ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0035.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Blockchain Technology; Blockchain Trust; Security; Fraud; Human Resource (Hr) Management
Online: 5 May 2021 (11:33:40 CEST)
The impact that new technologies have on all aspects of our lives, work, and businesses is significant and growing over time. Blockchain and artificial intelligence, among other innovative technologies, are having a profound effect on practically all business functions, including most human resources (HR) tasks. The HR sector is currently facing a variety of challenges as HR departments invest many hours in vetting candidates' applications and authenticating records to decrease the chances of imperfect recruiting. Nowadays, more technologically based processes are utilised for talent search, selection and management, as well as for accumulating, retaining, and integrating new talents into a company. These HR practices are far more effective compared to traditional methods but can also be more expensive if the transactional costs are considered. This paper consists of two parts. Following an introduction, the first part discusses the trust and confidentiality that can be attained, while the second part examines security, fraud prevention and the productivity gained from using blockchain technology in HR activities. Finally, there is a concluding section, discussing the implications of blockchain technology for firms who choose to employ it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0259.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Blockchain Technology; Cryptocurrency; Applications; Challenges; Opportunities
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:10:46 CEST)
Blockchain innovation stands out enough to be noticed and adopted in various countries and organizations around the world. Many businesses, including finance, medical services, inventory networks, security, libraries, and the internet of things, are currently under attack. For the benefit of the blockchain, many businesses incorporate blockchain technology into their frameworks. Despite its solidarity, blockchain faces a few challenges in security, protection, adaptability, and other areas. This paper examines the forward leap in blockchain innovation, as well as its applications and challenges. While many blockchain papers focus on digital currencies, IoT, and security, this paper focuses on the overall best in a class of blockchain innovation, its new twists and turns, and choices, particularly in areas other than cryptographic forms of money. The investigators' goal is to provide a thorough audit of the cryptography underlying blockchain to better understand the innovation. The examiners also conduct general research on people and venture blockchains, as well as future exploration opportunities and their implications for blockchain innovation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0549.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Blockchain; Cryptocurrencies; Bitcoin; Fintech; Metaverse
Online: 9 May 2023 (03:29:29 CEST)
Within financial technology, Blockchain is a topic that is receiving a lot of attention and discussion. There has been a meteoric rise in engagement and recent studies on this technology. The mainframe, personal computers, the Internet, and mobile applications follow the breakthrough in the history of computing. In qualitative research, the investigation was synthesized utilizing the documentary approach, including content analysis for a review article. The results reveal that Blockchain Technology is getting a foothold not only in the financial industries but is also likely to disrupt other areas like healthcare, real estate, the legal industry, security, government, education, rentals and ride-sharing, charities and aid organizations, and politics. Currently, several projects are researching the possibility of implementing the Blockchain as a structure to support them; as a result, we will soon see that it truly becomes the technology of the future. Furthermore, qualitative interviews or focus group discussions could give more insight into details. In addition, a quantitative approach for further research could provide a generalized explanation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: blockchain; M2M; CPS; cotton spinning production
Online: 2 August 2017 (12:40:05 CEST)
As the core of intelligent manufacturing, CPS has serious security issues, especially for the communication security of its terminal M2M. In this paper, blockchain technology is introduced to address such a security problem of communications between different types of machines in CPS. According to the principles of blockchain technology, we design a blockchain for secure M2M communications. As a communication system of M2M consists of public network areas, equipment areas and private areas, we design a sophisticated blockchain structure between the public area and private area. For validating our design, we take cotton spinning production as a case study to demonstrate our solution to M2M communication problems under the CPS framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0259.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain technology; Process authenticity; Tokens; Anchors; Oracles
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:54:39 CEST)
In the last four years, the evolution and adoption of blockchain and, more generally, distributed ledger systems have shown the affirmation of many concepts and models with significant differences in system governance and suitable applications. This work aims to update the critical analysis of blockchain technologies carried out by our previous contribution to this journal, extending the focus to distributed ledger components and systems. Starting from the topical concept of decentralization, we introduce concepts and building blocks currently adopted in the available systems centering on their functional aspects and impact on possible applications. We present some conceptual framing tools helpful in the application context, and we will propose the concept of process authenticity, which we will discuss through two use cases: blockchain document dematerialization and e-voting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: blockchain; public services; governance approach; technology
Online: 17 November 2023 (08:13:56 CET)
Blockchain is considered a technological trend with a unique and unprecedented foundation of ways of working, and has the potential to fundamentally change society in conducting activities related to the public or private sector. Although the academic literature on blockchain is generally focused on cryptocurrencies, in recent years, literature with different perspectives has begun to emerge regarding the use of blockchain in the context of the public sector. The unique characteristics of how blockchain technology works make it an innovation that is expected to change many activities, structures, and processes related to the implementation of public sector activities, especially in public services such as administrative processes, welfare provision, and regulatory practices. This article discusses through a systematic literature review about the potential use of blockchain in public services. This literature review identifies the types of public services most likely affected by the introduction of blockchain. In addition, this article highlights the benefits, potentials, and challenges and risks of blockchain for governments and citizens/society in general. Governments, in general, can optimize efficiency and tracking through the use of blockchain, but regulatory uncertainty and scalability capabilities being major challenges, which are still poorly researched in the literature, can benefit from reduced bureaucracy and improved coordination through blockchain adoption, despite the lack of blockchain knowledge and skills being significant barriers to its implementation. For citizens or the public, security and transparency are key benefits, while the main risk lies in data security concerns. The article closes by noting a number of limitations in the existing literature and providing suggestions and recommendations for future research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0114.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Blockchain Technology; Industry 4.0; Supply Chain Management; Text mining; Metaverse; Hashgraph, Baas.
Online: 9 May 2022 (10:01:43 CEST)
In the current business environment, firms are eager to adopt new technology as they witness and perceive more and more successful business applications of new technologies, e.g., Big Data, Artificial Intelligence (A.I.), Cloud Computing, etc. As one of the disruptive technologies, Blockchain technology (BCT) is now drawing public attention owing to the cryptocurrency phenomenon (e.g., Bitcoin), for which Blockchain serves as the backbone technology. Given certain innovative features of BCT, especially its transparency, traceability, security, efficiency, confidentiality, and immutability, BCT holds out the promise of impacting supply chain operational and financial efficiencies. Recently, the burgeoning of Metaverse and Non-Fungible Token (NFT) has boosted the BCT as state-of-the-art technology to another notch. Motivated by the proliferating adoption of BCT, we conduct a holistic literature review with a focus on the status of research on BCT in the context of Supply Chain Management (SCM). In particular, this Blockchain-centered research reviews the research up to date on the Blockchain application in SCM. It provides holistic review in terms of (1) the functionality of BCT and its salient features; (2) the prevailing and potential applications of BCT; (3) and the business benefits and impact of BCT in SCM. Finally, we substantiate and highlight a variety of research directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: blockchain technology; hyperledger fabric; amazon web services; construction worker; privacy; safety
Online: 18 October 2023 (11:20:09 CEST)
The construction industry, characterized by its intricate network of stakeholders and diverse workforce, grapples with the challenge of managing information effectively. This study delves into this issue, recognizing the universal importance of safeguarding data, particularly amid rising concerns of unauthorized access and breaches. Aiming to harness the potential of blockchain technology to address these challenges, this study used a hypothetical biographical and safety data of construction workers and securely stored on a Hyperledger Fabric blockchain. Developed within the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud platform, this blockchain infrastructure emerged as a robust solution for enhancing data security and privacy. Anchored in the core principles of data security, the model emerges as a potent defender against the vulnerabilities of traditional data management systems. Beyond its immediate implications, this study exemplifies the marriage of blockchain technology and the construction sector, potentially reshaping workforce management, especially in high-risk projects, optimizing risk assessment, resource allocation, and safety measures to mitigate work-related injuries. Practical validation through transaction testing using Hyperledger Explorer validates the model's feasibility and operational effectiveness, serving as a blueprint for the industry's data management. Ultimately, this research not only showcases the promise of blockchain technology in addressing construction data security challenges but also underscores its practical applicability through comprehensive testing, heralding a new era of data management that harmonizes security and efficiency for stakeholders' benefit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0149.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial general intelligence; AGI; blockchain; distributed ledger; AI containment; AI safety; AI value alignment; ASILOMAR
Online: 16 June 2019 (11:19:23 CEST)
Artificial general intelligence (AGI) progression metrics indicate AGI will occur within decades. No proof exists that AGI will benefit humans and not harm or eliminate humans. I propose a set of logically distinct conceptual components that are necessary and sufficient to 1) ensure various AGI scenarios will not harm humanity and 2) robustly align AGI and human values and goals. By systematically addressing pathways to malevolent AI we can induce the methods/axioms required to redress them. Distributed ledger technology (DLT, ‘blockchain’) is integral to this proposal, e.g. ‘smart contracts’ are necessary to address evolution of AI that will be too fast for human monitoring and intervention. The proposed axioms: 1) Access to technology by market license. 2) Transparent ethics embodied in DLT. 3) Morality encrypted via DLT. 4) Behavior control structure with values at roots. 5) Individual bar-code identification of critical components. 6) Configuration Item (from business continuity/disaster recovery planning). 7) Identity verification secured via DLT. 8) ‘Smart’ automated contracts based on DLT. 9) Decentralized applications - AI software modules encrypted via DLT. 10) Audit trail of component usage stored via DLT. 11) Social ostracism (denial of resources) augmented by DLT petitions. 12) Game theory and mechanism design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: vehicular network; VANET; vehicle-to-everything; mobile edge computing; blockchain
Online: 13 December 2021 (13:19:39 CET)
As V2X technology develops, acute problems related to reliable and secure information exchange between network objects in real time appear. The article aims to solve the scientific problem of building a network architecture for reliable delivery of correct and uncompromised data within the V2X concept to improve the safety of road users, using blockchain technology and mobile edge computing (MEC). The authors present a formalized mathematical model of the system, taking into account the interconnection of objects and V2X information channels, and an energy-efficient algorithm of traffic offloading to the MEC server. The paper presents the results of application of blockchain technologies and mobile edge computing in the developed system, their description, evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of the implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Coronaviruses; Blockchain Technology; COVID-19; Smart Contracts; Data Exchange; Secure; Distributed Ledger Technology; Healthcare
Online: 7 May 2020 (10:10:00 CEST)
WHO was informed on 31 December 2019 of cases of unknown cause pneumonia in Wuhan City, China. On 7 January 2020 Chinese authorities reported a novel coronavirus as the cause and was temporarily labeled "2019-nCoV." Coronaviruses (CoV) are a wide family of viruses which cause diseases ranging from common cold to more serious illnesses. A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain not previously found in humans. Countries around the globe have stepped up their surveillance to quickly detect any new 2019-nCoV cases. Blockchain is developing into a safe and efficient network for secure data sharing in applications such as the financial industry, operations management, food industry, energy market, the Internet of Things and healthcare. In this paper, we are using blockchain technology as a mean to share authentic data, tracking of relevant information and help speed up the treatment process. At the same time it will preserve person’s identity. Timely deployment and suitable implementation of the proposed model have the opportunity to curb COVID-19 transmissions and associated mortality, especially in environments with inadequate access to testing facilities. This work will also facilitate in the treatment of other infectious diseases. Smart contract have been designed and implemented using the ethereum blockchain platform which has been presented in this paper. This work would facilitate multiple stakeholders who are involved within the medical system to curb the transmission of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0250.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Blockchain; Decentralization; Innovation Policy; National Innovation Systems; Policy Tools; Legal and Regulatory
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:50:38 CET)
Blockchain technology can achieve decentralization, multi-party verification, anti-tampering, anonymity, traceability of transactions, and the application of distributed ledger. Countries around the world continue to seek the blockchain business models, technologies and applications, and have different visions and policies for the development of blockchain. This study conducts a comparative policy framework of theoretical analysis of the blockchain technology between the USA and China. Using the innovative policy tools proposed by Rothwell and Zegveld, the above mentioned governments are analyzed from the viewpoint of twelve policy tools. The results show that the USA and China all prefer to use “Environmental-side” policy. The USA has paid more attention to “Legal and regulatory”, “Public services” and “Procurement”. China has the highest proportion of policies in “Political tools”, followed by “Legal & regulatory”, while “Scientific and technical”, “Education” and “Overseas agent” come in third . The blockchain technology has developed vigorously among industries and its applications have gradually diversified. The results are provided to various stakeholders as a reference for policy planning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0553.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: e-Health domain; Differential Privacy; Blockchain; IoT; real-time data; health survey; electronic medical record
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:22:28 CEST)
A systematic and comprehensive review of critical applications of Blockchain Technol-ogy with Differential Privacy integration lies within the privacy and security enhancement. This paper aims to highlight the research issues in the e-health domain (e.g., Electronic Medical Rec-ords) and to review the current research directions in Differential Privacy integration with Blockchain Technology.(1) Background: The current state of the art in the e-health domain is identified as follows: (a) healthcare information poses a high level of security and privacy concerns due to its sensitivity; (b) due to vulnerabilities surrounding the healthcare system, a data breach is common and presents a risk for attacks by an adversary; and (c) the current privacy and security apparatus needs further fortification. (2) Methods: The methodology uses a systematic literature review (SLR) to identify and select relevant research papers and academic journals in DP and BT. (3) Results: The results are categorized into: e-Health Record Privacy, Real-Time Health Data, and Health Survey Data Protection to identify inherent issues with Differential Privacy integra-tion with Blockchain and technical challenges.(4) Conclusion: This review thoroughly surveyed and summarized Differential Privacy mechanisms in EMR privacy, real-time health data, and health survey data protection while highlighting challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0413.v2
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Consortium Blockchain; Ring signature; Blockchain privacy; Blockchain security; Access Control; Blockchain big data
Online: 25 June 2023 (04:01:48 CEST)
Banking sectors commit modern working frameworks and models smooth development based on decentralization with keeping money confront in unused ranges and differing activities. Consortium Blockchain Privacy becomes a major concern and the challenge of Most of banking sectors.Development without being hampered being a major concern it can store confirmed, Data privacy includes assuring protection for both insider ad outsider threats therefore access control of Ring signature could help to secure Privacy of inside and outside threats by secure process by RSBAC using CIA triad privacy Confidentiality, Availability, Integrity.This paper proposes a ring signature-based on access control mechanism for determining who a user is and then regulating that person's access to and use of a system's resources. In a nutshell, access control restricts who has access to a system. It also restricts access to system resources to users who have been identified as having the necessary privileges and permissions. The proposed paradigm satisfies the needs of both workflow and non-workflow systems in an enterprise setting. The traits of the conditional purposes, roles, responsibilities, and policies provide the foundation for it. It ensures that internal risks such as database administrators are protected.Finally, it provides the necessary protection in the event that the data is published.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Digital twin; centrifugal microfluidics; Lab-on-a-Disc; crowdsourcing; blockchain; decentralization; oracle; consensus; non-fungible token; NFT; decentralized science; DeSci
Online: 8 October 2021 (16:55:19 CEST)
Since its inception in the late 2000s, blockchain has emerged as a powerful tool for creating trust without intermediaries to incentivize global communities for working for a common goal, such as the improvement of its very ecosystem, its applications and community adoption. While first blockchains were mainly devised for confirming transactions of their innate cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, smart-contract blockchains like Ethereum can interface with the real-world through so-called “oracles”, which feed trustful off-chain information. This paper introduces digital twins of physical objects and processes as computational oracles to effectively unleash the tremendous opportunity offered by blockchain to the realm of fundamental science, research and technology development (RTD). The crowdsourcing concept is illustrated with the example of centrifugal flow control in microfluidic “Lab-on-a-Disc” (LoaD) systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1952.v1
Online: 28 July 2023 (02:40:52 CEST)
It is standard for blockchain platforms to issue native tokens, currencies, that users must own to operate within the platform. Some blockchains however decided to issue two tokens, a dual system, one typically for governance and the other for implementing functions on the blockchain, such as executing transactions or smart contracts. Therefore, the two tokens are used for different activities. Typically, owning the governance tokens gives right to receive the other token for free, as a reward for participating to the blockchain decision-making process. However, both tokens can also be traded on some exchange nodes, which means that platform functions could be implemented even without owning governance tokens. In the paper we discuss some economic fundamentals of dual-token blockchain platforms. In particular, we investigate the market relative attractiveness of the two tokens by introducing some simple numerical indicators, based on prices, traded and circulating monetary quantities. Such indicators, which are meant to reflect the platform view on the tokens’ market desirability, could be computed in real time and used to support the platform’s policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0437.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: blockchain application; permissioned blockchain; equipment maintenance; smart manufacturing
Online: 28 October 2023 (12:47:42 CEST)
In the realm of smart manufacturing, equipment plays a pivotal role, impacting the efficiency and quality of production. Ensuring equipment availability and optimal performance is crucial, necessitating effective maintenance strategies. This paper addresses the complexities of smart device maintenance, which often involves collaboration between multiple entities like device owners, manufacturers, suppliers, and external maintenance services. To enhance this cooperative maintenance, we propose a novel maintenance system based on permissioned blockchain technology, offering superior security and reliability compared to conventional cloud-based platforms. Our contributions include developing an integrated maintenance system framework for smart manufacturing, which facilitates interactions among diverse stakeholders. Additionally, we have developed a prototype of this maintenance system, serving as a practical model for real-world application. Our research primarily demonstrates the practicality and advantages of using permissioned blockchain for maintenance systems in the manufacturing sector, paving the way for more secure, efficient, and collaborative maintenance practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0071.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Blockchain; Distributed Ledger Technology; Blockchain Trilemma; Scalability; Interoperability
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:24:44 CEST)
With the interest and attention that the Blockchain and the Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) have recently demanded, the technology is advancing at a very high rate. With investors and applications in a wide variety of fields, a lot of funding and efforts are being driven into bringing the technology to everyday use. The community and companies are coming up with new ways to collaborate, which makes the blockchain ecosystem evolve at full tilt. Consequently, this paper’s aim is to review the academic and grey literature and to provide readers with information about the evolution, benefits and challenges of the Public Distributed Ledger Technologies and to discuss the latest solutions, which are being developed for bringing decentralization closer to the mainstream. The paper reviews the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) structured distributed ledgers with focus on the Hedera Hashgraph, a novelty DLT bringing a unique consensus algorithm with new use-cases enabled by new cryptoeconomic mechanisms as well as vital services, such as Solidity smart contracts and distributed file storage. Lastly, we are going to explore second-layer network protocols, a major topic for solving the scalability issues, empower Bitcoin and DLTs and also disrupt cryptocurrency exchanges focusing on the Lightning Network.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0867.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development goal; healthcare; information and communication technology; blockchain; security and privacy; design goal; society; environmental; financial)
Online: 19 September 2023 (15:31:09 CEST)
Good health and well-being is one of the essential SDGs that ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all ages and further entails providing substantial medical services to the public at low cost and with minimal adverse effects on the environment. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have taken on an increasingly important function as significant facilitators of healthcare reform, with the goals of enhancing access to health services, the quality of treatment provided, and the overall productivity of the healthcare system. However, the integration of ever-increasing ICT technologies into the healthcare systems, also referred to as digital transformation, is not a straightforward process, but it comes with different types of challenges from integration level to application design level and security level. Although several studies have been proposed to address the integration of ICT technologies into healthcare systems, there is still a need for a comprehensive research study on the integration and design challenges, security and privacy challenges, application areas, and possible positive and negative impacts. Therefore, this paper contributes as the research literature study covering an important SDG, "Good health and well-being," and its digital transformation, along with summarising our research findings in a detailed and taxonomical way. To start with, firstly, we present a detailed comparison of existing studies on healthcare and well-being, mainly focusing on integrating ICT technologies in healthcare in terms of sustainable aspects, security and privacy challenges, design and integration challenges, E-health-related applications, and future directions. We also present an overview and the need for digital transformation in healthcare, discuss its significant components, highlight E-health's importance and benefits, explore its integration and design challenges, and categorise the security and privacy challenges. Next, we present an in-depth discussion on the role of Blockchain technology as today's leading technology in E-health, discussing Blockchain technology and its characteristics, highlighting its benefits, and describing the possible types of Blockchain-based E-health use cases. Furthermore, we discuss the positive and negative impact of ICT integration along with identifying open issues and challenges of integrating ICT technologies into the healthcare systems and discuss future research directions, which provide the strength for researchers to address the issues in future solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1946.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Blockchain; blockchain architecture; digital economy; emerging technologies; online transactions
Online: 30 October 2023 (14:12:08 CET)
The digital economy, driven by information and communication technologies (ICT), has profoundly transformed in recent decades. The digitalization of society has given rise to an economic environment in which information, connectivity, and innovation play fundamental roles. In this context, a technology that has emerged as a fundamental pillar of the digital economy is the chain of blocks, commonly known as blockchain. Blockchain is a technology that has revolutionized the way online data and transactions are managed and shared. Through its ability to create secure, transparent, and decentralized ledgers, blockchain has paved the way for the digital economy, facilitating trust in digital transactions and enabling various applications ranging from cryptocurrencies to supply chain management and intellectual property. This study will delve into blockchain and its influence on the digital economy. It will explore how this technology has reshaped how companies interact, how consumers access services, and how new business models are developed in a constantly evolving digital environment. Additionally, the challenges and opportunities that blockchain presents in the context of the digital economy will be analyzed, and how it is helping to shape the future of business and society in general. As the exploration of blockchain and its impact on the digital economy progresses, it becomes evident how these two forces converge, generating a promising digital landscape full of significant opportunities and transformations. This phenomenon is consistently supported by a growing body of research and analysis, which underlines the growing influence of blockchain on the global economy (Smith, 2020; Johnson, 2019). The dynamic interplay between these two spheres, blockchain and the digital economy, constantly evolves and offers an exciting glimpse into the future regarding innovation and disruption across various sectors (Jones, 2021; Brown, 2018). As a result, significant opportunities are looming for those seeking to understand and capitalize on these emerging trends (García, 2022). Throughout this study, the current trends and most intriguing perspectives that shape this landscape will be broken down, offering a deeper insight into how blockchain and the digital economy are shaping an extraordinary digital future
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: blockchain; distributed ledger technology; physical internet; logistics; supply chain management; research framework; innovation; information technology; triple bottom line; sustainability
Online: 1 February 2019 (04:00:54 CET)
Integrating triple bottom line (TBL) goals into supply chains (SCs) is a challenging task which necessitates the careful coordination of numerous stakeholders’ individual interests. Recent technological advancements can impact TBL sustainability by changing the design, structure and management of modern SCs. Blockchain technology enables immutable data records and facilitates a shared data view along the supply chain. The Physical Internet (PI) is an overarching framework that can be applied to create a layered and comprehensive view of the SC. In this conceptual paper I define and combine these technologies and derive several high-level research areas and research questions to investigate adoption, management as well as structural SC issues. I suggest a theory-based research agenda for the years to come that exploits the strengths of rigorous academic research, while remaining relevant for the industry. Furthermore, I suggest various well-established theories to tackle the respective research questions and provide specific directions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0295.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Authentication; Encryption; Blockchain
Online: 20 September 2022 (05:51:42 CEST)
In this work we present a new algorithm that achieves the perfect Shannon secret by means of the XOR function and a method that we call multiple key reuse. The algorithm has two execution modes: message authentication and data encryption. The XOR encryption scheme allows for batch encryption and exhibits Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS). Furthermore, based on our fundamental algorithm, we have developed a new strategy for blockchain implementation that does not require Proof of Work (PoW), but defines a fair mechanism for miner selection and secure addition of blocks to the chain. Since our method is mainly based on the Boolean XOR function, the strength of the cryptosystem can be directly established thanks to its mathematical properties. Due to the risk that quantum computers represent for current cryptosystems based on prime factorization or discrete logarithm, we postulate that our method represents a promising alternative in the quantum era for the security of communications between Internet of Things devices as well as Blockchain technology.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: blockchain; sidechain; smart grid
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:54:37 CET)
Smart Grid systems have become popular and necessary for the development of a sustainable power grid. These systems use different technologies to provide optimized services to the users of the network. Regarding computing, these systems optimize electrical services by processing a large amount of data generated. However, privacy and security are essential in this kind of system. With a large amount of data generated, it is necessary to protect the privacy of users, because this data may reveal users’ personal information. Today, blockchain technology has proven to be an efficient architecture for solving privacy and security problems in different scenarios. Over the years, different blockchain platforms have emerged, attempting to solve specific problems in different areas. However, the use of different platforms fragmented the market, which was no different in the smart grid scenario. This work proposes a blockchain architecture that uses sidechains to make the system scalable and adaptable. We used three blockchains to ensure privacy, security, and trust in the system. To universalize the proposed solution, we used the OSGP protocol and smart contracts. The results show that architecture security and privacy are guaranteed, making it feasible for implementation in real systems. Although scalability issues regarding the storage of data generated still exists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0312.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Access control; Blockchain; Multi-Blockchain; Multi-Authority; Multi-Domain; Attribute-Based Encryption
Online: 19 December 2022 (03:19:23 CET)
Although there are several access control systems in the literature for flexible policy management in multi-authority and multi-domain environments, achieving interoperability & scalability, without relying on strong trust assumptions, is still an open challenge. We present HMBAC, a distributed fine-grained access control model for shared and dynamic multi-authority and multi-domain environments, along with Janus, a practical system for HMBAC policy enforcement. The proposed HMBAC model supports: (a) dynamic trust management between different authorities; (b) flexible access control policy enforcement, defined at domain and cross-domain level; (c) a global source of truth for all entities, supported by an immutable, audit-friendly mechanism. Janus implements the HMBAC model and relies on the effective fusion of two core components. First, a Hierarchical Multi-Blockchain architecture that acts as a single access point that cannot be bypassed by users or authorities. Second, a Multi-Authority Attribute Based Encryption protocol that supports flexible shared multi-owner encryption, where attribute keys from different authorities are combined to decrypt data distributedly stored in different authorities. Our approach was implemented using Hyperledger Fabric as the underlying blockchain, with the system components placed in Kubernetes Docker container pods. We experimentally validated the effectiveness and efficiency of Janus, while fully reproducible artifacts of both our implementation and our measurements are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0833.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: blockchain technologies; cryptocurrencies; metaverse; decentralised finance (DeFi); crypto regulations; blockchain standards; risk; value
Online: 10 August 2023 (10:54:59 CEST)
This paper contextualises the common queries of "why is crypto crashing?" and "why is crypto down?", the research transcends beyond the frequent market fluctuations to unravel how cryptocurrencies fundamentally work and the step-by-step process on how to create a cryptocurrency. The study examines blockchain technologies and their pivotal role in the evolving Metaverse, shedding light on topics such as how to invest in cryptocurrency, the mechanics behind crypto mining, and strategies to effectively buy and trade cryptocurrencies. Through an interdisciplinary approach, the research transitions from the fundamental principles of fintech investment strategies to the overarching implications of blockchain within the Metaverse. Alongside exploring machine learning potentials in financial sectors and risk assessment methodologies, the study critically assesses whether developed or developing nations are poised to reap greater benefits from these technologies. Moreover, it probes into both enduring and dubious crypto projects, drawing a distinct line between genuine blockchain applications and Ponzi-like schemes. The conclusion resolutely affirms the continuing dominance of blockchain technologies, underlined by a profound exploration of their intrinsic value and a reflective commentary by the author on the potential risks confronting individual investors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0100.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Blockchain Technologies; Cryptocurrencies; Risk; Value
Online: 6 April 2023 (13:45:45 CEST)
The aim of the article is to present a snapshot in time, of the current state in cryptocurrencies, the values and risks associated to blockchains. With emergence of over 20,000 crypto projects, the first objective of this article is to present the stage as it is in 2023, with historical overview since Satoshi presented the first paper on decentralised blockchains, until today. Second objective of the article is to review the values and risks associated to cryptocurrencies, and to clarify the differences between cryptocurrencies from blockchain technologies. The research questions that drive this article are related determining if the blockchain technology an innovation or its already obsolete technology? Are there any significant risks from cryptocurrencies? And are the potential values to society and economy worth pursuing? Would developed or developing countries benefit more from these technologies? And which blockchain projects will survive in the long run? In other words, where is the money and is there money or just hype. The review discusses the high probability that some crypto projects will fail, and given the vast number of cryptos, the article acknowledges that many of these projects are nothing more than ponzies. These are discussed and acknowledged, then the focus is shifted to the real-world use cases of blockchain projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0424.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: NFT; Fintech; Blockchain; Finance; Innovation
Online: 24 February 2023 (09:16:21 CET)
This article discusses the impact of new financial technologies, such as Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) on traditional industries such as art, sports, and game, while focusing on the recently formed "Metaverse" market. As a component of the overall blockchain ecosystem, the history of the establishment of NFT is analyzed. The impact of Web3 and intelligent contracts on Fintech are also investigated. This study examines the general trends in the NFTs market, including their price formation, price-influencing factors, and available patterns. Then the paper provides classifications and examples of NTFs. Besides, the technological application and primary technical path are also described. Later, the paper assesses the market's and marketplaces' accessibility. Finally, this study evaluates the management applications of NFTs and analyzes existing platforms, and demonstrates how they can be implemented effectively in various settings. The concluding portion discusses technological obstacles. The study concludes with a discussion of potential applications for the results and prospects for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0207.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: blockchain; vehicles; trust; traffic; consensus
Online: 8 February 2021 (12:55:37 CET)
Blockchain is the consensus-based technology to resolve the conflicts in Byzantine environments. Vehicles validate the messages received from the neighboring vehicles using Gradient Boosting Technique (GBT). Based on the validation results the message source vehicle generates the ratings that are to be uploaded to Road Side Units (RSUs) through that trust offset value can be calculated. All RSUs maintain the trust blockchain and each RSU tries to add their blocks to trust blockchain. We proposed a blockchain-based trust management model for VANET based on Tendermint. It eliminates the problem of malicious nodes entering the network and will also overcome the problem of power consumption. Simulation results also show that the proposed system is 7.8% and 15.6% effective and efficient in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and End-to-End Delay (EED) respectively to collect the trusted data between the vehicles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0059.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: blockchain; cryptocurrency; distributed ledger technology
Online: 8 January 2020 (03:35:14 CET)
Blockchains such as the bitcoin blockchain depend on reaching a global consensus on the distributed ledger; therefore, they suffer from well know scalability problems. This paper proposes an algorithm that avoids double-spending in the short term with just O(√n) messages; each node receiving money off-chain performs the due diligence of consulting k√n random nodes to check if any of them is aware of double-spending. Two nodes receiving double-spent money will in this way consult at least one common node with very high probability, due to the ‘birthday paradox’, and any common honest node consulted will detect the fraud. Since the velocity of money in the real world has coins circulating through at most a few wallets per day, the size of the due diligence communication is small in the short term. This `k-root-n’ algorithm is suitable for an environment with synchronous or asynchronous (but with fairly low latency) communication and with Byzantine faults. The presented k-root-n algorithm should be practical to avoid double-spending with arbitrarily high probability, while feasibly coping with the throughput of all world commerce. It is resistant to Sybil attacks even beyond 50% of nodes. In the long term, the k-root-n algorithm is less efficient. Therefore, it should preferably be used as a complement and not a replacement to a global distributed ledger technology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0117.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: blockchain; cybersecurity; attacks; threats; vulnerability
Online: 11 September 2019 (05:40:01 CEST)
Blockchain technology has become one of the most popular technologies for maintaining digital transactions. From the foundation of Bitcoin to the now predominant smart contract, blockchain technology promises to induce a shift in thought about digital transactions in many fields, such as energy, healthcare, Internet of Things, cybersecurity, financial services and the supply chain. Despite blockchain technology offers many cryptography advantages such as immutability, digital signature and hashing; it has suffered from several critical cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities. In this paper, we build upon the previous studies on vulnerabilities and investigates over 60 real cybersecurity incidents that have been happening on the blockchain networks between 2009 and 2019. We categorise those incidents against the key cybersecurity vulnerabilities in blockchain technologies; and have developed a taxonomy that captures five types of cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities based on five main players in blockchain. The outcome of this research prompted concerns and research direction in developing countermeasures to alleviate these risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1257.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Blockchain; Mobility; Random Selection; Encoding; Token
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:55:13 CEST)
. Various elements such as evolutions in IoT services resulting from sensoring by vehicle parts and advances in small communication technology devices have significantly impacted the mass spread of mobility services that are provided to users in need of limited resources. In particular, business models are progressing away from one-off cost towards longer term cost as represented by shared services utilizing kick-boards or bicycles and subscription services for vehicle software. Advances in shared mobility services as described are calling for solutions that can enhance reliability of data aggregate by users leveraging mobility services in the next-generation mobility areas. However, mining process to renew status, ensures continued network communication and block creation demands high performance in public block chain. This thesis proposes random certificate node selection mechanism in block network that creates blocks via node that has tokens issued for block creation and lets only specific nodes selected by encrypting token information acquires token.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: 6G; Licensed spectrum distribution; Blockchain; Fairness
Online: 18 July 2023 (14:16:00 CEST)
Spectrum distribution is a classical licensed spectrum accessing method in mobile communication networks. The licensed idle spectrum resources are authorized and distributed from spectrum owners to mobile users. However, the exponential growth of user capacity brings excessive load pressure on the traditional centralized network architecture. As lack of sufficient supervision and penalty measures, dishonest behaviors of spectrum owners and spectrum users will lead to the unfair status in the distribution process. As a result, the honest participants’ interest will be harmed. As an important supporting infrastructure of Internet of things technology, 6G cannot completely follow the existing spectrum distribution method. Towards 6G network spectrum distribution, an blockchain based licensed spectrum fair distribution method is proposed. A lightweight consensus mechanism named as proof of trust (PoT) is applied to reduce computational power consumption and consensus time overhead. We deploy the method on the Ethereum test chain, theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate the fairness, effectiveness and security of the method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0918.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: micropayment; blockchain; payment channel; lockable signature
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:02:59 CEST)
A blockchain-based continuous micropayment is a crucial component of the digital economy as it facilitates transactions and promotes small purchases. However, due to the throughput limitations of blockchain, payment channels (PC) are often used to process a large volume of transactions through an off-chain mode. Nevertheless, the introduction of PC requires a trusted third party to ensure transaction security, which creates an additional security assumption since only the first and last transactions can be witnessed by other system users. To address this issue, we propose a novel micropayment scheme based on lockable signatures. All transactions in the PC form a continuous microtransaction hash-chain (CMHC) to prevent malicious users from obtaining transaction information during the process. Furthermore, all locks in the CMHC are invisible during the entire transaction process, and all information is transferred in a tamper-resistant manner. We provide corresponding security analysis and conduct a series of evaluations. The results show that the proposed scheme performs better than the state-of-the-art solutions in terms of transaction time and verification costs. This lockable signature-based micropayment scheme not only guarantees security but also improves transaction speed and efficiency, thereby promoting the development of the digital economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: cross-disciplinary; AI; blockchain; investment; protection
Online: 5 October 2022 (04:04:40 CEST)
This article presents the results of a cross-disciplinary applied study exploring investors’ protections in the context of distributed ledger technology (DLT) smart contracts. Fusing legal, business, and technical perspectives, we developed a framework for protection from non-commercial risks for stablecoins, taking advantage of DLT and AI. A key concept we propose is the monitoring of disinformation and fake news to prevent malicious parties from abusing our solution. Based on the similarities between central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) and stablecoins, we propose scaling up our results to all future internet investments performed without face-to-face contact between the investor and the company.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0094.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Cryptography; DApp; Health Data; Privacy.
Online: 7 September 2022 (03:06:09 CEST)
With the fast development of blockchain technology in latest years, its application in scenarios that require privacy, such as health area, became encouraged and widely discussed. This paper presents an architecture to ensure the privacy of health-related data, which are stored and shared within a blockchain network in a decentralized manner, through the use of encryption with the RSA, ECC and AES algorithms. Evaluation tests were performed to verify the impact of cryptography on the proposed architecture in terms of computational effort, memory usage and execution time. The results demonstrate an impact mainly on the execution time and on the increase in the computational effort for sending data to the blockchain, however, justifiable considering the privacy and security provided with the architecture and encryption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0285.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Blockchain; Healthcare; Privacy; Cybersecurity; Healthcare-records
Online: 21 June 2022 (05:05:50 CEST)
The emergence of blockchain know-how currently presents the opportunity for the health sector to adopt such technologies in electronic health records. Blockchain assists in maintaining and sharing the relevant medical records of the patient with the relevant group of healthcare providers and the hospital. Numerous specific applications include traceability of drug and patient monitoring or Electronic Health Records (EHR). While Blockchain assists in maintaining and sharing the relevant medical records of the patient with the relevant group of healthcare providers and the hospital, it is important to note that the moral consciousness of the healthcare professionals is the main guide of the moral consciousness is ethics. This paper presents an overview of the application of blockchain in the healthcare and medical sector, highlighting the specific challenges and concerns. The study adopted a systematic review of secondary literature in answering the research question.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment; Blockchain; Supply Chain
Online: 28 October 2021 (14:56:20 CEST)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely recognized tool used to evaluate environmental impacts of a product or process, based on the environmental inventory database and bills of material. Data quality is one of the most significant factors affecting the analysis results. However, currently most datasets in inventory databases are generic i.e., they may represent material and energy flow of a process at market average, instead of a specific process used by a manufacturer. As a result, stockholders are unable to track their supply chain to find out the actual environmental impact from each supplier and to compare the environmental performance of alternative options. In this paper, we developed a new framework i.e., blockchain based LCA (BC-LCA), where block-chain technology is adapted to secure and transmit inventory data from upstream suppliers to downstream manufacturers. With BC-LCA, more specific data can be acquired along the supply chain in a real-time manner. Moreover, the availability, accuracy, privacy, and automatic update of inventory data can be improved. A case study is provided based on an industrial supply chain, to demonstrate the utilization of BC-LCA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0231.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Blockchain; Decentralized Finance; Oracles; Smart Contracts
Online: 9 July 2021 (15:44:33 CEST)
Decentralized Finance (DeFi) takes the promise of blockchain a step further and aims to transform traditional financial products into trustless and transparent protocols that run without involving intermediaries. Similar to how 2017 was the year of ICOs, 2020 was the year of DeFI with more than $15 billion of total investments. The decentralized platforms utilize oracles to retrieve asset data from the external world, but their choice and management criteria are often unknown to the end-users. If oracles are poorly selected or managed, the funds of a rising number of investors are inevitably in danger. The issue known as “the oracle problem,” which makes real-world applications controversial and debated due to the loss of decentralization, had recently drawn attention to DeFi given the crescent number of related hacks that caused the loss of millions of dollars held in DeFi projects. With a multivocal approach, this paper aims to shed light on the pattern that identifies the oracle problem in DeFi and outline the most promising ways to overcome the related weaknesses. This research supports the view that the oracle problem in decentralized finance bears specific characteristics which require standardization and appropriate economic incentives to be addressed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0355.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: blockchain consensus; consensus algorithms; rewards; incentives
Online: 12 November 2020 (15:02:25 CET)
The purpose of this study is to present a systematic review of the literature on public blockchain consensus algorithms. Blockchain consensus algorithms have gain much popularity in last few years especially in the cryptocurrency field. Based on a systematic review of the relevant literature, we provide a classification of blockchain consensus algorithms, philosophy behind creation of blockchain consensus algorithms and as well as the rewards and incentive strategies of various public blockchain consensus algorithms. On the basis of these results, the research gaps and future work directions are identified for further study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0074.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: SDGs; Covid-19; innovation; blockchain; development
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:39:50 CEST)
As we embrace the new normal in the aftermath of Covid-19, the year 2020 also marks the decade of action as we start the 10-year countdown to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. In this paper, we attempt to explore the extent to which the hardly won development gains over the last years could be reversed due to the unfolding COVID-19 global pandemic, how do we reboot the global response to accelerate the SDGs in times of uncertainties, and most importantly how to turn the recovery into an opportunity to build back better and more resilient economies. To do so, we examine the case of blockchain as one of the emerging innovative work-streams in development practices that could lead the way forward and pave the path for new developmental narratives as we all navigate the uncharted territories of the new digital age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0010.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: blockchain; cryptocurrency; decentralization; ecosystems; game theory
Online: 2 April 2018 (08:04:55 CEST)
Starting with BitTorrent and then Bitcoin, decentralized technologies have been on the rise over the last 15+ years, gaining significant momentum in the last 2+ years with the advent of platform ecosystems such as the Blockchain platform Ethereum. New projects have evolved from decentralized games to marketplaces to open funding models to decentralized autonomous organizations. The hype around cryptocurrency and the valuation of innovative projects drove the market cap of cryptocurrencies to over a trillion dollars at one point in 2017. These high valued technologies are now enabling something new: globally scaled, decentralized business models. Despite their valuation and the hype, these new business ecosystems are frail. This is not only because the underlying technology is rapidly evolving, but also because competitive markets see a profit opportunity in exponential cryptocurrency returns. This extracts value from these ecosystems, which could lead to their collapse, if unchecked. In this paper, we explore novel ways for decentralized economies to protect themselves from, and coexist with competitive markets at a global scale utilizing decentralized technologies such as Blockchain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Blockchain Technology-enabled Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Uncertain Demand; Supervised Learning algorithms; Evolutionary Computation algorithms; Blockchain Technology
Online: 1 October 2023 (10:14:31 CEST)
This paper provides a new multi-function Blockchain Technology-enabled Pharmaceutical Supply Chain (BT-enabled PSC) mathematical cost model, including PSC costs, BT costs, and uncertain demand fluctuations. The purpose of this study is to find the most appropriate algorithm(s) with minimum prediction errors to predict the costs of the BT-enabled PSC model. This paper also aims to determine the importance and cost of each component of the multi-function model. To reach these goals, we combined four Supervised Learning algorithms (KNN, DT, SVM, and NB) with two Evolutionary Computation algorithms (HS and PSO) after data generation. Each component of the multi-function model has its own importance, and we applied the Feature Weighting approach to analyse their importance. Next, four performance metrics evaluated the multi-function model, and the Total Ranking Score determined predictive algorithms with high reliability. The results indicate the HS-NB and PSO-NB algorithms perform better than the other six algorithms in predicting the costs of the multi-function model with small errors. The findings also show that the Raw Materials cost has a stronger influence on the model than the other components. This study also introduces the components of the multi-function BT-enabled PSC model.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0366.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: honeypot; botnet; blockchain; security; IoT; auto-encoder
Online: 6 July 2023 (07:30:33 CEST)
Botnet Attacks are one of the many types of ways to attack users in their day to day browsing, often of different trends and techniques to take your information without your control. Most firewalls can amply protect you against these trends and techniques, but scarily enough, recent articles and research have shown that they are starting to bypass said firewalls through layers of attacks, confusing your best line of defense. In this Report, we will be looking into exactly what are Botnets and the different subsets, what we can do to combat Botnet Attacks, where do they come from, their origin, the analysis of their kit and what we can put together from information collected. Through this we will be able to reach a conclusion of what we can use to possibly mitigate the effect they have on the internet and stop them from enacting their purpose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1517.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Sustainable Tourism; Blockchain; Digital Innovation; Cases Study
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:54:27 CEST)
This article presents a comprehensive review of the relationship in sustainable tourism and blockchain technology. The aim of this research is to explore the potential of blockchain to promote sustainable tourism, as well as to evaluate the current state of research and practical implementations in this field. The findings demonstrate the potential of blockchain in enhancing sustainability practices in tourism, while also highlighting the challenges and limitations. The study provides valuable insights for policymakers, industry practitioners, and researchers, and proposes future research directions to further advance the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1159.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: blockchain; protocols; Industry 5.0; sensing; 5G networks
Online: 16 June 2023 (02:33:10 CEST)
"Industry 5.0” is the latest industrial revolution. A variety of cutting-edge technologies, including artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things (IoT), and others, come together to form it. This new era will bring about significant changes in the way businesses operate, allowing them to become more cost-effective, more efficient, and produce higher-quality goods and services. Because sen-sors are getting better, 5G networks are being put in place, and more industrial equipment and machinery are becoming available, the manufacturing sector is going through a significant period of transition right now. These newly scalable opportunities make it possible to use and spread blockchain architectures on the shop floor, which is made possible by the ever-decreasing costs associated with implementing blockchain technology. Even though modern production models make use of the cloud (both internal and external services), networks and systems can take ad-vantage of the cloud's relatively low cost, scalability, increased computational power, real-time communication, and data transfer capabilities to create much smarter and more autonomous systems. This paper presents the results of an investigation into how blockchain services for large-scale industry networks could benefit from increased levels of security, transparency, and efficiency. We discuss the ways in which decentralized networks that make use of protocols and meshes might make things better with these technologies, which are not going away anytime soon. We emphasize the significance of new design in regards to cybersecurity, data integrity, and storage by using straightforward examples that have the potential to lead to the excellence of distributed systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0224.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Metaverse; AR; VR; Digital ownership; Blockchain; NFT.
Online: 14 February 2023 (02:59:00 CET)
The concept of a metaverse, a shared virtual space that brings together the physical and digital worlds, has been a topic of interest for decades. With recent advancements in technology, particularly in virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and blockchain, the metaverse has become a rapidly evolving and promising ecosystem. This paper provides a review of the metaverse, exploring its history, evolution, and current state of development. The paper delves into the different types of the metaverse, including fully immersive VR metaverses, hybrid metaverses that blend the physical and virtual worlds, and decentralized metaverses that are powered by blockchain. Additionally, the paper examines the impact of web 3.0 on the metaverse, as well as the various technologies used to create and sustain the metaverse, including VR, AR, and blockchain. Furthermore, the paper explores the concept of digital ownership and the potential for marketing and commerce within the metaverse. This paper serves as a review of the metaverse and its various components, providing insights into its history, development, and prospects, and is intended to provide a foundation for further research into this exciting and rapidly evolving ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0169.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Blockchain; smart contract; homomorphic encryption; IER detection
Online: 10 January 2023 (03:01:49 CET)
(1) Background: As Patient-reported outcome measures face challenges with low response rate on surveys, different incentive mechanism have been proposed to achieve a higher response rate. However, it seems that monetary incentives are the only mechanism with proven effect. Nevertheless, it is less likely to be used than other mechanisms due to the monetary cost. (2) Methods: In this research work, a cryptographic scheme for rewarding patients with cryptographic tokens is developed and implemented on the Ethereum test network. (3) Results: The model is able to distribute decentralised tokens to patients who complete the PROMs in a fair, private, decentralised approach. The token can be further used by patients to exchange more healthcare services, encouraging more patients to participate in PROMs. At the same time, an IER detection method is built to improve the quality of PROMs, avoiding the healthcare provider paying for meaningless PROMs from patients who barely participate for incentives. (4) Conclusions: This work provides an privacy-preserving incentive model to increase the response rate for PROMs surveys. Our model prevents patients providing invalid responses to gain rewards.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: blockchain; throughput; consensus; energy consumption; scalability; security
Online: 4 November 2022 (01:47:09 CET)
Blockchain technology has gotten much interest recently from academics, industry, and governments worldwide. It is regarded as a technical innovation that can disrupt various application fields affecting many aspects of our lives. Cryptocurrencies are a public blockchain application's success story that sparked extensive research and development. Scalability, energy consumption, and security, on the other hand, remain significant challenges. With low throughput, high transaction delay, and high energy consumption, most cryptocurrencies are experiencing low-efficiency difficulties. The scalability issue with public Blockchains is preventing organizations and sectors from receiving effective solutions. As a result, it is critical to bridge the gap and develop new frameworks that connect Blockchain with those goals. This paper examines the evolution of blockchain architecture and consensus protocols, provides a retrospective analysis, discusses the rationale for the various architectures and protocols' change, and captures the assumptions supporting their development and contributions to collaborative application development. However, existing research on consensus algorithms is insufficient. The features of the algorithms are discussed insufficiently in those papers, and some prominent blockchain consensus methods are not examined in terms of their scopes. The study’s findings are delivered in tabular formats, allowing for a clear representation of these algorithms. We discovered in our investigation that scalability is a result of many parameters such; transaction throughput, number of nodes, storage, block size, high communication, latency, cost. Furthermore, Due to its off-chain data storage and smaller block size, PoF is much more scalable than PoS and PoW, and Because PoA is a hybrid of PoW and PoC, it does not necessitate a large number of computational resources. As a result, it has a higher throughput than PoW. PoPF entails ranking all participating nodes and appointing n accountants to compete for adding new blocks. This article addresses the need by analyzing a wide range of consensus algorithms using a complete taxonomy of attributes and delving into the consequences of several still-present flaws in consensus algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0220.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: security; privacy; blockchain; smartcontracts; IoT; encryption; transaction
Online: 18 May 2022 (02:43:20 CEST)
When we talk about the Internet of Things, we are referring to the connecting of things to a1 physical network that is embedded with software, sensors, and other devices that allow information2 to be exchanged between devices. It is possible that the interconnection of devices will present3 issues in terms of security, trustworthiness, reliability, and confidentiality, among other things.4 The proposed approach is effective at detecting intrusions into the Internet of Things network.5 Initially, the privacy-preserving technology was deployed utilising a Blockchain-based methodology6 to ensure that personal information was protected. Patients’ health records (PHR) security is the7 most crucial component of encryption over the Internet because of the value and importance of these8 records, particularly in the context of the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT). The search terms access9 mechanism is one of the most common approaches used to access personal health records from a10 database, but it is vulnerable to a number of security flaws. However, while blockchain-enabled11 healthcare systems provide increased security, they may also introduce weaknesses into the current12 state of the art. Blockchain-enabled frameworks have been proposed in the literature as a means13 of resolving those challenges. These solutions, on the other hand, are primarily concerned with14 data storage, with Blockchain serving as a database. To enable secure search and keyword-based15 access to a distributed database, this study proposes the use of blockchain technology as a distributed16 database, together with a homomorphic encryption mechanism. Aside from that, the suggested17 system includes a secure key revocation mechanism that can be used to automatically update various18 policies.As a result, our proposed approach provides greater security, efficiency, and transparency19 while also being more cost-effective. We have compared the findings of our proposed models with20 those of the benchmark models, if appropriate. Our comparison research demonstrates that our21 suggested framework provides a more secure and searchable mechanism for the healthcare system22 than the current state of the art.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: blockchain; spatial crowdsourcing; task assignment; smart contract
Online: 9 May 2022 (09:09:49 CEST)
Spatial crowdsourcing emerges as a new computing paradigm that enables mobile users to accomplish spatio- temporal tasks in order to solve human-intrinsic problems. Existing crowdsourcing systems critically use centralized servers for interacting with workers and making task assignment decisions. These systems are hence susceptible to issues such as the single point of failure and the lack of operational transparency. Prior work, therefore, turns to blockchain-based decentralized crowdsourcing systems, yet still suffers from problems of lacking efficient task assignment scheme, requiring a deposit to an untrusted system, low block generation speed, and high transaction fees. To address these issues, we design a blockchain-based decentralized framework for spatial crowdsourcing, which we call SC-EOS. Our system does not rely on any trusted servers, while providing efficient and user-customizable task assignment, low monetary cost, and fast block generation. More importantly, it frees users from making a deposit into an untrusted system. Our framework can also be extended and applied to generic crowdsourcing systems. We implemented the proposed system on the EOS blockchain. Trace-driven evaluations involving real users show that our system attains the comparable task assignment performance against a clairvoyant scheme. It also achieves 10× cost savings than an Ethereum-based implementation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0135.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Blockchain; Smart Contracts; Oracles; IoT; Bibliometric Analysis
Online: 4 May 2022 (12:07:49 CEST)
Whereas the use of distributed ledger technologies has previously been limited to cryptocurrencies, other sectors—such as healthcare, supply chain, and finance—can now benefit from them because of bitcoin scripts and smart contracts. However, these applications rely on oracles to fetch data from the real world, which cannot reproduce the trustless environment provided by blockchain networks. Despite their crucial role, academic research on blockchain oracles is still in its infancy, with few contributions and a heterogeneous approach. This study undertakes a bibliometric analysis and aims to shed light on the institutions and authors that are actively contributing to the oracle literature, intending to promote progress and cooperation. On the one hand, although worldwide collaboration is still lacking, various authors and institutions are working in similar directions. On the other hand, most areas of research are scarcely explored, and others are even untouched.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0034.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Blockchain technology; security; Machine learning; Smart System
Online: 17 March 2022 (10:53:16 CET)
Blockchain and Machine Learning gives the best solutions together in performing various tasks in the Smart Health care system. With these two new emerging technologies, that have materialized in the last decade. In this paper, we proposed secure, transparent and intelligent methods in the Internate of medical things industry using Machine learning models and blockchain technology to enhance security level and train our models to improve diagnostic, prevention, treatment of the patient, patient rights, patient autonomy and equality in the health care system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Agriculture; Traceability; Food Supply chain; Crops.
Online: 1 November 2021 (16:04:00 CET)
In recent years, Blockchain has been favorably adopted in the Supply Chain industry as it provides guaranteed transparency and traceability. The flexibility of Blockchain allows different applications to enable to exchange information; a significant middleweight layer is responsible for information transfer in the Agricultural Sector. The products that are manufactured at a global level in the agriculture industry are improved in safety, validation of some criteria, and quality. In the agriculture industry, the increasing number of complications associated with food safety and impurity risks needs high-level effective traceability solutions that act as necessary quality management tools to make sure satisfactory safety of crops. The agricultural supply chain today has complex ecosystems, consisting of several stockholders to authenticate criteria which are important like crop development stages, monitoring and validation, and compliance with the quality standard. In this proposed research, a systematic literature review will be done that includes smart contracts, Blockchain, and business transactions exclusively for crop production traceability across the agricultural and food supply chain. By using Blockchain in the agriculture sector, productivity, consistency, safety, reliability, and advanced security are increased. All transactions are kept and recorded on the immutable record of Blockchain associates with a decentralized system. Thus, it provides more traceability and clarity in the agriculture system in asafe, trustworthy, and effective way. A systematic literature review is thus enforced to classify the papers which are selected by the following classification: crop traceability, contribution type, research type, and their approach. For this systematic review, the papers which extracted are classified according to defined criteria. The purpose of this study is to fill the gap by collecting and analyzing studies available within the literature aiming to firstly, gain complete insight on the integration of Blockchain in the agriculture sector. Secondly, provide a summary of the present state of research on this area and identify gaps in existing studies. To achieve this aim an SLR was conducted. The findings of this SLR are discussed and researchers were provided with suggestions on possible directions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0555.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Cryptocurrencies; Blockchain; Bitcoin; Scopus; VOSviewer; Bibliometrics; Research
Online: 31 August 2021 (09:48:06 CEST)
Blockchain is a path-breaking paradigm, and cryptocurrencies are one of the main application areas of Blockchain technology. Bitcoin leads the cryptocurrency markets, both in terms of market capitalization and in scientific interest. In this paper, we performed a comprehensive bibliometric study of the Bitcoin-related literature. Using the Scopus database, we created a sample that comprises 4495 documents written in the 2011–2020 period. Furthermore, we provided insights about dimensions such as the change in the number of publications over the course of years, the main research areas, types of published documents, most important platforms and sources of Bitcoin publications, highly cited studies, productive authors, author’s countries, and finally main funders of Bitcoin-related research. Lastly, our bibliometric study manifests the current state and future path of Bitcoin literature from distinct perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0223.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Blockchain; Rice; Supply chain traceability; Quality control
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:34:45 CEST)
Rice is the grain feeds more than half of the world population. It is an important staple food provides twenty percent of the calories consumed worldwide. Food safety affects the health of consumers. Establishing an effective traceability system is one of the primary measures to protect rice quality and food safety. Blockchain-based traceability system has the characteristics of data tamper-proofing, decentralization, and co-governance. This paper proposed a rice traceability scheme based on blockchain technology that selects the critical nodes in the rice industry chain to construct a blockchain network to achieve transparent data sharing. It is meaningful for both enterprises and consumers. It can let enterprises get the real quality information of rice and related raw materials. Consumers can get the true information of rice and rice products to buy safe and healthy food. The scheme is proved feasible by simulating the traceability of the rice supply chain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0771.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Electronic Health Record; EHR; Blockchain; Covid-19
Online: 29 April 2021 (10:31:52 CEST)
Electronic Health Record (EHR) is being used in most healthcare institutions to preserve and share health records instead of a paper-based method. Data records must be exchanged amongst various parties and users' privileges to manage access to their records should also be provided. In addition to the basic standards of secrecy, confidentiality and integrity of information, these facts further demonstrate the need for interoperability and consumer control to access their personal data. Electronic Health Record (EHR) system faces issues of protection of data, trust and management issues. In recent Covid-19 pandemic, various applications, tools and websites were launched that stores records. Also, many personal records related to health need to be shared among different parties for early detection, contact tracing, monitoring and the future prediction that requires accurate and reliable data. Simultaneously, the citizens will be hesitant in providing their personal details due to privacy concerns and social stigma. Blockchain technology has arisen as a powerful technology that can offer the immutability, confidentiality and user access properties of stored information and provided distributed storage. This paper analyses the blockchain suitability in EHR and its further applications in efficient Covid-19 pandemic management.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain, Consensus, Hash functions, Privacy, Replication, Scalability
Online: 17 September 2019 (12:16:11 CEST)
Over the last decade the blockchain technology has emerged to provide solutions to the complexity and privacy challenges of using distributed databases. It reduces the cost for customers by eliminating intermediaries and builds the trust in peer-to-peer communications. Over this time, the concept of blockchain has shifted greatly due to its potential in business growth for enterprises and the rapidly evolving applications in a collaborative smart cities' ecosystem, healthcare, and governance. Many platforms, with different architectures and consensus protocols, have been introduced. Consequently, it becomes challenging for an application developer to choose the right platform. Furthermore, blockchain has misaligned with the goals for efficient green collaborative digital ecosystem. Therefore, it becomes critical to address this gap and to build new frameworks to align blockchain with those goals. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of blockchain architecture and consensus protocols, bringing a retrospective analysis and discussing the rationale of the evolution of the various architectures and protocols, as well as capturing the assumptions conducting to their development and contributions to building collaborative applications. We introduce a classification of those architectures helping developers to choose a suitable platform for applications and providing insights for future research directions in the field to build new frameworks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0550.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: initial coin offering; blockchain; venture capital; crowdfunding
Online: 24 October 2018 (05:54:53 CEST)
This study explores the determinants of ICO success, where success is defined as the amount of capital a project was able to raise. ICOs are a tool for startups in the blockchain ecosystem to raise early capital with relative ease. The market for ICOs has grown at a rapid pace since its start in 2013. We analyze a unique dataset of 278 projects that finished their ICOs by August 2017 to assess determinants of funding success that we derive from the crowdfunding and venture capital literature. Our results show that ICOs exhibit similarities to classical crowdfunding and venture capital markets. Specifically, we identify resemblances in determinants of funding success regarding human capital characteristics, business model quality, project elaboration and social media activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0136.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: blockchain; consensus; distributed systems; healthcare; systematic review.
Online: 7 September 2018 (12:55:42 CEST)
Blockchain technology enables a decentralized and distributed environment with no need for a central authority. Transactions are simultaneously secure and trustworthy due to the use of cryptographic principles. In recent years, blockchain technology has become very trendy and penetrated different domains, mostly due to the popularity of cryptocurrencies. One field where blockchain technology has tremendous potential is healthcare, due to the need for a more patient-centric approach to healthcare systems and to connect disparate systems and increase the accuracy of electronic healthcare records (EHRs). In this systematic review, an analysis of state-of-the-art blockchain research in the field of healthcare is conducted. The aim is to reveal the potential applications of the technology and to highlight the challenges and possible directions of blockchain research in healthcare. First, background information is discussed, followed by a description of the exact methodology used in this paper. Next, an analysis of the results is given, which includes a bibliometric overview, an analysis of gathered data and its properties, and the results of a literature quality assessment. Lastly, there is a discussion of the results from the analysis. The findings indicate that blockchain technology research in healthcare is increasing and it is mostly used for data sharing, managing health records and access control. Other scenarios are very rare. Most research is aimed at presenting novel structural designs in the form of frameworks, architectures or models. Findings also show that technical details about the used blockchain elements are not given in most of the analyzed publications and that most research does not present any prototype implementation or implementation details. Often even with a prototype implementation, no details about blockchain elements are given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0054.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Security analysis; Blockchain; probabilistic analysis; sharding-based Blockchain protocols; malicious nodes; Proof-of-Stake; practical Byzantine fault tolerance.
Online: 5 December 2022 (01:00:40 CET)
Blockchain technology has been gaining great interest from a variety of sectors including healthcare, supply chain, and cryptocurrencies. However, Blockchain suffers from its limited ability to scale (i.e. low throughput and high latency). Several solutions have been proposed to tackle this. In particular, sharding proved that it is one of the most promising solutions to Blockchain’s scalability issue. Sharding can be divided into two major categories: (1) Sharding-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) Blockchain protocols, and (2) Sharding-based Proof-of-Stake (PoS) Blockchain protocols. The two categories achieve good performances (i.e. good throughput with a reasonable latency), but raise security issues. This article focuses on the second category. In this paper, we start by introducing the key components of sharding-based PoS Blockchain protocols. Then, we briefly introduce two consensus mechanisms, namely PoS and practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (pBFT), and discuss their use and limitations in the context of sharding-based Blockchain protocols. Next, we provide a probabilistic model to analyze the security of these protocols. More specifically, we compute the probability of committing a faulty block and measure the security by computing the number of years to fail. Finally, we evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model via numerical analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0362.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Poisoning Attacks; Internet of Things; Smart Farming
Online: 3 August 2023 (14:25:02 CEST)
Smart farming, as a branch of the Internet of Things (IoT), combines the recognition of agricultural economic competencies, the progress of data and information collected from connected devices with statistical analysis to characterize the essentials of the assimilated information, allowing farmers to make intelligent conclusions that will maximize the harvest benefit. However, the integration of advanced technologies requires the adoption of high-tech security approaches. In this paper, we present a framework that promises to enhance the security and privacy of smart farms by leveraging the decentralized nature of blockchain technology. The framework stores and manages data acquired from IoT devices installed in smart farms using a distributed ledger architecture, which provides secure and tamper-proof data storage and ensures the integrity and validity of the data. The study uses the AWS cloud, ESP32, the smart farm security monitoring framework, and the Ethereum Rinkeby smart contract mechanism, which enables automated execution of pre-defined rules and regulations. As a result of a proof-of-concept implementation, the system can detect and respond to security threats in real time, and the results illustrate its usefulness in improving the security of smart farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0500.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; blockchain; IoMT; IoT; cybersecurity; security framework
Online: 18 April 2023 (07:28:49 CEST)
The growth in the Internet of Things (IoT) devices in the healthcare sector enables the new era of the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT). However, IoT devices are susceptible to diverse cybersecurity attacks and threats that lead to negative consequences. Cyberattacks can harm not just the IoMT devices being used but also human life. Currently, several security solutions are proposed to enhance the security of the IoMT, which uses machine learning (ML) and blockchain. ML can be used to develop detection and classification methods to identify cyberattacks targeting IoMT devices in the healthcare sector. In addition, blockchain technology enables a decentralized approach to the healthcare system and eliminates some disadvantages of a centralized system, such as a single point of failure. This paper proposes a resilient security framework integrating a Tri-layered Neural Network (TNN) and blockchain technology in the healthcare domain. The TNN detects anomalies in data measured by medical sensors to find fraudulent data. Therefore, cyberattacks are detected and discarded from the IoMT system before data is processed at the fog layer. In addition, a blockchain network is used in the fog layer to ensure that the data is not altered, boosting the integrity and privacy of the medical data. The experimental results show that the TNN and blockchain models produce the expected result. Furthermore, the accuracy of the TNN model reached 99.99% on the F1-score accuracy metric.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0115.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Dew computing; Internet of Things; Blockchain; Hotspot Network
Online: 5 August 2022 (03:46:27 CEST)
Building a widely distributed hotspot network is a very tedious task due to its complexity. Providing security, fully distributed network services, and cost-conscious impact are the major challenges behind this goal. To overcome these issues, we have presented a novel distributed hotspot network architecture with five layers that can provide large-scale hotspot coverage as an assimilated result. Our contributions to this new architecture highlight important aspects. First, scalability can be increased by including many Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices with sensors and Wi-Fi and/or LoraWAN connectivity modules. Second, hotspot owners can rent out their hotspots to create a distributed hotspot network in which the hotspots can act as an ordinary data gateway, a full-fledged hotspot miner, and a lightweight hotspot miner to earn crypto tokens as rewards for certain activities. Third, the advantages of Wi-Fi and LoraWAN can be seamlessly leveraged to achieve optimal coverage, higher network security, and suitable data transmission rate for transferring sensor data from IoT devices to remote application servers and users. Fourth, blockchain is used to enhance the decentralized behavior of the architecture presented here by providing immutability and independence from a centralized regulator and making the network architecture more reliable and transparent. The main feature of our paper is the use of the tau-computing paradigm along with hotspots to improve availability, Internet backhaul-agnostic network coverage, and synchronous update capability, and tau-aware leasing to strengthen and improve coverage. We also discuss the key challenges and future roadmap that require further investment and deployment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0642.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: COVID-19; IoT; Blockchain; Contact Tracing; Mobile Applications
Online: 8 July 2022 (08:04:39 CEST)
The COVID-19 is an exponentially growing disease that has intentioned nations to use technologies to detect the coronavirus infection. Several nations are working greatly to fight against COVID-19. Many nations have been using a range of devices to combat the pandemic, seeking information about growth, monitoring as well as the leaking the confidential information of the residents. This research aims to assist infected people online using the Internet of Things (IoT) and Blockchain technologies through smart devices. IoT-based healthcare devices gather useful information, provide additional insight through symptoms and behaviors, allow remote monitoring, and simply give people better self - determination and healthcare. Blockchain allows the secure transfer of patient health information, regulates the medical distribution network. A four-layer architecture is proposed using IoT and Blockchain to detect and prevent individuals to be COVID 19. This research provides a framework for patients with COVID-19 infectious disease and recognizes health issues and diagnoses online. Smart devices such as smartphones can install any mobile apps such as Aarogya Setu, Tawakkalna, and so on. These applications can track COVID-19 patients properly. The installation of mobile apps on smart devices focuses to reduce the time and cost and increase the performance of the infectious patient's condition. A four-layer architecture is proposed using IoT and Blockchain technologies. Many research works focus on investigating, analyzing, and highlighting the affected individuals through guiding the COVID-19 infection. Eventually, various mobile apps are recognized and addressed in this paper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0164.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Blockchain, Internet of Things, Security, Privacy, Wireless Communication.
Online: 7 June 2021 (10:50:54 CEST)
In the age of next-generation computer, the role of the cloud, the internet and smart devices will become stronger. These days we all know the word smart well. This word is often used in our daily lives. The Internet of Things (IoT) will generate a variety of information from a variety of resources. It can store big data in the cloud. Fog computing acts as a signal between cloud and IoT. Fog extensions in this framework apply to material under IoT. IoT devices are called Fog nodes, which can be accessed anywhere within the network range. A blockchain is a novel way of recording in a secure sequence. Creating a new framework in the development of Internet of Things is one of the critical problems of wireless communication where solving such a problem can lead to continued growth in the use and popularity of IoT. Proposed research creates a framework for providing a framework for middleware on the internet of smart devices network for the internet of things using blockchains technology. Our great offering connects new research that integrates blockchains into the Internet of Things and provides secure Internet connection for smart devices. Blockchain (BC) Internet of Things (IoT) is a new technology that works with low-level, distributed, public and real-time leaders to maintain transactions between IoT sites. A blockchain is a series of blocks, each block being linked to its previous blocks. All blocks have cryptographic hash code, previous block hash, and its data. Transactions in BC are the basic components used to transfer data between IoT nodes. IoT nodes are a variety of portable but smart devices with embedded sensors, actuators, systems and the ability to communicate with other IoT nodes. The role of BC in IoT is to provide a process for processing secure data records using IoT nodes. BC is a protected technology that can be used publicly and openly. IoT requires this type of technology to allow secure communication between IoT nodes in different environments. Events in BC can be tracked and monitored by anyone who is certified to communicate within IoT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0208.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Blockchain; SDGs; Innovation; COVID-19; Green Recovery; Scorecard
Online: 8 March 2021 (10:02:42 CET)
As the world is striving to recover from the shockwaves triggered by the Covid-19 crisis, all hands are needed on deck to transition towards a green recovery and make peace with nature as prerequisites of a global sustainable development pathway. In this paper, we examine the blockchain hype and the gaps in data and tools to build promising use cases for blockchain technology to accelerate global efforts in the decade of action towards achieving the SDGs. We attempted to break the hype-cycle portraying blockchain’s superiority by navigating a rational blockchain use case development approach. By prototyping an SDG Acceleration Scorecard to use blockchain-enabled solutions as SDG accelerators, we aim to provide useful insights towards developing an integrated approach that is fit-for-purpose to guide organizations and practitioners in their quest to make informed decisions to design and implement blockchain-backed solutions as SDG accelerators. Acknowledging the limitations in prototyping such tools, we believe these are minimally viable products and should be considered as living tools that can further evolve as the blockchain technology is getting mature, its pace of adoption increasing, and its lessons learned, good practices and standards widely shared and internalized by teams and organizations working on innovation for development.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: health care; hospital; blockchain technology; security and privacy
Online: 20 October 2020 (15:04:03 CEST)
One of the special trends in health care is the increasing availability of data and services to the cloud, especially for convenience (for example, providing a complete patient medical record without interruption) and savings (for example, economic issues). Management of health care data). However, there are limitations to using common cryptographic prototypes and access control models to address security and privacy concerns in an increasingly cloudy environment. In this paper, we explore the potential and capacity of using China's Blockchain technology to protect health care data hosted in the cloud. We also explain the real challenges of such an approach and further research is needed. Health care is a highly data-dependent domain, with large amounts of data being created, published, stored and accessed daily. For example, data are created when a patient undergoes a number of examinations (such as computed tomography or computed tomography scans) and the data need to be sent to the radiologist and then to a physician. The visit results are then stored in the hospital, and then need to be accessed later by another physician at another hospital within the network. It is clear that technology can play an important role in improving the quality of care for patients (for example, using data analytics to make informed medical decisions) and potentially costing more by allocating resources more efficiently in terms of personnel, equipment, etc. , Reduce. For example, paper-based data extraction is difficult to extract into systems (for example, it is costly and may involve data entry errors), archiving them and accessing them as needed is costly. These challenges may cause medical decisions to be incomplete, requiring repeated tests for missing information or missing data stored in another hospital in another state or country (at the expense of increased costs and no convenience). (For patients) and so on. Because of the nature of the industry, it is important to ensure the security, privacy and integrity of health care data. As a result, there is definitely a need for a secure and secure data management system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0641.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: COVID 19; IoT; Blockchain; Infection; Emerging Technologies; mHealth
Online: 26 July 2020 (16:45:25 CEST)
Currently, the COVID‐19 has directly affected the millions of humans lives. The symptoms of the disease involving fever, malaise, chest infection, and breathing difficulties, were identified, and its existence is continuously becoming restructured. The World Health Organization (WHO) had mentioned the wide diagnostics test besides COVID-19 that would also assist medical facilities to recognize infectious diseases as well as currently focusing efficiently on preventing and afterward defeating this viral disease. The infection is usually transmitted among human beings in direct contact, greatest through the liquid bubbles generated through cough, sneeze, or speaking. This paper reviews the COVID 19 pandemic, its history, current updates, contact tracing applications, and use of emerging technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT) and Blockchain for stopping the spreading and provide service online to the patient from a distance.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: blockchain; Internet of Things (IoT); bryptography; security; communication
Online: 28 May 2019 (17:44:06 CEST)
Blockchain (BC) in the Internet of Things (IoT) is a novel technology that acts with decentralized, distributed, public and real-time ledger to store transactions among IoT nodes. A blockchain is a series of blocks, each block is linked to its previous blocks. Every block has the cryptographic hash code, previous block hash, and its data. The transactions in BC are the basic units that are used to transfer data between IoT nodes. The IoT nodes are different kind of physical but smart devices with embedded sensors, actuators, programs and able to communicate with other IoT nodes. The role of BC in IoT is to provide a procedure to process secured records of data through IoT nodes. BC is a secured technology that can be used publicly and openly. IoT requires this kind of technology to allow secure communication among IoT nodes in heterogeneous environment. The transactions in BC could be traced and explored through anyone who are authenticated to communicate within the IoT. The BC in IoT may help to improve the communication security. In this paper, I explored this approach, its opportunities and challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1482.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: remanufacturing trading platform; gap analysis; consortium blockchain; coupling mechanism
Online: 21 July 2023 (08:11:24 CEST)
Considering that consumers are more willing to buy products online, companies are increasingly selling remanufactured products online through e-commerce platforms. Notwithstanding the high attention it elicits from researchers and companies, the study about the remanufacturing trading platform is in its infancy. Thus, we investigate 20 remanufacturing trading platforms related nowadays and make a gap analysis among them in terms of: (i) business model, (ii) product display, (iii) delivery products, (iv) quality assurance and after-sales service, (v) product review and star rate and (vi) transaction and payment. On this basis, we analyze features and trends for the development of remanufacturing trading platforms and propose six key applications aimed at filling the identified gaps. The consortium blockchain has the characteristics of security and transparency, high credibility, traceability and unfalsifiability, low cost, and strong scalability, which can provide effective support for the six key applications. Then, we construct the technical framework and the model of a consortium blockchain-supported remanufacturing trading platform. Further, we analyze the coupling mechanism between consortium blockchain and remanufacturing trading platform to explain how the remanufacturing trading platform supported by consortium blockchain achieves development characteristics. This study provides important guidance for the development, construction, and operation management of remanufacturing trading platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0740.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Blockchain; Symverse; Ethereum; Payment; gas; voice fishing; fin-tech
Online: 8 June 2023 (11:17:45 CEST)
With the increase of intelligent voice phishing and the increasing reliance on open banking systems, there has been a rise in cases where individuals' personal information has been exposed, resulting in significant financial losses for the victims. Non-face-to-face transactions in the financial sector face challenges such as customer identification, ensuring transaction integrity, and preventing transaction rejection. Blockchain-based distributed ledgers have been proposed as a solution, but their adoption is limited due to the difficulty of managing private keys and the burden of gas fees management. This paper proposes a non-face-to-face P2P real-time token payment system that minimizes the risk of key loss by storing private keys in a keystore file and database through a server-based key management module. The proposed system simplifies token creation and management through a server-based token management module and implements an automatic gas charging function for smooth token transactions. Transaction integrity and non-repudiation are ensured through a transaction confirmation module that uses transaction IDs without exposing personal information. Furthermore, advanced security measures such as blocking foreign IP access and DDoS defense are implemented to securely protect user data. The proposed system aims to provide a convenient, secure, and accessible online payment solution to the public by implementing a self-authentication function using a web application that is not limited to smart phones or application platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0115.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: blockchain; federated learning; pandemic prevention and control; privacy-preserving
Online: 3 May 2023 (08:16:57 CEST)
A pandemic can have a huge impact on normal human life and the economy, taking COVID-19 as an example. While the population flow between countries and regions is the main factor affecting the change of a pandemic, exactly as the airline network. Therefore, realizing the overall control of airports is an effective way to control a pandemic. However, restricted to the differences in prevention and control policies in different areas and privacy issues, the patients’ personal data of the medical center cannot be effectively combined with the passengers’ personal data. This prevents more precise airport control decisions from being made. To the end, this paper designs a novel data sharing framework (i.e., PPChain) based on blockchain and federated learning. The experiment shows that the relationship between the epidemic and aircraft transport can be effectively explored by PPChain, without sharing raw data. This approach does not require centralized trust and improves the security of the shareing process.The scheme can help formulate more scientific and rational prevention and control policies on airports’ control. And it can use aerial data to predict pandemics more accurately.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0199.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Token; Recognition; Reward; Peer Review; Research Management; NIHR
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:41:28 CEST)
Here we present a blockchain-backed token recognition system to reward the contributions that academics make to the scientific ecosystem. Recognition is important in science but current methods, systems and incentives are limited. Specifically, the traditional focus on narrow publication metrics means diverse contributions are not captured, while bias toward senior, established scientists is common. To tackle this challenge, we explore the potential of harnessing blockchain’s collaborative, decentralised and trust-brokering properties to develop a token reward system for use by research funders. Academics would be awarded tokens for undertaking common but vital tasks such as peer review, sitting on funding committees and submitting reports. These tokens would not be tradable or specifically monetisable but would serve as a validated record of scientific contribution. They would have value in professional recruitment and job placement, support grant and award applications, and inform performance appraisals and file reviews. Coordination and cooperation across multiple funding agencies in developing the platform would provide an opportunity to aggregate and standardise recognition, given academics often work with several funders. This system’s goals are to expand recognition metrics, promote efficiencies, improve the robustness of professional assessments and enable cross-funder collaboration, thereby optimising research processes and practices in a decentralised and democratised manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0023.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: IoT; IoE; Blockchain; Rollup; Zero-Knowledge; Zk-Rollup; Scalability
Online: 1 August 2022 (11:46:06 CEST)
Internet of Things includes all connected objects from small embedded systems with low computational power and storage capacities to efficient ones, as well as moving objects like drones and autonomous vehicles. The concept of Internet of Everything expands upon this idea by adding people, data and processing. The adoption of such systems is exploding and becoming ever more significant, bringing with it questions related to the security and the privacy of these objects. A natural solution to data integrity, confidentiality and single point of failure vulnerability is the use of blockchains. Blockchains can be used as an immutable data layer for storing information, avoiding single point of failure vulnerability via decentralization and providing strong security and cryptographic tools for IoE. However, the adoption of blockchain technology in such heterogeneous systems, containing light devices, presents several challenges and practical issues that need to be overcome. Indeed, most of the solutions proposed to adapt blockchains to devices with low resources confront difficulty in maintaining decentralization or security. The most interesting are probably the Layer 2 solutions which build offchain systems strongly connected to the blockchain. Among these, zk-rollup is a promising new generation of Layer 2/off-chain schemes which can remove the last obstacles to blockchain adoption in IoT, or more generally, in IoE. Despite their promises illustrated by recent systems proposed by startups and private companies, very few scientific publications explaining or applying this barely-known technology have been published, especially for non-financial systems. In this context, the objective of our paper is to fill this gap for IoE systems in two steps. We first propose a synthetic review of recent proposals to improve scalability including onchain (consensus, blockchain organization, ...) and offchain (sidechain, rollups) solutions and we demonstrate that zk-rollups are the most promising ones. In a second step, we focus on IoE by describing several interesting features (scalability, dynamicity, data management, ...) that are illustrated with various general IoE use cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0172.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: blockchain; healthcare supply chain management; logistics cooperation; big data
Online: 19 January 2022 (12:09:00 CET)
This study emphasizes the necessity of introducing a blockchain-based joint logistics system to strengthen the competency of medical supply chain management (SCM) and tries to develop a healthcare supply chain management (HSCM) competency measurement item through an analytic hierarchy process. The variables needed for using blockchain-based joint logistics are the performance expectations, effort expectations, promotion conditions, and social impact of the UTAUT model, and the HSCM competency results in increased reliability and transparency, enhanced SCM, and enhanced scalability. Word cloud results, analyzing the most important considerations to realize work efficiency among medical industry-related agencies, mentioned numerous words, including sudden situations, delivery, technology trust, information sharing, effectiveness, urgency, etc. This might imply the need to establish a system that can respond immediately to emergency situations during holidays. It could also suggest the importance of real-time information sharing to increase the efficiency of inventory management. Therefore, there is a need of a business model that can increase the visibility of real-time medical SCM through big data analysis. By analyzing the importance of securing reliability based on the blockchain technology in the establishment of a supply chain network for HSCM competency, we reveal that joint logistics can be achieved and synergistic effects can be created by implementing the integrated database to secure HSCM competency. Strengthening partnerships, such as joint logistics, will eventually lead to HSCM competency. In particular, HSCM should seek ways to upgrade its competitive capabilities through big data analysis based on the establishment of a joint logistics system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: blockchain; biomedical data managing; DWT; keyword search; data sharing.
Online: 13 May 2019 (13:30:37 CEST)
A crucial role is played by personal biomedical data when it comes to maintaining proficient access to health records by patients as well as health professionals. However, it is difficult to get a unified view pertaining to health data that have been scattered across various health center/hospital sections. To be specific, health records are distributed across many places and cannot be found integrated easily. In recent years, blockchain is regarded as a promising explanation that helps to achieve individual biomedical information sharing in a secured way along with privacy preservation, because of its benefit of immutability. This research work put forwards a blockchain-based managing scheme that helps to establish interpretation improvements pertaining to electronic biomedical systems. In this scheme, two blockchain were employed to construct the base of it, where the second blockchain algorithm is used to generate a secure sequence for the hash key that generated in first blockchain algorithm. The adaptively feature enable the algorithm to use multiple data types and combine between various biomedical images and text records as well. All the data, including keywords, digital records as well as the identity of patients are private key encrypted along with keyword searching capability so as to maintain data privacy preservation, access control and protected search. The obtained results which show the low latency (less than 750 ms) at 400 requests / second indicate the ability to use it within several health care units such as hospitals and clinics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0273.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Blockchain; IoT; Security and Privacy; Smart Home; Distributed Ledger Technology
Online: 6 November 2023 (09:31:37 CET)
Consumer IoT (CIoT) manufacturers seek customer feedback to enhance their products and services, creating a smart ecosystem like a smart home. Due to security and privacy concerns, Blockchain-based federated learning (BCFL) ecosystems can let CIoT manufacturers update their Machine Learning (ML) model using end-user data. FL uses privacy-preserving ML techniques to forecast customers' needs and consumption habits, and blockchain replaces the centralised aggregator to safeguard the ecosystem. However, Blockchain technology (BCT) struggles with scalability and quick ledger expansion. In BCFL, local model generation and secure aggregation are other issues. This research contributes a novel architecture emphasising Gateway Peer (GWP) in blockchain network to resolve scalability, ledger optimisation and secure model transmission issues. In the architecture we replace the centralised aggregator by the blockchain network, while GWP restricts the number of local transactions to execute in BCN. Considering the security and privacy of FL processes, we have added differential privacy and advanced normalisation techniques to ML processes. The approaches strengthen end-users' cyber security and encourage the adoption of technological innovation standards by service providers. The proposed approach has been tested extensively using a well-respected Stanford Cars dataset. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed architecture makes the network scalable and optimises the ledger significantly. In addition, the normalisation technique outperforms batch normalisation when features are under DP protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1853.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: blockchain; consensual algorithm; PBFT algorithm; Node evaluation mechanism; Fibonacci grouping
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:22:16 CEST)
In view of the Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) consensus algorithm all nodes participate in the consensus, the three-stage process has problems such as large communication overhead, random selection of master nodes and lack of reward and punishment mechanism. A Speculative Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (SP-PBFT) is proposed. Firstly, the consensus protocol was optimized, and a timeout mechanism was proposed to divide the consensus process into optimistic mode and pessimistic mode, which reduced the communication overhead under the premise of resisting Byzantine node attacks .Secondly, a node evaluation mechanism was proposed to calculate the node reputation value according to the node's historical behavior and give the corresponding reward or punishment, which reduced the possibility of malicious nodes participating in the consensus process. Finally, the Fibonacci grouping mechanism was used to reduce the number of nodes participating in the consensus process, fundamentally improving the consensus efficiency, avoiding the problem of centralization of the consensus process caused by the cumulative reputation value of nodes, and improving the enthusiasm of consensus nodes. Simulation experiments using Docker containers to simulate multiple nodes show that the SP-PBFT consensus algorithm proposed in this paper has better performance than PBFT consensus algorithm and other improved algorithms in terms of consensus delay, throughput, fault tolerance and communication complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0106.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Supply chain; Access control; ABAC; Data Security and Privacy
Online: 8 February 2022 (12:00:25 CET)
In recent years supply chains have evolved into huge ecosystems, demanding trust, provenance, and data privacy. Since blockchain technology (BCT) allows for the development of a distributed environment, it is ideal for supply chain management (SCM) applications. However, concerns regarding data privacy have impeded the development of blockchains. Despite the fact that some blockchains can restrict participants to read and write data, the blockchain’s transparency makes protecting sensitive data challenging. To solve the data privacy challenge, this paper proposes a framework, AccessChain, that is an SCM access control framework based on an attribute-based access control (ABAC) model that restricts access to competing parties while allowing for network scalability. This proposed AccessChain model has two types of ledgers in the system: local and global. Local ledgers are used to store business contracts between stakeholders and the ABAC model management, whereas the global ledger is used to record transaction data. AccessChain can enable decentralized, fine-grained and dynamic access control management in SCM when combined with the ABAC model and BCT. This paper’s experimental results illustrate that high throughput can be achieved in a large-scale request environment while maintaining data privacy and sustaining a scalable network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0028.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Blockchain Paradox; DISC Hypothesis; Smart Contract; DeFi; Oracle; AI, Sustainable.
Online: 5 May 2021 (09:02:15 CEST)
While immutability is Blockchain's* much celebrated covenant, change is the rule of life. The paradox has seriously limited real-world deployability of Smart Contracts (SC), faltering its mainstream adoption and sustainability. Once implemented, SC remains unstoppable even if its execution makes losses, as evident in the recently exploded $50+B DeFi industry. How do we reconcile the two and make DeFI/Blockchain profitable and sustainable? A DISC (Dynamic Immutable Smart Contract) hypothesis was proposed to resolve the paradox. Using an existing decentralized IoT device framework we test the DISC hypothesis, by designing/implementing a DISC protocol that delivers an algorithmically controlled dynamic off-chain data feed into a self-executing SC. The experiment successfully introduced limited dynamism into SC without compromising its immutability or undermining user control over their SC terms. If consistently reproduced in diverse settings, the DISC protocol could earn an important milestone in the evolution of Blockchain's decentralized economy of the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0552.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: SDN; IoT; NFV; Blockchain; SDN Controller; Cluster; OpenFlow; Security; Privacy
Online: 21 November 2020 (08:39:22 CET)
Abstract: Insecure and portable devices in the smart city’s Internet of Things (IoT) network are increasing at an incredible rate. Various distributed and centralized platforms against cyber-attacks have been implemented in recent years, but these platforms are inefficient due to their constrained levels of storage, high energy consumption, the central point of failure, underutilized resources, high latency, and etc. In addition, the current architecture confronts the problems of scalability, flexibility, complexity, monitoring, managing & collecting of IoT data, and defend against cyber-threats. To address these issues, the author presents distributed and decentralized Blockchain-Software Defined Networking (SDN) based energy-optimized architecture for IoT in smart cities. Thus, SDN continuous observing, controlling, managing IoT devices activities and detect possible attacks in the network; Blockchain provides adequate security & privacy against cyber-attacks, reduces the central point of failure issues; Network Function Virtualization (NFV) are used to saving energy, load balancing, as well as increasing the lifetime of the entire network. Also, we introduce a Cluster Head Selection (CHS) algorithm to reduce the energy consumption in the presented model. Finally, we analyze the performance using various parameters (e.g. throughput, response time, gas consumption, communication overhead) and demonstrating the result that provides higher throughput, lower response time, lower gas consumption than existing works for smart cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrids; prosumers; local trading; peer-to-peer contracts; blockchain technology
Online: 2 January 2020 (04:56:11 CET)
A growing number of households benefit from the government subsidies to install renewable generation facilities such as PV panels, used to gain independence from the grid and provide cheap energy. In the Romanian electricity market, these prosumers can sell their generation surplus only at regulated prices, back to the grid. A way to increase the number of prosumers is to allow them to make higher profit by selling this surplus back into the local network. This would also be an advantage for the consumers, who could pay less for electricity exempt from network tariffs and benefitting from lower prices resulting from the competition between prosumers. One way of enabling this type of trade is to use peer-to-peer contracts traded in local markets, run at microgrid (μG) level. This paper presents a new trading platform based on smart peer-to-peer (P2P) contracts for prosumers energy surplus trading in a real local microgrid. Several trading scenarios are proposed, which give the possibility to perform trading based on participants’ locations, instantaneous active power demand, maximum daily energy demand and the principle of first come first served implemented in an anonymous blockchain trading ledger. The developed scheme is tested on a low-voltage (LV) microgrid model to check its feasibility of deployment in a real network. A comparative analysis between the proposed scenarios, regarding traded quatities and financial benefits is performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1712.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: blockchain; IoT; hydrogen production; secure data-driven analysis; historical data management
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:24:51 CEST)
The rapid adoption of hydrogen as an eco-friendly energy source has necessitated the development of intelligent power management systems capable of efficiently utilizing hydrogen resources. However, guaranteeing the security and integrity of hydrogen-related data has become a significant challenge. This paper proposes a pioneering approach to ensure secure hydrogen data analysis through the integration of blockchain technology, enhancing trust, transparency, and privacy in handling hydrogen-related information. By combining blockchain with intelligent power management systems, the efficient utilization of hydrogen resources becomes feasible. The utilization of smart contracts and distributed ledger technology facilitates secure data analysis, real-time monitoring, prediction, and optimization of hydrogen-based power systems. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach are demonstrated through comprehensive case studies and simulations. Notably, our prediction models, including ABiLSTM, ALSTM, and ARNN, consistently delivered high accuracy with MAE values of approximately 0.154, 0.151, and 0.151, respectively, enhancing the security and efficiency of hydrogen consumption forecasts. The blockchain-based solution offers enhanced security, integrity, and privacy for hydrogen data analysis, thus contributing to the advancement of clean and sustainable energy systems. Additionally, the research identifies existing challenges and outlines potential future directions for further enhancing the proposed system. This study adds to the growing body of research on blockchain applications in the energy sector, with a specific focus on secure hydrogen data analysis and intelligent power management systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0178.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Blockchain; Remote sensing data management; Distributed ledger technology; Trusted service; Security
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:43:07 CEST)
A large amount of raw data collected by satellites is processed by the production chain to obtain a large amount of product data, of which the secure exchange and storage is of interest to researchers in the field of remote sensing information science. Authentic, secure data is a critical foundation for data analysis and decision-making. And traditional centralized cloud computing systems are vulnerable to attacks, and once the central server is successfully attacked, all data will be lost. Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) is an innovative computer technology that can ensure information security, traceability and tamper-proof, and can be applied to the field of remote sensing. Although there are many advantages to using DLT in remote sensing applications, there are some obstacles and limitations to its application. Remote sensing data has the characteristics of large data volume, spatiotemporal nature, global and so on, and it is difficult to store and interconnect remote sensing data in the blockchain. To address these issues, this paper proposes a trustworthy and decentralized system using blockchain. The novelty of this paper is to propose a multi-level blockchain architecture in which the system collects remote sensing data and stores it in the Interplanetary File System (IPFS) network, after generating the IPFS hash, the network rehashes the value again and uploads it on the Ethereum chain for public query. Distributed data storage improves data security, supports the secure exchange of information, and improves the efficiency of data management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2017.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: justice system; blockchain; differential privacy; homomorphic encryption; explainable artificial intelligence; ChatGPT
Online: 29 May 2023 (13:47:42 CEST)
Pursuing "intelligent justice" necessitates an impartial, productive, and technologically driven methodology for judicial determinations. This scholarly composition proposes a framework that harnesses Artificial Intelligence (AI) innovations such as Natural Language Processing (NLP), ChatGPT, ontological alignment, and the semantic web, in conjunction with blockchain and privacy techniques, to examine, deduce, and proffer recommendations for the administration of justice. Specifically, through the integration of blockchain technology, the system affords a secure and transparent infrastructure for the management of legal documentation and transactions while preserving data confidentiality. Privacy approaches, including differential privacy and homomorphic encryption techniques, are further employed to safeguard sensitive data and uphold discretion. The advantages of the suggested framework encompass heightened efficiency and expediency, diminished error propensity, a more uniform approach to judicial determinations, and augmented security and privacy. Additionally, by utilizing explainable AI methodologies, the ethical and legal ramifications of deploying intelligent algorithms and blockchain technologies within the legal domain are scrupulously contemplated, ensuring a secure, efficient, and transparent justice system that concurrently protects sensitive information upholds privacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1693.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Digital twin; Clinical trials; Quality by Design; Blockchain technology; Drug development
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:46:13 CEST)
Clinical trials are research studies performed on people that are aimed at evaluating a medical, surgical, or behavioural intervention. It is a primary way that researchers find out if a new treatment, like a new drug or diet, or medical device is safe and effective in people. In this paper blockchain technology is embedded in a digital twin aiming to improve the quality of clinical trials through the boost of data integrity among the quality-related activities, and to promote participants' safety. First, a blockchain-embedded quality-enabled digital twin is proposed and the interactions among the enablers and peers are highlighted. Then, a prototype of the proposed system is developed, and the data of a pilot trial is used to justify the applicability of the system. The results showed that the proposed system is efficient, and hence it is feasible to adopt into a clinical trial. With the successful development of the proposed system, it is promising to provide effective data integration and knowledge management for improving participant safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0304.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Blockchain Technology; Transportation Systems; Internet of Vehicles; IoV Communication; Vehicle Security
Online: 5 May 2023 (05:09:42 CEST)
The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is an emerging field that has attracted significant attention due to its potential to transform transportation and mobility. IoV enables the development of new services and applications that can improve transportation systems' efficiency, safety, and sustainability. However, ensuring secure and trustworthy communication among the different components of an IoV system is a critical challenge that needs to be addressed. This paper proposes a blockchain-enabled communication framework for secure and trustworthy IoV applications. The proposed framework leverages the security and decentralization features of blockchain technology to provide secure communication channels for different components of the IoV system, including vehicles, infrastructure, and service providers. The proposed framework provides an identity management system to authenticate and authorize users and devices, thereby preventing unauthorized access and data breaches. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, we conducted experiments using a real-world IoV scenario, and the results demonstrate that the proposed framework can provide secure and trustworthy communication for IoV applications. The proposed blockchain-enabled communication framework offers a promising approach to address the security and trust challenges in IoV communication systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0449.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: IoV; MEC; Data Sharing; Reputation Management; Subjective Logic Trust Model; Blockchain
Online: 17 April 2023 (10:40:19 CEST)
With the rapid development of Internet of Vehicles (IoV), particularly the introduction of mobile edge computing (MEC), vehicles can efficiently share data with one another. However, edge computing nodes are vulnerable to various network attacks, posing security risks to data storage and sharing. Moreover, the presence of abnormal vehicles during the sharing process poses significant security threats to the entire network. To address these issues, this paper proposes a novel reputation management scheme, which proposes an improved multi-source multi-weight subjective logic algorithm. This algorithm fuses direct and indirect opinion feedback of nodes through the subjective logic trust model while considering factors such as event validity, familiarity, timeliness, and trajectory similarity. Vehicle reputation values are periodically updated, and abnormal vehicles are identified through reputation thresholds. Finally, blockchain technology is employed to ensure the security of data storage and sharing. By analyzing real vehicle trajectory datasets, the algorithm is proven to effectively improve the differentiation and detection rate of abnormal vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0015.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV); Lightweight Blockchain; Drone Security; assurance; authentication; resilience
Online: 1 November 2022 (04:07:30 CET)
Rapid advancements in the fifth generation (5G) communication technology and mobile edge computing (MEC) paradigm lead to the proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in urban air mobility (UAM) networks, which provide intelligent services for diversified smart city scenarios. Meanwhile, the widely deployed internet of drones (IoD) in smart cities also brings up new concerns on performance, security, and privacy. The centralized framework adopted by conventional UAM networks is not adequate to handle high mobility and dynamicity. Moreover, it is necessary to ensure device authentication, data integrity, and privacy preservation in UAM networks. Thanks to characteristics of decentralization, traceability, and unalterability, Blockchain is recognized as a promising technology to enhance security and privacy for UAM networks. In this paper, we introduce LightMAN, a lightweight microchained fabric for data assurance and resilience-oriented UAM networks. LightMAN is tailored for small-scale permissioned UAV networks, in which a microchain acts as a lightweight distributed ledger for security guarantees. Thus, participants are enabled to authenticate drones and verify the genuineness of data that is sent to/from drones without relying on a third-party agency. In addition, a hybrid on-chain and off-chain storage strategy is adopted that not only improves performance (e.g,.latency and throughput) but also ensures privacy preservation for sensitive information in UAM networks. A proof-of-concept prototype is implemented and tested on a Micro Air Vehicle Link (MAVLink) simulator. The experimental evaluation validates the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed LightMAN solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0472.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Post-quantum cryptography; Blockchain; Code-based cryptography; Adaptor signature; Scriptless scripts.
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:46:58 CET)
An adaptor signature can be viewed as a signature concealed with a secret value and, by design, any two of the trio yield the other. In a multiparty setting, an initial adaptor signature allows each party create additional adaptor signatures without the original secret. Adaptor signatures help address scalability and interoperabity issues in blockchain. They can also bring some important advantages to cryptocurrencies, such as low on-chain cost, improved transaction fungibility, and less limitations of a blockchain’s scripting language. In this paper, we propose a new two-party adaptor signature scheme that relies on quantum-safe hard problems in coding theory. The proposed scheme uses a hash-and-sign code-based signature scheme introduced by Debris-Alazard et al. and a code-based hard relation defined from the well-known syndrome decoding problem. To achieve all the basic properties of adaptor signatures formalized by Aumayr et al., we introduce further modifications to the aforementioned signature scheme. We also give a security analysis of our scheme and its application to the atomic swap. After providing a set of parameters for our scheme, we show that it has the smallest pre-signature size compared to existing post-quantum adaptor signatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0120.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Information security; Cybercrime; cyber awareness; cybersecurity basics; cybersecurity hygiene; Blockchain technology
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:34:35 CEST)
The ignorance of or lack of knowledge about cybersecurity aspects causes a critical problem regarding confidentiality and privacy. This security problem will continue to exist even if the user possesses less expertise in information security. The modern IT technologies are well developed, and almost everyone uses the features of IT technologies and services within the Internet. However, people are being affected due to cybersecurity threats. People can adhere to the recommended cybersecurity guidelines, rules, adopted standards, and cybercrime preventive measures. However, it is not possible to entirely avoid cybercrimes. Cybercrimes often lead to sufficient business losses and spread forbidden themes (hatred, terrorism, child porn, etc.). Therefore, to reduce the risk of cybercrimes, a web-based Blockchain-enabled cybersecurity awareness program (WBCA) process is introduced in this paper. The proposed web-based cybersecurity awareness program trains users to improve their security skills. The proposed program helps with understanding the common behaviors of cybercriminals and improves user knowledge of cybersecurity hygiene, best cybersecurity practices, modern cybersecurity vulnerabilities, and trends. Furthermore, the proposed WBCA uses the Blockchain technology to protect the model from the potential threats. The proposed model is validated and tested using real-world cybersecurity topics with real users and cybersecurity experts. We anticipate that the proposed program can be extended to other domains, such as national or corporate courses, to increase the cybersecurity awareness level of users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0502.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: COVID-19; contact tracing; privacy concern; secure communication; healthcare data; blockchain
Online: 22 July 2020 (06:19:47 CEST)
Contact tracing has become an indispensable tool of various extensive measures to control the spread of COVID-19 pandemic due to novel coronavirus. This essential tool helps to identify, isolate and quarantine the contacted persons of a COVID-19 patient. However, the existing contact tracing applications developed by various countries, health organizations to trace down the contacts after identifying a COVID-19 patient suffers from several security and privacy concerns. In this work, we have identified those security and privacy issues of several leading contact tracing applications and proposed a blockchain-based framework to overcome the major security and privacy challenges imposed by the applications. We have discussed the security and privacy measures that are achieved by the proposed framework to show the effectiveness against the security and privacy issues raised by the existing mobile contact tracing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0384.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 5G Wireless Technology; Artificial Intelligence; Blockchain; Cloud Computing; Cyber-Physical System
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:10:26 CEST)
The landscape of centralized cloud computing is now changing to distributed and decentralized clouds with promising impacts on energy consumption, resource availability, resilience, and customer experience. This research highlights the impacts of emerging IT trends, namely, 5G wireless technology, blockchain, and industrial Artificial Intelligence (AI) in development and realization of the next generation of cloud computing. Integration of these technologies in cyber-physical system and cloud manufacturing paradigms is explained and a unified edge-fog-cloud architecture is proposed for successful implementation in manufacturing systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0305.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Internet of Things; fog computing; security; blockchain; traffic; latency; SDN; OpenFlow
Online: 30 January 2019 (07:17:57 CET)
IoT is a new communication paradigm that gains a very high importance in the past few years. This communication paradigm supports various heterogeneous applications in many fields and with the dramatic increase of the number of sensor devices, it becomes a demand. Designing IoT networks faces many challenges that include security, massive traffic, high availability, high reliability and energy constraints. Thus, new communication technologies and paradigms should be deployed for IoT networks to overcome these challenges and achieve high system performance. Distributed computing techniques (e.g. fog and MEC), software defined networking (SDN), network virtualization and blockchain are common recent paradigms that should be deployed for IoT networks, either combined or individually, to achieve the main requirements of the IoT networks at a high system performance. Fog computing is a form of edge computing that has been developed to provide the computing capabilities (e.g. storage and processing) at the edge of the access network. Employing Fog computing in IoT networks, as an intermediate layer between IoT devices and the remote cloud, becomes a demand to make use of the edge computing benefits. In this work, we provide a framework for the IoT system structure that employs an edge computing layer of Fog nodes controlled and managed by SDN network with the blockchain technology to achieve a high level of security for latency sensitive IoT applications. The proposed system employs SDN network with distributed controllers and distributed OpenFlow switches; these switches are enabled with limited computing and processing capabilities. Furthermore, a data offloading algorithm is developed to allocate different processing and computing tasks to the distributed OpenFlow switches with available resources. Moreover, a traffic model is proposed to model and analyze the traffic among different parts of the network. The proposed work achieves various benefits to the IoT network, such as the latency reduction, security improvement and high efficiency of resources utilization. The proposed algorithm is simulated and also the proposed system is experimentally tested over a developed testbed to validate the proposed structure. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves higher efficiency in terms of latency, security and resource utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Fuzzy Logic; Blockchain; Smart-contract, Lizard Search Algorithm, Homomorphic Encryption, Cyber attacks.)
Online: 18 July 2023 (08:53:42 CEST)
Digital healthcare systems play a pivotal role in providing efficient and accessible healthcare services. However, ensuring secure authentication and key agreement mechanisms is essential to protect sensitive patient data and maintain the integrity of the system. The existing methods face limitations in terms of vulnerability to cyber attacks, scalability, and resource utilization. Furthermore, the integration of blockchain technology introduces new complexities that need to be addressed. This research proposes an optimized fuzzy logic approach combined with blockchain technology to address the authentication and key agreement challenges in digital healthcare systems. The proposed solution leverages the flexibility and adaptability of fuzzy logic algorithms to handle uncertainty and imprecision in authentication decisions. By employing fuzzy logic, the system can effectively minimize false positives and false negatives, enhancing the robustness against adversarial attacks. Moreover, the integration of blockchain technology provides a decentralized and tamper-proof infrastructure for securely storing and managing authentication and key agreement data. This ensures transparency and trust in the system, mitigating the risks of unauthorized access and data manipulation. The blockchain-based architecture also enables efficient resource utilization and scalability, allowing the system to handle authentication requests in a timely manner, even in large-scale digital healthcare environments.The proposed method is evaluated by using the NIST Special Database 302 and it shows superior performance compared to existing methods, with minimum False Rejection Rate (FRR), False Acceptance Rate (FAR), and response time. Moreover, the proposed method minimizes communication overhead during the authentication process and resists different cyber attacks including a Replay attack, Man-in-the-middle attack, Denial of Service (DoS) attack, and Impersonation attack. The proposed method achieves excellent performance in terms of security, efficiency, and resistance to various cyber-attacks, making it a promising approach for secure data sharing in P2P cloud environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0429.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Blockchain; Multi-Factor Authentication; Access Control; Internet of Vehicles; Cloud-Enabled Systems
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:27:29 CEST)
Continuous and emerging advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have enabled IoT-to-Cloud applications to be induced by data pipelines coupled with Edge Intelligence-based architectures. Advanced vehicular networks greatly benefit from these architectures due to the implicit functionalities that are focused on realizing the Internet-of-Vehicle (IoV) vision. However, IoV is susceptible to attacks, where adversaries can easily exploit existing vulnerabilities. Several attacks may succeed due to inadequate or weaker authentication techniques. Hence, there is a timely need for hardening the authentication process through cutting-edge access control mechanisms. This paper proposes a Blockchain-based Multi-Factor authentication model that uses an embedded Digital Signature (MFBC_eDS) for vehicular clouds and Cloud-enabled IoV. Our proposed MFBC_eDS model consists of a scheme that integrates the Security Assertion Mark-up Language (SAML) to the Single Sign-On (SSO) capabilities for a connected Edge-to Cloud ecosystem. MFBC_eDS draws an essential comparison with the baseline authentication scheme suggested by Karla and Sood. Based on the foundations of Karla and Sood’s scheme, an embedded Probabilistic Polynomial-Time Algorithm (ePPTA) and an additional Hash function for the Pi generated during Karla and Sood’s authentication are proposed and discussed. The preliminary analysis of the proposition shows that the approach is more suitable to counter major adversarial attacks in an IoV-centered environment based on Dolev-Yao adversarial model while satisfying aspects of the CIA triad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0132.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: V2X; vehicle-to-network; blockchain; distributed registry; data protection; network; decentralized systems
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:21:40 CEST)
Over the past decade, wireless communication technologies have developed significantly for intelligent applications in road transport. This paper provides an overview of telecommunications-based intelligent transport systems with a focus on ensuring system safety and resilience. In vehicle-to-everything, these problems are extremely acute due to the specifics of the operation of transport networks, which requires the use of special protection mechanisms. In this regard, it was decided to use blockchain as a system platform to support the needs of transport systems for secure information exchange. This paper describes the technological aspects of implementing blockchain technology in vehicle-to-network; the features of such technology are presented, as well as the features of their interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0180.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: mHealth; Blockchain; Internet of Things; Smart devices; Communication; Smart Devices; Emerging Technologies
Online: 14 June 2020 (15:07:26 CEST)
The mHealth is a term that is used for mobile health supported by smart devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and wearable smart devices, etc. The smart devices strengthen the efficiency and effectiveness of interaction with patients, physicians, and specialists. Patients nowadays would like to be intimately involved in their diagnosis as well as to make more informed decisions concerning their care. It has begun to measure the success of the quality of treatment. This was a reason that patients trust mHealth to provide them with consistency in their communications with the physicians. Most wireless strategies do not measure up to this standard so that patient engagement ultimately ended up decreasing. The blockchain can boost mHealth through storing and sharing electronic data securely and transparently. It can enhance the accessibility of patient information in real-time. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides a unique identification number to every connected device such as mobile devices, medical devices, and wearable devices. This framework uses the blockchain and IoT technologies together to provide quick help to the patients, monitor remotely, reduce the cost and unnecessarily hospitalization physically and find the real diagnosis. In order to increase patient involvement, mHealth framework with blockchain and IoT technologies has built with the key objective of providing patients with full information on their treatment and diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0267.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Blockchain; ÐApp; UML; conceptual modelling; Ethereum; Smart Contract; Solidity; Quorum; middleware; Clockchain
Online: 16 May 2020 (16:29:58 CEST)
Blockchain decentralized applications (ÐApps) are applications which run on Blockchains nodes. Thus, in order to interact directly with this sort of applications, users need to have a blockchain address, wallet and knowledge about how to make transactions in order to interact with ÐApps. Therefore, the knowledge required to use a ÐApp can easily make users to desist when trying to interact with them. In order to tackle this issue, we propose a software architecture that will be located in the middle of the user and the ÐApp, thus making users initially unaware that they are interacting with a ÐApp. This is achieved by analyzing the relationship between ÐApps and Apps by using UML modelling. Next, based in the previous analysis, we created a middleware for users to interact with a ÐApp in the same manner the do with a traditional web app, i.e. by using usernames, passwords and UI elements instead of addresses, private keys or transactions. Finally, in order to put the developed middleware into practice, we developed a ÐApp that makes use of it. This ÐApp registers the time control of workers from companies by using Blockchain to store the data in a secure and non-modifiable manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0178.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: blockchain technology; trusted execution environment; attribute-based encryption; patient-driven inter- operability; Ethereum
Online: 10 February 2023 (03:48:35 CET)
With the rise of powerful computational technologies, healthcare systems are going through a paradigm shift to the era of healthcare 5.0, also known as" smart healthcare". This new-age healthcare system not only enhances the life of patients but also aims to reduce healthcare costs significantly. People's health data collected through various means, including various Internet of Things (IoT) devices, is too sensitive to be regulated by particular organisations owing to increasing privacy and security threats. The sheer size of data makes it difficult for centralised bodies to regulate, due to which third-party involvement is introduced, which again poses threats to the privacy of the data holder. Motivated by the abovementioned gaps, we propose a decentralised approach using Ethereum blockchain technology and Oasis protocol. The patient-driven solution approach effectively solves the privacy problem by providing complete control of data to the owner. Along with this, byproducts such as fine-grained access control and on-chain data processing capabilities are also obtained.