ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0231.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Microbiota; Ecotoxicology; Symbiosis acquisition; Holobiont
Online: 14 November 2022 (02:40:58 CET)
Oryzias latipes is an important model organism for physiology, genetics and developmental studies, and has also emerged a relevant vertebrate model for aquatic ecotoxicology. Knowledge regarding its associ-ated microbiota on the other hand is still scarce and limited to adults, despite the relevance of associated microbiome to hosts biology. This study provides first insights into the establishment of bacterial mi-crobiota during early developmental stages of laboratory-reared medaka using a 16SrRNA sequenc-ing-based approach. Major shifts in community compositions are observed, from a Proteobacte-ria-dominated community in larvae and juveniles to a more phylum diverse community towards adult-hood, with no obvious difference between female and male specimens. Major bacterial taxa found in adults, including genera Cetobacterium and ZOR0006, establish progressively and are rare during early stages. Dominance shifts are comparable to those documented in another major model teleost, the zebrafish. Results from this study provide a basis for future work investigating the influence of meda-ka-associated bacteria during host development.
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: toxicology; microbiota; symbiosis; contaminants; resilience; environment
Online: 8 August 2020 (05:01:26 CEST)
Over the last 15 years, the advent of high-throughput ‘omics’ techniques has revealed the multiple roles and interactions occurring among hosts, their microbial partners and their environment. This microbiome revolution has radically changed our views of biology, evolution and individuality. Sitting at the interface between a host and its environment, the microbiome is a relevant yet understudied compartment for ecotoxicology research. Various recent works confirm that the microbiome reacts to and interacts with contaminants, with consequences for hosts and ecosystems. In this paper, we thus advocate for the development of a “microbiome-aware ecotoxicology” of organisms. We emphasize its relevance and discuss important conceptual and technical pitfalls associated with study design and interpretation. We identify topics such as functionality, quantification, temporality, resilience, interactions and prediction as major challenges and promising venues for microbiome research applied to ecotoxicology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0192.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: cyanobacteria; natural products; metabolites; biological activities; producers; chemical classes
Online: 17 April 2019 (06:05:45 CEST)
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms that colonize diverse environments worldwide, ranging from ocean to freshwaters, soils, and extreme environments. Their adaptation capacities and the diversity of natural products (molecules, metabolites, or compounds) that they synthesize support the cyanobacterial success for the colonization of their respective ecological niches. Although cyanobacteria are well-known for their toxin production and their relative deleterious consequences, they also produce a large variety of molecules that exhibit beneficial properties with high potential for various fields of application (e.g., synthetic analog of the dolastatin 10 used against Hodgkin lymphoma). The present review specially focuses on the beneficial activities of cyanobacterial molecules described so far. Based on an analysis of 670 papers, it appears that more than 90 genera of cyanobacteria have been found to produce compounds with potential beneficial activities, most of them belonging to the orders Oscillatoriales, Nostocales Chroococcales, and Synechococcales. The rest of the cyanobacterial orders (i.e., Pleurocapsales, Chroococcidiopsales, and Gloeobacterales) remain poorly explored in terms of their molecular diversity and relative bioactivity. The diverse cyanobacterial molecules presenting beneficial bioactivities belong to 10 different chemical classes (alkaloids, depsipeptides, lipopeptides, macrolides/lactones, peptides, terpenes, polysaccharides, lipids, polyketides, and others) that exhibit 14 major kinds of bioactivity. However, no direct relation between the chemical class and the bioactivity of these molecules has been demonstrated. We further selected and specifically described 50 molecule families according to their specific bioactivities and their potential uses in pharmacology, cosmetology, agriculture, or other specific fields of interest. This up-to-date review takes advantage of the recent progresses in genome sequencing and biosynthetic pathway elucidation, and presents new perspectives for the rational discovery of new cyanobacterial metabolites with beneficial bioactivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0484.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cyanobacteria; metabolomics; high-resolution mass spectrometry; secondary metabolite induction; culture conditions
Online: 25 August 2021 (10:48:20 CEST)
Cyanobacteria are microorganisms able to adapt to a wide variety of environmental conditions and abiotic stresses. They produce a very large number of metabolites that can participate in the adaptation of cyanobacteria to a large range of resources such as light, temperature, or nutrient. The metabolites variation is one way to understand the physiological status and adaptation of cells. In this study, we aim to understand how the diversity and the dynamics of the whole metabolome is dependent of the growth phases and under control of abiotic factors (e.g. light intensity and temperature). The cyanobacteria Aliinostoc sp. PMC 882.14 was selected for its large number of biosynthetic gene clusters. Metabolomes were analyzed by using mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS/MS) combined with untargeted analysis to investigate the metabolite dynamics. Significant variations were characterized between exponential and stationary phases, whatever the culture conditions (“control”, “higher light”, or “higher temperature”). ”Higher light” and “higher temperature” favored the synthesis of metabolites belonging to the same molecular families. Among highly regulated metabolites, we observe the presence of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), and various variants of somamides, microginins, and microviridins. Through Aliinostoc sp. PMC 882.14, this study shows the importance of knowing the physiological state of cyanobacteria for comparative global metabolomics and questions the regulation processes involve into metabolite families production. Our results also open up new perspectives in the context of the production of targeted bioactive metabolites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0310.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: cyanobacteria; secondary metabolite; genome mining; molecular networking
Online: 30 June 2019 (10:42:22 CEST)
Cyanobacteria are an ancient lineage of slow-growing photosynthetic bacteria and a proliﬁc source of natural products with diverse chemical structures and potent biological activities and toxicities. The chemical identiﬁcation of these compounds remains a major bottleneck. Strategies that can prioritize the most proliﬁc strains and novel compounds are of great interest. Here, we combine chemical analysis and genomics to investigate the chemodiversity of secondary metabolites based on their pattern of distribution within some cyanobacteria. Planktothrix being a cyanobacterial genus known to form blooms worldwide and to produce a broad spectrum of toxins and other bioactive compounds, we applied this combined approach on four closely related strains of Planktothrix. The chemical diversity of the metabolites produced by the four strains was evaluated using an untargeted metabolomics strategy with high-resolution LC-MS. Metabolite proﬁles were correlated with the potential of metabolite production identified by genomics for the different strains. Although, the Planktothrix strains present a global similarity in term biosynthetic cluster gene for microcystin, aeruginosin and prenylagaramide for example, we found remarkable strain-specific chemo-diversity. Only few of the chemical features were common to the four studied strains. Additionally, the MS/MS data were analyzed using Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) to identify molecular families of the same biosynthetic origin. In conclusion, we present an efﬁcient integrative strategy for elucidating the chemical diversity of a given genus and link the data obtained from analytical chemistry to biosynthetic genes of cyanobacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0219.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cyanobacteria; cyanosphere; heterotroph bacteria; metagenomics; functional redundancy
Online: 15 September 2022 (04:11:18 CEST)
Cyanobacteria constitute pioneer colonizer of specific environments whom settlement in new biotopes precedes the establishment of composite microbial consortia. Some heterotrophic bacteria constitute cyanobacterial partners that are considered as their cyanosphere, being potentially involved in mutualistic relationships through exchange and recycling of key nutrients, and sharing of common goods. Several non-axenic cyanobacterial strains have been recently isolated along with their associated cyanosphere from the thermal mud of Balaruc-les-Bains (France) and the biofilms of the retention basin where they develop. The community structure and relationships among members of the isolated cyanobacterial strains were characterized using a metagenomic approach combined with taxonomic and microscopic description of the microbial consortia. Results provide insights into the potential role and metabolic capabilities of microorganisms of thermal mud-associated cyanobacterial biofilms. Thus, the physical proximity, host-specificity and complimentary functions advocate for their complementarity between cyanobacteria and their associated microbiota. Besides these findings, our results also highlight the great influence of the reference protein database chosen when performing functional annotation of the metagenomes from organisms of the cyanosphere and the difficulty of selecting one unique database that appropriately cover both autotroph and heterotroph metabolic specificities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0359.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Drinking water; rapid sand filtration; Recreational areas; Exposure; Microcystis and Dolichospermum; Microcystins
Online: 25 July 2022 (08:16:59 CEST)
Africa’s water needs are often supported by eutrophic waterbodies dominated by cyanobacteria posing health threats to riparian populations from cyanotoxins, and Lake Victoria is no exception. In two embayments of the lake (Murchison Bay and Napoleon Gulf), cyanobacterial surveys were conducted to characterize the dynamics of cyanotoxins in lake water and water treatment plants. Forty-six cyanobacterial taxa were recorded and out of these 14 were considered potentially toxigenic (i.e., from the genera Dolichospermum, Microcystis, Oscillatoria, Pseudanabaena and Raphidiopsis). A higher concentration (ranging from 5-10 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1) of microcystins (MCs) was detected in Murchison Bay compared to Napoleon Gulf, with a declining gradient from the inshore (max. 15 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1) to the open lake. In Murchison Bay, an increase either in Microcystis sp. biovolume and MC was observed over the last two decades. Despite high cell densities of toxigenic Microcystis and high MC concentrations, the water treatment plant in Murchison Bay efficiently removed the cyanobacterial biomass, intracellular and dissolved MC to below the lifetime guideline value for exposure via drinking water (< 1.0 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1). Thus, the potential health threats stem from the consumption of untreated water and recreational activities, along the shores of the lake embayments. MC concentrations were predicted from Microcystis cell numbers regulated by environmental factors such as solar radiation, wind speed in the N-S direction and turbidity. Thus, an early warning through microscopical counting of Microcystis cell numbers is proposed to better manage health risks from toxigenic cyanobacteria in Lake Victoria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0611.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cyanobacteria; thermal mud; natural products; anti-inflammatory; bioactivity
Online: 24 November 2020 (10:53:33 CET)
Background: The Balaruc-les-Bains’ thermal mud was found to be colonized predominantly by microorganisms, with cyanobacteria constituting the primary organism in the microbial biofilm observed on the mud surface. The success of cyanobacteria in colonizing this specific ecological niche can be explained in part by their taxa-specific adaptation capacities, and also the diversity of bioactive natural products that they synthesize. This array of components has physiological and ecological properties that may be exploited for various applications.