly growing pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the new and challenging to treat zoonotic SARS-CoV2 coronavirus, there is an urgent need for new therapies and prevention strategies that can help curtail disease spread and reduce mortality. Inhibition of viral entry and thereby spread constitute plausible therapeutic avenues. Similar to other respiratory pathogens, SARS-CoV2 is transmitted through respiratory droplets, with potential for aerosol and contact spread. It uses receptor-mediated entry into the human host via angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) that is expressed in lung tissue, as well as oral and nasal mucosa, kidney, testes, and the gastrointestinal tract. Modulation of ACE2 levels in these gateway tissues may prove a plausible strategy for decreasing disease susceptibility. Cannabis sativa, especially one high in the anti-inflammatory cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), has been proposed to modulate gene expression and inflammation and harbour anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Working under the Health Canada research license, we have developed over 800 new Cannabis sativa lines and extracts and hypothesized that high-CBD C. sativa extracts may be used to modulate ACE2 expression in COVID-19 target tissues. Screening C. sativa extracts using artificial human 3D models of oral, airway, and intestinal tissues, we identified 13 high CBD C. sativa extracts that modulate ACE2 gene expression and ACE2 protein levels. Our initial data suggest that some C. sativa extract down-regulate serine protease TMPRSS2, another critical protein required for SARS-CoV2 entry into host cells. While our most effective extracts require further large-scale validation, our study is crucial for the future analysis of the effects of medical cannabis on COVID-19. The extracts of our most successful and novel high CBD C. sativa lines, pending further investigation, may become a useful and safe addition to the treatment of COVID-19 as an adjunct therapy. They can be used to develop easy-to-use preventative treatments in the form of mouthwash and throat gargle products for both clinical and at-home use. Such products ought to be tested for their potential to decrease viral entry via the oral mucosa. Given the current dire and rapidly evolving epidemiological situation, every possible therapeutic opportunity and avenue must be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1395.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Remote Raman; Time-Gated; Traces Detection and Identification.
Online: 20 September 2023 (11:19:27 CEST)
Raman spectroscopy is a type of inelastic scattering that provides rich information about a sub-stance based on the coupling of the energy levels of their vibrational and rotational modes with incident light. It has been applied extensively in many fields. As there is an increasing need for remote detection of chemicals in planetary exploration and anti-terrorism, it is urgent to develop a compact and easily transportable fully automated remote Raman detection system for trace detection and identification of information with high-level confidence about the target’s compo-sition and conformation in real-time and for real field scenarios. Here, we present an unmanned vehicle-based remote Raman system, which includes a 266 nm air-cooling passive Q-switched nanosecond pulsed laser of high-repetition frequency, a gated ICMOS, and an unmanned vehicle. This system obtains good spectral signals from remote distances ranging from 3 m to 10 m for simulating realistic scenarios, such as aluminum plate, woodblock, paperboard, black cloth, and leaves, and even for detected amounts as low as 0.1 mg. Furthermore, a CNN-based algorithm is implemented and packaged into the recognition software to achieve fast and more accurate de-tection and identification. This prototype provides a proof-of-concept for an unmanned vehicle with accurate remote substance detection in real-time, which can be helpful for remote detection and identification of hazardous gas, explosives, their precursors, and so forth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Controlled drainage; Water content; Salinity (EC); Mineral nitrogen; Nitrogen loss; Yield of oilseed sunflower
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:06:58 CEST)
Controlled drainage (CD) is an important agricultural measure for maintaining soil moisture and nutrients, controlling groundwater level, and increasing crop yield. In arid regions, CD can be used to improve the water supply in agriculture and reduce environmental pollution. In this study, we investigated the effect of CD, including a drainage depth of 40 cm (CWT1) and 70 cm (CWT2) during the plant growth period, free drainage (FD), and open ditch drainage (OD) on the migration of water, nutrients, and salts in the soil; the dynamics of groundwater level; the loss of soil nitrogen; and the growth of oilseed sunflower plants. Compared with FD, CD increased the water and nutrient content in the soil, reduced nitrogen loss, and enhanced the ability of the soil to continuously supply nitrogen to the oilseed sunflower plants, which benefited plant growth at later growth stages and reduced environmental pollution. During the period between irrigation at the budding stage and harvest stage, the average soil water content in the 0–20 cm soil layer in CWT1 increased by 3.67%, 4.78%, and 0.55%, respectively, compared with that in CWT2, FD, and OD. The soil mineral content in CWT1 was 25.17%, 35.05%, and 17.78% higher than that in CWT2, FD, and OD, respectively, indicating that higher soil salinity occurred at the later stage of plant growth in CWT1, which actually had little effect on the plants due to their enhanced salt tolerance and increased need for water and nutrients at that stage. In addition, CD delayed the decline in groundwater level, which allowed the plants to use groundwater at later growth stages, and as a result the yield and water use efficiency were improved. CWT1 significantly increased oilseed sunflower yield by 4.52–11.14% and increased water use efficiency by 1.16–10.8%. Moreover, CWT1 also increased the survival rate of the oilseed sunflower plants by 2.62–2.92%, and the plants demonstrated good growth. Therefore, under CD conditions, plants used soil water and nitrogen more efficiently and, as a result, their productivity was increased, and the water quality was improved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2078.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Soil phosphorus availability; Dissolved organic matter; Organic fertilizer; Competitive adsorption; Molecular weight
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:36:39 CEST)
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from organic fertilizers may increase soil phosphorus (P) availability. However, the frequently observed correlation between soil P availability and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content has led to an excessive focus on DOC content at the expense of DOM properties. The present study investigated the influence of DOM characteristics on soil P availability by using a 6-year field experiment and microcosms of P sorption in paddy soil. Our results showed that partial replacement of chemical P fertilizer with manure or crop straw increased P fertilizer-use efficiency, even when decreasing chemical P input by 34 %, compared to normal chemical fertilization. The microcosm experiment demonstrated that DOM properties, rather than total DOC content, determine soil P sorption capacity, despite the significant correlation between DOC content and P availability observed in the field experiment. Manure-DOM exerted stronger inhibitory effects on P sorption than straw-DOM, and high molecular weight (HMW)-fractionated DOM exerted stronger inhibitory effects on P sorption than low-molecular-weight-fractionated DOM by 16-20%. The mechanism was rooted in the HMW DOM with unique characteristics (e.g., strong aromaticity, hydrophobicity, abundant humic-like components, carboxyl groups, and benzene ring structures) competing for soil P sorption sites (e.g., reduction in specific surface area and micropore volume), decreasing the soil surface charge (e.g., zeta potential), and thereby suppressing P sorption in paddy soil. Our study points out a promising avenue for regulating organic matter properties with organic fertilization to improve P use efficiency in agricultural soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0575.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: OsNAC050; CRISPR-Cas9; cold stress; RNA-seq; photosynthesis; soluble sugar
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:32:06 CEST)
Because rice is native to tropical and subtropical regions, it is generally more sensitive to cold stress compared to other cereals. Low temperature stress has become one of the most important conditions that affects the growth, development, and yield of rice. Plant NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC) transcription factors are known to play significant regulatory roles in the stress response. In our research, we found that OsNAC050 (LOC_Os03g60080） is mainly expressed in leaves, and low temperature can further up-regulate its expression. OsNAC050 mutants created using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology showed significantly enhanced tolerance to low temperature treatment. Detection of enzyme activities related to the redox pathway also showed that the mutants had stronger viability under low temperature stress. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that photosynthesis and soluble sugar metabolism were significantly affected in the osnac050 mutant lines, suggesting that OsNAC050 may participate in the above molecular pathways in the response to low temperature stress. The results will enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the responses to cold stress in rice and can provide new strategies for engineering cold-tolerance in high-yielding rice varieties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0795.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HER2; colorectal cancer; immune cell
Online: 13 October 2023 (07:08:38 CEST)
(1) Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect of increased HER-2 expression on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and determine its impact on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients; (2) Methods: HER-2, CD4, CD8, CD19, LY6G, CD56, CD68, CD11b, and EpCam expression in CRC tissues and adjacent paracancerous tissues were assessed using multiplex fluorescence immunohistochemical staining. The correlation between HER-2 expression and the number of TILs in CRC tissues was analyzed. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze survival outcomes; (3) Results: The expression of HER-2 in tumor tissues was higher than that in paracancerous tissues (1.31 ± 0.45 vs. 0.86 ± 0.20, P < 0.05). Additionally, there was an increase in the numbers of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, and CD68+ cells in CRC tissues (14.11 ± 1.10 vs. 3.40 ± 0.18, P < 0.005; 0.16 ± 0.12 vs. 0.04 ± 0.04, P < 0.005; 0.71 ± 0.46 vs. 0.25 ± 0.13, P < 0.0005; 0.27 ± 0.24 vs. 0.03 ± 0.11, P < 0.05). The increase in HER-2 expression was positively correlated with an increase in CD4, CD8, and CD19 (p < 0.0001). In HER-2-positive CRC tissues, CD68 expression was increased (0.80 ± 0.55 vs. 0.25 ± 0.22, P < 0.05). In HER-2-upregulated CRC tissues, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD68, CD11b, Ly6G, and CD56 expressions were elevated (0.70 ± 0.37 vs. 0.32 ± 0.17, P = 0.03; 0.22 ± 0.13 vs. 0.09 ± 0.06, P = 0.03; 0.31 ± 0.19 vs. 0.12 ± 0.08, P = 0.02; 1.05 ± 0.62 vs. 0.43 ± 0.21, P < 0.01; 1.34 ± 0.81 vs. 0.53 ± 0.23, P < 0.01; 0.50 ± 0.31 vs. 0.19 ± 0.10, P < 0.01; 1.26 ± 0.74 vs. 0.52 ± 0.24, P < 0.01). Furthermore, increased HER-2 expression is an independent risk factor for recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients (P < 0.01, HR = 3.421); (4) Conclusions: The increased expression of HER-2 and its relationship with immune cells will provide new insights for immunotherapy in CRC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1302.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: renal syndrome hemorrhagic fever; clinical features; orthohantavirus; genotyping; genetic diversity; zoonotic transmission
Online: 19 July 2023 (12:50:27 CEST)
Orthohantaviruses can cause two types of human infections: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). HFRS is a zoonotic disease transmitted by multiple rodent species. Yunnan Province in southwest China is the natural foci of HFRS, and Dali Prefecture in Yunnan Province has the highest incidence of HFRS; however, the precise status of orthohantavirus infection in Dali Prefecture remains unknown. To this end, we obtained clinical data of HFRS patients from the medical records of the People's Hospital of Xiangyun County in Dali Prefecture from July 2019 to August 2021. We collected epidemiological data of HFRS patients through interviews and investigated host animals using the night clip or night cage method. We systematically performed epidemiological analyses of patients and host animals. The differences in the presence of rodent activity at home (2=8.75, P=0.031<0.05), of rodent-proof equipment in the food (2=9.19, P=0.025<0.05), and of rodents or rodent excrement in the workplace (2=10.35, P=0.014<0.05) were statistically different in the four clinical types, including mild, medium, severe, and critical HFRS-associated diseases. Furthermore, we conducted molecular detection of orthohantavirus in host animals. The total orthohantavirus infection rate of rodents was 2.7% (9/331); the specific infection rate of specific animal species was 6.1% (5/82) for the Apodemus chevrieri, 100% (1/1) for the Rattus nitidus, 3.8% (2/53) for the Rattus norvegicus, and 12.5% (1/8) for the Crocidura dracula. In this study, a total of 21 strains of orthohantavirus were detected in patients and rodents. The 12 orthohantavirus strains from patients showed a closer relationship with Seoul orthohantavirus (SEOOV) L0199, DLR2, and GZRn60 strains; the six orthohantavirus strains from Rattus norvegicus and Apodemus chevrieri were closely related to SEOOV GZRn60 strain; One strains (XYRn163) from Rattus norvegicus and one strain (XYR.nitidus97) from Rattus nitidus were closely related to SEOOV DLR2 strain; the orthohantavirus strain from Crocidura dracula was closely related to the Luxi orthohantavirus (LUXV) LX309 strain. In conclusion, patients with HFRS in Xuangyun County of Dali Prefecture are predominantly affected by SEOOV, with multiple genotypes of orthohantavirus in host animals, and most importantly, these orthohantavirus strains constantly demonstrated zoonotic risk in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0019.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Straw; Mulching + deep burial; Soil evaporation; Resalinization rate; Desalinization rate
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:23:35 CEST)
This study chose the indoor soil column test as the main method and the field test as the validation test to investigate the effects of various straw mulching techniques (surface, deep and straw mulching + deep burial) on evaporation and salt dynamics in saline soils. The results showed that straw mulching treatment could effectively reduce soil water evaporation, promote desalination in the stage of leaching infiltration and alleviate salt return in the stage of water evaporation, and the effect of straw mulching + deep burial treatment was better than that of single-layer straw mulching treatment. The indoor soil column test showed that S2D1 treatment (a 2:1 ratio of soil surface cover to the amount of straw buried 40cm below the soil surface) had the best effect on the suppression of soil moisture evaporation, and the cumulative evaporation of soil moisture was reduced by 65.85% compared with that of the CK, and the rate of salinity return in the evaporation stage was effectively reduced by 92.04% compared with that of the CK. In addition, there is a significant positive correlation between cumulative evaporation of soil moisture and cumulative soil salinity, which implies that cumulative soil salinity increases with cu-mulative evaporation of soil moisture. The results of the field experiment were consistent with the soil column test, and the S2D1 treatment was able to maintain high soil moisture content in all soil layers in all periods of the experiment and kept soil salinity in the 0-40 cm soil layer at a low level. However, in the 40-80 cm soil layer, the soil salinity suppression effect of DB treatment (straw buried at 40 cm below soil surface) was the best. So in summary, the S2D1 treatment had the best salinity and evapo-transpiration suppression effect in saline soils. This study is of great significance for the resource uti-lization of straw waste, improvement of water utilization and efficiency, and soil salinization manage-ment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0234.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: 3-D fluid-electrostatic coupling field; electrical sensor performance; concentration measurement; gas/solid two-phase flow
Online: 31 August 2016 (09:03:30 CEST)
This paper proposed three-dimensional numerical simulation method by coupling of electrostatic and fluid fields to evaluating the performance of electrical sensor in the concentration measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow. Compared with the static numerical simulation, this real-time dynamic 3-D simulation method can research on a designed capacitance sensor combining the dynamic characteristics of the two-phase flows for concentration measurement. Several fluid-electrostatic models of transmission pipes with different sensor structures are built. Under different test positions and different particle concentrations, the flow characteristics and the corresponding electric signals can be obtained, and the correlation coefficient between the concentration values and the capacitance values are used for performance evaluation of the sensors. The effects of flow regimes on concentration measurement are also been investigated in this paper. To validate the results of simulation, an experimental platform with horizontal straight pipe for phase volume concentration measurement of solid/air two-phase flow is built, and the experimental results agree well with simulation conclusions. The simulation and test results show that the coupling models can give constructive reference opinions for the sensor design and collection of installation position in different transmission pipelines, which are very important for the practical process of pneumatic conveying system.