ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0554.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Islamic Banks; Financial technology; Artificial Intelligence; Murabaha; Musharaka; Zakat; Qardh Al Hasan
Online: 6 December 2022 (06:43:09 CET)
Recent years have seen dramatic growth in the number of scholarly scientific works dedicated to the topic of Artificial Intelligence (AI), banking, and finance. With the development of scientometric tools, it is now possible to map, visualize, analyze, and assess scientific activities in many fields of engineering and social sciences including Islamic banking and finance. Based on data retrieved from the Scopus database and using a qualitative method, this study investigates, evaluates, and identifies significant development, trends, and players in the application of AI in Islamic banking and finance using the Visualization Of Similarities Method (VOS) between objects in VOSviewer. From 2006 to 2022, 387 documents were retrieved from the Scopus database; Results revealed that the top five most active countries in terms of publications are Malaysia (117 documents), Indonesia (89 documents), the United Kingdom (36 documents), the USA (24 documents), and Saudi Arabia and Bahrain (24 documents each). The International Islamic University Malaysia and Universitas Indonesia came out on top of active institutions while the top funding source came from the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. The comprehensive findings and analysis reported in this study serve as a roadmap for future academics to create theory and practice for applying AI in Islamic banking and finance.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Corona discharge; corona ring; corona suppression; high voltage capacitor banks; shunt capacitor banks
Online: 4 November 2021 (11:21:35 CET)
Capacitor banks are widely used in current electrical transmission systems in order to improve power quality and increase efficiency. Utilizing high voltage components such as, shunt capacitors in the power grid imposes new challenges to the system which are required to be addressed. One of these challenges is corona discharges that can have negative impacts on capacitor banks such as power loss, insulator erosion followed by equipment failure, and radio interference. Although previous studies have almost exclusively focused on optimization of corona suppression rings for transformers and transmission lines, no specific studies have conducted regarding high voltage capacitor banks. This paper presents a novel study concerning verification and development of corona discharge suppression models on AC and DC capacitor banks with two different voltage levels. The employed method is based on the Maxwell’s equations and finite element method (FEM) which is implemented with the help of COMSOL Multiphysics© software. Results have verified the necessity of suppression methods as well as the efficiency of proposed solutions. Corona inception voltage levels are identified and effective factors on its appearance are reviewed. Analyses of proposed solutions have shown significant improvements in optimization of corona suppression methods as well as enhancement of maintenance maneuverability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0411.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: FinTech, Innovations, Technology, Banks, Theory
Online: 23 January 2023 (10:38:05 CET)
The purpose of this article is to address two questions that will aid researchers in understanding FinTech’s inception, development, and potential impact on the stability of the financial system. First, it explains why financial technology is a current phenomenon. While many of the underlying technology for FinTech breakthroughs have been around for some time, it is only recently that financial institutions and entrepreneurs have begun to apply them to financial goods and services. Supply and demand factors in "conventional" financial innovation have been studied, and they have been found to converge, leading to a high rate of innovation. And second, this article explains why FinTech is being covered in greater depth than other types of innovation. This study introduces the concept of "depth" of innovation as a means of answering this question. The more fundamental the innovation, the more it will affect the financial sector. In this paper, we demonstrate that many recent developments in the field of financial technology (FinTech) are truly revolutionary advances, with far-reaching implications for the financial services industry. In addition to the benefits of more adaptability, higher transformational potential might bring increased risk to economic security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0352.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Risk Disclosure; Corporate Social Responsibility; Jordanian Banks
Online: 21 February 2023 (06:16:20 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact on corporate social responsibility when Jordanian banks disclose risks. The main objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between risk disclosure and corporate social responsibility in the banking sector in Jordan. To achieve this goal, data was collected from 23 Jordanian banks listed on the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) over a period of 10 years, from 2010 to 2019. The data was analyzed using a regression model with four independent variables that represent the risk disclosure; corporate social responsibility was used as the dependent variable. The study also built in controls for the age of each bank, its size, leverage, and ROE, to ensure that the results were not affected by these factors. The results of the study show that all independent variables are positively correlated with corporate social responsibility. This suggests that disclosing risks is an effective way to improve corporate social responsibility in the banking industry. The findings of this study have important practical implications for bank managers, future researchers, and policymakers. The study also highlights the importance of future research in this field in order to understand the relationship between risk disclosure and corporate social responsibility in other countries and within other sectors of industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0401.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Islamic accounting; mudarabah investment deposit; financial reporting of Islamic banks; profit equalization reserve; risk management for Islamic banks
Online: 27 February 2020 (11:22:54 CET)
The aim of this cross-country research is to examine how the profit and loss sharing mudarabah investment deposits are classified and disclosed in the financial statement of Islamic banks. The cross-country study examined the financial statements of fifty-one fully-fledged Islamic banks. The results of the data analysis show that Islamic banks disclose the mudarabah investment account in different ways. The absence of standardized disclosure for mudarabah investment deposit confuses the stakeholders. This research suggests to the regulators to fully or partially adopt the AAOIFI standards specifically for Islamic financial institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0462.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Machine Learning; Random Forest; Google Trends; Predictability; Banks; Greece
Online: 29 July 2022 (13:07:42 CEST)
Background/Objectives: Accurate prediction of stock prices is an extremely challenging task because of factors such as political conditions, global economy, unexpected events, market anomalies, and relevant companies’ features. In this work, the random forest has been used to forecast the prices of the four major Greek systemic banks Methods/Analysis: We make use of a set of financial variables based on intraday data: (i) Open stock price, (ii) High stock price, (iii) Low stock price, and (iv) Close stock price of a particular Greek systemic bank. Results/Findings: The variables used here are crucial in predicting systemic banks' stock closing prices. These provide a better prediction of the next day's closing price of the bank series. Novelty /Improvement: To our knowledge, this is the first study that employs machine learning techniques in Greek systemic banks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0479.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Stem cells banks; Cancer; Cytosine deaminase; Tumor; Gene therapy
Online: 27 April 2020 (04:49:54 CEST)
Stem cells are currently being used in many clinical trials for regenerative purposes. These are promising results for stem cells in the treatment of several diseases, including cancer. Nevertheless, there are still many variables which should be addressed before the application of stem cells for cancer treatment. One approach should be to establish well-characterized therapeutic stem cell banks to minimize the variation in results from different clinical trials and facilitate their effective use in basic and translational research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0731.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Risk management; Islamic Banks; Survey Analysis; Random Forest; Machine Learning
Online: 12 October 2023 (02:28:58 CEST)
This study utilizes the Random Forest technique to investigate risk management practices and concerns in Islamic banks using survey data from 2016 to 2021. Findings reveal that larger banks provide more consistent survey responses, driven by their confidence and larger survey budgets. Moreover, a positive link is established between a country's development, characterized by high GDPs and low inflation and interest rates, and the precision of Islamic banks' survey responses. Analyzing risk-related concerns, the study notes a significant reduction in credit portfolio risk, attributed to improved risk management practices, global economic growth, stricter regulations, and diversified asset portfolios. Concerns related to terrorism financing and cybersecurity risks have also decreased due to better enforcement of anti-money laundering regulations and investments in cybersecurity infrastructure and education. This research enhances our understanding of risk management in Islamic banks, highlighting the impact of bank size and country development. Additionally, it emphasizes the need for ongoing analysis beyond 2021 to account for potential COVID-19 effects and evolving risk management and regulatory practices in Islamic banking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: Self-aspirated flotation cells; WEMCO cells; flotation banks; air restriction
Online: 3 October 2023 (07:19:53 CEST)
This article describes the impact of restricting the air intake in industrial 250 m3 WEMCO flotation cells at Los Pelambres concentrator. The influence of this air restriction on the hydrodynamic and metallurgical performance of this type of machine was evaluated. The experiments were conducted in single flotation cells and in entire rougher banks. In all cases, the gas holdup was measured to estimate the effectiveness of the obstruction system to decrease the air concentration. In single cells, axial profiles for solid percentage and particle size were evaluated. In addition, a mass balance was conducted to assess the copper recovery and concentrate features. In individual cells, the air restriction led to a decrease in the gas holdup. However, this slight change was enough to obtain a more stable froth zone and a better solids suspension. The latter was observed as a higher P80 below the pulp-froth interface, a less diluted pulp at this level, a slightly higher Cu recovery, and a coarser concentrate product. A mineralogical analysis of the concentrate sample also showed the presence of coarser liberated Cu-sulfide particles. The results in single cells suggested an improvement in the recovery of coarse particles by a more intense solids suspension. The air intake was also restricted in 3 rougher banks to assess the impact of the air obstruction on the overall performance of the respective circuit. Eleven out of fourteen cells were operated with air restriction, which led to a significant recovery improvement of 0.9%-1.6% (absolute) with a 95% confidence level. Size-by-size mass balances were also conducted for the rougher circuits, which proved that the recovery improvements were justified by the simultaneous increase in the recovery of coarse and fine particles. Thus, a restriction of the air intake showed that the decrease in the gas holdup (and in the bubble surface area flux) was compensated by a better solids suspension and a higher turbulence in the impeller. The former promotes the recovery of coarse particles, whereas the latter improves the interaction between bubbles and fine particles. Further developments are being made to implement a regulatory control strategy to control the air intake in self-aspirated flotation cells, and to use this approach for optimizing industrial flotation banks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0125.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Brand Credibility; Brand Equity; Brand Image; Banks
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:41:01 CEST)
The present research endeavours to examine the impact of customers' perceptions regarding a firm's dedication to corporate social responsibility (CSR) on their allegiance to particular banking brands. The mediating factors of brand credibility and image help to facilitate the indirect relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and brand equity, which is the focus of this study. The objective of the research is to investigate the plausible causal association among perceived corporate social responsibility, brand image, brand credibility, and brand equity. The study's data was obtained by conducting a survey among a sample of 320 banking customers in Ethiopia. In order to perform a thorough examination of the data, AMOS version 24.0 and structural equation modelling (SEM) methodologies were employed. The present research endeavours to broaden the conventional comprehension of the advantages that corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers to customers. It aims to address a void in the current literature by scrutinising the impacts of customers' perceptions of CSR, brand credibility, and brand image on their allegiance towards particular banking service brands. The findings of this study carry substantial implications for financial institutions, and the conclusions derived from the results are of considerable significance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0127.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Soil seed banks; surface vegetation; composition; dominance; weeds, forest ecosystems; agricultural production systems.
Online: 4 July 2023 (09:50:48 CEST)
Weeds can have both positive and negative effects on agricultural environments. However, despite the growing interest in the ecology of weed communities in agricultural areas, few studies have been carried out in the northern region of the Andes of Colombia, where urban and agricultural expansion have gen-erated highly disturbed scenarios. The aim of this study is to analyze the diversity of vegetation and weed seed banks in three agricultural production systems and a forest ecosystem in the northern Andes of Colombia. Hill numbers were used to compare diversity, Beta diversity to assess changes in composition, and range-abundance-dominance curves at different sites. Likewise, indicator species were analyzed to find species associations to each system. The results revealed differences in the composition of weeds between the forest ecosystem and the agricultural production systems, with higher equitability in the forest ecosystem and higher dominance in agricultural systems. A higher differentiation was observed in the dominant species of each agricultural system, highlighting those considered pests due to their life history traits, giving them greater success against various anthropogenic selection pressures. These findings highlight the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on the ecological dynamics of weed com-munities in different ecosystems, which should be considered when planning integrated weed manage-ment techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0506.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Commercial banks, Interest rate, Money creation, Monetary circuit of production, Resource distribution, Seigniorage
Online: 29 August 2018 (16:02:56 CEST)
This article evaluates the macroeconomic implications of commercial bank seigniorage, which emerges from the commercial banks’ power to create money in a fractional reserves regime. After evaluating the impact on aggregate output of commercial bank money relative to alternative exchange arrangements, the article identifies the determinants of commercial bank seigniorage and analyzes how equilibrium prices are determined in an economy where commercial banks extract seigniorage. The article also identifies the conditions under which commercial banks extract seigniorage, clarifies the relationship between seigniorage from commercial bank money creation and profits from pure financial intermediation, and shows how commercial bank seigniorage changes with different types of interbank payments settlement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0048.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electrical systems; power compensation techniques; multistage capacitor banks; power quality; power system safety; mines electrical power supply
Online: 2 November 2022 (06:22:34 CET)
Power quality problem is a hot area in power systems and drives that has drawn the attention of many researchers. This is because of the threat it poses on the health of electrical systems and the cost incurred on utility bills. The problem arises as a result of the need for reactive power to be supplied alongside active power in power transmission and distribution. Unfortunately, reactive power is consumed by almost all components of the system, leading to a shortage. To solve this problem, there is a need to compensate for the lost reactive power. Several researchers have proposed various approaches to mitigate this problem such as thyristor switched capacitor bank, series compensator, series reactor, series var compensator (SVC), Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), synchronous condenser and others. In order to further draw attention in this area, this work investigates a number of research papers on power compensation techniques and draw up challenges from each work that can be considered for further investigation. To this end, each research paper reviewed is evaluated in terms of problem solved, technique used, and results obtained. It therefore offers ample opportunities for researchers to explore in improving power quality and power system safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0463.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: disturbance; drylands; photovoltaic; plant community; plant traits; rare species; renewable energy; seed traits; seed banks; solar energy
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:55:44 CEST)
Seed bank survival underpins plant population persistence but studies on seed bank trait-environment interactions are few. Changes in environmental conditions relevant to seed banks occur in desert ecosystems owing to solar energy development. We developed a conceptual model of seed bank survival to complement methodologies using in-situ seed bank packets. Using this framework, we quantified the seed bank survival of two closely related annual desert plant species, one rare (Eriophyllum mohavense) and one common (Eriophyllum wallacei) and the seed bank-environment interactions of these two species in the Mojave Desert within a system that emulates microhabitat variation associated with solar energy development. We tracked 4,860 seeds buried across 540 seed packets and found, averaged across both species, that seed bank survival was 21% and 6% for the first and second growing seasons, respectively. After two growing seasons, the rare annual had a significantly greater seed bank survival (10%) than the common annual (2%). Seed bank survival, across both species, was significantly greater in Shade (10%) microhabitats compared to Runoff (5%) microhabitats and Control microhabitats (3%). Our study confers insight into this early life-stage across rare and common congeners and their environmental interactions using a novel conceptual framework for seed bank survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0035.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Financial Institutions and Services; General; Banks, Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages; Investment Banking, Government Policy, and Regulation
Online: 5 May 2022 (11:14:25 CEST)
We have estimated the level of Risk Weighted Assets among 30 countries in Europe, in 30 trimesters, using data of the European Banking Authority-EBA of 139 variables. We perform an econometric model using Pooled OLS, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, Weighted Least Squares. We found that Risk Weighted Assets is negatively associated, among others, to the level of NFC loans in mining and quarrying, in public administration and defence, and in financial and insurance activities and positively associated, among others to distribution of NFC loans in human health services and social work activities, in education and the level of net fee and commission income. Furthermore, we apply a cluster analysis with the k-Means algorithm, and we find the presence of two clusters. A comparison was then made between eight different machine learning algorithms for predicting the value of the RWAs and we found that the best predictor is the linear regression. The RWA value is predicted to increase by 1.5%.