ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1830.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Hepatocellular Carcinoma; survival HCC; epidemiology; NASH; Austria
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:43:05 CEST)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths and remains a major burden on health-care systems worldwide. The incidence of HCC continues to rise globally, despite preventative efforts being made. Aims: This study aimed to investigate epidemiological changes observed in the aetiology and survival outcomes of HCC patients at Klinikum Klagenfurt am Wörthersee between 2012 and 2023. Methods: This was a retrospective, single-centre cohort observational study. Two time-periods (2012-2017 and 2018-2023) were created to enable comparison between the respective intervals. Results: More patients were diagnosed with HCC during the second time-period, proving that the incidence of HCC is rising or the referral patterns changing. The median age of diagnosis was 72.5 years (SD 8.6). Patients were on average 2 years younger in the second time-period compared to the first (p = 0.042). Alcohol remained the leading underlying aetiology of HCC and no statistically significant change was seen over time (p = 0.353). Nevertheless, a clear upward trend in the number of NASH cases was evident over time (n = 15, n = 28 respectively). Nearly half of the patient population did not have a raised AFP at the time of diagnosis. The survival time for HCC patients remained similar between time-periods, with a median overall survival time of 20.5 months (95% CI 16.8-24.2, p = 0.841), despite improvements in management strategies and the availability of new systemic treatments but more advanced stage HCC was documented in the second period. An increasing number of HCC patients without liver cirrhosis were identified during the second time-period (n = 22, n= 47 respectively, p = 0.005). NASH was the most common underlying aetiology in patients without liver cirrhosis (50%), compared to alcohol use in being the primary cause in cirrhotic patients (p < 0.001). Conclusion: HCC continues to be an important health concern in our society. The number of HCC patients without liver cirrhosis is steadily increasing, with NAFLD/ NASH, due to underlying life-style diseases playing an important aetiological role. Continued efforts should be made to prevent HCC and to screen at-risk population groups. Preventative strategies and screening techniques should be adjusted in light of the changing epidemiological landscape of HCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0594.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: concerns; resources; pandemic; inflation; war in Ukraine; content analysis; Austria
Online: 8 August 2023 (07:20:17 CEST)
This study aimed to analyze areas of concern and support of the Austrian general population two years into the COVID-19 pandemic. A representative sample (N = 1,031) of the Austrian general population was surveyed online between April 19 and 26, 2022. A qualitative study design was used to explore the factors of most considerable current concern (question 1) and the most important sources of support (question 2). The responses to the two open-ended questions were evaluated using conventional content analysis and categories were formed according to the frequency of the answers. The analysis revealed that inflation and finances (30% of participants) and the war in Ukraine (22%) were the greatest sources of concern, followed by mental health (10%), and physical health (10%). Factors such as social contacts within and outside the family were mentioned most frequently as sources of support (36% of participants), followed by recreational activities (23%) and attitudes and abilities (22%). Compared to data collected at the end of the first year of the pandemic (between December 23, 2020, and January 4, 2021), concerns about one's financial situation was now mentioned more frequently (30,4% vs. 8,5%). On the other hand, different types of pandemic-related concerns were less often mentioned. Social contacts and recreation were mentioned as the most important sources of support at both time points (46% and 36% of the participants). Results suggest that the economic concerns are lagging behind the restrictions imposed by the pandemic. In addition, the impending war in Ukraine seems to have a relevant impact on mental health in Austria. Further nuanced qualitative research, particularly involving vulnerable groups like low-income individuals and the unemployed, is crucial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0376.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: alizarin; Austria; dyes; forgery; FORS; inks; madder; manuscripts; orchil; SERS
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:25:27 CEST)
The Privilegium maius is one of the most famous and spectacular forgeries in medieval Europe. It is a set of charters made in 14th century upon commitment by duke Rudolf IV, a member of the Habsburg family, to elevate the rank and the prestige of his family. These five charters, now kept at the Österreichisches Staatsarchiv in Vienna, have been subjected to a thorough interdisciplinary study in order to shed light on its controversial story. The charters are composed by pergamenaceous documents bound to wax seals with coloured textile threads. The present contribution concerns the characterisation of the inks used for writing and of the dyes used to colour to the threads: are they compatible with the presumed age of the charters? Though showing only a part of the whole story of the charters, dyes analysis could contribute in assessing their complex history from manufacturing to nowadays. The dyes were characterised with non-invasive in situ measurements by means of FORS and with micro-invasive measurements by means of SERS and HPLC-MS analysis. The results showed that the threads of four of the charters (three dyed with madder, one with orchil) were apparently coloured at different dyeing stages, then re-dyed in the 19th-20th century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0209.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Urban green areas; health; urban health; emotional health; physical health; well-being; nature; environmental medicine; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; Vienna; Austria, environmental perception; pandemic; human nature relationship; recreation; age
Online: 14 September 2022 (12:08:02 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic drew public attention back to the living conditions related to housing, access to green areas in close neighbourhood and nearby recreation. Several studies confirm that visiting green spaces improved the health and wellbeing in times of crisis. This representative study for the metropolitan area of Vienna, Austria’s capital, confirms the high relevance of contact with nature, particularly for citizens to cope with the negative consequences and perceived stress, anxiety, nervousness and many other negative symptoms experienced during the health crisis. It highlights the importance of nearby smaller but also medium to large scale green areas in cities for health and wellbeing of the population. Moreover, it specifically adds novel insights on age effects in use and perception of urban green spaces during COVID-19 pandemic. The online panel survey (n=1012) was conducted in summer 2021. In order to obtain a representative sample reflective of the population’s characteristics, a (stratified) random sample was selected by applying the quota method. The objective was to obtain a sample which represented gender, age and regional distribution of the population of the City of Vienna as well as the immediately surrounding local communities. Interestingly, particularly young people spent more time outside in green areas during the pandemic, discovered novel spaces for the first time and stated a high relevance of contact with nature for their wellbeing. Elderly people above sixty five, on the contrary, stayed more frequently at home. Significant differences are visible between the age groups also with regard to negative symptoms experienced in case of restricted access to green areas due to strict pandemic measures such as lockdowns and quarantine. All age groups, however, similarly acknowledged the importance of green areas for their physical, mental and emotional health in general during the pandemic.