ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0508.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Bluetooth; RSSI; Classification; Machine Learning
Online: 12 November 2020 (08:31:41 CET)
This project focuses on using machine learning classification algorithms to determine whether two people are 6 feet apart or not. Two Raspberry Pis were used simulate smart phones. RSSI values of the Bluetooth beacons transmitted between the Raspberry Pis were collected and recorded to train the classifier. The Gaussian Support Vector Machine Classifer yielded the highest testing accuracy of 79.670 and the Decision Tree Classifier yielded the highest AUC of 0.80.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0611.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Bluetooth; Bluetooth low energy; COVID-19; Contact tracing; Weight-based matching method; smart phones
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:42:49 CEST)
Infectious disease like COVID-19 will have a great impact on human society. An effective prevention and control measure is to quickly isolate the source and reduce the population’s exposure to the infection. Therefore, it is very important to quickly trace and identify the virus carrier and its close contacts in order to effectively suppressing transmission. This article provides a method, system and storage medium for locating the source of infection based on big data. We adopt the method of combining Bluetooth and GPS positioning to track the action trajectory of each individual. The method stores the close contact and location information locally and update on the cloud platform for an appropriate period of time. The method and system can provide personal risk levels and regional risk levels through related algorithms. When entering a high-risk area or if the personal risk level within the Bluetooth interconnection range is greater than the set threshold, an alarm function is provided. We can also generate reports on the spread of the epidemic over a period of time. As a result, the system can quickly locate the source of infection and close contacts, providing a reference for quick and highly efficient epidemic prevention and control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0231.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Android; arduino; bluetooth; grass cutter; sensors; speech recognition
Online: 20 October 2019 (02:03:44 CEST)
We present an Arduino-based automatic robotic system which is used for cutting grass or lawns, mostly healthy grass which needs to cut neatly like in a public park or a private garden. The purpose of this proposed project is to design a programmable automatic pattern design grass cutting robot with solar power which no longer requires time-consuming manual grass-cutting, and that can be operated wirelessly using an Android Smartphone via Bluetooth from a safe distance which is capable of cutting the grass in indeed required shapes and patterns; the cutting blade can also be adjusted to maintain the different length of the grass. The main focus was to design a prototype that can work with a little or no Physical user interaction. The proposed work is accomplished by using an Arduino microcontroller, DC geared Motors, IR obstacle detection sensor, motor shield, relay module, DC battery, solar panel, and Bluetooth module. The grass-cutting robot system can be moved to the location in the lawn remotely where the user wants to cut the grass directly or in desired patterns. The user can press the desired pattern button from the mobile application, and the system will start cutting grass in the similar design such as a circle, spiral, rectangle, and continue pattern. Also, with the assistance of sensors positioned at the front of the vehicle, an automatic barrier detection system is introduced to enhance safety measurements to prevent any risks. IR obstacle detector sensors are used to detect obstacles, if any obstacle is found in front of the robot while traveling; it avoids the barrier by taking a right/right turn or stop automatically appropriately, thereby preventing the collision. Also, the main aim of this project is the formation of a grass cutter that relieves the user from mowing their own grasses and reduces environmental and noise pollution. The proposed system is designed as a lab-scale prototype to experimentally validate the efﬁciency, accuracy, and affordability of the systems. The experimental results prove that the proposed work has all in one capability (Simple and Pattern based grass cutting with mobile-application, obstacle detection), is very easy to use, and can be easily assembled in a simple hardware circuit. We note that the systems proposed can be implemented on a large scale under real conditions in the future, which will be useful in robotics applications and cutting grass in playing grounds such as cricket, football, and hockey, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor positioning system; Bluetooth; Wi-Fi; wearables; energy efficiency
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:17:49 CEST)
In recent years, the application of Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS) has experienced a significant increase in demand, with the aging of the world’s population and their changing lifestyles. While outdoor positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), have significantly advanced over the years, indoor positioning has been restrained by the limitations of the employed technologies. This paper presents a hybrid wireless positioning system able to locate wearables indoor accurately. It is based on the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies, by using trilateration to determine the position of Bluetooth low energy (BLE) wearable devices with an accuracy of up to 1.8 meters. A graphical user interface (GUI) was used to illustrate the performance of the proposed systems, by allowing users to visualize the captured data in two dimensions and three- dimensions in real-time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0461.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: cloud; storage; Mobile Adhoc Networks; services; bluetooth; mobile devices
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:43:00 CEST)
Smartphone has become one of the most revolutionary devices in the history of computing. With various kinds of applications, the scope of smartphone has been significantly broadened in the past few years including almost every aspect in our daily life. However, due to the limited on-board resources such as CPU, storage, network bandwidth and battery power, smartphones and the mobile network serving them bring new challenges that have not been encountered in the traditional computing and networking environments. This dissertation focuses on the research areas of improving the network architecture and enhancing the current applications on smartphones. It mainly investigates the areas in the following two directions for three representative categories of mobile services. - In the first direction, the dissertation aims to develop new communication models for smartphone Ad-Hoc networks to achieve efficient communication in the proximity. It is motivated by the fact that smartphone Ad-Hoc networks can help improve the current location-based services and propel new applications. Moreover, the new communication models provide complementary alternatives to the traditional infrastructure-based wireless networks. - In the second direction, the dissertation focuses on improving the other two categories of services, cloud storage services and real-time video streaming services for mobile devices. In the field of cloud storage, we introduce a cloud-assisted approach to provide a set of advanced file operations, such as encryption, decryption and compression, on smartphones. Furthermore, by utilizing the on-board Near Field Communication(NFC) module, we develop an algorithm to securely share the files between mobile devices. For the services of real-time video streaming, we propose approaches that identify a user’s status by analyzing the accelerometer data and then, dynamically adjust the buffer mechanism to save network bandwidth on smartphones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1157.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Hearing-loss; headphones; noise-canceling; communication; elderly; Bluetooth; ophthalmic exam
Online: 18 October 2023 (17:22:44 CEST)
This study tests the utilization of Bluetooth noise-canceling headphones in improving the quality of eye exams in patients with hearing loss. University of Texas Medical Branch patients above 55 years of age were screened for hearing loss using SoundCheck audiometry. All 29 subjects (18 red-zone and 11 yellow-zone) answered pre-recorded Amsler grid and patient education questions that solicited precise responses. As controls, subjects were randomly administered half of the questions via headphones and half via a smartphone at normal speech volume (60 decibels). Points were awarded for responses demonstrating comprehension, and a post-exam survey was collected. Collectively, the mean score was 1.79 with headphones versus 0.96 with control on the Amsler grid segment and 1.90 with headphones versus 0.97 with control on education questions (p=0.001). Between the red and yellow zone hearing loss patients, the red-zone group answered significantly better in both Amsler (1.78 versus 0.50; p=0.0003) and education questions (1.88 versus 0.44; p<0.0001) with headphones. The yellow zone group answered better with headphones overall but failed to reach significance. Post-exam survey indicated that 28 of 29 patients (97%) preferred the headphones during ophthalmic exams. Patients with severe hearing loss demonstrated better comprehension with the noise-canceling headphones; thus these devices show great promise in improving effective, compassionate communication between providers and hearing-loss patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0689.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Electroencephalogram (EEG); Mobile EEG, Bluetooth; Resting State; Eyes Open/Closed
Online: 8 August 2023 (14:38:10 CEST)
Electroencephalography (EEG) is a crucial tool in cognitive neuroscience, enabling the study of neurophysiological function by measuring the brain's electrical activity. Its applications are included perception, learning, memory, language, decision-making and neural network mapping. Recently, interest has surged in extending EEG measurements to domestic environments. However, the high costs associated with traditional laboratory EEG systems have hindered accessibility for many individuals and researchers in education, research, and medicine. To tackle this, a mobile-EEG device named "DreamMachine” was developed. A more affordable alternative to both lab-based EEG systems and existing mobile-EEG devices. This system boasts 24-channels, 24-bit resolution, up to 6 hours of battery life, portability and a low price. Our open-source and open-hardware approach empowers cognitive neuroscience, especially in education, learning, and research, opening doors to more accessibility. This paper introduces the DreamMachine's design and compares it with the lab-based EEG system "asalabTM" in an eyes-open and eyes-closed experiment. The Alpha band exhibited higher power in the power spectrum during eyes-closed conditions, whereas the eyes-open condition showed increased power specifically within the Delta frequency range. Our analysis confirms that the DreamMachine accurately records brain activity, meeting the necessary standards when compared to the asalabTM system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Arduino; Bluetooth; load cell; monitoring system; temperature sensor; weight sensor
Online: 1 March 2021 (17:27:36 CET)
: This paper presents a couple of meal monitoring systems for senile dementia patients by using electronic weight and temperature sensors. These monitoring systems enable to convey the information of the amount of meal taken by the patients in real-time via wireless communication networks onto the mobile phones of their families or nurses in charge. Thereby, the nurses can easily spot the most desperate patient to take care of while the families can have relief to see the crucial information for survival of their parents at least three times a day. Meanwhile, the senile dementia patients tend to suffer the burn of their tongues because they can hardly recognize the temperature of hot meals served and therefore avoid the burn of tongues. This phenomenon can be discarded by utilizing the meal temperature monitoring system which displays alarm to the patients when the meal temperature is above the reference. These meal monitoring systems can be easily implemented by utilizing low-cost sensor chips and Arduino UNO boards so that elder-care hospitals and nursing homes can afford to exploit them with no additional cost. Hence, we believe that the proposed monitoring systems would be a potential solution to provide a great help and relief not only for the professional nursing nurses working in elder-care hospitals and nursing homes, but also for the families of the dementia patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ambient intelligence; ACL; bluetooth; delay, empirical model; intelligent environment; latency; multi-hop; scatternet
Online: 7 April 2017 (04:32:44 CEST)
Intelligent systems are driven by the latest technological advances in so different areas as sensing, embedded systems, wireless communications or context recognition. This paper focuses on some of those areas. Concretely, the paper deals with wireless communications issues on embedded systems. More precisely, the paper combines the multi-hop networking with Bluetooth technology and a quality of service (QoS) metric, the latency. Bluetooth is a radio license free worldwide communication standard that makes low power multi-hop wireless networking available. It establishes piconets (point-to-point and point-to-multipoint links) and scatternets (multi-hop networks). As a result, many Bluetooth nodes can be interconnected to set up ambient intelligent networks. Then, this paper presents the results of the investigation on multi-hop latency with park and sniff Bluetooth low power modes conducted over the hardware test bench previously implemented. In addition, the empirical models to estimate the latency of multi-hop communications over Bluetooth Asynchronous Connectionless Links (ACL) in park and sniff mode are given. The designers of devices and networks for intelligent systems will benefit from the estimation of the latency in Bluetooth multi-hop communications that the models provide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Indoor Positioning Technology; Bluetooth 4.0; Manufacturing Private Cloud; Internet of Things; Indoor Positioning Technology;
Online: 1 June 2018 (08:15:12 CEST)
To enhance industrial competitiveness and increase productivity, every country has strived to create a smart factory by introducing technologies such as Internet of Things, big data and artificial intelligence into production line and build cyber-physical system for the purpose of promoting manufacturing efficiency. For mission assignment, production line management or manufacturing field analysis, the location information of employee, machine and material is very essential. To promote manufacturing efficiency, of course, the location information became more important. A Bluetooth low energy (BLE) positioning system for the manufacturing is developed in this research. A "Tag tracking" mechanism is addressed and adopted, which uses Beacon to catch the location information and a BLE receiver is also used to receive the broadcasting information from Beacon. The position information from the BLE receiver will be compared with the data in the database for calculating the location of the target. The status of the target may also be obtained by using the data from the BLE receiver. Comparing with the mobile device, this method can reduce energy consumption and make the maintenance simple and easy. In the real applications, the target may not be limited to human. The "Regional label positioning technology" is also investigated in this research. Defining a suitable zone location and arranging BLE receiver location, and positioning analysis theory are the key factors included in this developed technology. The developed system will be tested for real industry applications. The test results show that the feasibility of this technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0001.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: smart attendance system; attendance monitoring system; students’ absenteeism; Bluetooth Low Energy technology; beacon-based application
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:07:13 CET)
Student attendance serves many other important purposes aside from monitoring. In certain universities, the attendance of students in a course is also used as one of the requirements for students to be allowed to sit for the final examination. Traditionally, among most Malaysian Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL), attendance recording is usually done using pen and paper, or uses simple web-based system that is time consuming and difficult for faculty periodic monitoring. To address the identified drawbacks, this research aims to develop a Smart Attendance for Faculty Monitoring System using the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology to assist faculty in recording, managing and monitoring students’ attendance and class schedules effectively. The system is developed for Android-based devices using an agile methodology consists of iteration and incremental approaches. Thus, to evaluate the effectiveness of the system, a survey was conducted on 140 respondents involving lecturers and students of Kolej Universiti Poly-Tech MARA (KUPTM). Respondents were selected using purposive sampling. The descriptive analysis showed that 87.9% of the respondents strongly agreed that the system is effective in assisting lecturers to record attendance, manage class schedules and student attendance as well as to assist faculty in monitoring students’ absenteeism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0246.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Raspberry Pi; Edge Computing; Ambient Health Monitoring; Privacy-preserving; Bluetooth; Geolocation Tracking; Patient Alarm; Illuminance
Online: 16 March 2022 (05:28:32 CET)
The non-contact patient monitoring paradigm moves patient care into their homes and enables long-term patient studies. The challenge, however, is to make the system non-intrusive, privacy-preserving, and low-cost. To this end, we describe an open-source edge computing and ambient data capture system, developed using low-cost and readily available hardware. We describe five applications of our ambient data capture system. Namely: (a) Estimating occupancy and human activity phenotyping; (b) Medical equipment alarm classification; (c) Geolocation of humans in a built environment; (d) Ambient light logging; and (e) Ambient temperature and humidity logging. We obtained an accuracy of 94% for estimating occupancy from video. We stress-tested the alarm note classification in the absence and presence of speech and obtained micro averaged F1 scores of 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. The geolocation tracking provided a room-level accuracy of 98.7%. The root mean square error in the temperature sensor validation task was 0.3°C and for the humidity sensor, it was 1% Relative Humidity. The low-cost edge computing system presented here demonstrated the ability to capture and analyze a wide range of activities in a privacy-preserving manner in clinical and home environments and is able to provide key insights into the healthcare practices and patient behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Android; arduino; bluetooth; hand-gesture recognition; low cost; open source; sensors; smart cars; speech recognition
Online: 3 January 2019 (14:32:23 CET)
Gesture recognition has always been a technique to decrease the distance between the physical and the digital world. In this work, we introduce an Arduino based vehicle system which no longer require manual controlling of the cars. The proposed work is achieved by utilizing the Arduino microcontroller, accelerometer, RF sender/receiver, and Bluetooth. Two main contributions are presented in this work. Firstly, we show that the car can be controlled with hand-gestures according to the movement and position of the hand. Secondly, the proposed car system is further extended to be controlled by an android based mobile application having different modes (e.g., touch buttons mode, voice recognition mode). In addition, an automatic obstacle detection system is introduced to improve the safety measurements to avoid any hazards. The proposed systems are designed at lab-scale prototype to experimentally validate the efﬁciency, accuracy, and affordability of the systems. We remark that the proposed systems can be implemented under real conditions at large-scale in the future that will be useful in automobiles and robotics applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicle; Internet of Things (IoT); Bluetooth; Cloud-Battery Management System; ZigBee; Controller Area Network (CAN); Wi-Fi; Charger
Online: 16 August 2021 (12:20:13 CEST)
An effective battery management system (BMS) is indispensable for any lithium-ion battery (LIB) powered systems such as electric vehicles (EVs) and stationary grid-tied energy storage systems. Massive wire harness, scalability issue, physical failure of wiring, and high implementation cost and weight are some of the major issues in conventional wired-BMS. One of the promising solutions researchers have come up with is the wireless BMS (WBMS) architecture. Despite research and development on WBMS got momentum more than a decade ago, it is still in a preliminary stage. Significant further upgradation is still required towards developing an industry-ready WBMS, especially for high-power LIB packs. Therefore, an in-depth survey exclusively on WBMS architectures is presented in this article. The aim is to provide a summary of the existing developments as well as to present an informative guide to the research community for future development by highlighting the issues, emerging trends, and challenges. In-depth analysis of the existing WBMS topologies will not only help the researchers to understand the existing challenges and future research scopes clearly while at the same time enthuse them to focus their research inclination in the domain of WBMS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1467.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE); Cluster-based Agricultural IoT (CA-IoT); Fault Management (FM); Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO); Wireless Sensor Network-based Agricultural IoT (WSN-based Agri-IoT)
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:23:58 CEST)
This paper presents an in-depth contextualized tutorial on Agricultural IoT (Agri-IoT), covering the fundamental concepts, assessment of routing architectures and protocols, and performance optimization techniques via systematic survey and synthesis of related literature. The negative impacts of climate change and the increasing global population on food security and unemployment threats have motivated the adoption of the wireless sensor network (WSN)-based Agri-IoT as an indispensable underlying technology in precision agriculture and greenhouses to improve food production capacities and quality. However, most related Agri-IoT testbed solutions have failed to achieve their performance expectations due to the lack of an in-depth and contextualized reference tutorial that provides a holistic overview of communication technologies, routing architectures, and performance optimization modalities based on users’ expectations. Thus, although IoT applications are founded on a common idea, each use case (e.g., Agri-IoT) varies based on specific performance and users expectations as well as its technological, architectural, and deployment requirements. Likewise, the agricultural setting is a unique and hostile area where conventional IoT technologies do not apply, hence the need for this tutorial. Consequently, this tutorial addresses these via the following contributions: (1) a systematic overview of the fundamental concepts, technologies, and architectural standards of WSN-based Agri-IoT, (2) an evaluation of the technical design requirements of a robust, location-independent, and affordable Agri-IoT, (3) a comprehensive survey of the benchmarking fault tolerance techniques, communication standards, routing and medium access control (MAC) protocols, and WSN-based Agri-IoT testbed solutions, and (4) an in-depth case study on how to design a self-healing, energy-efficient, affordable, adaptive, stable, autonomous, and cluster-based WSN-specific Agri-IoT from a proposed taxonomy of multi-objective optimization (MOO) metrics that can guarantee an optimized network performance. Furthermore, this tutorial established new taxonomies of faults, architectural layers, and MOO metrics for cluster-based Agri-IoT (CA-IoT) networks and a 3-tier objective framework with remedial measures for designing an efficient associated supervisory protocol for cluster-based Agri-IoT networks.