ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0586.v1
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:49:51 CEST)
Potential of co-digestion mixing thickened secondary sludge (TS) from extended aeration wastewater treatment plant and locally available substrates (whey, grease and septage) has been studied using three steps. The first step was a batch test to determine biological methane potential (BMP) of different mixtures of the three co-substrates with TS. The second step has been carried out with lab-scale reactors (20 L) simulating anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors fed by three mixtures of co-substrates determined according to previous step results. Modelling using ADM1 as a mechanistic model was applied in the third step to help understanding the co-digestion process. According to BMP step, septage used as co-substrate has a negative effect on performance and addition of 10 to 30% grease or 10% whey would lead to a higher production of biogas and with an increase of the methane content. The results from the reactor showed less evi-dence of the positive effects observed with the BMP assay. Protein and lipid fractions of particu-late biodegradable COD are important variables for digester stability and methane production as predicted by modelling. Results of simulations with ADM1 model adapted to co-digestion confirmed that this model is a powerful tool to optimize the process of biogas production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0007.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: receptor; distribution; BMP; BMPR; center of mass; micropattern
Online: 2 August 2021 (09:29:25 CEST)
At the plasma membrane, transmembrane receptors are at the interface between cells and their environment. They allow sensing and transduction of chemical and mechanical extracellular signals. The spatial distribution of receptors and the specific recruitment of receptor subunits to the cell membrane is crucial for the regulation of signaling and cell behavior. However, it is challenging to define what regulates such spatial patterns for receptor localization, as cell shapes are extremely diverse when cells are maintained in standard culture conditions. Bone morphogenic protein receptors (BMPRs) are serine-threonine kinases, which build heteromeric complexes of BMPRI and II. These are especially interesting targets for receptor distribution studies, since the signaling pathways triggered by BMPR-complexes depends on their dimerization mode. They might exist as pre-formed complexes, or assemble upon binding of BMP, triggering cell signaling which leads to differentiation or migration. In this work we analyzed BMPR receptor distributions in single cells grown on micropatterns, which allows not only to control cell shape, but also the distribution of intracellular organelles and protein assemblies. We developed a script called ComRed (Center Of Mass Receptor Distribution), which uses center of mass calculations to analyze the shift and spread of receptor distributions according to the different cell shapes. ComRed was tested by simulating changes in experimental data, showing that shift and spread of distributions can be reliably detected. Our ComRed-based analysis of BMPR-complexes indicates that receptor distribution depends on cell polarization. The absence of a coordinated internalization after addition of BMP suggests that a rapid and continual recycling of BMPRs occurs. Receptor complexes formation and localization in cells induced by BMP might yield insights into the local regulation of different signaling pathways.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0192.v1
Online: 17 September 2019 (12:55:22 CEST)
The vertebrate anterior-posterior (A-P = craniocaudal) axis is evidently made by a timing mechanism. Evidence has accumulated that tentatively identifies the A-P timer as being or involving Hox temporal collinearity. Here, I focus on the two current competing models based on this premise. Common features and points of dissent are examined and a common model is distilled from what remains. This is an attempt to make sense of the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0288.v1
Online: 16 November 2021 (11:36:48 CET)
In dentistry, maxillofacial surgery, traumatology, and orthopedics, there is a need to use osteoplastic materials that have not only osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties but are also convenient for use. In the study, compositions based on collagen hydrogel were developed. Polylactide granules (PLA) or a traditional bone graft, a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate (HAP/β-TCP), were used for gel filling to improve mechanical osteoconductive properties of compositions. The mechanical tests showed that collagen hydrogels filled with 12 wt% highly porous PLA granules (elastic modulus 373 ± 55 kPa) or 35 wt% HAP/β-TCP granules (elastic modulus 451 ± 32 kPa) had optimal manipulative properties. All composite components were cytocompatible. The cell’s viability was above 90%, and the components’ structure facilitated the cell’s surface adhesion. The bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) provided osteoinductive composition properties. It was impregnated directly into the collagen hydrogel with the addition of fibronectin or inside porous PLA granules. The implantation of a collagen hydrogel with BMP-2 and PLA granules into a critical-size calvarial defect in rats led to the formation of the most significant volume of bone tissue: 61 ± 15%. It was almost 2.5 times more than in the groups where a collagen-fibronectin hydrogel with a mixture of HAP/β-TCP (25 ± 7%) or a fibronectin-free composition with porous PLA granules impregnated with BMP-2 (23 ± 8%) were used. Subcutaneous implantation of the compositions also showed their high biocompatibility and osteogenic potential in the absence of a bone environment. Thus, the collagen-fibronectin hydrogel with BMP-2 and PLA granules has optimal biocompatibility, osteogenic, and manipulative properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0642.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: blastema regeneration: epigenetic reprogramming; keratin; BMP signaling; myocardium resalvage; zebrafish
Online: 23 April 2021 (13:17:12 CEST)
Heart regeneration after myocardial infarction remains challenging in reconstruction of blood resupply system. Here, we find that in zebrafish heart after resection of the ventricular apex, the local myocardial cells and the clotted blood cells undergo cell remodeling process via cytoplasmic exocytosis and nuclear reorganization within revascularization-based blastema. The regenerative processes are visualized by spatiotemporal expression of three blastema representative factors (alpha-SMA- which marks for fibrogenesis, Flk1for angiogenesis/hematopoiesis, and Pax3a for remusculogensis)，and two histone modifications (H3K9Ac and H3K9Me3 mark for chromatin remodeling). Using the cultured zebrafish embryonic fibroblasts we identify blastema fraction components and show that Krt5 peptide could link cytoskeleton network and BMP4 signaling pathway to regulate the transcription and chromatin accessibility at the blastema representative genes and bmp4 genes. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into the epithelial-dependent and revascularization-based blastema regeneration for potential myocardial infarction therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0262.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Hox genes, Retinoids, BMP, Gastrulation, Xenopus, Timing, Time Space Translation
Online: 28 March 2019 (10:33:43 CET)
The vertebrate anterior-posterior (A-P) body axis arises due to time space translation (TST). BMP dependent Hox temporal collinearity in early embryonic mesoderm generates the initial vertebrate axial pattern because the Hox codes associated with sequential times are frozen sequentially by BMP inhibiting signals from the embryonic organiser or node. There are three reasons why it is now opportune to review TST. 1/ It has become clear that this mechanism is highly relevant for current and emergent directions in medicine. Making a particular tailored stem cell or culturing a specific organoid in vitro both depend on it. 2/ This unexpected and perhaps unlikely sounding mechanism has recently been thoroughly validated. 8 recent primary publications from 6 major groups confirm that TST is the mechanism for primary axial patterning in the 4 best investigated vertebrate embryos. 3/ Its mechanism is now becoming clear. Previous publications propose it involves Hox regulation of cell movement during gastrulation or sequential stabilisation of Hox codes by anti BMP as above. Neither of these processes works alone but together they amount to a very convincing mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0133.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: bone formation; BMP-2; FGF-2; beta-TCP; osteoblast-osteoclast communication
Online: 9 March 2022 (10:58:33 CET)
It is very difficult to repair large bone defects, especially when they have a complex shape. We have developed a new technique to make a desired copy of rabbit bones. A rabbit distal femur was scanned by computed tomography (CT), and a rectangular-shaped beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) block with 75% porosity was automatically machined using milling tools into a half-scale copy of the distal femur based on the CT data. The β-TCP block was seeded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bone marrow cells obtained from the femur and implanted on the periosteum of the femur. At 10 weeks after implantation, most of the β-TCP block had been replaced by bone and a complete copy of the distal femur was reconstructed. Our findings indicate that this technique will be useful in the clinical setting. We also report the representative clinical results of treatment with β-TCP graft in patients with bone defects since 1989.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0180.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: BMP; TGF-β; signaling; sex; chromosomes; XIST; genomic imprinting; hormones; fibrosis
Online: 11 May 2018 (09:49:48 CEST)
Crosstalk between the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways regulates many complex developmental processes from the earliest stages of embryogenesis throughout adult life. In many situations, the two signaling pathways act reciprocally. For example, TGF-β signaling is generally pro-fibrotic whereas BMP signaling is anti-fibrotic and pro-calcific. Sex-specific differences occur in many diseases including cardiovascular pathologies. Differing ratios of fibrosis and calcification in stenotic valves suggests that BMP/TGF-β signaling may vary in men and women. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the interplay between sex and BMP/TGF-β signaling and pose several unanswered questions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0379.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: anaerobic digestion; Co-digestion; CSTR; BMP-test; Illumina sequencing; T-RFLP; glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 48
Online: 27 May 2018 (12:53:51 CEST)
This study investigated whether biogas reactor performance, including microbial community development, in response to a change in substrate composition is influenced by initial inoculum source. Test reactors were first started with two different inocula and operated with the same grass-manure mixture for more than 120 days. These reactors initially showed great differences depending on inoculum source, but eventually showed similar performance and overall microbial community structure. At the start of the present experiment, the substrate was complemented with milled feed wheat, added all at once or divided into two portions. The starting hypothesis was that process performance depends on initial inoculum source and microbial diversity, and thus that reactor performance is influenced by the feeding regime. In response to the substrate change, all reactors showed increases and decreases in volumetric and specific methane production, respectively. However, specific methane yield and development of the microbial community showed differences related to initial inoculum source, confirming the hypothesis. The different feeding strategies had however only minor effects on process performance and overall community structure, but still induced differences in the cellulose-degrading community and in cellulose degradation.