ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0120.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: refractory high-entropy alloys; fused slurry method; silicide coating; Si-20Cr-20Fe; high-temperature oxidation
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:43:24 CEST)
The poor oxidation resistance of refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs) is a major obstacle for their use in high-temperature engineering applications. Anti-oxidation coating technology is an effective method for improving the oxidation resistance. In this paper, the Si-20Cr-20Fe coating was prepared on MoNbTaTiW RHEA by a fused slurry method. The microstructural evolution and compositions of the silicide coating under high-temperature oxidation environment were studied. The results show that the silicide coating could effectively prevent the oxidation of the MoNbTaTiW RHEA. The initial silicide coating had a double-layer structure; a high silicon-content layer mainly composed of MSi2 as the outer layer and a low silicon-content layer mainly contained M5Si3 as the inner layer. Under high-temperature oxidation conditions, the silicon element diffused from the silicide coating to the RHEA substrate while the oxidation of the coating occurred. After oxidation, the coating was composed of an outer oxide layer and an inner silicide layer. The silicide layer moved toward the inside of the substrate, led to the increase of its thickness. Compared with the initial silicified layer, its structure did not change significantly. The structure and compositions of the oxide layer on the outer surface strongly depended on the oxidation temperature. This paper provides a strategy for protecting RHEAs from oxidation at high-temperature environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0372.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: magnetic fluid; thermotropic nematic liquid crystals; terahertz modulation; microfluidic chip
Online: 23 September 2022 (10:27:05 CEST)
In recent years, solid state terahertz (THz) modulators have obtained rapid progress with the widespread use of two-dimensional (2D) materials in the field of THz; however, challenges remain in preparing flexible THz modulators. In this study, flexible ferromagnetic nematic materials were prepared by doping thermotropic nematic liquid crystals 5CB into magnetic fluids, and the influence of hydrogen bonding in water was reduced by a self-made cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) microfluidic chip. THz modulation characteristics of magnetic fluid and ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal (FNLC) under the induction of external magnetic field were compared using a THz time domain spectroscopy system. Under the action of a 91 mT magnetic field, the magnetic fluid has a maximum modulation depth (MD) of 54%. Under the same magnetic field, the maximum MD of the ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal materials increase to 78% because of the rearrangement of Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced by the topological defect of the liquid crystal. We demonstrate that the magneto-optical effect is significantly enhanced in the ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal hybrid system. This strategy of doping thermotropic nematic liquid crystals to enhance the magneto-optical effect has great potential for THz filtering, modulation, and sensing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0536.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: ZnO urchins; nanostructured surfaces; E. coli; superhydrophilic; superhydrophobic; anti-reflective surfaces
Online: 11 December 2018 (09:13:45 CET)
Functional ZnO nanostructured surfaces are important in a wide range of applications. Here we report facile fabrication of ZnO surface structures at near room temperature with morphology resembling that of sea urchins, with densely packed, μm-long, tapered nanoneedles radiating from the urchin centre. The ZnO urchin structures were successfully formed on several different substrates with high surface density and coverage, including silicon (Si), glass, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and copper (Cu) sheets, as well as Si seeded with ZnO nanocrystals. Time-resolved SEM revealed growth kinetics of the ZnO nanostructures on Si, capturing the emergence of “infant” urchins at the early growth stage and subsequent progressive increase in the urchin nanoneedle length and density, whilst the spiky nanoneedle morphology was retained throughout the growth. ε-Zn(OH)2 orthorhombic crystals were also observed alongside the urchins. The crystal structures of the nanostructures at different growth time were confirmed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. On seeded Si substrates, a two-stage growth mechanism was identified, with a primary growth step of vertically aligned ZnO nanoneedle arrays preceding the secondary growth of the urchins atop the nanoneedle array. The antibacterial, anti-reflective, and wetting functionality of the ZnO urchins—with spiky nanoneedles and at high surface density—on Si substrates was demonstrated. First, bacteria colonisation was found to be suppressed on the surface after 24 h incubation in Gram-negative E. coli culture, in contrast to control substrates (bare Si and Si sputtered with 20 nm ZnO thin film). Secondly, the ZnO urchin surface, exhibiting superhydrophilic property with a water contact angle ~0°, could be rendered superhydrophobic with a simple silanization step, characterised by a water static contact angle θ of 159° ± 1.4° and contact angle hysteresis ∆θ < 7°. The dynamic superhydrophobicity of the surface was demonstrated by bouncing-off of a falling 10 μL water droplet, with a contact time of 15.3 milliseconds (ms), captured using a high-speed camera. Thirdly, it was shown that the presence of dense spiky ZnO nanoneedles and urchins on the seeded Si substrate exhibited a reflectance R < 1% over the wavelength range λ = 200–800 nm. The ZnO urchins with unique morphology via a facile fabrication route at room temperature, readily implementable on different substrates, may be further exploited for multifunctional surfaces and product formulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: medium energy proton; space environment; light pollution; magnetic deflection; Geant4
Online: 30 August 2023 (14:07:47 CEST)
: This work introduces the instrument design of the medium energy proton detector (MEPD, detection range: 30keV-5MeV) mounted on the Chinese Fengyun-4B (FY-4B) satellite. Compared with the similar detector on the Fengyun-3E (FY-3E) satellite, the instrument has undergone significant changes due to the different orbital radiation environment and solar lighting conditions. Based on the calculation of radiation model AP8, the geometry factor is reduced to 0.002 cm2sr, while the MEPD on FY-3E satellite is 0.005 cm2sr. Another difference is that sensors in some directions is exposed to direct sunlight for 80 minutes every day on this orbit, depending on the attitude angle of the satellite, which is much worse than that on FY-3E satellite. According to the calculation results of permeability of photons through different materials, a 100 nm thickness nickel film is added in front of sensors in order to eliminate light pollution completely. The experiment on the solar simulator shows that the measure is effective and the detector has no error counts when the solar irradiance coefficient is 1.0. In addition, Geant4 software is applied to simulate particle transportation process under complete machine condition so that to check the contamination of electrons on sensors among all directions after magnetic deflection. Data obtained in orbit shows that the instrument works properly, and the data is in good agreement with the AP8 model. The observations of the MEPD on board the FY-4B satellite can provide important support for the safety of the spacecraft and the theoretical research related to space weather.