ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Micro-grids; Droop Controls; Tap Changers; Islanded Mode; AC OPF; Lagrangian Relaxation; Renewable Generation; Markov Process; Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming
Online: 30 March 2022 (10:20:43 CEST)
Micro-grids’ operations offer local reliability; in the event of faults or low voltage/frequency events on the utility side, micro-grids can disconnect from the main grid and operate autonomously while providing the continued supply of power to local customers. With the ever-increasing penetration of renewable generation, however, the operations of micro-grids become increasingly complicated because of the associated fluctuations of voltages. As a result, transformer taps are adjusted frequently, thereby leading to the fast degradation of expensive tap-changer transformers. In the islanding mode, the difficulties also come from the drop of voltage and frequency upon disconnecting from the main grid. To appropriately model the above, the nonlinear AC power flow constraints are necessary. Computationally, the discrete nature of tap-changer operations and the stochasticity caused by renewables add two layers of difficulty on top of a complicated AC-OPF problem. To resolve the above computational difficulties, the main principles of the recently-developed "l1-proximal" Surrogate Lagrangian Relaxation are extended. Testing results based on 9-bus system demonstrate the efficiency of the method to obtain the exact feasible solutions for micro-grid operations thereby avoiding approximations inherent to existing methods, while demonstrating that through the optimization, 1. the number of tap changes is drastically reduced, and 2. the method is capable of handling networks with meshed topologies.