ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0518.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: ICT integration; Teachers’ internal expectancy; Behavioral intention to use ICT; Instruction behavior; Higher vocational college
Online: 28 November 2022 (15:50:01 CET)
This study aimed to explore what factors affect teachers’ acceptance and instructional use of ICT in Chinese higher vocational colleges. Grounded in the modified UTAUT model, the current study investigated the direct and indirect effects of teachers’ performance expectancy, effort expectancy, external conditions, and behavioral intentions on using ICT in teaching. A total of 6087 teachers from 219 vocational colleges in 28 provinces in China participated in a large-scale survey. Structural equation modeling revealed that the teachers’ psychological perceptions (including performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and intention to use ICT technology) and the external support conditions (including professional development support, infrastructures, the climate of organizational reform and innovation, and teacher performance assessment mechanisms) significantly directly affect the use of ICT in Chinese higher vocational college teachers’ teaching practice. Moreover, this study confirmed the mediating role of teachers’ intention to use ICT in teaching in the relationship between teachers’ psychological perceptions and ICT instructional usage behavior. However, there were differences in the significance of these variables in the chain effect of teachers’ intention to use ICT. These findings expand our understanding of the factors influencing ICT use in teaching among VET teachers in China and thus provide practical implications for higher vocational college managers to promote teachers’ ICT teaching behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0583.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Superstar Learning System; Behavioral Intention; An extended TAM; Constructs
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:34:41 CEST)
Superstar Learning System is an interactive information platform, where teachers and students can not only have an easy access to various learning resources, but also interact in the whole teaching and learning process. Although there have been a large number of studies devoted to the use of Superstar Learning System in education, very few of them explored its behavioral intention. In order to deal with this missing link in literature, we adopt a random sampling technique and a questionnaire survey to collect data. This study concludes that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, lecturer influence, peer influence, user innovativeness, interface simplicity, and multiple functions exert a positive influence on behavioral intention to use Superstar Learning System. We form a fit extended technology acceptance model (TAM) by including innovative constructs, i.e. lecturer and peer influences, user innovativeness, interface simplicity, and multiple functions. Interdisciplinary research is needed to explore an extended TAM to use Superstar Learning System in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1608.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: social network; media usage; behavioral intention; advertisement acceptance; life value; psychological satisfaction; public data policy; media psychology
Online: 24 November 2023 (13:58:05 CET)
This study examined the effect of the media usage environment, particularly TV and SNS devices, on advertisement acceptance, lifestyle, and psychological satisfaction. Hypothesis pathways and comparative structural mediating effects were analyzed. Media and Consumer Research public data were used for empirical analysis. A total of 6,640 people who participated in sports activities were included in the study. The results demonstrated that TV and SNS device usage environments had similar effects on advertisement acceptance. While TV did not influence the pursuit of personal life, SNS device use environments affected the pursuit of personal life. SNS device use environments had a greater effect on individual psychological satisfaction than TV. Adoption had a mediating effect on the influence of media usage environments on the pursuit of personal life. The pursuit of a personal life had a significant mediating effect on the influence of media use environments on psychological stability. This study revealed no differences in the effects of new and traditional media on advertisement acceptance, while new media had a greater influence on lifestyle and psychological satisfaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1109.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: aesthetics; symbolism; affective museum image; perceived value; behavioral intention
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:53:27 CEST)
This study examines how the design of museum archaeological boxes and the overall museum image affect behavioral intention. This research used partial least squares-structural equation modeling, indicating a relationship between aesthetics, symbolism, affective museum image, perceived value, and behavioral intention. This study found that symbolism predicted behavioral intention. Moreover, aesthetics, symbolism, and affective museum image affected perceived value, in turn triggering behavioral intention. This indicates theoretical and practical implications for museum products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: environmental behavior; financial industry; employee survey; behavioral acceptance; intention-behavior-gap
Online: 19 May 2022 (11:39:40 CEST)
The financial sector, too, is developing innovative services and products that have the potential to make a more positive impact on global environmental goals. However, research sheds little light on environmental attitudes and behavioral patterns of employees in this sector. There are multiple factors promoting or inhibiting environmental behavior. Those factors may be rooted in individual or subjective norms, but also social influence and to some extent financial incentives and benefits. A survey concerning the intention to improve and actually show ‘green behavior’ was developed based on widely used acceptance models which differentiate between desirable behavior and the intention to show such behavior. Employees are predominately responsive towards environmental behavior: 20% are convinced of the need to act in a “green” and sustainable manner, only 5% are hard to win over or are not accessible at all. Financial loss or benefits combined with social motives contribute to sustainable living whereas financial benefits alone actually hinder such behavior. The study underlines the existence of a intention-behavior gap: The intention to behave sustainably is built somewhat separately from various influences. There are moderating factors like sex, age and family status that influence the decisions. This then leads to a gap between intention and actual behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1425.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: attitude; subjective norm; awareness of consequences; behavioral intention
Online: 22 November 2023 (12:13:51 CET)
This article's goal is to investigate the structural model that explains how awareness of consequences, subjective norms, attitude and behavior control variables influence plastic wastes behavioral intention in Jeddah's beaches, Saudi Arabia. A quantitative approach was employed. For data analysis, structural equation modeling was used. Based on the literature analysis, the study used a structured questionnaire. Multiple statistical analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. This study conducts a survey on a sample of 390 local tourists to investigate their intention to reduce plastic wastes. To increase the explaining power for behavioral intention, this study extended the TPB by adding awareness of consequences. The study's participants were selected randomly. 340 of them agreed and answered the questionnaire, yielding a percentage response rate 87%. This produced 271 valid questionnaires for data analysis after closely examining the survey. The results demonstrate a positive influence of subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and consequences awareness on environmental behavioral intention. On the other hand, attitude does not significantly contribute to predict EBI. Governments, legislators, and researchers may use the work's findings to create and execute efficient waste management programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0955.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Pilates; perceived value; continuous behavioral intention; Extended Theory of Planned Behavior (ETPB)
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:53:21 CET)
This study examined the relationships between attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention through the perceived value of Pilates participants. The participants of this study were 301 Pilates students using Pilates studios located in Busan, Ulsan, and Gyeongbuk Province. The participants were selected by convenient sampling, a non-probability sampling method. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling analysis using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 24.0. The results can be summarized as follows. First, among the three subfactors of perceived value, functional and social values had a positive effect on attitude. Second, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, which are three main components of the Theory of Planned Behavior, had a positive effect on the behavioral intention for Pilates. These results suggest that Pilates instructors require meticulous planning and efforts to develop an environment for promoting spontaneous interest and participation to attract students and engage their attention and interest in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1725.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: equestrian sport; welfare; bit use; equine behavior; behavioral effects; horse satisfaction; horses; bits
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:59:33 CEST)
This study was conducted to investigate bit use in equestrian sports, focusing on welfare and performance as bit use has been subject of debate. The multi-faceted study combines a literature review, survey, and video analyses. Research on physiological and behavioral effects of bit use, discussing concerns and benefits, was evaluated. The survey involved 250 equestrians, gathering data on experiences, opinions, and practices regarding bit usage. Results demonstrate that different bits are used during competitions and that riders prioritize factors like horse satisfaction, consistent connection, and chewing behavior when riding at home, while show use focusses on factors like control. Video analyses showed high conformity between veterinary expert and show jumper, indicating reliability and validity. Pelham and loose ring bits were most used, while 3-ring and full cheek bits were associated with the most aversive movements, particularly opening of the mouth. Other defense movements included putting ears back, tail swishing, and head tilting. The study highlighted the need for understanding bit preferences in various settings and cautioned against generalizing bit usage based solely on show observations. It also emphasized the potential for developing new designs that prioritize horse comfort and responsiveness, to enhance communication and partnership between horses and riders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0236.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Internet addiction; mobile phone addiction; online social network; university students; technological addictions; behavioral addictions
Online: 25 January 2018 (05:10:00 CET)
1) Background: It has been more than a decade since the concern about addictive use of the Internet and mobile phones was first expressed and its possible inclusion into the lists of mental disorders has been a popular topic of discussion recently, thus it seems to be a fitting moment to investigate the evolution of this issue over time. The aim of the present study was to analyze the evolution of the perception of problematic Internet and smartphone use in young people over the period 2006–2017; 2) Methods: To this end, a questionnaire on Internet use habits and the CERI and CERM questionnaires on negative consequences of Internet and smartphone use were administered to a sample of 792 university students and compared with data from former studies over the period 2006–2017; 3) Results: The perception of problematic Internet and mobile phone use has increased over the last decade, social networks are considered responsible for this increase, and females are the ones perceived to be more affected than males. The degree to which participants agree with the statement “I am addicted to the Internet” can be used as a screening item for problematic use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0223.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Behavioral nudges; water conservation; technology; water efficiency
Online: 11 August 2022 (13:37:12 CEST)
Growing water shortages for large regions of the arid regions of the world, are likely to become more recurrent as climate change impacts grow. Countries across the world are facing water security difficulties that stem from population growth, urbanization, and rapid industrialization. The use of behavioral nudges methods implemented to encourage a socially desired behavior at a low to zero cost, has been an effective method at reducing water consumption in places where they have been deployed. For example, studies in California USA, Barcelona Spain, and Australia indicate that adoption of nudges give significant positive results in water consumption reduction. We describe some of the barriers that make it difficult to implement behavioral nudges to address the water crises in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We investigate the literature available in Sub-Saharan Africa and discover that the application of behavioral nudges has been sparingly used for reasons that are not obvious at first glance. Second, we find that the potential impediments to the use of behavioral nudges in SSA to be awareness, inadequate access to science and technology, political systems that are poorly suited for implementing nudging, abundance of multiple ethnic groups that speak different languages, along with other barriers that could challenge implementation of behavioral nudges. In light of those barriers, we present a conceptual model with a potential to address these barriers to behavioral nudging a workable solution in SSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0810.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid; Psychological effect; Behavioral; Face mask; Care center
Online: 24 April 2023 (03:33:53 CEST)
The Covid 19 pandemic threaten the life of individuals and there was a lack of information in treatment, handling of patients and disposal of waste. The psychological and behavioral impact on Humans due to outbreak of Covid is studied and based on that a person-centered care center is suggested. The research methodology used are surveys, interviews among stake holders and design details of person-centered care center. Based on the surveys and interviews conducted during pandemic, it is found that 94% of the respondents prefer to use private vehicles with at least one member to ac-company them. People prefer to use 3 ply facemasks, followed by cotton masks and N95. Existing literature discusses the physical effects on the individual, but this paper focuses more on pros and cons on human life during the pandemic and lock down period. Based on the study, care center with facilities to treat patients with different levels of infections and counselling center for the persons suffered from Covid and other infectious diseases to overcome their psycho-logical and behavior changes are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0166.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Health Belief Model; risk perception; behavioral intentions; lead contamination; mining
Online: 8 October 2020 (09:15:26 CEST)
Understanding the strength of the associations between perceived risk and individuals’ behavioral intentions to protect their health is important for determining appropriate risk communication strategies in communities impacted by lead contamination. We conducted a survey within communities of northern Idaho, USA (n = 306) near a Superfund megasite with legacy mining contamination. We empirically test a theoretical model based on the Health Belief Model. Survey respondents had higher intentions to practice health protective behaviors when they perceived the risk of lead contamination as severe, recognized the benefits of health protective behaviors, and considered the risks of lead contamination. Women reported higher behavioral intentions than men, but age and mining affiliation did not have an association. Survey comments indicated that perceptions about the long-term environmental remediation in the region influenced risk perceptions. Understanding risk perceptions, behavioral intentions, and related factors can aid public health agencies in tailoring risk communication for increasing protective behaviors in mining-impacted communities internationally.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0762.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Behavioral syndromes; Fish personality; Neural bases of personality; Evolution of personality
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:17:20 CEST)
While the field of personality neuroscience has extensively focused on humans and, in a few cases, primates and rodents, a wide range of research on fish personality has emerged in the last decades. This research is focused mainly on the ecological and evolutionary causes of individual differences, but also aimed less extensively at proximal mechanisms (e.g., neurochemistry or genetics). We argue that, if consistent and intentional work is made to solve some of the meta-theoretical issues of personality research both on fish and mammals, fish personality research can lead to important advances in personality neuroscience as a whole. The five dimensions of personality in fish (shyness-boldness, exploration-avoidance, activity, aggressiveness, and sociability) need to be translated into models that explicitly recognize the impacts of personality in psychopathology, synergizing research on fish as model organisms in experimental psychopathology, personality neuroscience, and ecological-ethological approaches to the evolutionary underpinnings of personality to produce a powerful framework to understand individual differences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Law and Psychology; Law and Economics; Behavioral Economics; Behavioral Law and Economics
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:35:18 CEST)
This paper reinterprets, differently from the existing literature, the relationship between law and economics not from the point of view of a lawyer-economist but rather from the point of view of an economist-mathematician, and it raises a methodological issue. To do so, some of the elements of the theory of sets are borrowed to argue that behavioral economics, its application to behavioral law and economics, and behavioral economists have generalized the pioneering work of Judge Calabresi, with reference to the famous books ‘Tragic Choices’ and ‘The Future of Law and Economics – Essays in Reform and Recollection’. Even if the usage of the theory of sets made in this paper is intuitive, some of its basics are reviewed in the appendix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0264.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: price-setting newsvendor, one-shot decision theory, innovative product, scenario, behavioral operations research
Online: 26 August 2019 (12:30:03 CEST)
In this paper, we consider a manufacturer who produces and sells a kind of innovative product in the monopoly market environment. Because the life cycle of innovative product is usually shorter than its procurement lead time, one unique demand quantity (scenario) will occur in the selling season, thus there is only one chance for the manufacturer to determine both optimal production quantity and optimal sale price. Considering this one-time feature of such a decision problem, a price-setting newsvendor model for innovative products is proposed. Different to the existing price-setting newsvendor models, the proposed models determine the optimal production quantity and sale price based on some specific state (scenario) which is most applicable for the manufacturer. The theoretical analysis provides managerial insights into the manufacturers’ behaviors in a monopoly market of an innovative product and several phenomena in the luxury goods market are well explained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: SDQ; bisphenol A; phthalates; prenatal exposure; birth cohort; behavioral problems
Online: 27 April 2018 (08:27:38 CEST)
Studies reported adverse behavioral development including internalizing and externalizing problems in association with prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, however, findings were not sufficient due to using different assessment tools and child ages among studies. This study aimed to examine associations between maternal serum levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites and behavioral problems at preschool age. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess behavioral problems at 5 years of age. BPA and phthalate metabolite levels in the 1st trimester maternal serum was determined by LC-MS/MS for 458 children. Variables used for adjustment were parental ages, maternal cotinine levels, family income during pregnancy, child sex, birth order and age at SDQ completed. The median concentrations of BPA, MnBP, MiBP, MEHP and MECPP were 0.062, 26.0, 7.0, 1.40, and 0.20 ng/ml, respectively. BPA level was associated with increased hyperactivity/inattention risk among girls (OR=1.66, 95% CI: 0.95-2.90) and∑DBPm (MnBP + MiBP) level was associated with decreased total difficulties risk overall and among girls (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.20-1.13, OR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.06-1.03, respectively) without significance. MECPP level was associated with increase conduct problems risk (OR=2.78, 95% CI: 1.36-5.68). Our analyses found no significant association between BPA or summation of phthalate metabolite levels and any of the behavioral problems at 5 years of age, however, suggested possible association between MECPP levels and increased risk of conduct problems.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental health; adolescents; behavioral activation
Online: 20 July 2022 (11:48:51 CEST)
Depression continues to be a glaring global challenge. The most worrisome trend is eating up the youthful generation more than anyone could predict years back. As Addis & Martell (2004) note, these adolescents end up succumbing to conditions that can be traced wholly from depression. Behavioral activation can be a rewarding intervention that will go a long way in cutting down on these cases and ensure the youthful global population's lives are safeguarded if applied and monitored to ensure correct and collective implementation processes and systems. The insights and arguments presented in the research paper will focus on the utility of behavioral activation in reducing depression cases among adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0355.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: behavioral factors; fuzzy analysis; gender; employees’ demographics; organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
Online: 29 May 2019 (15:44:20 CEST)
This paper aims to investigate impact of employees’ gender on OCB as per the employees’ perception in Jordanian governmental hospitals. A convenient sample of 126 employees working in the three main governmental hospitals in north of Jordan has been taken for the purpose of this study. The collected data includes linguistic terms that suffer from uncertainty which, in turn, cannot be dealt with traditional numerical values. The result prove that gender impact on OCB has shown statistically significant differences at (α=0.05) as far as altruism, courtesy, and civic virtue are concerned; and this variable stands in favor of males with the total score of 0.011%. Similarly, as far as the effect of age factor on OCB is concerned, there have been statistically significant differences at (α=0.05) in relation to courtesy, sportsmanship, and civic virtue with the total score of 0.27%. Finally, the results provide a baseline data for further studies which may contribute more significant in the field of OCB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0036.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: two-factor authentication; online training; biological and behavioral features; mimic control method with sound intensity
Online: 6 June 2017 (09:04:47 CEST)
This study examines the evolution of the two-factor authentication method and its adaptability to the online education system. Two-factor authentication is a security measure used especially in areas where information such as banking is valuable. Parallel to technological developments, it has developed as much as daily. It aims to take security one step forward because it is composed of two phases. Today, banking, IOT devices, public transport tickets and many other areas are used. Two-factor authentication methods against security attacks in the field of information are also being updated. In recent years, new technologies such as biometric (iris pattern, retinal pattern, etc.) or behavioral biometry (location tracking, walking information, touch speed etc.) were studied. Instead of physically studying somewhere like going to a course in modern society, online trainings become more advantageous. Most of these online trainings are given certificates such as participation certificate, success certificate, etc. The main problem here is whether the person who is being certified is true. In the study conducted in line with these details, there is a proposal for the application of the Mimic Control Method with Sound Intensity (MCMSI) method for on-line training by examining the two-factor authentication techniques up to the day.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: parenting; gender; children’s behavioral changes; pandemic
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:40:29 CEST)
In a previous Argentine study, we found that, in the critical con-text of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic, there were changes in maternal practices that influenced the relationship with their children. We also found that the impact of mandatory isolation was moderated positively by protective factors such as positive parenting and maternal school support, or negatively by risk factors such as maternal stress. Although this study only analyzed maternal behavior, we were interested in studying the behavior of both parents, comparing the parenting (positive parenting, parental stress, and school support) of the father and mother and the perceived behavioral changes in their children. The sample consisted of 120 Argentinean parents (70 mothers and 50 fathers) aged be-tween 27 and 56 years (M = 38.84; SD = 5.03). Questionnaires were administered on sociodemo-graphic and behavioral data of the children, as well as a brief scale to assess parenting. Mann Whitney U and MANOVA were used to analyze the influence of gender on perceived changes in children's behavior and perceived parenting, respectively. Mothers perceived more significant changes than fathers in their children's behavior. In addition, women reported more parental stress, greater child school sup-port, and greater perceived positive parenting, compared to men. These findings support the hypothesis that parenting developed differently in fathers and mothers which is likely influenced by culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neuropsychiatric disorder; schizophrenia; behavioral test; poly I:C; sodium dextran sulfate; p62; GLAST
Online: 17 July 2023 (11:00:23 CEST)
Neuropsychiatric disorders are globally public-health concern, in which diagnosis might be based on symptoms that often vary across individuals. Schizophrenia is one of the major neuropsychiatric disorders, which may affect millions worldwide. Detection of predictive biomarkers is the most intensively developing approach for the disease. However, the biochemical alterations have not been comprehensively distinguished up to the present time. In addition, there is less confidence of finding a specific biomarker for neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, but rather a specific characteristic behavioral pattern. Maternal immune activation has been considered to be one of the important factors for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, the mouse model of neuropsychiatric disorders has been built, in which poly-I:C, sodium dextran sulfate (DSS) and κ-carrageenan (CGN) were used for the maternal immune activation during the pregnancy of individuals. Subsequently, we challenged to link some of biochemical changes of p62 and GLAST in the offspring mice brain to the alteration of several pathological behaviors. Consequently, it has been shown that autophagy might be involved in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the significant correlation between pathological behavior and the biochemical alterations in neuropsychiatric disorder model animals. The relative ease of conducting these evaluation-tasks would make them useful for testing novel therapeutics designed to ameliorate the symptoms of several psychiatric disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1926.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Emotion Regulation; Attention; Behavioral Science; Clinical implementation
Online: 30 October 2023 (11:23:28 CET)
This review explores the complex interrelationships between emotion, attention, and behavior, drawing upon empirical evidence from psychological, neuroscientific, and clinical studies. It delves into the neural mechanisms that underlie these interactions, with a focus on key brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Clinical cases involving stroke and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are examined to illustrate the real-world implications of these cognitive interactions. The review also discusses the impact of effective emotion regulation strategies and the role of attention as a cognitive mechanism that influences both emotion and behavior. Neuroimaging studies, particularly functional MRI, are highlighted for their role in providing a deeper understanding of these intricate relationships. The review concludes by emphasizing the importance of this triadic relationship in adaptive functioning and its broader implications for mental health, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1041.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: aquaculture; oplegnathus punctatus; behavioral analysis; RepVGG; classification
Online: 15 September 2023 (13:41:36 CEST)
Fish feeding behavior analysis plays a critical role in aquaculture, marine fisheries, and ecological monitoring. At present, the accuracy of current fish feeding behavior analysis is easily affected by the environment, and the hypoxia state in water and high temperature have a huge impact on behavior. In addition, the poor stability, and the speed is affected by the calculation amount of the model, so it cannot be applied to aquaculture ponds. In order to solve the above problems, we propose an improved RepVGG-based method for fish feeding behavior analysis to identify nine behavioral states of fish populations, including hypoxia, hot, and normal states of none, medium, and strong feeding. Firstly, our method adds the identity and residual branches to the block of the VGG network, focusing on the acceleration operation to ensure accuracy. At the same time, the Efficient Channel Attention (ECA) module is added to reduce dimensionality to balance speed and accuracy. To evaluate the effectiveness of the method, it is validated on a constructed fish feeding behavior dataset and compared with a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) including AlexNet, VGG16, ResNet34, MobileNet V3, and RepVGG. The experimental results show that after 15 epochs of training, the average precision of proposed method reached 97%. Compared with the basic classification algorithm, our method can increase by at least 3% while the inference speed exceeds 85 Frames Per Second (FPS). This study can be integrated into the aquaculture vision system to guide users to plan feeding strategies, and provide new ideas and methods for water quality monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0111.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS); Slovak school children; mental health; physical health; Columbia Impairment Scale; Behavioral Problem Index
Online: 7 May 2018 (09:23:27 CEST)
ETS exposure has been shown as an important environmental risk factor in vulnerable population groups. The aim of the project is to analyze the relationships among the ETS and behavior and health in 6−15-year-old children in Slovakia. The status of physical and mental health of children in relation to exposure to tobacco smoke was examined in the representative group of 1478 school children. The methods used, included anonymous questionnaires ﬁlled in by parents, Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS), Behavior Problem Index (BPI) and anthropometry. The prevalence of passive smoking is the highest in the capital (27%) and southern cities. Significant relationships have been confirmed between ETS and the age, socio-economic status, the incompleteness of the family, the level of mother's education and the significantly higher prevalence of respiratory diseases (26.7%).The relationships of ETS with emotional (CIS scores ≥16) and behavioral functions (BPI score ≥14) were significant in children exposed to mother‘s and father‘s smoking at home. In the multivariate analysis this association was not significant; the factors such as income and completeness of the family were dominant. The results confirmed the impact of ETS and social factors on health state and health behavior and could be the argumentation for legislative changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0507.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sleep education; insomnia; training; circadian rhythms; behavioral sleep medicine, psychotherapy; dissemination; implementation science; mental health
Online: 30 August 2022 (05:07:56 CEST)
Despite the strong links between sleep, circadian rhythms, and mental health, sleep education has been neglected in mental healthcare provider training programs. The current pilot study examined the potential efficacy and acceptability of a sleep education workshop for trainee psychologists, called the Sleep Psychology Workshop. Eleven students completing their Master of Psychology degrees (90% female, 24.4 ± 1.6 years old) attended the Sleep Psychology Workshop as part of their Health Psychology course, delivered as three, two-hour lectures (total six hours). Trainees’ sleep psychology knowledge quiz scores (% correct) demonstrated significant improvement from pre- (M = 60%, SD = .09) to post-workshop (M = 79%, SD = .08), t (6) = -5.18, p = .002. Trainees also reported increased self-efficacy to use common sleep-related assessment instruments and empirically supported interventions to manage sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances, along with increased confidence to manage insomnia disorder in clinical practice (all p<.02). Trainees also endorsed the workshop as an acceptable sleep education program for trainee psychologists via a post-workshop feedback survey, focus group, and six-month follow-up survey. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence for the Sleep Psychology Workshop as an effective and acceptable sleep education program for trainee psychologists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1065.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; nudge; framing; preventive behavior; Behavioral Economics
Online: 16 November 2023 (10:28:58 CET)
Nudging has often been suggested as a means to promote health care efficiency and effectiveness by influencing behavior without restricting choice; its usefulness however has not been adequately assessed. We examined the effect of an altruistically framed awareness message about the novel coronavirus on the intention to comply with individual prevention measures against infection. 425 Greek postgraduate students, that were randomly assigned into a treatment and a control group, filled out a questionnaire on compliance and future intention to comply with six preventive measures. Results indicate that the altruistic message did not manage to influence intention to comply. Moreover, compliance was positively associated with risk perception, whereas women showed both higher compliance and risk perception than men. Vulnerability to novel coronavirus and positive vaccination status against it were accompanied by greater perception of risk, while the personal history of COVID-19 was associated with lower intention to comply, lower risk perception and higher health risk preferences. We conclude that nudging interventions should be evaluated before being adopted in practice, taking into account timing, target groups and means of communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Social rhythm; Behavioral rhythm; Well-being; Old adults
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:27:34 CEST)
Social and behavioral rhythms (SBRs) are related to circadian rhythms well known as central points in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorders. The purpose is to verify in elderly people if having functional SBRs correlated with a positive perception of the quality of life (QoL) and health parameters and if there was an association between dysfunctionality of SBRs and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Sample: 141 people aged 65 years (58,9%Female). Each subject was submitted to SBRs Scale (in which higher scores show more dysfunctional SRB); SF-12 for QoL; PHQ-9 for depressive symptoms and underwent blood levels essays including cholesterol and triglyceride. The medical documented lifetime diagnosis including Major Depressive Disorder was taken into account. SBRs Scale score correlated inversely with SF-12 score (r=-0.360, p<0.0001) and positively with PHQ9 (r=0.396, p<0.0001). Lifetime MDD medical diagnosis was associated with a higher score at scale on social rhythms (24.811.9 vs 20.18.0, F=15.848, p<0.0001).The study highlighted, for the first time, that SBRs such as sleep, and nutrition have a role in well-being and that dysregulation of SBRs is related to MDD. Further longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of individuals will have to confirm these data and clarify causal links of the association between QoL and SBRs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0035.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: social relationships; matriliny; patriliny; cooperation; evolution; behavioral ecology
Online: 1 April 2021 (17:36:42 CEST)
Although cooperative social networks are considered key to human evolution, emphasis has most often been placed on the functions of male cooperative networks. As a result, gender differences in social networks are under-studied and remain incompletely theorized. Variation in kinship systems may be leveraged to test and generate hypotheses that explain the causes and effects of variation in gendered social networks. Specifically, by linking socio-ecological drivers to variation in kinship systems, human behavioral ecology provides a framework to anticipate and explain divergent patterns in gendered social networks within different kinship ecologies. In this paper, we test the ‘universal gender differences’ hypothesis positing gender-specific network structures against the ‘gender reversal’ hypothesis that women’s social networks in matriliny will more closely resemble those of men’s in patriliny. We compare these hypotheses using tools from social network analyses and data on men’s and women’s social networks in matrilineal and patrilineal Mosuo communities. In support of the gender reversal hypothesis, we find that women’s networks in matriliny are more similar to men’s in patriliny. Specifically, women in matriliny have higher edge density than do men, and women have higher measures of degree centralization than do men in matriliny whereas patrilineal men have higher measures of centrality than do women. Additionally, we find that geographic proximity and relatedness together predict women’s friendships in patriliny whereas relatedness predominates in matriliny. Finally, we find that friendship predicts ties in other domains of cooperation and social support. These results support the idea that the socio-ecological factors that result in different kinship systems also impact the ways that men and women operate within these systems, underscoring the importance of human flexibility in family making, and challenging the predominant narrative of universal gender differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: behavioral problems; calcium; child; maternal intake; prebirth cohort
Online: 27 August 2018 (13:32:41 CEST)
In recent years, more attention has been paid to behavioral problems in children. However, for the most part, risk factors for these problems have yet to be determined. The current prebirth cohort study investigated the relationship between maternal calcium consumption during pregnancy and behavioral problems in five-year-old Japanese children. Subjects were 1199 mother-child pairs. Dietary intake was assessed using a diet history questionnaire. Emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity problems, and peer problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for four behavioral problems under study according to the quartile of calcium intake, with the lowest quartile as the reference. Adjustment was made for maternal age, gestation at baseline, region of residence at baseline, number of children at baseline, maternal and paternal education, household income, maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, child's age, child's birth weight, postnatal secondhand smoke exposure at home during the first year of life, and breastfeeding duration. Higher maternal calcium intake during pregnancy was independently associated with a decreased risk of childhood emotional and hyperactivity problems; the adjusted ORs between extreme quartiles (95% CIs, P for trend) were 0.46 (0.27–0.79, 0.01) and 0.60 (0.37–0.97, 0.046). No such inverse associations were observed for childhood conduct problems or peer problems. Maternal calcium intake during pregnancy may decrease the risk of childhood emotional and hyperactivity problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0094.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: cue-approach; decision making; behavioral change; preferences; emotion
Online: 23 October 2017 (03:42:21 CEST)
Recent findings show that preferences for food items can be modified without external-reinforcements using the cue-approach task. In the task, the mere association of food item images with a neutral auditory cue and a speeded button press, resulted in enhanced preferences for the associated stimuli. Here, in a series of 10 independent samples with a total of 255 participants, we show we can enhance preferences using this non-reinforced method for faces, fractals and affective images as well as snack foods, using auditory, visual and even aversive cues. This change was highly durable in follow-up sessions performed one to six months after training. Preferences were successfully enhanced for all conditions, except for negative valence items. These findings promote our understanding of non-reinforced change, suggest a boundary condition for the effect and lay the foundation for development of novel applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2269.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Behavioral Analysis; Behavioral Score; Cybersecurity; Data Analytics; Geographic Analysis; Longitudinal Study; Model Recalibration; Network Anomaly Detection; Organizational Analysis; Threat Intelligence
Online: 30 June 2023 (16:16:04 CEST)
In the face of escalating cybercriminal sophistication, an innovative approach to network anomaly detection has been pursued in this longitudinal study, integrating computational data analytics in a geographic, organizational, and behavioral context. A data-driven scoring mechanism was employed to systematically analyze and correlate source countries of IP addresses and organization-associated Autonomous System (AS) Numbers (ASN) with network anomalies. Significant correlations between certain countries, specific organizations, and high behavior scores were identified through the data analytics. An increase in connection requests was also found to be linked with elevated behavior scores. Validated by cross-validation techniques, these findings emphasize the necessity for continuous model recalibration. The transformative role of integrative data analytics in cybersecurity is underscored, paving the way for the development of more sophisticated, context-aware anomaly detection systems. Specifically, the analysis underscores the need for organizations to adopt a proactive and adaptive approach to cybersecurity that can keep pace with the evolving threat landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0177.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: public health decision making; COVID-19; behavioral economic; experimental economics; first-order stochastic dominance; bounded rationality; decision trees
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:46:27 CEST)
Results from a behavioral economic laboratory experiment are used to enhance our understanding of public health decisions made during the COVID-19 pandemic. The identification of systematic biases from optimal decision theory found in controlled experiments could help inform public policy design for future public health crises. The laboratory and the shelter-in-place decisions made during COVID-19 included elements of risk, uncertainty and ambiguity. The lab findings found individuals adopt different decision rules depending on both personal attributes and on the context and environment in which the decision task is conducted. Key observations to consider in the context of the COVID-19 decision environment include the importance of past experience, the ability to understand and calculate the odds of each action, the size and differences in economic payoffs given the choice, the value of information received, and how past statistical independent outcomes influence future decisions. The academic space encompassing both public health and behavioral economics is small, yet important, particularly in the current crisis. The objective of continued research in this area would be to develop a more representative model of decision-making processes, particularly during crisis, that would serve to enhance future public health policy design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0156.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: obesity; obesity rehabilitation; weight maintenance; eating disorders; Acceptance and Commitment Therapy; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; Clinical Psychology
Online: 6 July 2021 (13:38:20 CEST)
The purpose of this Individually Randomized Group Treatment Trial was to compare an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based (ACT) group intervention and a Cog-nitive Behavioral Therapy-based (CBT) group intervention for weight loss maintenance in a sample of adult patients with obesity seeking treatment for weight loss. 155 over-weight adults (BMI: Kg/m2= 43.8[6.8]) attending a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program for weight loss were randomized into two conditions: ACT and CBT. Demo-graphical, physical, and clinical data were assessed at the beginning of the program (t0), at discharge (t1), and at 6-month follow-up (t2). The following measures were ad-ministered: The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) and the Clinical Outcome in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Generalized linear mixed models were performed to assess differences between groups. Moderation ef-fects for gender and eating disorders (ED) have been considered. From baseline to dis-charge no significant differences between interventions were found, with the only ex-ception of an improvement in the CORE-OM total score and in the CORE-OM subjective well-being subscale for those in the CBT condition. From discharge to follow-up ACT group participants showed significant results in terms of weight loss maintenance, CORE-OM total score, and CORE-OM and AAQ-II’s wellbeing, symptoms, and psy-chological problems subscales. Gender moderated the effects of time and intervention on the CORE-OM’ subscale reporting the risk for self-harm or harm others. The pres-ence of an eating disorder moderated the effect of time and intervention on the CORE-OM total score, on the CORE-Om’ symptoms and psychological problems sub-scales, and on the AAQ-II. Patients who received the ACT intervention were more likely to achieve a ≥5% weight loss from baseline to follow-up and to maintain the weight loss after discharge. The ACT intervention was thus effective in maintaining weight loss over time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0673.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: FLASH; UHDR; hippocampus; behavioral performance; cognitive performance; flow cytometry
Online: 10 May 2023 (03:00:53 CEST)
In the current study, we assessed the effects of conventional and Ultra High Dose Rate (UHDR) irradiation on behavioral and cognitive performance one month following exposure and assessed whether these effects were associated with alterations in the number of immune cells in the hippocampus using flow cytometry. Conventional- and UHDR-irradiated mice showed impaired novel object recognition. During fear learning, conventional- and UHDR-irradiated mice moved less during the inter-stimulus-interval (ISI) and UHDR-irradiated mice also moved less during the baseline period (prior to the first tone). In irradiated mice, reduced activity levels were also seen in the home cage; conventional- and UHDR-irradiated mice moved less during the light period and UHDR-irradiated mice moved less during the dark period. Following behavioral and cognitive testing, infiltrating immune cells in the hippocampus were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percent Ly6G+ CD45+ cells in the hippocampus was lower in conventional- and UHDR-irradiated than sham-irradiated mice, suggesting that neutrophils might be particularly sensitive to radiation. The percent of Ly6G+ CD45+ cells in the hippocampus was positively correlated with the time spent exploring the novel object in the object recognition test, suggesting that the reduced percent Ly6G+ CD45+ cells in the hippocampus might mediate some of the detrimental radiation-induced cognitive effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0428.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC array; rearing; behavioral style; primate
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:49:02 CEST)
While low serotonergic activity is often associated with psychological disorders like depression, anxiety, mood and personality disorders, variations in serotonin also contribute to normal personality differences. Here we investigate the role of blood DNA methylation levels at individual CpG sites of two key serotonergic genes (serotonin receptor gene 1A, HTR1A; serotonin transporter gene, SLC6A4) in predicting personality of captive chimpanzees. We find associations between methylation at 9/48 CpG sites with four personality dimensions: Dominance, Reactivity/Dependability, Agreeableness and Openness. Directionality of effects were CpG location-dependent and confirmed a role of serotonergic methylation in reducing anxiety (Dominance) and aggression related personality (Reactivity/Undependability) while simultaneously promoting prosocial (Agreeableness) and exploratory personality (Openness). While early-life adversity has been shown to impact serotonergic methylation patterns in other species, here, atypical early social rearing experiences only had a modest impact on CpG methylation levels in this chimpanzee sample. While the precise environmental factors impacting serotonergic methylation in chimpanzees thus remain to be identified, our study suggests a role in shaping natural variation in animal personality. The results of this study offer a basis for future hypothesis driven testing in additional populations and species to better understand the impact of ecology and evolution on complex behavioral traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0390.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: COVID-19; vibraimage; behavioral parameters; diagnosis accuracy; ANN; AI
Online: 22 September 2021 (16:28:12 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic spreads in waves for a year and a half, despite significant worldwide efforts, the development of biochemical diagnostic methods and population vaccination. One of the reasons for the infection spread is the impossibility of early disease detection through biochemical diagnostics, since biochemical processes slowly develop in a body. At the same time, well known that behavioral characteristics of a person, measured based on reflex movements, are capable for inertialess assessment of psychophysiological parameters. Vibraimage technology is the method of head micromovements video processing by inter-frame difference accumulation and converting spatial and temporal characteristics of the inter-frame difference into behavioral and psychophysiological parameters. Here we shown that behavioral parameters measured by vibraimage changed during COVID-19 infection. The identification of changes signs in behavioral parameters detected by AI trained on patients and controls. The best diagnostic accuracy (higher 94%) obtained using instantaneous values of behavioral parameters measured with the following vibraimage settings: 10Hz frequency of basic measurements; 25 inter-frame difference accumulations and averaging the diagnostic results over period of at least 5 seconds. COVID-19 diagnoses by behavioral parameters showed earlier (5-7 days) detection of the disease compared to symptoms and positive results of biochemical RT-PCR testing. Proposed method for COVID-19 diagnosis indicates infected persons within 5 seconds video processing using standard television cameras (web, IP) and computers, allows mass testing/selftesting and will stop the pandemic spread. We assume that head micromovements analysis for diagnosis of various diseases is possible not only with the help of vibraimage technology. Further research of human head micromovement analysis will help stop the COVID-19 pandemic and will contribute to the development of new contactless and environmentally friendly methods for early diagnosis of diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; behavioral interventions; prevention; workplace safety; safety protocols
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:54:54 CEST)
Practicing preventive etiquettes such as hand washing, hand disinfection, wearing a face mask, practicing physical distancing, disinfection of surfaces and objects can help curb the transmission of COVID-19 at the workplace. This paper focuses on interventions and behaviors required to curb the spread of COVID-19 at workplaces. We undertook a detailed multi-disciplinary literature search on the following topics: hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, physical distancing, quarantine and isolation, disinfection of objects and surfaces, behavior change, and health crisis communication. We identified interventions that are effective for preventing the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) at workplaces. These findings present very useful non-clinical interventions for preventing COVID-19 in the work environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0135.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: evolution diet; metabolism; australopith; encephalization; hominin; colon; behavioral ecology
Online: 6 October 2020 (15:14:56 CEST)
Thesis Statement: The consumption of externally fermented foods acted as the initial metabolic trigger enabling hominid brain expansion. Because brain tissue is metabolically expensive, it is thought that the evolution of humans’ large brains was only possible through a concomitant reduction in the size of another expensive organ system, the gut. However, this gut reduction must have itself been made possible by dietary changes, the nature of which are still unclear. Here, we propose that the initial metabolic trigger of hominid brain expansion may have been the consumption of externally fermented foods. We define “external fermentation” as occurring outside the body, as opposed to the internal fermentation that occurs through the gut microbiome. This practice could have begun accidentally and with limited understanding, but over time, fermentation technologies may have become increasingly intentional, socially-transmitted, and culturally-reinforced. We detail the mechanisms by which external fermentation can mediate the evolution of increased brain size, as well as a reduction in gut size, by increasing the bioavailability of macro- and micronutrients while reducing digestive energy expenditure. Importantly, we calculate that the reduction in human gut size relative to modern apes is mainly due to a reduction in the colon, the site of internal fermentation. We also discuss the explanatory power of our hypothesis relative to others, including realistic plausibility in hominids with brains roughly the size of modern chimpanzees. Finally, we survey external fermentation practices across human cultures to demonstrate its viability across a huge range of environments, temperatures, and food sources. We close with suggestions for empirical tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0172.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: chronobiology; shiftwork; insomnia; cognitive behavioral therapy, telepsychiatry; occupational health
Online: 19 June 2019 (10:05:50 CEST)
In western societies about one in six employees works in shifts. Shiftwork is associated with a number of poor somatic and psychological health outcomes, especially sleep issues. Higher rates of absenteeism and accidents in the workplace are possible consequences. Still, prevention programs and treatment options that are specifically tailored to shift workers’ needs are rare. We devised a 4-week online sleep intervention (n = 21) and compared treatment outcomes to our outpatient treatment for shift workers (n = 12). Measures included the WHO-5, ISI, and ESS scales as well as sleep diaries. Shift workers reported worse symptoms of insomnia than other participants. Results show significant average increases in sleep efficiency (+ 7%) and total sleep time (+ 25 min.), as well as significant improvements regarding insomnia symptoms and wellbeing in the online sample. Rates of improvement did not differ between the online and outpatient samples. Sleep disorders affect a relevant part of the working population, especially shift workers. Online approaches to treatment of these issues seem feasible and effective. Randomized controlled trials are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0992.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: behavioral geography; everyday life; older adults; coupling constraints; gendered mobilities
Online: 15 November 2023 (10:01:54 CET)
Many Western studies have indicated that older women are generally more vulnerable in terms of mobility compared to older men, particularly regarding driving. However, the situation may differ in the context of China. This study, based on activity diaries and semi-structured inter-views, focuses on the spatiotemporal behavior of older adults in Tianjin and explores how the constraints posed by activity companions (in terms of type, size, and composition) shape the mo-bilities of older men and women, including activity locations, travel distances, and transporta-tion modes. The key findings are as follows: First, older women are more engaged with their families due to a higher percentage and longer duration of activities spent with family members. Second, older men tend to have more concentrated travel distances near their homes compared to older women. Third, older women exhibit a broader range of activities in different locations and engage in longer-distance leisure travel with family members when compared to older men. In the context of Western literature, this study discusses older women's enhanced social interactions, their earlier retirement in China, and the impact of COVID-19 as factors that help explain these findings. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of accompanied mobilities among Chinese older adults using geographical theory and methods, emphasizing the importance of flexible work schedules for the workforce and the organization of community-based activities to promote the social interactions and mobilities of older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2034.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: behavioral sensitization; ethanol; oxytocin; addiction; estrous cycle; ethanol self-administration
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:36:43 CEST)
Oxytocin (OXT), a pro-social peptide, is increasingly recognized as a potential protective substance against drug addiction. In the context of ethanol, previous researches have shown OXT properties to reduce self-administration, alleviate motor impairment in rodents, and reduce craving in humans. However, its role in behavioral sensitization, a neuroadaptive response resulting from repeated drug exposure linked to increased drug incentive, remains unexplored. OXT is also associated with modulating the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, with corticosterone well-known as a significant factor in behavioral sensitization development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Carbetocin (CBT), an analogue of OXT, on the expression of behavioral sensitization to ethanol and concurrent alterations in plasma corticosterone levels in male and female Swiss mice. We also aimed to confirm previous studies on OXT impact on ethanol consumption in male mice, but with a focus on CBT, using the two-bottle choice model and drinking in the dark (DID) methodology. For the sensitization study, mice received either ethanol (1.8 g/kg, ip) or saline treatments daily for 15 consecutive days, followed by treatment with carbetocin (0.64 mg/kg, ip) or a vehicle for 6 days. Subsequently, on day 22, all animals underwent an ethanol challenge to assess the expression of behavioral sensitization. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured on days 21 and 22. CBT effectively prevented the expression of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization in both male and female subjects, with no alterations detected in corticosterone levels. In the ethanol consumption study, following an initial phase of ethanol acquisition, mice underwent a 6-day treatment with CBT i.p or saline before being reexposed to ethanol. We also found a reduction in ethanol consumption due to CBT treatment. In conclusion, carbetocin emerges as a promising and effective intervention in mitigating ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization and reducing ethanol intake, highlighting its potential significance in alcohol addiction treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2192.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: behavioral finance; natural language processing; overreact; PhoBERT; textual analysis; underreact
Online: 30 June 2023 (09:52:59 CEST)
News on the stock market contains positive or negative sentiments depending on whether the information provided is favorable or unfavorable to the stock market. This study aims to discover the news sentiment and classify news according to its sentiments with the application of PhoBERT, a Natural Language Processing model designed for the Vietnamese language. A collection of nearly 40,000 articles on financial and economic websites is used to train the model. After training, the model succeeds in assigning news to different classes of sentiments with an accuracy level of over 81%. The research also aims to investigate how investors concern about the daily news by testing the movements of the market before and after the news is released. The analysis results show that there is an insignificant difference in the stock price as a response to the news. However, investors tend to overreact to negative and positive news in the Vietnam stock market.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: hypertension; blood pressure; lifestyle; digital health; ehealth; prevention; behavioral change
Online: 7 March 2022 (10:55:20 CET)
Worldwide, it is estimated that at least 1 in 4 adults suffers from hypertension, and this number is expected to increase as populations grow and age. Blood pressure (BP) possesses substantial heritability, but is also heavily modulated by lifestyle factors. As such, digital, lifestyle-based in-terventions are a promising alternative to standard care for hypertension prevention and man-agement. In this study we assessed the prevalence of elevated and high BP in a Dutch general pop-ulation cohort undergoing a health screening, and observed the effects of a subsequent self-initiated, digitally-enabled lifestyle program on BP regulation. Baseline data were available for 348 participants, of which 56 had partaken in a BP-focused lifestyle program and got re-measured 10 months after the intervention. Participants with elevated SBP and DBP at baseline showed a mean decrease of 7.2 mmHg and 5.4 mmHg, respectively. Additionally, 70% and 72.5% of participants showed an improvement in systolic and diastolic BP at remeasurement. These improvements in BP are superior to those seen in other recent studies. The long-term sustainability and the efficacy of this and similar digital lifestyle interventions will need to be estab-lished in additional, larger studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0267.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: response inhibition; behavioral inhibition; psychopathy traits; Go/NoGo task; smokers
Online: 11 February 2021 (13:32:51 CET)
Aims: Adolescence is a critical period because the brain is involved in the process of maturation that entails cognitive functions. On the way of maturation, an individual’s inhibitory control undergoes many changes and becomes vulnerable to different thrill-seeking like smoking, drinking, and so on. Smoking is highly prevalent among teenagers that are trying to take control of their behaviors in order to join society. They experience antisocial behavior too which is a trait that can lead adolescents to addiction. This trait is an inevitable part of psychopathy. Inhibitory deficits and psychopathy have been widely reported in addiction studies. The current study tried to investigate the relationship between psychopathic traits and behavioral inhibition between male smokers and non-smoker teenage students.Materials & Methods: Statistical sample of this research is 62 teenage students aged 17 years that are divided into smoker and non-smoker groups. The participants have been chosen through random sampling from the population of 10 high schools. The data have been gathered in Kordkoy and Gorgan in Golestan province. Behavioral bias has been measured by Go/NoGo task and psychopathic traits through youth psychopathic traits inventory. Also, the short form of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale test has been executed and used as a control variable.Findings: A meaningful difference has been found between the performance of smoker and non-smoker groups in Go/No Go task and psychopathic traits that are smokers performed weaker in comparison with non-smokers and psychopathic traits of smokers were meaningfully higher than non-smokers. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between these two groups in their Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores.Conclusion: The results have shown that smokers have higher psychopathic traits and lower behavioral inhibition when compared with their non-smoker peers. According to the results of current research, smoking can decline the cognitive functions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0511.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: workplace nutrition; behavioral interventions; cognitive interventions; employee well-being; organizational productivity
Online: 8 November 2023 (04:13:58 CET)
(1) Workplace nutrition interventions have garnered attention as a pivotal component of employee well-being and organizational productivity. However, the effectiveness of various intervention types remains inconclusive. This review aims to systematically evaluate the efficacy of cognitive, behavioral, and mixed nutrition interventions in the workplace, considering the nuances of intervention design, setting, and target demographics. (2) A comprehensive umbrella review was conducted, categorizing existing literature into person-oriented and environmental strategies. This review was prepared in line with the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for umbrella reviews and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses reporting standard. (3) The analysis revealed a lack of definitive evidence supporting the universal effectiveness of any single intervention type. Nonetheless, behavioral and mixed interventions demonstrated more favorable outcomes compared to purely cognitive strategies. Factors such as intervention design, workplace setting, and target group characteristics were identified as significant determinants of intervention success. (4) The review emphasizes the imperative for additional investigations that utilize evidence-based approaches to formulate sound guidelines for efficacious nutrition interventions in occupational settings. This review functions as a foundational framework for guiding both scholarly research and the pragmatic execution of nutrition programs in the workplace.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0508.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: behavioral intervention; motor functions; Parkinson’s disease; physical activity; sedentary lifestyle; walking
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:20:39 CEST)
Physical activity (PA) is a modifiable factor that may have an influence on the course of Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study aimed to apply a simple behavioral intervention to encourage PD sufferers to increase their everyday physical activity and assess which parameters of motor functions will be improved. The research covered 50 PD patients (28 men and 22 women) aged 40-81 years (65.38 ± 9.23), with a duration of the disease 2-4 years, in stages 1-3 on the Hoehn and Yahr scale. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group with behavioral therapy, and the control group without intervention. During 12 weeks the patients from the experimental group had five phone conversations. Each conversation lasted 15 minutes and was an interview about the subjects’ physical activity in the last month. The results were assessed by the Timed Up and Go test (TUG), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) – part III, FIR (Functional Index “Repty” – own modification of Functional Independence Measure (FIM)), Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The results showed that spontaneous physical activity increased in the experimental group and motor functions improved. Physical activity improvement depended on age, body mass index, and gender.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1709.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Behavioral geography; Hajj pilgrimage; Physical environment; Place and Behavior; Place attachment.
Online: 25 June 2023 (04:26:22 CEST)
This article explores the behavioral geography of the Hajj pilgrimage, focusing on the impact of the physical environment on pilgrims' behavior. Using qualitative research and analyzing religious literature and online publications, the study reveals significant findings. The spatial arrangement of the Grand Mosque, including the central courtyard and pillars, influences pilgrims' behavior during the Tawaf ritual. Environmental factors such as crowds and noise affect pilgrims' experiences, evoking anxiety while enhancing the ceremony's spiritual significance. Cultural and religious beliefs also shape pilgrims' behavior during the circumambulation. This study provides valuable insights into the multifaceted factors shaping pilgrims' behavior during the Hajj, including spatial organization, cultural influences, and social interactions. The findings can inform improvements in infrastructure, crowd management, and services to enhance the overall pilgrimage experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Consumer Sleep Technologies; Wearables; Sleep-Tracking; Behavioral Economics; Demand Curve Analysis
Online: 9 March 2023 (02:18:22 CET)
The goal of this report was to examine the behavioral economic demand for consumer sleep technologies with different levels of validation and endorsement. The value or importance consumers place in different validation methods and the organizations conducting the evaluations was also assessed. Survey data were collected from 113 participants on Amazon mTurk. Participants indicated their likelihood of purchasing devices that varied in level of validation across a series of increasing prices. Demand curves were analyzed to determine the relative value of each watch type. Participants also reported how valuable or important different aspects of device validation were to them. Devices that were both evaluated against laboratory measures and endorsed by sleep researchers had the most value, followed by those only evaluated against laboratory measures, and then those not evaluated against any laboratory measures. The unit price at which there was 50% probability of purchase was increased by $25 or $44 for evaluation or endorsement, respectively. Respondents indicated the most valuable features were a measure of sleep duration, that it was most important that devices were validated against measures of sleep from a laboratory or hospital, and that they would put a high value on sleep tracker endorsements from a university or academic institution. Consumer demand is greatest for a device that has been evaluated by an independent laboratory for accuracy in measuring sleep and is endorsed by an academic, medical, or government institution. These results indicate a role for scientific evaluation and endorsement in consumer preference for sleep trackers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Behavior-Based safety; Critical behavior checklist; Behavioral definition; Intervention; Safe behavior
Online: 18 February 2022 (09:53:30 CET)
Background: It is necessary to apply a behavior-based safety (BBS) program to prevent at-risk behavior. An effective BBS program requires the implementation of not only behavioral definitions and a customized critical behavior checklist (CBC) but also observations of behavior, coupled with customized interventions at power plants. Method: In this study, a customized CBC and behavioral definition were developed through a review of five different sites that previously used a CBC. The rules of observation, flow, and target were established to initiate the observations. Customized interventions were selected to increase safe behaviors. CBC scoring was used to evaluate observed safe behaviors for three years. Recognized safe behaviors were evaluated with a questionnaire that included four items each for conformity and participation behaviors and were then analyzed through a factor analysis and a t-test. The questionnaires were conducted three months before and after the implementation of the BBS program. Results: The customized CBC, behavioral definition, and interventions were effective, such that observed safe behaviors and the levels of workers’ recognized safe behaviors increased. Conclusion: The application of the BBS program was found to increase the observed and recognized safe behaviors. Therefore, the program applied to this site can help increase safe behaviors at other identical or similar sites, as well as prevent an accident, which also corresponds with the results of prior studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0335.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: air quality; extreme weather; MA-MSD method; investor sentiment; behavioral finance
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:13:36 CET)
We investigate the impact of air quality and weather on the equity returns of the Shenzhen Exchange. To capture the air quality and weather effects, we use dummy variables created by employing a moving average and moving standard deviation. The important results are as follows. First, in the whole sample period (2005–2019), we find that high air pollution and extremely high temperature have significant and negative influence on the equity returns. In the sub-period I (2005–2012), the 11-day model and 31-day model show that high air pollution have significant and negative impacts on the Shenzhen stock returns. Second, the results of the quantile regression show that high air pollution have significant and negative effects during bullish market phase, and extremely high temperature have significant and negative effects during bearish market phase. This implies that the air quality and weather effects are asymmetric. Third, the weather effect of the abnormal temperature on the stock returns is greater in severe bearish market. Whereas the effect of the air pollution on the stock returns is greater in the bullish market. Fourth, the least squares method underestimates the air quality and weather effects compared to the quantile regression method, suggesting that the quantile regression method is more suitable in analyzing these effects in a very volatile emerging market such as the Shenzhen stock market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; behavioral change; public health; Sars-CoV-2; alcohol consumption
Online: 19 October 2020 (16:09:18 CEST)
(1) Background: A global pandemic due to COVID-19 emerged in November 2019 and hit France in early March 2020. It not only resulted in a loss of lives but also in very strict confinement measures. The objective of this study was to understand what the determinants of the change in participants’ behavior and mental state were during the confinement. (2) Methods: An online survey was launched on April 23rd, 2020, and closed on May 7th, 2020. The final sample included 1454 participants from 24 to 65 years old. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were then performed. (3) Results: 28.7% reported having a more balanced diet, against 17.1% with a less balanced diet. 22.7% of respondents reported an increased alcohol consumption, as opposed to only 12.2% declaring a decrease and 11.2% of respondents increased their tobacco consumption, while 6.3% decreased it. 50.6% of the participants reported being more depressed, stressed, or irritable since the beginning of the lockdown. Confinement had a negative effect on every behavior studied in this survey, except for nutrition. We also found that negative mental state changes were strongly associated with nutrition, sleep, physical activity, and alcohol consumption changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1292.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: service quality; service convenience; Satisfaction; Loyalty; Behavioral Intentions; Self-Service Fitness Center
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:00:50 CEST)
As an emerging model, self-service fitness centers are reshaping the consumer fitness experience globally. Given the crucial role of customer loyalty in the sustainable operation and management of fitness service enterprises, this study constructs a structural model incorporating service quality, service convenience, customer satisfaction, word-of-mouth intentions, and repatronage intentions. The model is designed to elucidate the factors and mechanisms impacting customer loyalty at self-service fitness centers and further investigates how these relationships are affected by service methods, either with staff or without staff. The study employs PLS-SEM to empirically analyze 552 customer questionnaires from four self-service fitness centers in first-tier cities in China. The results reveal positive correlations among the constructs in the structural model, emphasizing the important position of raising service quality standards and reducing the time and effort expended by customers in the management of customer loyalty. Concurrently, service convenience was found to play a significant driving role in customers' perceived service quality. Through the chain-mediating effect of service quality and customer satisfaction, service convenience exerts a considerable positive impact on word-of-mouth intentions and repatronage intentions. Moreover, the study reveals significant differences in these relationships when considering service methods, either with staff or without staff.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0130.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: evolution; consciousness; nervous systems; feelings; reflexes; instincts; amniotes; behavioral decisions; neuronal algorithms
Online: 10 October 2022 (14:49:33 CEST)
Definition: Most multicellular animals have a nervous system that is based on the following three components: 1) Sensory cells gather information and send it to processing units; 2) the processing units use the information to decide on what action to take; and 3) effector neurons activate the appropriate muscles. Due to the importance of making the right decisions, evolution made profound advances in the processing units. I shall review present knowledge regarding the evolution of neurological tools for making decisions, here referred to as strategies or algorithms. Consciousness can be understood as a particularly sophisticated strategy. It may have evolved to allow for the use of feelings as a ‘common currency’ to evaluate behavioral options. The advanced cognitive capacity of species such as humans further improved the usefulness of consciousness, yet in biological terms it does not seem to be an optimal, fitness-enhancing strategy. A model for the gradual evolution of consciousness is presented. There is a somewhat arbitrary cutoff as to which animals have consciousness but based on current information it seems reasonable to restrict the term to amniotes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: exercise; marriage; sedentary behavior; gender; age groups; behavioral risk factors surveillance system
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:44:23 CET)
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to identify the age and sex-related associations between marital status with PA and TV time. We used data from Vigitel, an annual telephone survey started in 2006 in Brazil. We applied a complex sample logistic regression model to estimate the odds for PA and TV time comparing marital statuses according to age and sex subgroups, independent of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, self-assessed poor health, and smoking. Our sample included 561,837 individuals with a TV time > 3 h/day (prevalence = 25.2%) and PA > 150 min/week (prevalence = 35%). Compared to single individuals, married men and women were less likely to watch TV more than 3 h/day in participants > 30 years old. When compared to single, married participants were less likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week at younger age groups. Married women older than 40 years were more likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week than the single ones, while there were no differences among married men by age group. In conclusion, married individuals are less likely to spend more than 3 hours a day watching TV than single individuals. Single men and women were more likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week at younger age groups and married women older than 40 years were more likely to do 150 min of PA/week than single women.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0680.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: patient activation; patient engagement, behavioral health change; self-administered therapy, oral oncolytic
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:32:14 CEST)
Oncology clinical pharmacists are uniquely positioned to make interventions to increase patient activation and engagement. To accomplish this goal, pharmacists can target health system-related, provider-related, and patient-related factors to help enhance patient-centered care and drive behavioral health changes. Interventions that pharmacists must tackle include educating team members and patients on the medication acquisition process, communicating urgency of treatment, optimizing workflows, facilitating guideline recommendations, preventing, and managing treatment toxicities, and promoting patient self-advocacy through education and shared decision-making. As crucial members of the healthcare team, oncology clinical pharmacists can simplify highly complex treatment regimens to facilitate and optimize patients’ ownership of their care. This review will focus on the example of venetoclax treatment in acute myeloid leukemia to demonstrate the impact that pharmacists provide that leads to behavioral change of patients and clinicians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0740.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: occupational noise; job; work; behavioral disorders; psychological disorders; annoyance; occupational medicine; prevention.
Online: 30 March 2021 (13:39:23 CEST)
Chronic exposure to noise can cause several extraordinary effects and involve all the systems of the human organism. In addition to cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and immune effects, the data in the literature show alterations in behavioral disturbances, in memory capacity and cognitive performance. Through this systematic review, the authors try to find out which are the main neurobehavioral alterations, in case of occupational exposure to noise. Literature review included articles published in the major databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus), using a combina-tion of some relevant keywords. This online search yielded 4434 references; after selection, the authors analyzed 41 articles (4 narrative reviews and 37 original articles). From this analysis, it appears that main symptoms are related to psychological distress, annoyance, sleep disturbances, cognitive performance. Regarding tasks, the most frequent employments concern school staff, followed by employees from various industrial sectors and office workers. Although the causes are still widely debated, it is essential to protect these workers against chronic exposure to noise. In fact, in addition to a hearing loss, they can manifest many other related discomforts over time and compromise their full working capacity, as well as expose them to a greater risk of accidents or absences from work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV/AIDS; testing; trends; Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; socio-demographic; Georgia
Online: 5 September 2016 (11:21:36 CEST)
Georgia is ranked fifth highest among states for rates of HIV diagnosis. About 4% of persons living with HIV infection in the United States reside in Georgia, and almost 19% of these people do not know their HIV status. The present study examined the trends and associated factors of HIV testing among adults in Georgia between 2010 and 2014 by analyzing data of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). A total of 30,791 persons aged ≥18 years were identified who responded to the question “Have you ever been tested for HIV?” Overall, there were 11,543 respondents who had been tested for HIV, with a decrease in percentage from 49.4% in 2010 to 43.7% in 2014 (p<0.001). Factors associated with HIV testing were being black (p<0.001), being younger than 55 years (p<0.001), single (p=0.02), attaining education level above high school (P<0.001), engaging in HIV high-risk behaviors (p<0.001), and not having healthcare coverage (p=0.03). Overall in Georgia, there has been a decline in the temporal trend of HIV testing, and more than half of adults have never been tested for HIV. For reducing HIV transmission in Georgia, enhancing access and utilization of HIV testing should be a public health priority.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: educational impacts; emotional impacts; behavioral impacts; psychological impacts; physical impacts; religious impacts
Online: 29 August 2016 (12:24:27 CEST)
Cartoons in the era of digital media are among the most prevalent medium of entertainment for the children, parents also encourage them to view such contents to engage the children which make an area need to be explained exhaustively by adopting new approaches. There are lot of studies in the past conducted to explain the impacts of the cartoons on the children however, it is remarkable fact that there is lack of the studies in the literature which directly address the observation about the above mentioned impacts in view of the teacher’s. This study deals with the educational, emotional, behavioral and Religious etc. impacts of cartoons on kids in view of teachers of the primary schools as they are considered as the one who can observer these impacts in a profound way. of the of Multan. Different areas of impacts have been analyzed in this study by using survey technique and analysis is conducted and presented in the teacher’s views in this study to examine what they feel that how cartoons are effecting the personalities of the children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0383.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: older community renovation; all-age retrofitting; anxiety; PLS-SEM; payment behavioral response mechanisms
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:25:15 CEST)
Intergenerational integration has given rise to a novel aging paradigm known as all-age communities, which is garnering international attention. In China, the aging population and the implementation of the three-child policy have resulted in increased demand for retirement and childcare services among residents in older neighborhoods. Consequently, there is a pressing need to retrofit these older neighborhoods to accommodate all-age living arrangements given the high demand they generate. Therefore, this study undertakes research interviews with residents and constructs an exploratory theoretical model rooted in established theory. To assess the significance of our model, we employ Smart PLS 3.0 based on 297 empirical data points. Our findings indicate that anxiety has a significant negative effect on payment behavior; objective perception, willingness to pay, and government assistance exert significant positive effects on payment behavior. By comprehensively analyzing the mechanisms underlying residents’ payment behavior, this study provides valuable insights to the government for promoting the aging process within communities and formulating effective transformation policies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0822.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia; correlates; functional impairment; predictive factors; PRISMA; systematic review
Online: 10 August 2023 (05:47:33 CEST)
The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) has a devastating effect on multiple domains of daily living. The purpose of this PRISMA-compliant systematic review is to summarize the most important factors associated with functional impairment in this clinical group by critically analyzing the existing literature spanning the period from 2000 to 2023. To be included in the review, the study had to investigate any kind of correlates of functional status in bvFTD patients, using a previously validated instrument of functional assessment. Out of 40 articles assessed for eligibility, 18 met the inclusion criteria. The anatomical pattern of cerebral atrophy at baseline appeared to be the strongest predictor of the rate of functional decline over time, with the frontal-dominant anatomical subtype being associated with a faster rate of functional impairment. Additionally, executive dysfunction as well as apathy appeared to contribute significantly to functional disability in bvFTD patients. A comparative examination of bvFTD in relation to other clinical subtypes of FTD and other types of dementia in general suggests that it’s the predominant atrophy of the frontal lobes along with the subsequent unique combination of cognitive and neuropsychiatric manifestations that account for the pronounced functional limitations observed in these individuals, even from the early stages of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0209.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: religion; interreligious conflict; science; constative; performative; peacemaking; ethnolinguistics; semiotics; behavioral signals; group behavior
Online: 17 February 2022 (11:02:09 CET)
Building on recent directions in religion-related social and political science, our essay addresses a need for location-specific and religion-specific scientific research that might contribute directly to local and regional interreligious peacemaking. Over the past 11 years, our US-Pakistani research team has conducted research of this kind: a social scientific method for diagnosing the probable near-future behavior of religious stakeholder groups toward other groups. Integrating features of ethnography, linguistics, and semiotics, the method enables researchers to read a range of ethno-linguistic signals that appear uniquely in the discourses of religious groups. Examining the results, we observe, firstly, that our religion and location-specific science identifies features of religious group behavior that are inevident in broader, social scientific studies of religion and conflict; we observe, secondly, that our science integrates constative and performative elements: it seeks facts and it serves a purpose. We conclude that strictly constative, fact-driven sciences may fail to detect certain crucial features of religious stakeholder group behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0449.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: behavioral economics; wearables; consumer sleep technology; Internet of Things; economical survey; expert elicitation
Online: 28 December 2021 (13:58:14 CET)
Global demand for sleep-tracking wearables, or consumer sleep technologies (CSTs), is steadily increasing. CST marketing campaigns often feature a scientific component, but the scientific relevancy and monetary value of CST features within the sleep research community remains unquantified. Sleep medicine experts were recruited through social media and nonprobability sampling techniques to complete a survey identifying sleep metrics and device features that are most desirable to the scientific community. A hypothetical purchase task (HPT) estimated economic valuation for devices with different features by price. Forty-six (N=46) respondents with an average of 10±6 years’ experience conducting research in real-world settings completed the online survey. Total sleep time was ranked as the most important measure of sleep followed by objective sleep quality while sleep architecture/depth and diagnostic information were ranked as least important. Experts preferred wrist-worn devices that could reliably determine sleep episodes as short as 20 minutes. Economic value was greater for hypothetical devices with longer battery life. These data set a precedent to determine how scientific relevance of a product impacts the potential market value of a CST device. This is the first known attempt to establish consensus opinion or economic valuation for scientifically-desirable CST features and metrics using expert elicitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0338.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Semantics and meaning; Context representation; Quantum cognition; Subjectivity; Quantum phase; Behavioral modeling; Qubit
Online: 22 December 2020 (11:58:16 CET)
The paper describes an algorithm for semantic representation of behavioral contexts relative to a dichotomic decision alternative. The contexts are represented as quantum qubit states in two-dimensional Hilbert space visualized as points on the Bloch sphere. The azimuthal coordinate of this sphere functions as a one-dimensional semantic space in which the contexts are accommodated according to their subjective relevance to the considered uncertainty. The contexts are processed in triples defined by knowledge of a subject about a binary situational factor. The obtained triads of context representations function as stable cognitive structure at the same time allowing a subject to model probabilistically-variative behavior. The developed algorithm illustrates an approach for quantitative subjectively-semantic modeling of behavior based on conceptual and mathematical apparatus of quantum theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1703.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: silver citrate; silver nanoparticles; nanoform; mice; behavioral functions; long-term memory; anxiety; adaptation; hormesis
Online: 26 October 2023 (10:47:58 CEST)
Pure silver as well as silver compounds have been used as antiseptics for centuries. Nowadays, the most frequently applied form of silver is a nanoparticle form. Several studies demonstrate the ability of silver nanoparticles and silver salts to accumulate in the brain of laboratory ani-mals as well as the ability of silver nanoparticles to influence behavioral and cognitive functions of laboratory mammals. For the first time, the influence of a silver salt, in particular, silver citrate on the change dynamics of behavioral and cognitive functions of laboratory mice at the daily oral exposure during 30, 60, 120 and 180 days is investigated in the present research. We observed the anxiety increase after 30 days of the exposure as well as the ability of mice to adapt to the prolonged oral exposure of silver citrate manifested in the anxiety decrease, increase of locomotor activity and the tendency of long-term contextual memory improvement. Increase of locomotor activity and memory improvement might be associated with the sensitivity increase and regarded as compensatory mechanism to anxiety increase. The observed phenomenon is classified as a hormetic effect. A comparison with the analogous study implemented polyvi-nylpyrrolidone coated silver nanoparticles is carried out. It was concluded that the nanoform is more neurotoxic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1479.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Amazonian; plant extracts; carrageenan; oedema; inflammation; acetic acid; body curvature index; behavioral responses; nociception
Online: 24 October 2023 (08:35:42 CEST)
The leaves and stems of Bauhinia guianensis Aubl. are used in traditional Amazonian phytotherapy for the treatment of pain and inflammation. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of hydroethanolic extracts from B. guianensis Aubl. leaves and stems (HELBg and HESBg, respectively) in in vivo models of inflammation and hyperalgesia. Danio rerio experimental animals were submitted to the acute inflammation test, induced by intraperitoneal (ip.) administration of carrageenan 20 μg / animal (abdominal edema), the groups were previously treated orally with saline solution 2 μl / animal (SS), Dimethyl sulfoxide 2 μl / animal (DMSO), Indomethacin 10 mg/kg, HELBg 100 mg/kg and HESBg 100 mg/kg, n = 12 per experimental group, to evaluate inhibition of edema and alterations histopathology of the liver, intestine and kidney of these animals. The antinociceptive effect was observed from the body curvature index and the behavioral responses of Danio rerio, after an experimental protocol for the induction of hyperalgesia, by ip. administration of 10 μl / animal of 2.5% acetic acid, the animals were previously orally treated with saline solution 2 μl/animal (SS), dimethyl sulfoxide 2 μl/animal (DMSO), morphine 2.5 mg/kg, HELBg 100 mg/kg and HESBg 100 mg/kg, n = 5 per experimental group. In carrageenan-induced edema, the group treated with HESBg inhibited edema formation over the 3 hours of the experiment. Maximum edema was inhibited by 54% (p < 0.05) when compared to the control group. Both HELBg and HESBg prevented body curvature index changes (t (df = 3 8) =, 6.96 and t (df = 3, 8) = 6.61, respectively, both p < 0.0001). In the behavioral parameters sensitive to antinociceptive pharmacological modulation, due to the abdominal constriction induced by acetic acid, the administration of HELBg and HESBg resulted in an improvement in swimming activity, by increasing the distance covered (F (df = 3, 16) = 6.50 and F (df = 3, 16) = 7.72, respectively, both p < 0.0001), decrease in freezing time (F (df = 3, 16) = 2.04 and F (df = 3, 16) = 1.28, respectively, both p < 0.0059), increase in the number of ascents to the upper area of the tank (F (df = 3, 16) = 33.02 and F (df = 3, 16) = 35.62, respectively, both p < 0.0009 ) and decreased time spent in that area (F (df = 3, 16) = 101.19 and F (df = 3, 16) = 103.59, respectively, both p < 0.0038). It is reasonable to suppose that both extracts modulated the variations induced by carrageenan and acetic acid through the inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, decreasing the release of inflammatory mediators and the sensitization of peripheral nociceptors and, consequently, the perception of pain. These results suggest that HELBg and HESBg have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, probably of peripheral origin and linked to the inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0676.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: environmental; social and governance (ESG); individual investor’s behavioral factors; theory of planned behaviour (TPB)
Online: 12 October 2023 (14:31:14 CEST)
The present study investigates the decision-making process of investors on the Pakistan Stock Exchange with regard to portfolio construction, explicitly focusing on the incorporation of ESG concerns. The present study employed SmartPLS and structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantitatively assess data received from a sample of 393 out of 400 respondents. Based on the available data, investors participating in the Pakistan Stock Exchange are notably impacted by ESG aspects. The findings of this study hold significance for emerging economy firms, regulators, and investors, both in terms of theoretical and practical ramifications. The study's findings demonstrate a clear indication of investors' significant emphasis on ESG matters. Furthermore, it provides valuable insights for stakeholders who are involved in the ever-evolving realm of sustainable finance within developing countries
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1340.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Amazonian; plant extracts; carrageenan; oedema; inflammation; acetic acid; body curvature index; behavioral responses; nociception
Online: 19 July 2023 (11:45:13 CEST)
The leaves and stems of Bauhinia guianensis Aubl. are used in traditional Amazonian phytotherapy for the treatment of pain and inflammation. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of hydroethanolic extracts from B. guianensis Aubl. leaves and stems (HELBg and HESBg, respectively) in in vivo models of inflammation and hyperalgesia. Danio rerio experimental animals were submitted to the acute inflammation test, induced by intraperitoneal (ip.) administration of carrageenan 20 μg / animal (abdominal edema), the groups were previously treated orally with saline solution 2 μl / animal (SS), Dimethyl sulfoxide 2 μl / animal (DMSO), Indomethacin 10 mg/Kg, HELBg 100 mg/Kg and HESBg 100 mg/Kg, n = 12 per experimental group, to evaluate inhibition of edema and alterations histopathology of the liver, intestine and kidney of these animals. The antinociceptive effect was observed from the body curvature index and the behavioral responses of Danio rerio, after an experimental protocol for the induction of hyperalgesia, by ip administration. of 10 μl / animal of 2.5% acetic acid, the animals were previously orally treated with saline solution 2 μl/animal (SS), dimethyl sulfoxide 2 μl/animal (DMSO), morphine 2.5 mg/Kg, HELBg 100 mg/Kg and HESBg 100 mg/Kg, n = 5 per experimental group. In carrageenan-induced edema, the group treated with HESBg inhibited edema formation over the 3 hours of the experiment. Maximum edema was inhibited by 54% (p < 0.05) when compared to the control group. Both HELBg and HESBg prevented body curvature index changes (t (df = 3 8) =, 6.96 and t (df = 3, 8) = 6.61, respectively, both p < 0.0001). In the behavioral parameters sensitive to antinociceptive pharmacological modulation, due to the abdominal constriction induced by acetic acid, the administration of HELBg and HESBg resulted in an improvement in swimming activity, by increasing the distance covered (F (df = 3, 16) = 6.50 and F (df = 3, 16) = 7.72, respectively, both p < 0.0001), decrease in freezing time (F (df = 3, 16) = 2.04 and F (df = 3, 16) = 1.28, respectively, both p < 0.0059), increase in the number of ascents to the upper area of the tank (F (df = 3, 16) = 33.02 and F (df = 3, 16) = 35.62, respectively, both p < 0.0009 ) and decreased time spent in that area (F (df = 3, 16) = 101.19 and F (df = 3, 16) = 103.59, respectively, both p < 0.0038). It is reasonable to suppose that both extracts modulated the variations induced by carrageenan and acetic acid through the inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, decreasing the release of inflammatory mediators and the sensitization of peripheral nociceptors and, consequently, the perception of pain. These results suggest that HELBg and HESBg have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, probably of peripheral origin and linked to the inhibition of prosta-glandin biosynthesis
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0435.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Gastrointestinal; Cancer survivor; Social and behavioral determinants of health; Health-related quality of life
Online: 6 July 2023 (12:31:10 CEST)
Background: Increasing number of long-term gastrointestinal (GI) cancer survivors highlights the importance of understanding factors that contribute to their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We investigated the risk factors of HRQoL, in-cluding demographics, clinical characteristics, and social and behavioral determinants of health (SBDH). Methods: Adult GI cancer survivors (n = 3,201) in the BRFSS surveys from 2014-2021 (except for 2015) were analyzed. Unadjusted/adjusted logistic regression was used. Results: The majority were female (54%) and White (78%), with a median age of 67. Survivors who were 65 years or older, diagnosed with colorectal cancer, or who had fewer comorbidities were more likely to report significantly better HRQoL. Significant social factors of poor HRQoL were being unmarried, racial and ethnic minorities, low socioeconomic status, and poor health care access. Significant behavioral factors of poor HRQoL were lack of physical activity, heavy alcohol consumption, and current smoking, with lack of physical activity being the most significant factor. Conclusions: The SBDH have a critical role in HRQoL. Future studies are warranted to develop a tailored survivorship intervention, such as physical rehabilitation and to ex-plore machine learning/artificial intelligence predictive models to identify cancer sur-vivors at a high risk of developing poor HRQoL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: nanoform; nanoparticle; nanoparticles; silver; silver citrate; ageing; behavioral functions; cognitive functions; stress; individual content
Online: 6 December 2022 (01:33:04 CET)
Silver in different forms is used for medical purposes from ancient times. It is not yet well known, which form of silver is more biocompatible and less toxic. Here we considered silver nanoparticles and silver citrate. Also, the relationships of neurotoxicity of silver compaunds with ageing factor is not yet described. To assess the role of nanoform in neurotoxicity of silver and role of ageing a long-term experiment was conducted. We had four control groups of intact mice and four experimental groups which were exposed to silver nanoparticles and silver citrate for two months. Four groups of mice were introduced into the experiment since the age of five months to assess ageing factors. It was shown that the nanoform does play a certain role in neurotoxicity of silver. Silver citrate seems to be a more preferable silver compound. Ageing can be regarded as a positive factor that neutralizes toxic action of silver compounds. It may be due to the development of physiological/cognitive functions with the age as well as adaptation to unnatural content in the individual cages that is definitely stressful for mice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0280.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: animal welfare; animal training; applied animal behavior; behavior analysis; behavioral engineering; environmental enrichment; zoos
Online: 15 November 2022 (07:20:08 CET)
The field of applied behavior analysis has been directly involved in both research and applications of behavioral principles to improve the lives of captive zoo animals. Thirty years ago, Forthman and Ogden (1992) wrote one of the first papers documenting some of these efforts. Since that time, considerable work has been done using behavioral principles and procedures to guide zoo welfare efforts. The current paper re-examines and updates Forthman and Ogden’s original points, with attention to the five categories they detailed: (1) promotion of species-typical behavior, (2) reintroduction and repatriation of endangered species, (3) animal handling, (4) pest control, and (5) animal performances. In addition, we outline three current and future directions for behavior analytic endeavors: (i) experimental analyses of behavior and the zoo, (ii) applied behavior analysis and the zoo, and (iii) within-subject methodology and the zoo. The goal is to provide a framework that can guide future behavioral research in zoos, as well as create applications based on these empirical evaluations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0122.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: structured information control net; process mining; process analyzing; structural analysis; behavioral analysis; process rediscovery
Online: 10 February 2020 (09:37:56 CET)
Process (or business process) management systems fulfill defining, executing, monitoring and managing process models deployed on process-aware enterprises. Accordingly, the functional formation of the systems is made up of three subsystems such as modeling subsystem, enacting subsystem and mining subsystem. In recent times, the mining subsystem has been becoming an essential subsystem. Many enterprises have successfully completed the introduction and application of the process automation technology through the modeling subsystem and the enacting subsystem. According as the time has come to the phase of redesigning and reengineering the deployed process models, from now on it is important for the mining subsystem to cooperate with the analyzing subsystem; the essential cooperation capability is to provide seamless integrations between the designing works with the modeling subsystem and the redesigning work with the mining subsystem. In other words, we need to seamlessly integrate the discovery functionality of the mining subsystem and the analyzing functionality of the modeling subsystem. This integrated approach might be suitable very well when those deployed process models discovered by the mining subsystem are complex and very large-scaled, in particular. In this paper, we propose an integrated approach for seamlessly as well as effectively providing the mining and the analyzing functionalities to the redesigning work on very large-scale and massively parallel process models that are discovered from their enactment event logs. The integrated approach especially aims at analyzing not only their structural complexity and correctness but also their animation-based behavioral properness, and becomes concretized to a sophisticated analyzer. The core function of the analyzer is to discover a very large-scale and massively parallel process model from a process log dataset and to validate the structural complexity and the syntactical and behavioral properness of the discovered process model. Finally, this paper writes up the detailed description of the system architecture with its functional integration of process mining and process analyzing. And more precisely, we excogitate a series of functional algorithms for extracting the structural constructs as well as for visualizing the behavioral properness on those discovered very large-scale and massively parallel process models. As experimental validation, we apply the proposed approach and analyzer to a couple of process enactment event log datasets available on the website of the 4TU.Centre for Research Data.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0073.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: deep behavioral covariates; clinical informatics; predictive modeling; electronic medical records; machine-learning; data-mining
Online: 7 November 2019 (09:25:04 CET)
Deep behavioral covariates (DBCs) introduced in this perspective form a new class of covariates that have the potential to enhance the performance of predictive models and improve analytics in clinical decision support applications. DBCs can measure how engaged a patient tends to be and how he or she tends to respond to events, and they may be highly predictive of the patient’s outcomes for a planned treatment. DBCs may potentially serve as a standard to measure patient engagement and activation and may form highly efficient mechanisms for improving patient outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Game theory; Plant behavioral ecology; Plant competition; Plant interaction mechanisms; Root foraging strategies; Root methods
Online: 14 February 2022 (11:29:43 CET)
Understanding how plants change their root foraging strategy in the presence of neighbors is of paramount importance for plant ecology and agriculture. The root tragedy of the common (RToC) is a plant behavior predicted by game theory models in which competing plants forage for soil resources inefficiently. The RToC is generally assumed to be induced by non-self root recognition, and researchers consider root overproliferation and reduced fitness with respect to a plant growing solo as the trace left by plants engaging in an RToC in experiments and model results. Herein, I first challenge both notions, and argue that the RToC is a suboptimal phenotypically plastic response of plants that is based in soil resource information exclusively. Second, I discuss how this new perspective carries important implications for the design of experiments investigating the physiological mechanisms underlying observable plant root responses. Finally, I discuss why placing the RToC theory in the context of more general root research is fundamental: The RToC represents a mechanistic foundation for understanding the belowground behavior of plants interacting with neighbors, and a spatially explicit approach to RToC may produce more comprehensive results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0380.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Infodemiology; COVID-19 infodemic; social contagion; collective perceptual bias; collective behavioral propensities; psychological typhoon eye effect
Online: 16 March 2020 (15:12:33 CET)
Less aligned emphasis has been given to the COVID-19 infodemic coordinating with the COVID-19 outbreak. Global profusion of tangled monikers and hashtags has found their ways in daily communication and contributed to backlash against Chinese. Official naming efforts against infodemic should be meet with a fair share of identification. Based on brief critical reviews on previous multifarious naming practices, we punctuate heuristic introspection in scientific conventions and sociocultural paradigms. Infodemiological analysis promises to articulate that people around the globe are divided in their favor stigmatized monikers in the public and scientific communities because of perceptual bias. There is no positive correlation between the degree of infection in their territories and collective perceptual bias to COVID-19. The official portfolio “COVID-19” and “SARS-CoV-2” has not become de facto standard usages, but full-fledged official names are excepted to duly contribute to the resilience of negative perceptual bias and collective behavioral propensities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0049.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: mental accounting; agricultural water fee; behavioral economics; decision making; information processing; representativeness; negative psychological externalities
Online: 25 August 2016 (10:12:08 CEST)
To better understand farmers’ refusal and corresponding negative emotions to pay agricultural water fee under current policy in rural China, this paper applies mental accounting, a behavioral economics framework, to explore how the governmental policies of reform of rural taxes and fees, direct agricultural subsidy programs and agricultural water fee individually influence farmers’ decisions in paying agricultural water fee. Using fieldwork data from 577 farmers and 20 water managers in Sichuan, we explore farmers’ information processing regarding paying agricultural water fee via three sequential mental accounting processes, with the associated underlying principles and measures behind each process. We find that the information processing in three mental accounting scenarios related to the agricultural water fee elucidates farmers’ observed behaviors in rural China. Generally, in the three mental accounting scenarios, two conditional intuitive expectations and nine conditional intuitive preferences are formed, however, the conditions of those expectations or preferences cannot be matched with the facts due to the reform of rural taxes and fees, the direct agricultural subsidy programs and the internal attributes of agricultural water fee, which interpret those negative behaviors in rural China. Additionally, this paper offers a view into how previous policies create negative psychological externalities (such as farmers’ psychological dependence on the government) through mental accounting to negatively influence agents’ subsequent decision making; it highlights the significance of underlying mental factors and information processing of negative behaviors in policymaking for managing or conserving common pool resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0501.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: GABA-A receptors; in vivo electrophysiology; microiontophoresis; vigilance; anxiety; behavioral pharmacology; diterpene alkaloids; picrotoxin; saclofen; songorine
Online: 30 August 2022 (03:45:03 CEST)
Songorine (SON) is a diterpenoid alkaloid from Aconitum plants. Preparations of Aconitum roots have been employed in traditional oriental herbal medicine, however, their mechanisms of action are still unclear. Since GABA-receptors are possible brain targets of SON, we investigated which subtypes of GABA-receptors contribute to the effects of SON, and how SON affects anxiety-like trait behavior and psychomotor cognitive performance of rats. First, we investigated the effects of microiontophoretically applied SON alone and combined with GABA-receptor agents picrotoxin and saclofen on neuronal firing activity in various brain areas. Next, putative anxiolytic effects of SON (1.0-3.0 mg/kg) were tested against the GABA-receptor positive allosteric modulator refer-ence compound diazepam (1.0-5.0 mg/kg) in the elevated zero maze (EOM). Furthermore, basic cognitive effects were assessed in a rodent version of the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Local application of SON predominantly inhibited the firing activity of neurons. This inhibitory effect of SON was successfully blocked by GABA(A)-receptor antagonist picrotoxin but not by GABA(B)-receptor antagonist saclofen. Similar to GABA(A)-receptor positive allosteric modulator diazepam, SON increased the time spent by animals in the open quadrants of the EOM without any signs of adverse psychomotor and cognitive effects observed in the PVT. We showed that, under in vivo conditions SON acts as a potent GABA(A)-receptor agonist and effectively decreases anxiety without observable side effects. The present findings facilitate the deeper understanding of the mechanism of action and the widespread pharmacological use of diterpene alkaloids in various CNS indications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0303.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: classical extensional mereology; summative mereology; mereology of quantum chemical systems; mereology of chemical wholes; behavioral mereology
Online: 13 August 2020 (11:28:55 CEST)
This paper examines whether classical extensional mereology is adequate for formalizing the whole-parts relation in quantum chemical systems. Although other philosophers have argued that classical extensional and summative mereology does not adequately formalize whole-parts relation within organic wholes and social wholes, such critiques often assume that summative mereology is appropriate for formalizing the whole-parts relation in inorganic wholes such as atoms and molecules. However, my discussion of atoms and molecules as they are conceptualized in quantum chemistry will establish that standard mereology cannot adequately fulfill this task, since the properties and behavior of such wholes are context-dependent and cannot simply be reduced to the summative properties of their parts. To the extent that philosophers of chemistry have called for the development of an alternative mereology for quantum chemical systems, this paper ends by proposing behavioral mereology as a promising step in that direction. According to behavioral mereology, considerations of what constitutes a part of a whole is dependent upon the observable behavior displayed by these entities. Thus, relationality and context-dependence are stipulated from the outset and this makes behavioral mereology particularly well-suited as a mereology of quantum chemical wholes. The question of which mereology is appropriate for formalizing the whole-parts relation in quantum chemical systems is relevant to contemporary philosophy of chemistry, since this issue is related to the more general question of the reducibility of chemical wholes to their parts and of the reducibility of chemistry to physics, which have been of central importance within the philosophy of chemistry for several decades. More generally, this paper puts contemporary discussions of mereology within the philosophy of chemistry into a broader historical and philosophical context. In doing so, this paper also bridges the gap between formal mereology, conceived as a branch of formal ontology, and ‘applied’ mereology, conceived as a branch of philosophy of science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: experimental economy; mathematical game theory; experimental game theory; behavioral experiment; business game; shopping centers; property management
Online: 1 August 2018 (06:27:55 CEST)
The managers’ strategic behavior of commercial real estate in a competitive environment is discussed. The means of this research are methods of mathematical and experimental game theory. Illustrates an example of a decision-theoretic game problem with two players engaged in the management of competing shopping centers. The strategies of these players are determined by the costs of the development. Since the number of visitors is constantly and changing the quality of shopping centers, managers actually pull visitors from each other, the game-theoretical formulation of the problem of management of shopping centers corresponds to the zero-sum game. The model example shows that with the help of mathematical modeling it is possible to determine the theoretical expected behavior of agents. The model of the software module created specifically for experimental research is described. The experiments are designed to compare the theoretically predicted behavior with the real actions of people. The novelty is that at significant costs of the Manager for the development and promotion of shopping and entertainment centers, the strategies of managers are resistant to each other's actions, in contrast to changes in the external environment is shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1737.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: interspecific competition; character displacements; behavioral syndrome; foraging; pecking; probing; sweeping; ballistic transport; surface tension transport; lingual transport
Online: 26 October 2023 (16:12:43 CEST)
Keywords: Interspecific competition; Character displacements, Behavioral syndrome; Foraging; Pecking; Probing; Sweeping; Ballistic transport, Surface tension transport; Lingual transport
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0593.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: AI-based painting systems(AIBPS); Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); Behavioral intentions; User experience; Structural Equation Modelling (SEM
Online: 19 April 2023 (13:27:16 CEST)
Artificial intelligence (AI) applications in different fields are developing rapidly, among which AI painting technology, as an emerging technology, has received wide attention from users for its creativity and efficiency. This study aimed to investigate the factors that influence user acceptance of the use of AIBPS by proposing an extended model that combines the Extended Technology Acceptance Model (ETAM) with the AI-based Painting System (AIBPS).A questionnaire was administered to 528 Chinese participants, using validated factor analysis data and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that hedonic motivation (HM) and perceived trust (PE) had a positive effect (+) on users' perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU), while previous experience (PE) and technical features (TF) had no effect (-) on users' perceived usefulness (PU). This study provides an important contribution to the literature on AIBPS and the evaluation of systems of the same type, which helps to promote the sustainable development of AI in different domains and provides a possible space for further extension of TAM, thus helping to improve the user experience of AIBPS. The results of the study provide insights for system developers and enterprises to better motivate users to use AIBPS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0241.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Attitude Toward Behavior; Subjective Norms; Perceived Behavioral Control; Outcome Expectation; Social Entrepreneurial Intention; Generation Z; Generation Millennials
Online: 14 February 2023 (09:01:41 CET)
As one of the world's most populous countries, Indonesia is struggling with the composition of its people, the majority of whom are unemployed productive-age individuals with low education levels. Another issue is the high poverty rate, which is followed by issues of gender inequality. The government cannot solve these social issues on its own. There is a need for community support to solve these problems through sustainable social entrepreneurship activities. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior and Outcome Expectation, this study will determine the factors that influence the interest of individuals known as the Z and Millennial generation, aged 18 to 34 years old, in becoming social entrepreneurs. This study applied a quantitative approach with a judgmental sampling technique to a sample of Generation Z and Millennials who have ever participated in social activities but have not yet started their own business. The study gathered 210 respondents, who were then analyzed using the PLS-SEM method with multiple group analysis generation-based comparison. According to the findings, the Millennial Generation's Attitude Toward Behavior, Subjective Norms, and Outcome Expectation all had a positive impact on Social Entrepreneurial Intention. Meanwhile, Subjective Norms had no effect on Social Entrepreneurial Intention in the Z Generation. Only attitude toward behavior, perceived behavioral control, and outcome expectation have a positive effect on the development of social entrepreneurial intentions. Furthermore, the findings of this study confirm that subjective norms influence attitude toward behavior and Perceived Behavioral Control in both Generation Z and millennials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0314.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Very mild Traumatic Brain Injury; Animal models (rodents); Post-concussion syndrome; neuro-behavioral changes; “inflammaging”; brain apoptosis
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:33:51 CET)
Post-concussion syndrome, recently recognized as a complication of mild traumatic brain injury, is considered a consequence of the summative effect of multiple concussions received over lifetime. In elderlies, the main mild brain trauma mechanism is fall (low impact force). Many falls are often not reported or noticed but may generate serious medical and medico-legal consequences. Our research question was to find if a single, very mild brain trauma can induce neuro-behavioral consequences in elderlies. One database was queried (PubMed – MeSH terminology) looking for histopathological, neuro-cognitive and behavioral changes that can be generated by sub-concussional trauma in senescent rodents, in comparison with young animals. 41 published research articles were selected. 17 of them used very mild brain trauma in young and senescent animals, in the same experiment (6 rats and 11 mice). 24 articles evaluated the effect of sub-threshold brain trauma in adult animals (no control group). Five trauma models were used (blast models were excluded). Neuro-inflammatory changes were detected immediate after very mild primary impact. In young animals, observed pathology disappeared fast (after 3 to 7 days). Increased apoptosis, mild axonal injury in white matter tracts plus maladaptive astrogliosis and microglial activation was stronger in aged animals, persisted over time (8 months) and significantly altered animals’ cognition and behavior. Associated preexisting pathology (hypertension, tau protein deposits, microbleeds, reactive inflammation) was often responsible for amplification of the primary impact results. As translation of observation is the weak spot of pathology and behavior animal research, further investigation is needed before to conclude that even a single, very mild brain trauma may have medical consequences on human senescent brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1017.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ketogenic diet; intermittent fasting; neurological disorders; stroke; epilepsy; traumatic brain injury; headache; Alzheimerʹs disease; behavioral disease; cancer; obesity
Online: 14 September 2023 (13:40:01 CEST)
Non-pharmacologic options like the ketogenic diet (KD) and intermittent fasting (IF) are practical nutritional interventions with minor reported side effects like gastrointestinal symptoms, dyslipidemia, and hypomagnesemia for various medical ailments. In conjunction with IF, KD shows promise in weight loss, diabetes management, cardiovascular disorders, polycystic ovarian syndrome, cancer, and chronic neurological disorders. Based on prior research, we have examined the mechanism of action of KD and IF and their effect on neurological diseases, cancer, and obesity. We have also suggested evidence-based recommendations for the safer practice of KD and IF. Despite potential benefits, long-term adherence to KD poses challenges. Periodic KD implementation may thus benefit newly diagnosed overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, aiding blood glucose and lipid management while promoting weight loss. KD is a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet with a ratio of fat to carbohydrates and protein being 4:1 or 3:1, and thus, for peripheral tissues and the brain, fatty acids become the mandatory source of cellular energy. Ketone bodies have been used as the primary energy source during fasting. KD has been utilized as an effective treatment for refractory epilepsy since the 1920s. Evidence of the neuroprotective role of KD in diseases like epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurological diseases has been noted. Since the 1960s, KD has become a popular method for obesity treatment. In addition, KD has been suggested as a potent anticancer therapy when used alone or as an adjuvant. KD may increase tumor cell sensitivity when combined with classic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Thus, the probability that modifying the diet can help manage obesity, cancer, and chronic neurological disease without depending on pharmacological treatment and their serious side effects for a lifetime is promising and requires further investigation. KD holds promise as a potential adjunctive therapy in various neurological disorders, offering new avenues for treatment and neuroprotection. IF has shown potential in slowing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's by promoting antioxidant defense and suppressing inflammation. KD and IF show promise in cancer therapy by targeting altered cancer cell metabolism. Additionally, KD may enhance the effects of standard treatments like chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Some of the most robust reports of keto's possible benefits have come from glioblastoma, a very aggressive brain cancer. KD has also shown strong evidence for its effectiveness in weight loss, mainly attributed to its appetite-suppressing action in ketosis. However, long-term adherence to KD can be challenging, and periodic KDs may help manage blood glucose and lipid levels in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Likewise, IF may be more effective than regular calorie restriction for achieving weight loss goals when combined with exercise programs. More prospective human studies are warranted to evaluate both KD and IF's potential therapeutic effectiveness and safety.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1714.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Cognitive Computing; Digital Imaging; Sound Vocalization Analysis; Animal Self-awareness; Behavioral Predictions; Micro-expressions; Animal Welfare Enhancement; Human-Animal-Computer Interactions
Online: 26 September 2023 (13:43:02 CEST)
In this paper, we critically examine the burgeoning role of advanced computational methodologies in deciphering the complex tapestry of farm animal behaviors and emotions. Leveraging digital imaging and artificial intelligence, we unearth nuanced behavioral patterns and micro-expressions, offering predictive insights into animal emotional states. Sound vocalization analysis, often overlooked, emerges as a pivotal tool, decoding intricate communicative nuances and emotional undertones. Cognitive tests, including mirror and bias assessments, challenge long-standing perceptions, revealing surprising depths of animal self-awareness and cognitive sophistication. However, the paper also underscores the imperative of integrating these tools with a profound understanding of animal psyche, ensuring technology serves as an enhancer, not a replacement, of traditional observational methods. This research not only highlights the transformative potential of cognitive computing in animal welfare but also calls for a judicious application, ensuring technology augments, not undermines, the intrinsic value of human-animal interactions and understanding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: behavioral analysis; COVID-19; governmental intervention; mask adoption; movement change; vaccine participation; non-pharmaceutical interventions; policy recommendations; social physics; social behavior
Online: 20 October 2022 (11:41:27 CEST)
Since its emergence, COVID-19 has caused a great impact in health and social terms. Governments and health authorities have attempted to minimize this impact by enforcing different mandates. Recent studies have addressed the relationship between various socioeconomic variables and compliance level to these interventions. However, little attention has been paid to what constitutes people's response and whether people behave differently when faced with different interventions. Data collected from different sources show very significant regional differences across the United States. In this paper, we attempted to shed light on the fact that a response may be different depending on the health system capacity and each individuals’ social status. For that, we analyzed the correlation between different societal variables (i.e. education, income levels, population density, etc.) along with healthcare capacity related variables (i.e. hospital occupancy rates, percentage of essential workers, etc.) with regards to people's level of compliance with three main governmental mandates in the United States: mobility restrictions, mask adoption, and vaccine participation. Our aim was to isolate the most influential variables impacting behavior in response to these policies. We found that there was a strong relationship between individuals' educational levels and political preferences with respect to compliance with each of these mandates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1005.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Continuous Authentication; Static Authentication; Behavioral Biometrics; Reinforcement Learning (RL); Q-learning; Keystroke Dynamics; Anomaly Detection; Machine Learning; Supervised Learning; User Authentication; Identification
Online: 14 June 2023 (07:42:17 CEST)
This article focuses on developing a continuous authentication system using behavioral biometrics to recognize users accessing computing devices. The user’s distinct behavioral biometric is captured through keystroke dynamics, and reward-based reinforcement learning (RL) ideas are applied to recognize them throughout the session. The suggested system adds an extra layer of security to traditional authentication methods, forming a robust continuous authentication system that can be added to static authentication systems. The methodology involves training a RL model to detect unusual user typing patterns and flag suspicious activity. Each user has an agent trained on their historical data, which is preprocessed and used to create episodes for the agent to learn from. The environment involves fetching observations and randomly corrupting them to learn out-of-order behavior. The observation vector includes both running features and summary features. The re-ward function is binary and minimalistic. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) model is used to encode the running features, and the Double Deep Q-Network (DDQN) algorithm with a fully connected neural network is used as the policy net. The evaluation achieved an average training accuracy and EER (equal error rate) of 94.7% and 0.0126 and test accuracy and ERR of 81.06% and 0.0323 for all users when the number of encoder features was increased. Therefore, it is concluded that by continuously learning and adapting to changing behavior patterns, this approach can provide more secure and personalized authentication, lowering the possibility of unauthorized access and cyberattacks. Overall, the use of reinforcement learning and behavioral biometrics for continuous authentication has the potential to significantly enhance security in the digital age and are effective in identifying each user.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0548.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: nest-building; social behavior; behavioral monitoring, animal welfare, 3xTg-AD mice; Alzheimer's disease; gender medicine; early-life events; early-life interventions; long-term effects
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:46:24 CET)
The assessment of welfare and disease progression in animal models is critical. Most tools rely on evaluating individual subjects, whereas social behaviors, also sensitive to acute illness, chronic diseases, or mental health, are scarcely monitored because of their complexity, are invasive, and time-consuming. We propose the evaluation of social nesting, a species-typical behavior naturally occurring in standard housing conditions, for such behavioral monitoring. We provide an example of its use to evaluate social deficits and the long-term effects of neonatal sensorial stimulation in male and female adult 3xTg-AD mice for Alzheimer's disease compared to sex- and age-matched NTg counterparts with normal aging. Social nesting was sensitive to genotype (worse in 3xTg-AD mice), sex (worse in males), profile, and treatment (distinct temporal patterns, time to observe the maximum score and incidence of the perfect nest). Since social nesting can be easily included in housing routines, this neuroethological approach can be useful for animal's welfare, monitoring the disease's progress, and evaluating potential risk factors and effects of preventive/therapeutical strategies. Finally, the non-invasive, painless, simple, short time and low-cost features of this home-cage monitoring are advantages that make social nesting feasible to be successfully implemented in most animal department settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0504.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, attitudinal loyalty, behavioral loyalty, relationship between satisfaction and loyalty, communication, trust, commitment, perceived value, value co-creation, veterinarian, veterinary medicine, pet-owner
Online: 26 September 2018 (09:27:13 CEST)
Loyalty is one of the greatest intangible assets that any organization can possess and improving client loyalty is a primary marketing goal that can have a significant financial impact on any business. This quantitative study examined the mediating role of communication on the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral) in veterinary clinics, along with the moderating roles of trust, commitment, perceived value, and relational characteristics. Responses collected from 351 pet-owners through social media were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that attitudinal loyalty (AL) has a strong positive relationship with communication at multiple points in a veterinary clinic whereas the relationship with behavioral loyalty was not as clear. Additional findings suggest that AL, which is influenced by trust in the veterinarian, communication from staff members and commitment, has a strong positive relationship with behavioral intentions, increases the number of products and services that a pet-owner consumes at his or her primary veterinary clinic, and attenuates the role of cost in receiving veterinary care. These findings can help veterinary clinic owners and managers in developing and implementing relationship strategies that improve pet-owner loyalty. The article that follows is a synopsis of the author’s dissertation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0403.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: behavioral change prediction; learned features; deep feature learning; handcrafted features; bidirectional long-short term memory; autoencoders; temporal convolutional neural network; clinical decision support system; multisensory stimulation therapy; physiological signals.
Online: 31 March 2022 (08:38:58 CEST)
Predicting change from multivariate time series has relevant applications ranging from medical to engineering fields. Multisensory stimulation therapy in patients with dementia aims to change the patient’s behavioral state. For example, patients who exhibit a baseline of agitation may be paced to change their behavioral state to relaxed. This study aims to predict changes in behavioral state from the analysis of the physiological and neurovegetative parameters to support the therapist during the stimulation session. In order to extract valuable indicators for predicting changes, both handcrafted and learned features were evaluated and compared. The handcrafted features were defined starting from the CATCH22 feature collection, while the learned ones were extracted using a Temporal Convolutional Network, and the behavioral state was predicted through Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Auto-Encoder, operating jointly. From the comparison with the state-of-the-art, the learned features-based approach exhibits superior performance with accuracy rates of up to 99.42% with a time window of 70 seconds and up to 98.44% with a time window of 10 seconds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0500.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; impact on society during COVID-19; behavioral impact of COVID-19; government policies against COVID-19; measures adopted by the government; COVID-19 Statistics; Infection rate and Data analysis
Online: 21 September 2020 (11:09:11 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 pandemic has pulled us all a few steps back, were we never shake hands or hug each other when we meet our friends and family after a gap, but instead we greet them by saying Namaste and joining our hands together. As we all know, COVID-19 spreads through air and the only way to shield ourselves is by maintaining a safe distance from one another. Methodology: In order to conduct a meta-analysis on the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala and India, the data was retrieved from various sites hosted by the government bodies. The data for analysis was collected from May 2020 to July 2020. The average number of days required to reach every 5000 fresh cases were also calculated using this data. COVID-19 has affected all the economy holistically regardless of financial, behavioral, or societal aspects. Conclusion: Lifting of the lockdown in a step by step process keeping in mind the necessities for the nation was a thoughtful act, but the people who mistook this opportunity and did not remain in quarantine after coming from abroad was recognized as the reasons behind the sudden and uncontrolled rise in the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala, India. The government authorities had no other option but to lift the restrictions to reduce the economic burdens that had already affected the daily wage worker and farmers prompting them to give up their lives.