ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine; cardiovascular effects; myocarditis; adolescents; Thailand
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:40:23 CEST)
This study focuses on cardiovascular effects, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis events, after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine injection in Thai adolescents. This prospective cohort study enrolled students from two schools aged 13–18 years who received the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Data including demographics, symptoms, vital signs, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes were collected at baseline, Day 3, Day 7, and Day 14 (optional) using case record forms.We enrolled 314 participants; of these, 13 participants were lost to follow up, leaving 301 participants for analysis. The most common cardiovascular effects were tachycardia (7.64%), shortness of breath (6.64%), palpitation (4.32%), chest pain (4.32%), and hypertension (3.99%). Seven participants (2.33%) exhibited at least one elevated cardiac biomarker or positive lab assessments. Cardiovascular effects were found in 29.24% of patients, ranging from tachycardia, palpitation, and myopericarditis. Myopericarditis was confirmed in one patient after vaccination. Two patients had suspected pericarditis and four patients had suspected subclinical myocarditis. Conclusion: Cardiovascular effects in adolescents after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination included tachycardia, palpitation, and myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myopericarditis after vaccination was usually mild, with all cases fully recovering within 14 days. Hence, adolescents receiving mRNA vaccines should be monitored for side effects. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05288231
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:21:17 CEST)
Currently available COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy in clinical trials.1-3 However, cancer patients, including those with hematological malignancies, were largely excluded from these trials. In this prospective, observational study we measured anti-S protein IgG titers as well as avidity in lymphoma patients (n=67) vaccinated with a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Serological response rates in lymphoma patients who were treatment naïve (100% in CLL, 88.9% in other, non-CLL non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients), or who were last treated more than 24 months prior to vaccination (100% in CLL, 90% in other-NHL), were similar to healthy controls (100%). Patients on active therapy, however, had a diminished response rate (40% in CLL, 21.0% in other-NHL). No patient who received anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) within six months of vaccination responded. Thus, the utility of testing anti-S titers should be explored in patients on active therapy or with recent anti-CD20 mAb exposure, to assess their response to vaccination. We also propose studying passive protection with S-protein mAbs as an alternative prophylactic strategy for patients who respond poorly to vaccination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antibody; BNT162b2; coronavirus disease 2019; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine booster
Online: 25 February 2022 (10:01:23 CET)
This was a retrospective cohort study, which aimed to investigate the factors associated with hesitancy to receive the third dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. A paper-based questionnaire survey was administered to all participants. Accordingly, the study included participants who provided answer in the questionnaire whether they have an intent to receive the third dose of vaccine. Data on sex, age, area of residence, adverse reactions after the second vaccination, whether the third vaccination was desired, and reasons to accept or hesitate booster vaccination were retrieved. Among the 2439 participants with mean (±SD) age of 52.6±18.9 years, and median IgG-S antibody titer of 324.9 (AU/mL), 97.9% of participants indicated their intent to accept a third vaccination dose. The logistic regression revealed that younger age (OR=0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-1.00) and higher antibody level (OR=2.52; 95% CI: 1.27-4.99) are positively associated with the third vaccine hesitancy. The efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine and concerns about adverse reactions had significant impact on the third vaccination behavior. A rapid increase in the booster dose rate is needed to control the pandemic, and specific approaches should be taken in these groups that are likely to hesitate the third vaccine, subsequently increasing booster contact rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0286.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Omicron variant of concern; homologous boosting; heterologous boosting; Coro-naVac; BNT162b2; healthcare worker; return-to-work
Online: 19 July 2022 (10:15:39 CEST)
Immune escape is observed with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (Pango lineage B.1.1.529), the predominant circulating strain worldwide. Booster dose was shown to restore immunity against Omicron infection, however, real world data comparing mRNA (BNT162b2; Comirnaty) and inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac; Sinovac) homologous and heterologous boosting is lacking. A retrospective study was performed to compare the rate and outcome of COVID-19 in healthcare workers (HCWs) with various vaccination regime during a territory-wide Omicron outbreak in Hong Kong. During the study period 1 Feb – 31 Mar 2022, 3167 HCWs were recruited, 871 HCWs reported 746 and 183 episodes of significant household and non-household close contact. 737 HCWs acquired COVID-19 which were all clinically mild. Time dependent Cox regression showed that, comparing with 2-dose vaccination, 3-dose vaccination reduced infection risk by 31.7% and 89.3% in household contact and non-household close contact respectively. Using 2-dose BNT162b2 as reference, 2-dose CoronaVac recipient had significantly higher risk of being infected (HR 1.69 P<0.0001). Three-dose BNT162b2 (HR 0.4778 P<0.0001) and 2-dose CoronaVac + BNT162b2 booster (HR 0.4862 P=0.0157) were associated with lower risk of infection. Three-dose CoronaVac and 2-dose BNT162b2 + CoronaVac booster were not significantly different from 2-dose BNT162b2. The mean time to achieve negative RT-PCR or E gene cycle threshold 31 or above was not affected by age, number of vaccine dose taken, vaccine type and timing of the last dose. In summary, we have demonstrated lower risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs given BNT162b2 as booster after 2 doses of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; vaccine effectiveness; BNT162b2 vaccine; mRNA-1273 vaccine; ChAdOx1 vaccine; 19 Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay; reactogenicity; vaccine-associated symptoms
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:14:39 CEST)
This prospective study provides data on long-term humoral immunogenicity of a heterologous off-label vaccine regimen combining the adenoviral vectored ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 from Astra-Zeneca (ChAd) with the mRNA-1273 vaccine from Moderna (m1273) in comparison to two different homologous mRNA vaccine schedules. Of the 316 COVID-19 naïve adult health care workers (HCW) included to complete a survey on vaccine-associated symptoms (VAS), 197 had received the homologous BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT/BNT), 76 the homologous m1273/m1273, and 43 the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen. Concentration of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in plasma 5-7 months after the second vaccine dose was higher in the m1273/m1273 and ChAd/m1273 than the BNT/BNT vaccine group. The frequency of systemic VAS after first vaccine dose was 86% after ChAd compared to 35% and 39% after BNT and m1273, respectively (p < 0.0001), and after second vaccine dose highest (89%) in the m1273/m1273 group (p < 0.001). Individuals with systemic VAS achieved higher levels of antibodies irrespective of vaccine regimen. In conclusion, VAS serve as a strong predictor of long-term humoral immune response, and the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen provides an at least equal long-term humoral immune response compared with the standard vaccine regimens used in Denmark.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; BNT162b2; vaccination; S-RBD; SARS-CoV-2; seroconversion
Online: 6 October 2022 (08:42:11 CEST)
The humoral response of the COVID-19 vaccine varies from person to person. It largely depends on prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, obtaining an adequate immune response, and leaving a trace of changing antibody concentration over time. We retrospectively analyzed three clinical cases from selected patients and employees of the oncology hospital. All mild COVID-19 convalescents received the BNT162b2-Comirnaty mRNA vaccine three times. The levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies, as well as S-RBD antibodies, were analyzed for approximately two years. The concentration of antibodies was assessed in the laboratory using the chemiluminescent immunoassay CLIA, MAGLUMI. Results: (1) Active autoimmune disease stabilized the level of IgG-specific antibodies after systemic mRNA vaccination for at least six months. (2) Post-vaccination IgG and S-RBD levels decreased when vaccination was performed within three months of onset. (3) The booster dose (third dose) administered only increased the S-RBD antibody levels. Declining IgG-specific antibodies were observed. (4) The S-RBD IgG levels were not correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels in the vaccinated convalescents. (5) Subsequent reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination three times released a more significant specific antibody response. Based on the collected data, we suggest that monitoring S-RBD antibodies is sensitive but not equivalent to a specific humoral response for SARS-CoV-2 IgG. We suggested that administering at least three doses of the mRNA vaccine should serve as the basis for immunization. The three-month interval may be the best alternative to an immunization schedule for non-immunocompromised people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0237.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; BNT162b2; antibody, serology; kinetic; age; gender; BMI; blood-group.
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:48:34 CEST)
Background: Little is known about potential confounding factors influencing the humoral response in individuals having received the BNT162b2 vaccine. Methods: Blood samples from 231 subjects were collected before and 14, 28 and 42 days following COVID-19 vaccination with BNT162b2. Anti-Spike Receptor-Binding-Domain protein (anti-Spike/RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were measured at each time-point. Impact of age, sex, childbearing age status, hormonal therapy, blood group, body mass index and past-history of SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed by multivariable analyses. Results and Conclusions: In naïve subjects, the level of anti-Spike/RBD antibodies gradually increased following administration of the first dose to reach the maximal response at day 28 and then plateauing at day 42. In vaccinated subjects with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, the plateau was reached sooner (i.e. at day 14). In the naïve population, age had a significant negative impact on anti-Spike/RBD titers at day 14 and 28 while lower levels were observed for males at day 42, when corrected for other confounding factors. BMI as well as B and AB blood groups had a significant impact in various subgroups on the early response at day 14 but no longer after. No significant confounding factors were highlighted in the previously infected group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Vaccines; anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike total antibodies; Surrogate viral neutralizing antibody; T-cell immune response; CoronaVac; ChAdOx1; BNT162b2; booster
Online: 31 March 2022 (14:28:11 CEST)
Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac) is commonly used in national immunization programs. However, the immune response significantly declined within a few months. Our study assessed the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 after receiving booster shots of BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 among health care workers who previously received CoronaVac as their primary immunization. Fifty-six participants received ChAdOx1 and forty-two participants received BNT162b2 were enrolled into this study which evaluated the immune responses including anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike total antibodies (Elecsys®), surrogated viral neutralization test (sVNT) to ancestral strain (cPass™; GenScript) and five variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron) (Luminex; multiplex sVNT) and the ELISpot with spike (S1 and S2) peptide pool against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain. The samples were analyzed at baseline, 4, and 12 weeks after primary immunization as well as 4 and 12 weeks after receiving the booster. This study showed a significantly higher B-cell response among the BNT162b2 than the ChAdOx1 booster group, particularly against the Omicron variant, as well as a trend of good T-cell immune response in the BNT162b2 group. Moreover, the immune response rapidly declined at 12 weeks after the booster. A fourth dose or a second booster should be recommended, especially for reducing Omicron severity.