ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0495.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: driving simulator; motion cueing algorithm; model predictive control; nonlinear actuator constraints
Online: 19 November 2020 (08:02:14 CET)
Driving simulators are widely used for understanding human-machine interaction, driver behavior and in driver training. The effectiveness of simulators in these process depends largely on their ability to generate realistic motion cues. Though the conventional filter-based motion cueing strategies have provided reasonable results, these methods suffer from poor workspace management. To address this issue, linear MPC-based strategies have been applied in the past. However, since the kinematics of the motion platform itself is non-linear and the required motion varies with the driving conditions, this approach tends to produce sub-optimal results. This paper presents a nonlinear MPC-based algorithm which incorporates the nonlinear kinematics of the Stewart platform within the MPC algorithm in order to increase the cueing fidelity and utilize maximum workspace. Further, adaptive weights-based tuning is used to smoothen the movement of the platform towards its physical limits. Full-track simulations were carried out and performance indicators were defined to objectively compare the response of the proposed algorithm with classical washout filter and linear MPC-based algorithms. The results indicate a better reference tracking with lower root mean square error and higher shape correlation for the proposed algorithm. Lastly, the effect of the adaptive weights-based tuning was also observed in the form of smoother actuator movements and better workspace utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: comfort; vibration; biomechanics; postural stabilization
Online: 23 May 2022 (12:14:30 CEST)
In future automated vehicles we will often engage in non-driving tasks and will not watch the road. This will affect postural stabilization and may elicit discomfort or even motion sickness in dynamic driving. Future vehicles shall accommodate this by properly designed seats and interiors whereas comfortable vehicle motion shall be achieved with smooth driving styles and well de-signed (active) suspensions. To support research and development in dynamic comfort, this paper presents validation of a multi-segment full body human model including visuo-vestibular and muscle spindle feedback for postural stabilization. Dynamic driving is evaluated using a “sicken-ing drive” including a 0.2 Hz 4 m/s2 slalom. Vibration transmission is evaluated with compliant automotive seats, applying 3D platform motion and evaluating 3D translation and rotation of pelvis, trunk and head. The model matches human motion in dynamic driving and reproduces fore-aft, lateral and vertical oscillations. Visuo-vestibular and muscle spindle feedback are shown to be essential in particular for head-neck stabilization. Active leg muscle control at the hips and knees is shown to be essential to stabilize the trunk in the high amplitude slalom condition but not in low amplitude horizontal vibrations. However, active leg muscle control can strongly affect 4-6 Hz vertical vibration transmission. Compared to the vibration tests, the dynamic driving tests show enlarged postural control gains to minimize trunk and head roll and pitch, and to align head yaw with the driving direction. Human modelling can create the required insights to achieve breakthrough comfort enhance-ments while enabling efficient development for a wide range of driving conditions, body sizes and other factors. Hence, modelling human postural control can accelerate innovation of seats and vehicle motion control strategies for (automated) vehicles.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: virtual sensor; automotive control; active suspension; vehicle state estimation; neural networks; deep learning; long-short term memory; sequence regression
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:42:07 CEST)
With the automotive industry moving towards automated driving, sensing is increasingly important in enabling technology. The virtual sensors allow data fusion from various vehicle sensors and provide a prediction for measurement that is hard or too expensive to measure in another way or in the case of demand on continuous detection. In this paper, virtual sensing is discussed for the case of vehicle suspension control, where information about the relative velocity of the unsprung mass for each vehicle corner is required. The corresponding goal can be identified as a regression task with multi-input sequence input. The hypothesis is that the state-of-art method of Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory (BiLSMT) can solve it. In this paper, a virtual sensor has been proposed and developed by training a neural network model. The simulations have been performed using an experimentally validated full vehicle model in IPG Carmaker. Simulations provided the reference data which was used for Neural Network (NN) training. The extensive dataset covering 26 scenarios has been used to obtain training, validation and testing data. The Bayesian Search was used to select the best neural network structure using root mean square error as a metric. The best network is made of 167 BiLSTM, 256 fully connected hidden units and 4 output units. Error histograms and spectral analysis of the predicted signal compared to the reference signal are presented. The results demonstrate the good applicability of neural network-based virtual sensors to estimate vehicle unsprung mass relative velocity.