ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Software runtime entropy; failure prediction; indicator
Online: 20 September 2019 (10:49:11 CEST)
With the development of computer science and software engineering, software becomes more and more complex. Traditional software reliability assurance techniques including software testing and evaluation can't ensure software reliable execution after being deployed. Software failure prediction techniques based on failure indicators can predict software failures according to abnormal indicator values. The latter can be collected using runtime monitoring techniques. An essential part of this method is finding proper indicators which have strong correlation with software failures. We propose a novel type of indicators in this work named software runtime entropy, which takes both software module execution time and call times into consideration. Three common open source software, grep, flex and gzip are used as study cases for finding the relationships between the indicators and software failures. Firstly, a series of fault injection experiments are conducted on those three software respectively. The decision tree algorithm is used to train those data to build the correlation models between software runtime entropy and software failures. Several common measures in machine learning domains such as accuracy, recall rates, and F-measure are used to evaluate the models. The decision tree models can be used as failure mechanisms to assist the failure prediction work. One can examine the value of runtime entropy and make a warning report when it ranges from the normal interval to abnormal one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0758.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Honeybee bred lines; Apis mellifera L.; Controlled breeding; Defensive behavior; Chemical pheromone
Online: 10 May 2023 (14:03:49 CEST)
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) express complex behavioral patterns (aggressiveness) to exhibit defensive mechanisms for their survival. Their phenotypic expression of aggressive behavior is influenced by internal and external stimuli. Knowledge of this behavior is recently important though beekeepers are still faced with the challenges of selecting aggressive and less-aggressive bred lines. Field evaluation of aggressiveness among bred lines of honey bees is required to overcome the challenges. Chemical cues (alarm pheromone and isopentyl acetate mixed with paraffin oil), physical and visual stimuli (dark leather suede, colony marbling and suede jiggling) were used to evaluate aggressiveness and orientation among five bred lines of honeybee colonies. Our results showed that both chemical assays recruited bees but the time of recruitment was significantly lower for alarm pheromone. Honeybees’ response to both assays culminated to stings which differed among bred lines for alarm pheromone and paraffin when colonies were marbled. Honeybee aggression varied among bred lines and was higher in more aggressive bred lines compared to less-aggressive bred lines. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to repeatedly evaluate orientation aggressiveness at the colony level and among bred lines when selecting breeding colonies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: delphinidin; radiation protective agent; proton beam therapy; CCD-18Co cells; reactive oxygen species; antioxidant enzyme; DNA damage
Online: 29 September 2017 (13:49:38 CEST)
Unavoidable exposure to radiosensitive normal tissues around cancerous tumor during the radiotherapy can cause side effects such as self-limited acute toxicities, mild chronic symptoms, or severe organ dysfunction. Nevertheless, clinical use of currently available radiation protective agents is limited because of their generic cytotoxicity. A study on radiation protective effect of delphinidin was conducted with proton-beam-exposed human colon cells (CCD-18Co). The measurement in changes of survival fractions of CCD-18Co with/without delphinidin administration at different radiation doses were measured by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The changes in expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and in activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured by colorimetric assays using pertinent assay kits. The measurement of pro-apoptosis/pro-survival protein expressions using Western blot assay and the measurement of DNA damage using comet assay were also fulfilled to evaluate the molecular level of radiation damages in CCD-18Co cells. The experimental results revealed that the pre-administration of delphinidin regulated antioxidant enzymes, reduced ROS, decreased DNA damage, regulated pro-apoptosis/pro-survival proteins, and eventually reduced apoptosis of CCD-18Co cells. In conclusion, it is claimed that delphinidin is nontoxic natural radiation protective compound, and thus delphinidin can be used to protect normal colon tissues during the proton beam therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0442.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: TDP-43; Liquid-liquid phase separation; Solution-state NMR
Online: 28 September 2022 (12:22:40 CEST)
Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of proteins has been found ubiquitously in eukaryotic cells, critical in the controlling of many biological processes through forming a temporary condensed phase with different bimolecular components. TDP-43 is recruited to stress granules in cells and is the main component of TDP-43 granules and proteinaceous amyloid inclusions in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 low complexity domain (LCD) is able to demix in solution forming the protein condensed droplets. The molecular interactions regulating its LLPS were investigated at the protein fusion equilibrium stage, where the droplets stopped growing. We found the molecules in the droplet were still liquid-like but with enhanced intermolecular helix-helix interaction in the LCD. The protein would start to aggregate after about 200 minutes of lag time and aggregate slower than at the condition when the protein does not phase separate or the molecules have a reduced intermolecular helical interaction. A structural transition intermediate towards protein aggregation was also discovered involving a decrease of the intermolecular helix-helix interaction and a reduction in the helicity. Therefore, LLPS and the intermolecular helical interaction could help maintain the stability of TDP-43 LCD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0883.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: saline soil; biofertilizer; soil microbial community; Bacillus licheniformis; Halobacillus profundi; Brassica rapa L.
Online: 14 November 2023 (09:37:03 CET)
Declining agricultural productivity caused by soil salinization are becoming global dilemmas in recent years. Biofertilizers show great potential as a sustainable and environmentally friendly fertilization strategy for soil improvement, but their effectiveness for saline soil amendment and improving plant growth under saline stress is not well understood. Assess the effectiveness of biofertilizers in improving saline soils and enhancing crop growth under saline stress, as well as investigate its related potential mechanisms. Changes in soil physico-chemical properties, plant physiological parameters and soil microbial communities were analyzed through pot experiments. The results showed that the application of biofertilizer reduced total soluble salts (TSS) in soil by 30.8% and increased the Brassica rapa L. biomass by 8.4 times. Biofertilizer application increased soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN) and available phosphorus (AP). Biofertilizer applications also increased the SOD, CAT, chl.a, chl.b, total soluble sugars, and Proline content. Biofertilizers present plant growth promotion and potential pathogenic fungi reduction by increasing the abundance of Bacillus and Planococcus and decreasing the abundance of Mortierella and Aspergillus. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated the excellent efficacy of biofertilizers in improving saline soils, and the application of biofertilizer strategies will greatly promote agricultural production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1937.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: neonicotinoids; pollinator; rice field; qRT PCR; toxicity stress-genes
Online: 31 October 2023 (02:46:53 CET)
Honey bees are vital organisms that provide ecological and economic value to humans. However, in recent years, the increase in honey bee losses due to various environmental factors, including pesticides, has become a growing concern. In Europe, neonicotinoid pesticides that are banned are being used without restrictions in the domestic setting, leading to ongoing damages as a result. Ongoing research is continually being conducted to demonstrate the risks associated with neonicotinoid pesticides. However, validation of the actual damages and impact in the field remains absent. Therefore, in this study, we observed changes in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies located near rice cultivation areas as they progressed beyond the rice pesticide application period. Furthermore, we collected honey bees exposed to the clothianidin and analyzed their stress-related gene expression. The results showed that the foraging behavior of honey bee colonies located near rice cultivation areas did not exhibit significant differences between the treatment site (Cheongyang and Gimje) and the control site (Wanju) during the experimental period. However, it was observed that the expression levels of stress-related genes in honey bees collected from the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control. Most of the stress-related genes were associated with detoxification processes in response to pesticides. As a result, pesticide treatment in proximity to rice cultivation areas did not cause direct damage to honey bees but had an indirect impact, suggesting the potential for ongoing chronic damage.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: femtosecond laser; birefringence; stress; sapphire
Online: 23 August 2019 (09:49:21 CEST)
Birefringence of 3 × 10-3 is demonstrated inside cross-sectional regions of 100 µm, inscribed by axially stretched Bessel-beam-like fs-laser pulses along the c-axis inside sapphire. A high birefringence and retardance of λ/4 at mid-visible spectral range (green) can be achieved utilizing stretched beams with an axial extension of 30-40 µm. Conditions of laser writing chosen ensure that there are no formations of self-organised nano-gratings. This method can be adopted for the creation of polarisation optical elements and fabrication of spatially varying birefringent patterns for optical vortex generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0082.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: transdermal physical penetration technology; Fu’s Cupping Therapy; pharmacokinetics; SEM; TEM; stratum corneum; mechanism
Online: 15 December 2016 (10:57:46 CET)
Background: in this paper, a new physical penetration technology for transdermal administration with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristics - Fu’s cupping therapy (FCT) - was established and studied by in-vitro and in-vivo experiments; the penetration effect and mechanism of FCT physical penetration technology (FCT-PPT) was preliminarily discussed. Method: Indomethacin (IM) as a model drug，by transdermal in vitro tests the establishment of the high，medium and low reference were finished as the chemical permeation system；chemical penetration enhancers and iontophoresis as a reference，the percutaneous penetration effect of FCT for IM patch was evaluated with 7 species diffusion kinetics model and in vitro drug distribution；naproxen as an internal standard，using UPLC-MS/MS technology，the IM quantitative analysis method in vivo was established，and pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0-t，AUC0-∞，AUMC0-t，AUMC0-∞, Cmax and MRT) as indicators were used evaluate to FCT penetration role in vivo；in the same time，the group used 3K factorial design to study joint synergistic penetration effect on FCT and chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs)；by SEM and TEM，the skin micro and ultrastructural changes of the stratum corneum (SC) surface were observed, to explore pay tank penetration mechanism. Results: In vitro and in-vivo skin permeation experiments revealed that both the total cumulative percutaneous amount and in-vivo percutaneous absorption amount (AUC and AUMC) of indomethacin that permeated SD mouse skin using FCT techniques were greater than the amount observed using CPE and iontophoresis: Firstly, in contrast to the control group, the indomethacin percutaneous rate (PR) of the FCT lower group (FCTL) was 35.52%, and the enhancement ratio (ER) at 9h was 1.76X, which was roughly equivalent to the penetration enhancing effect of the CPEs and iontophoresis; secondly, the indomethacin PR of the FCT middle (FCTM) group and the FCT high intensity group (FCTH) were respectively 47.36% and 54.58%, ER at 9h were separately 3.58X and 8.39X; thirdly, pharmacokinetic studies showed that in-vivo indomethacin percutaneous absorption of the FCTs was higher than that of the control group, that of the FCTM group was slightly higher than that of the CPEs group, and that of the FCTM group was significantly higher than that of the others. Meanwhile, the variance analysis indicated that the combination of the FCT penetration enhancement method and the CPE method had beneficial effects in penetration enhancing of the skin: the significance level of the CPE method was 0.0004, which was apparently lower than the 0.001, meaning the difference was markedly significant; the significance level of the FCT was under 0.0001, its difference markedly significant; and the significance level of factor interaction A×B was lower than 0.0001, indicating that its difference of the synergism was markedly significant. Moreover, SEM and TEM images showed that the SC surfaces of SD rats treaded with FCT-PPT was damaged, and hard to observe the complete surface structure with its SC pores growing bigger and its special “brick structure” becoming looser, indicating that it broke the barrier function of skin, which revealed potentially a major route of skin penetration. Conclusion: FCT, as percutaneous penetration new technologies, has penetration effects significantly, with Chinese characteristics and highly clinical value, worth promoting development.