ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0400.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Pangenome; horizontal gene transfer (HGT); core genome; accessory genome
Online: 19 July 2021 (10:19:29 CEST)
Pantoea stewartii subsp. indologenes (Psi) is a causative agent of leafspot of foxtail millet and pearl millet; however, novel strains were recently identified that are pathogenic on onion. Our recent host range evaluation study identified two pathovars; P. stewartii subsp. indologenes pv. cepacicola pv. nov. and P. stewartii subsp. indologenes pv. setariae pv. nov. that are pathogenic on onion and millets or on millets only, respectively. In the current study we developed a pan-genome using the whole genome sequencing of newly identified/classified Psi strains from both pathovars [pv. cepacicola (n= 4) and pv. setariae (n=13)]. The full spectrum of the pan-genome contained 7,030 genes. Among these, 3,546 (present in genomes of all 17 strains) were the core genes that were a subset of 3,682 soft-core genes (present in ≥16 strains). The accessory genome included 1,308 shell genes and 2,040 cloud genes (present in ≤ 2 strains). The pan-genome showed a clear liner progression with >6,000 genes, suggesting the pan-genome of Psi is open. Comparative phylogenetic analysis showed differences in phylogenetic clustering of Pantoea spp. using PAVs/wgMLST approach in comparison to core genome SNP-based phylogeny. Further, we conducted a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) study including four other Pantoea species namely, P. stewartii subsp. stewartii LMG 2715T, P. ananatis LMG 2665T, P. agglomerans LMG L15, and P. allii LMG 24248T. A total of 317 HGT events among four Pantoea species were identified with most gene transfers observed between Psi pv. cepacicola and Psi pv. setariae. Pan-GWAS analysis predicted a total of 154 genes including seven cluster of genes associated with the pathogenicity phenotype on onion. One of the clusters contain 11 genes with known functions and are found to be chromosomally located.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0501.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, Sida golden mosaic Florida virus, Whitefly, Snap beans, Lima beans
Online: 25 October 2020 (19:12:11 CET)
The production and quality of Phaseolus vulgaris (snap bean) have been negatively impacted by leaf crumple disease caused by two whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses; cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and sida golden mosaic Florida virus (SiGMFV), which often appear as a mixed infection in Georgia. Host resistance is the most economical management strategy against whitefly-transmitted viruses. Currently, information is not available with respect to resistance to these two viruses in commercial cultivars. In two field seasons (2018 and 2019), we screened Phaseolus sp. genotypes (n = 84 in 2018; n = 80 in 2019; most of the genotypes were common in both years with a few exceptions) for resistance against CuLCrV and/or SiGMFV. Twenty genotypes with high- to moderate-levels of resistance (disease severity ranging from 5-50%) to CuLCrV and/or SiGMFV were identified. Twenty-one genotypes were found to be highly susceptible with a disease severity of ≥66%. Adult whitefly counts differed significantly among snap bean genotypes for both years. The whole genome of these Phaseolus sp. (n=82) genotypes was sequenced and genetic variability among them was identified. Over 900 giga-base (Gb) of filtered data were generated and >88% of the resulting data were mapped to the reference genome, and SNP and Indel variants in Phaseolus genotypes were obtained. A total of 645,729 SNPs and 68,713 Indels including 30,169 insertions and 38,543 deletions were identified, which were distributed in 11 chromosomes with chromosome 02 harboring the maximum number of variants. These phenotypic and genotypic information will be helpful in genome-wide association studies that will aid in identifying genetic basis of resistance to these begomoviruses in Phaseolus sp.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0291.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Induced resistance; Watermelon; Fusarium; Root-knot nematode; Micronutrients
Online: 16 August 2022 (11:59:40 CEST)
The soil-borne pathogens, particularly Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) and southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) are the major threat to watermelon production in the south-eastern United States. The role of soil micronutrients on induced resistance (IR) to plant diseases is well-documented in soil-based mediums. However, soil-based mediums limit the determination of the role(s) of individual micronutrients in IR. In this manuscript, we utilized hydroponics to assess the effect of controlled application of micronutrient, including iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) on the expression of some IR genes (PR1, PR5, and NPR1 from salicylic acid (SA) pathway, and VSP, PDF, and LOX genes from jasmonic acid (JA) pathway) in watermelon seedlings upon inoculation with either FON or RKN or both. Plants were treated with higher (3X) or lower (0.5X) concentrations of micronutrients in Steiner solution (X= standard dose of micronutrient) for 7 days in a hydroponics system under greenhouse conditions. A subset of micronutrient-treated plants was inoculated (on the 8th day of micronutrient application) with FON and RKN (single and mixed). The expression of the IR genes in treated and control samples were evaluated using qRT-PCR. Although, significant phenotypic differences were not observed with respect to the severity of wilt symptoms or RKN galling with any of the micro-nutrient treatments within the 30 day-experimental-period, differences in the induction of IR genes were observed. However, the level of gene expression varied with sampling period, type and concentration of micro-nutrients ap-plied, and pathogen-inoculation. In the absence of pathogens, no significant changes were observed in the expression level of IR genes on 7th day of micronutrient treatment. However, pathogen inoculation affected the expression levels of the IR genes at 3-day post-inoculation. In FON inoculated plants, PDF was upregulated in high Fe treatment, whereas in RKN inoculated plants, low Mn treatment resulted in up-regulation of VSP. In the case of mixed inoculation with FON and RKN, the plants with low Zn treatment resulted in the upregulation of PR1. These observations suggest that the type and concentration of micronutrients in watermelon may potentially induce systemic resistance against FON and RKN through SA and JA pathways.