REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1708.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Cytoplasmic membrane homeostasis; Pathogenicity; Pathogenic fungi; Membrane lipid metabolism; Membrane curvature; Transmembrane protein; Cell wall components; Cytoskeleton; Growth and development; Host infection
Online: 24 May 2023 (10:38:22 CEST)
The cytoplasmic membrane is the fundamental component of all living cells, which participates in various physiological processes, such as material exchange, stress response, cell recognition, signal transduction, cellular immunity, apoptosis, pathogenicity, etc. The normal function of a cytoplasmic membrane requires stable organization of transmembrane protein-lipid microdomains, transmembrane protein-cell wall microdomains, and cytoskeleton-transmembrane protein microdomains. Here, we review the mechanisms and functions of various membrane lipid components, fatty acid content and saturation, membrane curvature, and cell wall and cytoskeleton in plasma membrane homeostasis affecting the pathogenicity of pathogenic fungi. Pathogenic fungi maintains plasma membrane homeostasis and contributes to fungal virulence by maintaining plasma membrane assembly, structural and functional integrity of pathogenic fungi at various stages of cell development through interactions among lipid components of cytoplasmic membranes, transmembrane proteins, cytoskeleton and cell wall components, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: air contaminant dispersion; data assimilation; particle filter; expectation-maximization algorithm; UAV
Online: 31 July 2017 (11:02:27 CEST)
The precise prediction of air contaminant dispersion is essential to the air quality monitoring and the emergency management of the contaminant gases leakage incidents in the chemical industry park. The conventional atmospheric dispersion models can seldom give precise prediction due to inaccurate input parameters. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of dispersion model, two data assimilation methods (i.e. one is merely based on the typical particle filter while the other is a combination of particle filter and expectation-maximization algorithm) are proposed to assimilate the UAV observations into the atmospheric dispersion model. Two emission cases are taken into consideration, the difference between which is the different dimensions of state variables. To test the performances of the proposed methods, experiments corresponding to the two emission cases are designed and implemented. The results show that the particle filter can effectively estimate the model parameters and improve the accuracy of model prediction when the dimension of state variables is low. In contrast, when the dimension of state variables becomes higher, the method of particle filter combining expectation-maximization algorithm performs better in the parameter estimation accuracy and warm-up time. Therefore, the data assimilation methods are able to effectively support the air quality monitoring and emergency management in chemical industry parks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1565.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: nitrogen oxide retrieval; 2DCNN-LSTM; machine learning; factor interpretability
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:42:22 CEST)
With the advancement of urbanization in China, effective control of pollutant emissions and air quality have become important goals in current environmental management. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), as a precursor of tropospheric ozone and fine particulate matter, plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry research and air pollution control. However, the uneven ground monitoring stations and low temporal resolution of polar-orbiting satellites set challenges for accurately assessing near-surface NO2. To address this issue, a spatiotemporal refined NO2 retrieval model was established for China using the geostationary satellite Himawari-8. The spatiotemporal characteristics of NO2 were analyzed and its contribution factors were explored. Firstly, seven Himawari-8 channels sensitive to NO2 were selected by using the forward feature selection based on information entropy. Subsequently, a 2DCNN-LSTM network model was constructed, incorporating the selected channels and meteorological variables as retrieval factors to estimate hourly NO2 in China from March 2018 to February 2020 (with a resolution of 0.05°, per hour). The performance evaluation demonstrated that the full-channel 2DCNN-LSTM model had good fitting capability and robustness (R2=0.74, RMSE=10.93), and further improvements were achieved after channel selection (R2=0.87, RMSE=6.84). The 10-fold cross-validation results indicated that the R2 between retrieval and measured values was above 0.85, the MAE was within 5.60, and the RMSE was within 7.90. R2 varied between 0.85 and 0.90, showing better validation at mid-day (R2=0.89) and in spring and fall transition seasons (R2 =0.88 and R2 =0.90). To investigate the cooperative effect of meteorological factors and other air pollutants on NO2, statistical methods (Beta coefficients) were used to test the factor interpretability. Meteorological factors as well as other pollutants were analyzed. From a statistical perspective, PM2.5, Boundary Layer Height, and O3 were found to have the largest impacts on near-surface NO2, with each standard deviation change in these factors leading to 0.28, 0.24, and 0.23 in standard deviations of near-surface NO2, respectively. Findings of the study contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the spatiotemporal distribution of NO2 and provide a scientific basis for formulating targeted air pollution policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0308.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: micro-video classification; 3D CNN; multi-modal
Online: 21 July 2022 (03:09:34 CEST)
Along with the popularity of the Internet, people are exposed to more and more ways of micro-videos, and a huge amount of micro-video data has emerged. micro-videos have gradually become the Internet content preferred by the public, and a large number of micro-video apps have also emerged, such as Tiktok and Kwai. Intelligent classification and mining of micro-videos can greatly enhance user experience, improve business operation efficiency and enhance user experience. Through deep intelligent analysis and mining of micro-videos, important information in micro-videos can be extracted to provide an important basis for beautifying videos, content appreciation, video recommendation, content search, etc. In the past, content understanding for short videos often used human work annotation, but in recent years, with the great success of deep convolutional neural networks in image recognition, short video content understanding based on this method has gradually developed. Nowadays, most recognition algorithms extract the feature representation of each frame independently and then fuse them. However, while extracting the feature representation, some low-level semantic features are lost, which makes the algorithm unable to accurately distinguish the category of the video. At present, the algorithm of micro-video recognition based on deep learning has surpassed the iDT algorithm, making these traditional methods fade out of people’s view. In this paper according to the micro-video classification task, a new network model is proposed to concatenate features of each modality into the overall features of various modalities through the network, and then fuse the various modal features with the attention mechanism to obtain the whole micro-video features, which will be used for classification. In order to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm proposed in this paper, experiments are conducted in the public dataset, and it is shown the effectiveness of our model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0527.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: local-saturated zone of subgrade; fine particles migration; two-phase seepage characteristics; deformation characteristics; volume fraction of fine particles
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:34:20 CEST)
The fluid seepage in local-saturated zone of subgrade promotes the migration of fine particles in the filler, resulting in the change of pore structure and morphology of the filler and the deformation of solid skeleton, which affects the fluid seepage characteristics. Repeatedly, the muddy interlayer, mud pumping and other diseases are finally formed. Based on the theory of two-phase seepage, the theory of porous media seepage, and the principle of effective stress in porous media, a two-phase fluid-solid coupling mathematical model in local-saturated zone of subgrade considering the effect of fine particles migration is established. The mathematical model is numerically calculated with the software COMSOL Multiphysics○R, the two-phase seepage characteristics and the deformation characteristics of the solid skeleton in local-saturated zone of the subgrade are studied. The research results show that due to the continuous erosion and migration of fine particles in local-saturated zone of the subgrade, the volume fraction of fine particles first increases then decreases and finally becomes stable with the increase of time. And the volume fraction of fine particles for the upper part of the subgrade is larger than that for the lower part of the subgrade. The porosity, the velocity of fluid, the velocity of fine particles, and the permeability show a trend of increasing first and then stabilizing with time; the pore water pressure has no significant changes with time. The vertical displacement increase first and then decrease slightly with the increase of time, and finally tend to be stable. For a filler with a larger initial volume fraction of fine particles, the maximum value of the volume fraction of fine particles caused by fluid seepage is larger, and the time required to reach the maximum value is shorter. It can be concluded that in actual engineering, the volume fraction of fine particles in the subgrade filler should be minimized on the premise that the filler gradation meets the requirements of the specification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0051.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: chemical plant environmental protection; stackelberg security games; source estimation methods; historical monitoring data; game theory
Online: 14 August 2017 (04:42:56 CEST)
The chemical industry is an integral part of the world economy and a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations or the enforcement of these regulations, on controlling atmospheric pollutants sometimes may be insufficient, leading to the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and to a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP) to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations for inspection agencies. First, Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) are incorporated together with source estimation methods into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensors are modeled into the CPEP. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP Game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work. Results show that playing a CPEP Game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations; moreover, playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1570.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Asian dust; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; long-range transportation
Online: 23 August 2023 (03:35:05 CEST)
Asian dust (AD) events and total suspended particle (TSP) was observed at Kanazawa University Wajima Air Monitoring Station (KUWAMS), a Japanese background site, during the East Asian winter monsoon periods (from November to May of the following year) from 2010 to 2021. Nine kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in each TSP sample. In this study, a total of 54 AD events were observed. According to the different pathways of long-range transportation, AD events were divided into AD-high (transported at higher altitude, around 4000 m) and AD-low (transported at lower altitude, around 2500 m). The TSP concentrations in-creased sharply in the AD and was higher in AD-high (39.8 ± 19.5 μg/m³) than that in AD-low (23.5 ± 10.5 μg/m³). While AD didn’t have significant effect on ΣPAHs characteristic variation, as ΣPAHs concentration in non-AD periods, AD-high, AD-low were 543 ± 374, 404 ± 221, 436 ± 265 pg/m³, respectively. PAHs compositions were also consistent. As a result, TSP concentration was affected by the input air mass transported at higher altitude from the desert region while PAHs concentration was under the impact of air mass at lower altitude which carried the PAHs emitted from fossil fuels and biomass combustion in northeastern China. Moreover, the health risks of PAHs were calculated by inhalation lifetime cancer risk which ranged from 10−6 to 10−5 ng/m3, in-dicating a potential carcinogenic risk at KUWAMS during the East Asian winter monsoon period.